Don't be so rigid.
Darkyn's frame was rigid and his growl loud.
Darkyn appeared unwelcoming as usual, his frame rigid and his growl loud enough for Gabriel to hear.
"Fuck," Kris whispered, rigid.
There was a gentle air around the woman, and her large brown eyes lacked the rigid stoniness of her husband's.
She suspected both meeting the clan heads and the announcement to be big deals for a people with such rigid traditions, but A'Ran looked as if he were discussing the whereabouts of her translator.
Stop! and went completely rigid.
Brady and his men paused after two rigid security inspections and being granted permission to enter.
She'd never thought desire could conquer her normally rigid self-control.
She'd never learned to lie; in fact, she would never dare lie to Mr. Tim, not with his rigid sense of integrity.
She clenched her hands, her arms rigid as she faced him.
On the way home Alex was unusually quiet, his lips a thin line and his jaw rigid.
Jenn's whole body went rigid.
Her frame was rigid, the table empty.
Sirian's coldness had never struck her as anything but rigid discipline and cool thinking.
His body went rigid, and confusion crossed his features.
He stayed where he was, rigid.
Her shapely, feminine body went rigid beneath his.
Mahommed in fact represented a revolt against the anthropomorphism of commonplace Mahommedan orthodoxy, but he was a rigid predestinarian and a strict observer of the law.
One cause of this separation was the rigid adherence to precedent on the part of the common law courts.
We have not had an opportunity of testing this, nor Grubb's more recent models; but, should it be found possible to produce such images satisfactorily, without distortion and with an apparatus convenient and rigid in form, such micrometers may possibly supersede the filar micrometer.
Suitable proportions of materials to form a rust joint are 90 parts by weight of iron borings well mixed with 2 parts of flowers of sulphur, and I part of powdered sal-ammoniac. Another joint, less rigid but sound and durable, is made with yarn and white and red lead.
By rigid precedence the Brahmans occupy the first rank; they are numerous and influential, and with them may be classed the peculiar and important caste of Bhats, the keepers of secular tradition and of the genealogies.
advent of a rigid and honest statesman would usher in a new era of Italian parliamentary life.
In June 1675 he signed the paper of advice drawn up by the bishops for the king, urging the rigid enforcement of the laws against the Roman Catholics, their complete banishment from the court, and the suppression of conventicles, 2 and a bill introduced by him imposing special taxes on recusants and subjecting Roman Catholic priests to imprisonment for life was only thrown out as too lenient because it secured offenders from the charge of treason.
But all cells which are permanent tissue-elements of the plantbody possess, in addition, a more or less rigid limiting membrane or cell-wall, consisting primarily of cellulose or some allied substance.
In advanced religion, indeed, prayer is the chosen vehicle of the free spirit of worship. Its mechanism is not unduly rigid, and it is largely autonomous, being rid of subservience to other ritual factors.
Two lines may be drawn from this point, one to each of the two rails, in a plane normal to the rails, and the ends of these lines, where they meet the rails, may be joined to complete a triangle, which may conveniently be regarded as a rigid frame resting on the rails.
Stone blocks were tried as sleepers in the early days of railways, but they proved too rigid, and besides, it was found difficult to keep the line true with them.
The keys which hold the rail in the chairs are usually of oak and are placed outside the rails; the inside position has also been employed, but has the disadvantage of detracting from the elasticity of the road since the weight of a passing train presses the rails up against a rigid mass of metal instead of against a slightly yielding block of wood.
Thus the length of the body was limited, for to increase it involved an increase in the length of the rigid wheel base, which was incompatible with smooth and safe running on curves.
In regard to fencing and precautions at level-crossings, less rigid requirements may be enforced than with standard railways; and in some cases where trains are likely to be few, it has been provided that the normal position of the gates at crossings shall be across the line.
4.85 in.); locomotives, maximum weight per axle 6 tons, rigid wheel base 1 .
The most strongly distinguishing feature of the code is the rigid exclusion of the worship of other gods than Yahweh.
Sufism (q.v.) appears in the 9th century among the Mahommedans of Persia as a kind of reaction against the rigid monotheism and formalism of Islam.
For opposite reasons, neither the Greek nor the Jewish mind lent itself readily to mysticism: the Greek, because of its clear and sunny naturalism; the Jewish, because of its rigid monotheism and its turn towards worldly realism and statutory observance.
Overlooking all smaller details, we may consider Asia to consist of a northern mass and a southern mass, too rigid to crumple, but not too strong to fracture, and an intermediate belt of softer rock which was capable of folding.
They are rigid non-resistants, and will not bear arms or study the art of war; they refuse to take oaths, and discountenance going to law over issues that can possibly be settled out of the courts.
In public he maintained a bearing of rigid solemnity, and was seen to laugh only three times in the course of his life.
We are therefore entitled to assume that the suppressed wings of Exopterygota tend to reappear; and, speaking of the past, we may say that if after a period of suppression the wings began to reappear as hypodermal buds while a more rigid pressure was exerted by the cuticle, the growth of the buds would necessarily be inwards, and we should have incipient endopterygotism.
