How to use Ridges in a sentence
The mountain ridges vary in height up to 4000 ft.
For cotton cultivation the land is ploughed, carefully levelled, and then thrown up into ridges about 3 ft.
Moore that the sandstone ridges which here bound the trough have been recently elevated, and have been cut through by the Lukuga during the process.
These large plants have from 40 to 50 ridges, on which the buds and clusters of spines are sunk at intervals, the aggregate number of the spines having been in some cases computed at upwards of 50,000 on a single plant.
Again following deflation, the diameter was 13mm with two ridges, an increase in diameter size of 5mm.Advertisement
These prairies are traversed by ridges, which facilitate irrigation, and are underlaid by an impervious subsoil, which facilitates both effective storage and drainage.
The aeolian deposits, which form the greater part of the islands, frequently rise, in rounded hills and ridges to a height of 100 or 200 ft., and in Cat Island nearly 400 ft.
They descend in parallel ridges of grey Karst limestone, south-westwards to the sea; their last summits reappear in the multitude of rocky islands along the Dalmatian littoral.
It is not connected with any portion of Europe or America except by suboceanic ridges; but in the extreme north it is separated only by a narrow strait from Ellesmere Land in the archipelago of the American continent.
Galicia is traversed by mountain ranges, sometimes regarded as a continuation of the Cantabrian chain; and its surface is further broken in the east by the westernmost ridges of that system, which, running in a south-westerly direction, rise above the basin of the Mino.Advertisement
The central plateau is a plain whose surface presents "rounded, flat-topped hills and low ridges and reefs of limestone," with narrow intervening valleys.
In Rio Grande do Sul, where two large lakes have been created by uplifted sand beaches, the coastal plain widens greatly, and is merged in an extensive open, rolling grassy plain, traversed by ridges of low hills (cuchillas), similar to the neighbouring republic of Uruguay.
These chapadas and elevations, which are usually described as mountain ranges, are capped by horizontal strata of sandstone and show the original surface, which has been worn away by the rivers, leaving here and there broad flat-topped ridges between river basins and narrower ranges of hills between river courses.
This region is well wooded along the river courses of Minas Geraes, the lower Atlantic slopes of Bahia, which are perhaps outside the plateau proper, and on the weather side of some of the elevated ridges where the rainfall is heavy and regular.
The remainder of this extensive territory ranges at altitudes of 3000 to 4500 ft., even in the bottoms of the river valleys and in the lower plains; while the ridges which constitute the water-partings rise about 2000 ft.Advertisement
The middle veld is marked by long low stony ridges, known as rands, and these rands and the kopjes are often covered with scrub, while mimosa trees are found in the river valleys.
The ground has to be thoroughly cleared of stones, manured and trenched, and the corms are planted in ridges.
Their artillery driven back off the ridges formed a long line from Stosser to Plotist facing the enemy, and under cover of its fire the infantry at length succeeded in withdrawing, for the Prussian reserve cavalry arrived late on the ground, and the local disconnected efforts of the divisional cavalry were checked by the still intact Austrian squadrons.
The head is rounded and short, without prominent beetling ridges above the eyes, or a strong crest along the middle line of the back of the skull; and the tusks of the old males are of no very great length and prominence.
The heavy ridges over the brow, originally supposed to be distinctive of the gorilla, are particularly well marked in "Johanna," and they would doubtless be still more noticeable in the male of the same race, which seems to be undoubtedly du Chaillu's kulu-kamba.Advertisement
When the rocks are concealed by detrital material he looks for outcroppings on steep hillsides, on the crests of hills or ridges, in the beds of streams, in landslides, in the roots of overturned trees, and in wells, quarries, roadcuttings and other excavations.
The shape of the hills and ridges is necessarily influenced by the inclination of the strata, by the relative hardness of different rock-beds, and by the presence of folds and fissures and other lines of weakness.
Their situation was unsatisfactory not only in the tactical sense, but also from the point of view of keeping the troops supplied, owing to their being perched on ridges with steep gradients behind them.
Birdwood's force had taken root since April were spurs of a tangled mountain mass known as Sari Bair, from the topmost ridges of which the Straits about the Narrows were partially visible at a distance of 4 or 5 miles.