The, expansion of commerce which resulted from the Fourth Crusade soon made itself evident in the city by a rapid development in its architecture and by a decided strengthening of the commercial aristocracy, which eventually led to the great constitutional reform - the closing of the Maggior Consiglio in 1296, whereby Venice became a rigid oligarchy.
Gallatin tried to earn a living by teaching French in Harvard College, apparently not without success, but the cold and rigid civilization of New England repelled him, and he made his way to the South.
New Mexico (then including the present Arizona) and Utah were organized without any prohibition of slavery (each being left free to decide for or against, on admission to statehood), and a rigid fugitive slave law was enacted; these were concessions to the South.
most European countries, are descendants of the foxhound which have been taught to follow game by general body scent, not by tracking, nose to the ground, the traces left by the feet of the' quarry, and, on approaching within sight of the game, to stand rigid, "pointing" in its direction.
As will have been seen, they hold an exalted view of the divinity and work of Christ as the Word become flesh and the Saviour of the world; but they have always shrunk from rigid Trinitarian definitions.
Broadly speaking, the " smaller body" is characterized by a rigid adherence to old forms of dress and speech, to a disapproval of music and art, and to an insistence on the " Inward Light " which, at times, leaves but little room for the Scriptures or the historic Christ, although with no definite or intended repudiation of them.
Rigid leathery leaves are fixed by means of glue, or, if they present too smooth a surface, by stitching at their edges.
These headings are: "Geometry and Kinematics of Particles and Solid Bodies"; "Principles of Rational Mechanics"; "Statics of Particles, Rigid Bodies, &c."; "Kinetics of Particles, Rigid Bodies, &c."; "General Analytical Mechanics"; "Statics and Dynamics of Fluids"; "Hydraulics and Fluid Resistances"; "Elasticity."
The rigid regulations for admission to their ranks were soon relaxed: at the close of the Persian war in 1590 their total amounted to 50,000.
Luther was not, like Calvin, a man of rigid system.
And even the proposal to apply the unaided reason to solve questions which had divided the fathers must have been resented by the more rigid churchmen as the rash intrusion of an over-confident Rationalism.
The Ars magna of the former professed by means of a species of logical machine to give a rigid demonstration of all the fundamental Christian doctrines, and was intended by its author as an unfailing instrument for the conversion of the Saracens and heathen.
Beyond appearing at the meetings of learned societies he took little part in public affairs; he lived alone, conducting his investigations in a deliberate and exhaustive manner, but in the most rigid seclusion, no person being admitted to his laboratory on any pretext.
Press censorship was of course very rigid throughout the Dual Monarchy, but many Yugoslav newspapers were suppressed altogether.
It was reserved for Charles Darwin, in the year 1859, to place the whole theory of organic evolution on a new footing, and by his discovery of a mechanical cause actually existing and demonstrable by which organic evolution doctrine must be brought about, entirely to change the attitude in regard to it of even the most rigid exponents of the scientific method.
Thus, to refer again to the acoustical analogue in which plane waves are incident upon a perforated rigid screen, the circumstances of the case are best represented by the first method of resolution, leading to symmetrical secondary waves, in which the normal motion is supposed to be zero over the unperforated parts.
Bog-asphodel (Narthecium ossifragum), a member of the same family, is a small herb common in boggy places in Britain, with rigid narrow radical leaves and a stem bearing a raceme of small golden yellow flowers.
Yet in spite of the wealth which the industry of the Uitlanders was creating, a policy of rigid political exclusion and restriction was adopted towards them.
Rock-filling yields and becomes consolidated under heavy pressure, and therefore does not furnish a rigid support of the overlying strata, but rather a cushion to control and equalize the subsidence.
The use of the heavy timbers and continuous framing which characterize this system facilitates greatly the work of mining and maintaining the haulage roads on the different floors, and gives more rigid support to the unmined portions of the block of ground above.
between two rigid parallel arms, projecting forwards and backwards and sloping slightly from back to front.
By analogy with the spin of a rigid body, the component spin of the fluid in any plane at a point is defined as the circulation round a small area in the plane enclosing the point, divided by twice the area.
For in a rigid body, rotating about Oz with angular velocity the circulation round a curve in the plane xy is x ds yds) ds = times twice the area.
l ' so that over the surface of an ellipsoid where X and ¢ are constant, the normal velocity is the same as that of the ellipsoid itself, moving as a solid with velocity parallel to Ox U = -q, - 2 (a2+X) dtP, and so the boundary condition is satisfied; moreover, any ellipsoidal surface X may be supposed moving as if rigid with the velocity in (I I), without disturbing the liquid motion for the moment.
These theorems, which hold for the motion of a single rigid body, are true generally for a flexible system, such as considered here for a liquid, with one or more rigid bodies swimming in it; and they express the statement that the work done by an impulse is the product of the impulse and the arithmetic mean of the initial and final velocity; so that the kinetic energy is the work done by the impulse in starting the motion from rest.
An opponent of church government in any form, he was no friend to the rigid and tyrannical Presbyterianism of the day, and inclined to Independency and Cromwell's party.
She was escorted with great ceremony to Moscow in 1728 and exhibited to the people attired in the splendid, old-fashioned robes of a tsaritsa; but years of rigid seclusion had dulled her wits, and her best friends soon convinced themselves that a convent was a much more suitable place for her than a throne.
Caspar Koolhaes, the heroic minister of Leiden - its first lecturer, too, in divinity - pleaded against a too rigid uniformity, for such an agreement on "fundamentals" as had allowed Reformed, Lutherans and Anabaptists to unite.
In1882-1886he was mayor of the city of Brooklyn, being twice elected on an independent ticket; and by his administration of his office he demonstrated that a rigid "merit" civil-service system was practicable - in September 1884 the first municipal civil-service rules in the United Service were adopted in Brooklyn.
With Therasia (now a sister, not a wife), while leading a life of rigid asceticism, he devoted the whole of his vast wealth to the entertainment of needy pilgrims, to payment of the debts of the insolvent, and to public works of utility or ornament; besides building basilicas at Fondi and Nola, he provided the latter place with a muchneeded aqueduct.
20 a rigid steel wire or gold frames, with fastening-pieces over the ears; single or double eye-glasses, and hand-glasses, or lorgnettes, being varieties of form, according to the circumstances and the wearer's taste.
The rigid Cheilostomes which have this habit were formerly placed in the genus Eschara, but the bilaminar type is common to a number of genera, and there can be no doubt that it is not in itself an indication of affinity.
In Cheilostomata with a rigid frontal wall A, of Membranipora; B, of an Jullien showed that proimmature zooecium of Cribrilina trusion and retraction were p.m., Parietal muscles.
It is joined to the rigid body-wall by numerous muscle-fibres, the contraction of which must exert a pressure on the fluid of the body-cavity, thereby protruding the polypide.
They are the presentment of all his ideas and scenes in the plainest and most direct language, the frequent employ ment of colloquial forms of speech, the constant insertion of little material details and illustrations, often of a more or less digressive form, and, in his historico-fictitious works, as well as in his novels, the most rigid attention to vivacity and consistency of character.
They have a cylindrical rigid body, covered with generally smooth and polished scales; a short strong tail; a short rounded or pointed head with narrow mouth; teeth few in number; small or rudimentary eyes; no abdominal scutes or only narrow ones.
The relatively rigid nature of the plant cell-wall, and the attenuated inorganic food-supply of plants, make possible and necessary a form of growth in which the greatest surface is exposed to the exterior, and thus the plant body is composed of flattened laminae and elongated branching growths.
" I am the life," not " I teach the life," " I am the truth," not merely " I teach the truth," are not additions of Johannine theology but the central aspect of the presentation of Christ as the good physician, healer of souls and bodies, which the most rigid scrutiny of the Synoptic Gospels leaves as the residuum of accepted fact about Jesus of Nazareth.
Yet some such isolation of the subject matter of this science was demanded at the moment of its birth, just as political economy, when first started, had to make a rigid severance of wealth from other units.
For in the New Testament Apocalypse there is not that rigid consistency and unity in detail that the past presupposed.
Rigid guides connected with the walling of the pit are probably the best and safest, but they have the disadvantage of being liable to distortion, in case of the pit altering its form, owing to irregular movements of the ground, or other causes.
For a rigid body the kinetic energy will, in general, consist of three terms (AW1 2 +BW2 2 +CW3 2) in addition to the translational energy.
The conflict of idealism with these two lines of criticism - the accusation of subjectivism on the one side of intellectualism and rigid objectivism on the other - may be said to have constituted the history of Anglo-Saxon philosophy during the first decade of the 20th century.
In interpreting its environment first as a world of things that seem to stand in a relation of exclusion to one another and to itself, then as a natural system governed by rigid mechanical necessity, the mind can yet feel that in its very opposition the world is akin to it, bone of its bone and flesh of its flesh.
In the case of all quasi-public corporations rigid laws exist prohibiting the issue of stock or bonds unless the par value is first paid in; prohibiting the declaration of any stock or scrip dividend, and requiring that new stock shall be offered to stockholders at not less than its market value, to be determined by the proper state officials, any shares not so subscribed for to be sold by public auction.
But religious liberty in our modern sense they did not seek for themselves, nor accord to others; they abhorred it, they trampled on it, and their own lives they subjected to all the rigid restrictions to which they subjected others.
Under the auspices of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious he initiated a scheme for federating into one great order, with himself as abbot general, all the monasteries of Charles's empire, and for enforcing throughout a rigid uniformity in observance.
Dorsey, again, draws a distinction between lore narratives, which can be rehearsed without fasting or prayer, and rituals which require the most rigid preparation.
In this sight both hind and fore sights are fixed on a rigid bar pivoted about the centre; the rear end is raised or depressed by a rack worked by a hand-wheel; ranges are read from the periphery of a drum; the fore-sight and leaf of the hind-sight are provided with small electric glow lamps for night firing.
He held the most rigid views on the sanctity of marriage and against easy divorce, and vehemently defended them in controversies with Robert Dale Owen and others.