The occupation of these topmost ridges must greatly assist in a further advance across the peninsula here at its narrowest point.Advertisement
Lles Area topmost ridges, which, it was hoped, would be reached by daylight - a somewhat sanguine anticipation, as it turned out.
Successive flexures or ridges are ranged in more or less parallel lines, and from between the bands of hard, unyielding rock of older formation the soft beds of recent shale have been washed out, to he carried through the enclosing ridges by rifts which break across their axes.
There are few passes across the southern section of the Hindu Kush (and this section is, from the politico-geographical point of view, more important to India than the whole Himalayan system) which have not to surmount a succession of crests or ridges as they cross from Afghan Turkestan to Afghanistan.
If the table has a pattern engraved upon it the glass will show the same pattern in relief, the most frequent pattern of the kind being either small parallel ridges or larger ribs crossing to form a lozenge pattern.
Behind them tower the massive ridges of the Niphates and Zagros ranges, where the Tigris and Euphrates take their rise, and which cut off Assyria from Armenia and Kurdistan.Advertisement
The [ox's] horns are of nearly equal size in both sexes, are placed on or near the vertex of the skull, and may be either rounded or angulated, while their direction is more or less outwards, with an upward direction near the tips, and conspicuous knobs or ridges are never developed on their surface.
In the males the horns are usually compressed and triangular, with transverse ridges or knobs, and either curving backwards or spiral.
Of the first the physical characteristics are a small, thin-limbed body, hair black, short and woolly, projecting jaws, rounded, narrow, retreating forehead, long and narrow head, enormous eyebrow ridges, flat nose and dark skin.
If moist, ridges are formed about 3 to 4 ft.
East of this again a succession of stony ridges running parallel to the coast has to be crossed before El Hasa is reached.Advertisement
On their western margin steep cliffs generally rise from the sea, above which is the tablazo or plateau, in some places slightly undulating, in others with ridges of considerable height rising out of it.
The island is mountainous throughout, the low granite ridges, parted by bleak, tortuous valleys, leaving in some places a narrow strip of level coast-land, and in others overhanging the sea in lofty precipices.
The large posterior organ of attachment is usually wheel-shaped and provided with hooks; but the ridges may become separated 'FIG.
Concomitantly its cavity is sub-divided by transverse ridges into a single row and later on into paired rows of compartments.
Old schists, free from fossils and rich in quartz, overlie it in parallel chains through the whole length of the peninsula, especially in the central and highest ridges, and bear the ores of Chu-goku (the central provinces), principally copper pyrites and magnetic pyrites.Advertisement
These schist ridges rich in quartz show, to a depth of 20 metres, considerable disintegration.
The difference consists in the fact that the socket of the eye is comparatively small and shallow, and the osseous ridges at the brows being little marked, the eye is less deeply set than in the European.
Most of the mountain spurs run from east to west, but in northern Lebanon the prevailing direction of the valleys is north-westerly, and in the south some ridges run parallel with the principal chain.
Along the western side of northern Anti-Lebanon stretches the Khasha'a, a rough red region lined with juniper trees, a succession of the hardest limestone crests and ridges, bristling with bare rock and crag that shelter tufts of vegetation, and are divided by a succession of grassy ravines.
Besides these variations in the number of ridges or plates of which each tooth is composed, the thickness of the enamel varies so much as to have given rise to a distinction between a " thick-plated " and a " thin-plated " variety - the latter being most prevalent among specimens from the Arctic regions.Advertisement
The general slope of these ridges is towards the N.W., facing Sicily and snow-capped Etna, the source of cool evening breezes.
North of Tanganyika the valley is suddenly interrupted by a line of ancient eruptive ridges, which dam back the waters of Lake Kivu, but have been recently cut through by the outlet of that lake, the Rusizi, which enters Tanganyika by several mouths at its northern end.
In the allied genus Echinocereus, with 25 to 30 species in North and South America, the stems are short, branched or simple, divided into few or many ridges all armed with sharp, formidable spines.
The crest of the outer ridges of this subsidiary range is about 700 ft.