It was for defence, sometimes partial and elastic, sometimes rigid and " at-all-costs," that he had made his dispositions throughout.
The arch ring can be treated as a blockwork structure composed of rigid voussoirs.
Till near the end of the 19th century bridges of masonry or brickwork were so constructed that they had to be treated as rigid blockwork structures.
Three cases therefore arise: (a) The arch is rigid at crown and springings; (b) the arch is two-hinged (hinges at springings); (c) the arch is three-hinged (hinges at crown and springings).
- A frame is a rigid structure composed of straight struts and ties.
This frame will be rigid, i.e.
The bishop consented and promised a small pension; and in August 1495 Erasmus entered the "domus pauperum" of the college of Montaigu, which was then under the somewhat rigid rule of the reformer Jan Standonck.
Their object had been to purify the Church of medieval accretions, and to restore the primitive model in the light of the new learning; the idea of rival " churches," differing in their fundamental doctrines and in their principles of organization, existing side by side, was as abhorrent to them as to the most rigid partisan of Roman centralization.
He was as lenient with the offences iof the orthodox as he was rigid in suppressing heresy and schism.
After Luther's death the more rigid Lutherans declared it to be their duty to preserve the status religionis in Germania per Lutherum instauratus, and to watch over the depositum Jesu Christi which he had committed to their charge.
Whereupon the more rigid Lutherans accused their brethren of Crypto-Calvinism, and began controversies which dealt with that charge and with a defence of the idea of ubiquity.
to combine two different confessions under one common government, and, resulting from it, the possibility of changing from one confession to another, have all combined to free the state churches from any rigid interpretation of their theological formulas.
In doctrine the church is Calvinistic, but its preachers are far from being rigid in this particular, being warmly evangelical, and, in general, distinctly cultured.
His reactionary conservative temper was in complete harmony with the views of Bismarck and the emperor William, and with their powerful support he attempted, in defiance of modern democratic principles and even of the spirit of the constitution, to re-establish the old Prussian system of rigid discipline from above.
Fasts are long and rigid.
The rigid line between fact or fiction in religious literature, which readers often wish to draw, cannot be consistently justified, and in studying old Oriental religious narratives it is necessary to realize that the teaching was regarded as more essential than the method of presenting it.
This is not the place to notice the course of Jewish literary activity in Palestine or Alexandria, whether along the more rigid lines of Pharisaic legalism (the development of the canonical " priestly " law), or the popular and less scholastic phases, which recall the earlier apocalyptical tendencies of the Old Testament and were cultivated alike by early Jewish and Christian writers.
By some rigid Moslems these rulers were regarded as only amirs, not caliphs.
He had well employed the short time at his disposal for training his men, and on the first field of Bull Run they won for themselves and their brigadier, by their rigid steadiness at the critical moment of the battle, the historic name of "Stonewall."
A rigid monotheism appeared to Plotinus a miserable conception.
The book, it is true, is not framed on a rigid mould, nor is there any parade of systematic divisions and subdivisions.
His refusal to subscribe unconditionally to the rigid formula of belief adopted by the theologians of Tubingen permanently closed against him the gates of his alma mater.
The twigs are densely clothed with flat spreading linear leaves of a fine glossy green above and glaucous beneath; in the old trees they become shorter and more rigid and partly lose their distichous habit.
The leaves of this species are awl-shaped, short and rigid, with pointed apex; closely adpressed, they completely cover the branchlets.
The young tree is more formal and rigid in growth than S.
When the horse is in motion the hands should not be held rigid, as the horse's mouth would thereby become dead, and the horse would lean unpleasantly on the hand; but the rider should give and take, without, however, entirely relaxing the hold.
In the American Union, and in every state of the Union, there exists a documentary or rigid constitution, creating and defining the powers o~ every authority in the government.
Should the people wish to confer them, they would have to do so by way of amending the Constitution; and herein lies a remarkable difference between the American system on the one hand and those of some European countries on the other, which, although they have created rigid constitutions, do not expressly debar the legislature from using any and every power of government.
Its rigid rule was adopted by a vast number of the old Benedictine abbeys, who placed themselves in affiliation to the mother society, while new foundations sprang up in large numbers, all owing allegiance to the "archabbot," established at Cluny.
The rigid self-abnegation, which was the ruling principle of this reformed congregation of the Benedictine order, extended itself to the churches and other buildings erected by them.
It was his desire to unite the enthusiasm cf primitive Christianity with intelligent thought, the original demands of the Gospel with every letter of the Scriptures and with the practice of the Roman church, the sayings of the Paraclete with the authority of the bishops, the law of the churches with the freedom of the inspired, the rigid discipline of the Montanist with all the utterances of the New Testament and with the arrangements of a church seeking to set itself up within the world.
Lucceius, who was of the party of Caesar; and bribery was freely used, with the approval of even the rigid Cato (Suetonius, Caesar, 9), to secure his election.
The leaves are short, thicker and more rigid than in any of the other larches; the cones are much larger than those of the hackmatacks, egg-shaped or oval in outline; the scales are of a fine red in the immature state, the bracts green and extending far beyond the scales in a rigid leaf-like point.
strong, stern, able, devoted woman of the old Puritan school, Calvinist in religion, unsparing of herself and others, rigid in her ideas of duty, proud, reserved and ungracious.
The child was brought up under a rigid system of nursing, physical, moral and intellectual; kept without toys, not seldom whipped, watched day and night, but trained from infancy in music, drawing, reading aloud and observation of natural objects.
general concurrence, though the years that have passed since Unto this Last appeared have seen the practical overthrow of the rigid plutonomy which he denounced.
Such an instrument consists of a triangular prism set with its refracting edge vertical on a rigid platform attached to a massive stand.
Instead of plundering to support his prodigality, he emptied his private treasury to assist distressed provinces and cities, and everywhere exercised rigid economy (hence the nickname Kv'Avowpicmis, " cummin-splitter").
From Wittenberg he fled, April 1549, to Magdeburg, making it the headquarters of rigid Lutheranism.
wall, straight and rigid, towering above all surrounding hills, from the mass of mountains which overlook Kabul on the south-east to the frontiers of India, and preserving a strike which - being more or less perpendicular to the border line - is in strange contrast to the usual conformation of frontier ridge and valley.
But Huygens's most important contribution to the subject was his investigation, published in 1673, of the motion of a rigid pendulum of any form.
This is the earliest example of a theoretical investigation of the rotation of rigid bodies.
Ancillon had convinced himself that the rigid class distinctions of the Prussian system were the philosophically ideal basis of the state, and that representation "by estates" was the only sound constitutional principle; his last and indeed only act of importance as minister was his collaboration with Metternich in the Vienna Final Act of the 12th of June 1834, the object of which was to rivet this system upon Germany for ever.
maintained its rigid austerity, till in the course of years wealth impaired its discipline, and its members sank into indolence and luxury.
The patient is then seized with violent convulsions of a tetanic character; the arms are stretched out, respiration impeded, the muscles are rigid, the body is thrown into opisthotonos, i.e.
When disturbed the soles raise this black fin and, as a rule, hold it rigid so that it becomes a very conspicuous object.
Provided it be rigid, the bed-plate of an engine is no better for weighing 30 cwt.
Splendid stoutish-growing plants of noble aspect, familiarly known as the Poker plant, from their erect, rigid spikes of flame-coloured flowers; sometimes called Kniphofia.
The fur differs from the overhair, in that it is soft, silky, curly, downy and barbed lengthwise, while the overhair is straight, smooth and comparatively rigid.
Generally they have coarse rigid hair and none possess any underwool.
more than the heaviest of coat-furs, and is so rigid as to be uncomfortable, while the subtileness of fur makes it "kind" to the body.
The function of the veins which consist of vessels and fibres is to form a rigid framework for the leaf and to conduct liquids.
His temper was hot, kept under rigid control; his disposition tender, gentle and loving, with flashing scorn and indignation against all that was ignoble and impure; he was a good husband, father and friend.
Henry Thrale, one of the most opulent brewers in the kingdom, a man .of sound and cultivated understanding, rigid principles, and liberal spirit, was married to one of those clever, kind-hearted, engaging, vain, pert young women who are perpetually doing or saying what is not exactly right, but who, do or say what they may, are always agreeable.
In this year, however, a rigid protective system was introduced by the Zolltarifgesetz, since modified by the commercial treaties between Germany and Austria-Hungary, Italy, Switzerland and Belgium, of the 1st of February 1892, and by a customs tariff law of the 25th of December 1902.
Since 1817 the distinction has accordingly been ignored in Prussia, and Christians are there enumerated only as Evangelical or Roman Catholic. Theunion, however, has not remained wholly unopposeda section of the more rigid Lutherans who separated themselves from the state church being now known as Old Lutherans.
electoral Saxony re-established a rigid Lutheranism at home and pursued a policy of moderation and neutrality abroad.
The extravagance of Frederick drained the resources of his state, but this was amply atoned for by the rigid economy of Frederick William I., who not only paid off the debts accumulated by his father, but amassed an enormous treasure.
1 Subsequent pontiffs continued to exhort the episcopate and the whole body of the faithful to be on their guard against heretical writings, whether old or new; and one of the functions of the Inquisition when it was established was to exercise a rigid censorship over books put in circulation.
2 The peril from the independent growth of Liberalism within was guarded against by a rigid supervision of the press and the re-establishment of clerical control over education.
There was no element of heresy in his creed, which was mainly distinguished by a rigid formalism and strict obedience to the letter of the Koran and the orthodox tradition or Sunna.
By the exercise of the most rigid economy in all branches this end was attained, though budgetary equilibrium was only secured by a variety of financial expedients, justified by the vital importance of saving Egypt from further international interference.
Here already more or less rigid groups of chapters may be noted, but individual manuscripts differ greatly in what they include and exclude.
(C) In some tombs painting only was used, and it followed the general character of the relief treatment, being more rigid, detailed, and scholastic than the older style.
A rigid censorship was exercised concerning the publication of information as to the production of munitions, measures of defence, bombardments, air raids, arrests, trials and executions of spies, etc.
It renders the truth of any time relative to the knowledge of the time, and precludes the notion of any rigid, static or incorrigible truth.
As against the Church of Rome, with its system of rigid centralization, the Anglican Church represents the principle of local autonomy, which it holds to be once more primitive and more catholic. In this respect the Anglican communion has developed on the lines defined in her articles at the Reformation; but, though in principle there is no great difference between a church defined by national, and a church defined by racial boundaries, there is an immense difference in effect, especially when the race - as in the case of the English - is itself ecumenical.
The emperor's rough and severe habits and his rigid administration prompted Antiochene lampoons, to which he replied in the curious satiric apologia, still extant, which he called Misopogon.
The previous treatment of the motion of a rigid body had in every case been purely analytical, and so gave no aid to the formation of a mental picture of the body's motion; and the great value of this work lies in the fact that, as Poinsot himself says in the introduction, it enables us to represent to ourselves the motion of a rigid body as clearly as that of a moving point.
In his administration of the war office Stanton was vigorous, rigid, and often harsh, and his peremptory manner, in speech and correspondence, was the cause of considerable friction between the war department and the generals, one of the last and most conspicuous instances being his controversy with General Sherman over the terms of surrender granted to J.
In the course of 1833 he was chosen a member of the consistory, and rapidly acquired the reputation of a great pulpit orator, but his liberal views brought him into antagonism with the rigid Calvinists.
The peculiar form of the tube is eminently suited for rigid preservation of the relative parallelism of the axes of the two telescopes, so that,;i the image of a certain selected star is retained on the intersection of two wires of the micrometer, by means of the driving clock, aided by small corrections given by the observer in right ascension and declination (required on account of irregularity in the clock movement, error in astronomical adjustment of the polar axis, or changes in the star's apparent place produced by refraction), the image of a star will continue on the same spot of the photographic film during the whole time of exposure.
For Diatomic Or Compound Gases Clerk Maxwell Supposed That The Molecule Would Also Possess Energy Of Rotation, And Endeavoured To Prove That In This Case The Energy Would Be Equally Divided Between The Six Degrees Of Freedom, Three Of Translation And Three Of Rotation, If The Molecule Were Regarded As A Rigid Body Incapable Of Vibration Energy.
Boltzmann Suggested That A Diatomic Molecule Regarded As A Rigid Dumb Bell Or Figure Of Rotation, Might Have Only Five Effective Degrees Of Freedom, Since The Energy Of Rotation About The Axis Of Symmetry Could Not Be Altered By Collisions Between The Molecules.
For A Rigid Molecule On This Theory The Smallest Value Possible Would Be 4/3.
He marks, indeed, a stage of transition from the older Platonizing philosophy to the later and more rigid scholasticism.
The Koreans are rigid monogamists, but concubinage has a recognized status.
Korean ancient history is far from satisfying the rigid demands of modern criticism, but it appears that Ki-tze's dynasty ruled the peninsula until the 4th century B.C., from which period until the 10th century A.D.
In other words, if the system (considered as rigid) be made to turn about till the first factor coincides with i and the second with j, the product will coincide with k.
Also, everything relating to change of systems of axes, as for instance in the kinematics of a rigid system, where we have constantly to consider one set of rotations with regard to axes fixed in space, and another set with regard to axes fixed in the system, is a matter of troublesome complexity by the usual methods.
In 1617 Virginia fell into the hands of a rigid Puritan, Captain Samuel Argall.
At a later stage in our subject the conception of the ideal rigid body is introduced; this enables us to fill in some details which were previously wanting, but others are still omitted.
the earlier stages of our subject this may be any rigid, or apparently rigid, structure fixed relatively to the earth.
Plane kinematics of a rigid body.
Three-dimensional kinematics of a rigid body.
Kinetics of a rigid body.
Plane Kinematics of a Rigid Body.The ideal rigid body, is one in which the distance between any two points is invariable.
may in general be fixed by connecting any three points of it by rigid links to three fixed points in its plane.
Plane Stalics.The statics of a rigid body rests on the following two assumptions:
In structural applications a frame must be stiff, or rigid, i.e.
It is said to be just rigid if it ceases to be rigid when any one of its bars is removed.
When a plane frame which is just rigid is subject to a given system of equilibrating extraneous forces (in its own plane) acting on the joints, the stresses in the bars are in general uniquely determinate.
A frame of n joints and vi 3 bars may of course fail to be rigid owing to some parts being over-stiff whilst others are deformable; in such a case it will be found that the statical equations, apart from the thre identical relations imposed by the equilibrium of the extraneous forces, are not all independent but are equivalent to less thar 2,13 relations.
A plane frame which can be built up from a single bar by suc cessive steps, at each of which a new joint is introduced by tw new bars meeting there, is called a simple frame; it is obviously just rigid.
When a frame, though just rigid, is not simple in the above sense, the preceding method must be replaced, or supplemented, by one or other of various artifices.
~ Three-dimensional Kinematics of a Rigid Body.The position of a rigid body is determined when we know the positions of three points A, B, C of it which are not colljnear, for the position of any other point P is then determined by the three distances PA, PB, PC. The nine co-ordinates (Cartesian or other) of A, B, C are subject to the three relations which express the invariability of the distances BC, CA, AB, and are therefote equivalent to six independent quantities.
Hence a rigid body not constrained in any way is said to have six degrees of freedom.
Again, a rigid three-dimensional frame can be rigidly fixed relatively to the earth by means of six links.
The six independent quantities, or co-ordinates, which serve to specify the position of a rigid body in space may of course be chosen in an endless variety of ways.
We proceed to sketch the theory of the finite displacements of a rigid body.
It follows from Eulers theorem that the most general displacement of a rigid body may be effected by a pure translation which brings any one point of it to its final position 0, followed by a pure rotation about some axis through 0.
It thus appears that an infinitesimal rotation is of the nature of a localized vector, and is subject in all respects to the same mathematical Jaws as a force, conceived as acting on a rigid body.
We have seen that a rigid structure may in general be rigidly connected with the earth by six links, and it now appears that any system of forces acting on the structure can in general be balanced by six determinate forces exerted by the links.
There is a corresponding kinematic peculiarity, in that the connection is now not strictly rigid, an infinitely small relative displacement being possible.
If we imagine a rigid body to be acted on at given points by forces of given magnitudes in directions (not all parallel) which are fixed in space, then as the body is turned about the resultant wrench will assume different configurations in the body, and will in certain positions reduce to a single force.
In the same way, the work dne by a force acting on a rigid body in any infinitely small displacement of the body is the scalar product of the force into the displacement of any point on the line of action.
The total work done by two concurrent forces acting on a particle, or on a rigid body, in any infinitely small displacement, is equal to the work of their resultant.
It follows from the preceding statements that any two systems of forces which are statically equivalent, according to the principles of ~ 4, 8, will (to the first order of small quantities) do the same amount of work in any infinitely small displacement of a rigid body to which they may be applied.
The work of a couple in any infinitely small rotation of a rigid body about an axis perpendicular to the plane of the couple is equal to the product of the moment of the couple into the angle of rotation, proper conventions as to sign being observed.
Considering a rigid body in any given position, we may eontemplate the whole group of infinitesimal displacements which might be given to it.
Conversely, we can show that if the, virtual work of the extraneous forces be zero for every infinitesimal displacement of the body as rigid, these forces must be in equilibrium.
The principle can of course be extended to any system of particles or rigid bodies, connected together in any, way, provided we take into account the internal stresses, or reactions, between the various parts.
A general criterion for the case of a rigid body movable in two dimensions, with one degree of freedom, can be obtained as follows.
In particular, in the case of a frame which is just rigid, the principle enables us to find the stress in any one bar independently of the rest.
The method is specially appropriate B S< S when the frame, although just rigid, is ~ D not simple in the sense of 6, and when accordingly the method of reciprocal figures is not immediately available.
We have seen that the stresses produced by an equilibrating system of extraneous forces in a frame which is just rigid, according to the criterion of 6, are in general uniquely determinate; in particular, when there are no extraneous forces the bars are in general free from stress.
We may note that a frame of n joints which is just rigid must have 3116 bars; and that the stresses produced in such a frame by a given system of extraneous forces in equilibrium are statically determinate, subject to the exception of critical forms.
It follows that the forces on any finite portion will satisfy the conditions of equilibrium which apply to the case of a rigid body (~ 4).
Kinetics of a Rigid Body.
In the case of a rigid body we must suppose that those forces adjust themselves so as to preserve the mutual distances of the various particles unaltered.
It is to be noticed that the preceding statements are not intended to be restricted to rigid bodies; they are assumed to hold for all material systems whatever.
The increase of the kinetic energy of a rigid body in any interval of time is equal to the work done by the extraneous forces acting on the body.
The statement may be extended to a system of rigid bodies, provided the mutual reactions consist of the stresses in inextensible links, or the pressures between smooth surfaces, or the reactions at rolling contacts (~ 9).
Proceeding to the general motion of a rigid body in two dimensions we may take as the three co-ordinates of the body the rectangular Cartesian co-ordinates x, y of the mass-centre G and the angle C through which the body has turned from some standard position.
The equation of energy for a rigid body has already been stated (in effect) as a corollary from fundamental assumptions.
The motion of a rigid body in the most general case may be specified by means of the component velocities u, v, w of any point 0 of it which is taken as base, and the component angular velocities p, q, r.
Moving A xes of ReferenceFor the more general treatment of the kinetics of a rigid body it is usually convenient to adopt a system of moving axes.
The moving axes Ox, Oy, 01 form a rigid frame of reference whose motion at time t may be specified by the three component angular velocities p, q, r.
If we now apply them to the case of a rigid body moving about a fixed point 0, and make Ox, Oy, Oz coincide with the principal axes of inertia at 0, we have X, u, v=Ap, Bq, Cr, whence A (B C) qr = L,
ed., Cambridge, 1896), Dynamics of a Particle (Cambridge, 1898), Rigid Dynamics (6th ed., Cambridge 1905); G.
Division 3.Motion of a rigid solid.
Motion of a Rigid Solid.
This being the case, the various possible motions of a rigid solid body may all be classed under the following heads: (I) Shifting or Translation; (2) Turning or Rotation; (3) Motions compounded of Shifting and Turning.
This is the principle of the modification of motion by the lever, which consists of a rigid body turning about a fixed axis called a fulcrum, and having two points at the same or different distances from that axis, and in the same or different directions, one of which receives motion and the other transmits motion, modified in direction and velocity according to the above law.
Velocity Ratio of Components of Motion.As the distance between any two points in a rigid body is invariable, the projections of their velocities upon the line joining them must be equal.
90 be a point in a rigid F body CD, rotating round the fixed axis c, a ~ F, the component of the velocity of A
And from this, and from the property of a rigid body, already stated in 29, it follows, that the components along a is ne of connection of all the points traversed by that line, whether -in the driver or in the follower, are equal; and consequently, that the velocities of any pair of points traversed by a line of connection are to each other inversely as the cosines, or directly as the secants, of the angles made by the paths of those points with the line of connection.
respectively; E1E1 a bar sliding in a diametral groove in the face of Di; E2E, a bar sliding in a diametral groove in the face of Di: those bars are fixed together at A, so as to form a rigid cross.
The link by which they are connected is a rigid rod or bar, which may be straight or of any other figure; the straight figure being the most favorable to strength, is always used when there is no special reason to the contrary.
Comparative Motion of Connected Points.As the link is a rigid body, it is obvious that its action in communicating motion may be determined by finding the comparative motion of the connected points, and this is often the -most convenient method of proceeding.
(I) to produce aggregate velocity, or a velocity which is the resultant of two or more components in the same path, and (2) to produce an aggregate paththat is, to make a given point in a rigid body move in an assigned path by communicating certain motions to other points in that body.
A kinematic link of the simplest form is made by joining up the halves of two kinematic pairs by means of a rigid link.
Thus if A1B1 represent a turning pair, and A5B1 a second turning pair, the rigid link formed by joining Bl to B2 is a kinematic link.
If B atops rolling, then the two cylinders continue to move as though they were parts of a rigid body.
The mode of distribution of a force applied to a solid body requires to be considered when its stiffness and strength are treated of; but, in questions respecting the action of a force upon a rigid body considered as a whole, the resultant of the distributed force, determined according to the principles of statics, and considered as acting in a single line and applied at a single point, may, for the occasion, be substituted for the force as really distributed.
It is only certain that at this epoch the fabric of Catholic faith was threatened with various forms of prophetic and Oriental mysticism, symptomatic of a widespread desire to grasp at something simpler, purer and less rigid than Latin theology afforded.
These and other reasons, notably the manufacture of much fictitious wine with the aid of sugar (fortunately stopped by the rigid new wine laws), led to the grave wine crisis, which almost amounted to a revolution in the Midi in the spring and summer of 1907.
It remained for him, however, to submit them to a rigid analysis and reduce them to a logical form.
The rigid adherents to the synod of Dort accused them of Pelagianism, and even of Manichaeism, and the controversy between the parties was carried on with great zeal; yet the whole question between them was only, whether the will of man is determined by the immediate action of God upon it, or by the intervention of a knowledge which God impresses on the mind.
The Resolutioners, or supporters of the resolution to rescind that act, were opposed by the Protesters, the rigid adherents to the strictest interpretation of the Covenant.
His theological position was that of a mild and large-hearted orthodoxy, which laid more stress upon Christian experience than upon rigid dogmatic belief.
His Catholicism, however, was of a less rigid type than Gardiner's and Bonner's; he felt something of the force of the national antipathy to foreign influence, whether ecclesiastical or secular, and was always impressed by the necessity of national unity, so far as was possible, in matters of faith.
This block gave a more rigid platen, and at the same time ensured a more equal motion to the screw when actuated by the bar-handle.
Great strength is imparted to the frame, and the type bed is particularly rigid.
A rigid orthodoxy is sustained by means of purblind imitation assisted by no little persecution.
Of other papers in which he dealt with this and kindred branches of physics may be mentioned "Observations with a Rigid Spectroscope," "Heating of a Disc by Rapid Motion in Vacuo," "Thermal Equilibrium in an Enclosure Containing Matter in Visible Motion," and "Internal Radiation in Uniaxal Crystals."
In the 18th century many of the General Baptists gradually adopted the Arian, or, perhaps, the Socinian theory; whilst, on the other hand, the Calvinism of the Particular Baptists in many of the churches became more rigid, and approached or actually became Antinomianism.
As a means of preserving harmony the Philadelphia Confession of Faith, a Calvinistic document, with provision against too rigid a construction, was adopted and a step was thus taken toward harmonizing with the "Regular" Baptists of the Philadelphia type.
In some the rakes are attached to rigid frames, with a reciprocating motion, in others to cross-bars moved by revolving chains.
Knox was even more clearly in this case the chief author, and he had by this time come to desire a much more rigid Presbyterianism than he had sketched in his "Wholesome Counsel" of 1555.
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