The cheek teeth are short crowned (brachyodont), with the tubercles more or less completely fused into transverse ridges, or cross-crests (lophodont type); and the total number of teeth is in one case the typical 44, but in another is reduced below this.Advertisement
In the curious little Tingidae, whose integuments exhibit a pattern of network-like ridges, the feet are two-segmented and the scutellum is hidden by the pronotum.
Possibly ridges of the sea-bed running southward from the southern continents may yet be discovered which would form more natural boundaries than the meridians.
The Pacific Ocean consists mainly of one enormous basin bounded on the west by New Zealand and the Tonga, Marshall aid Marianne ridges, on the north by the festoons of islands marking off the North Pacific fringing seas, on the east by the coast of North America and the great Easter Island Rise and on the south by the Antarctic Shelf.
The south-western part of the Pacific Ocean has a very rich and diversified submarine relief, abounding in small basins separated by ridges and rises.
The eupelagic deposits are subdivided by Kriimmel into two main groups; (a) epilophic,' including the pteropod, globigerina and diatom oozes occurring on the rises and ridges and in the less deep troughs.
These shells do not retain their individuality at depths greater than 1400 or 1500 fathoms, and in fact pteropod ooze is only found in small patches on the ridges near the Azores, Antilles, Canaries, Sokotra, Nicobar, Fiji and the Paumotu islands, and on the central rise of the South Atlantic between Ascension and Tristan d'Acunha.
The nature of the change of temperature with depth below 2500 fathoms is entirely dependent on the position of the sub-oceanic elevations, for the rises and ridges act as true submarine watersheds.
As the Arctic Basin is shut off from the North Atlantic by ridges rising to within 300 fathoms of the surface and from the Pacific by the shallow shelf of the Bering Sea, and as the ice-laden East Greenland and Labrador currents consist of fresh surface water which cannot appreciably influence the underlying mass, the Arctic region has no practical effect upon the bottom temperature of the three great oceans, which is entirely dominated by the influence of the Antarctic. The existence of deep-lying and extensive rises or ridges in high southern latitudes has been indicated by the deep-sea temperature observations of Antarctic expeditions.
If there were strong currents at the bottom of the ocean the uniform accumulation of the deposit of minute shells of globigerina and radiolarian ooze would be impossible, the rises and ridges would necessarily be swept clear of them, and the fact that this is not the case shows that from whatever cause the waters of the depths are set in motion, that motion must be of the most deliberate and gentlest kind.
Its germ is to be found in the temporary camp on Chobham Ridges, formed in 1853 by Lord Hardinge, the commander-in-chief, the success of which convinced him of the necessity of giving troops practical instruction in the field and affording the generals opportunities of manoeuvring large bodies of the three arms. He therefore advised the purchase of a tract of waste land whereon a permanent camp might be established.
This tract consists of a succession of stony ridges of trap rock, enclosing valleys or basins of fertile soil, to which cultivation is for the most part confined, except where the shallow soil on the tops of the hills has been turned to account.
But in the derivant valley peneplains developed in the present cycle of denudation, and there are residual summits also; in the Connecticut Valley trap ridges, of which Mt Tom and Mt Holyoke are the best examples; at Mt Holyoke, lava necks; occasionally in the lowlands, ridges of resistant sandstone, like Deerfield Mountain near Northampton; in the Berkshire Valley, summits of resistant schists, like Greylock, the highest summit in the state.
They are ridges of aeolian limestone plastered over by a thin layer of corals and other calcareous organisms. The very remarkable "serpuline atolls" are covered by a solid crust made of the convoluted tubes of serpulae and Vermetus, together with barnacles, mussels, nullipores, corallines and some true incrusting corals.
Over and above these there are other marks, crosses, triangles, &c., of which more than a hundred have been described and figured by different authors, each with its interpretation; and in addition the back of the hand has its ridges.
The various ridges and mountain masses are separated by steep-sided valleys, which run down to the sea, forming deep fjords, so that no part of the interior is more than 12 m.
The general height of the ridges and peaks is about 8000 ft.
Along the Pacific Coast the ridges of the Coast range are only about 1500 ft.
West of the Columbia river the plain is broken by several monoclinal ridges rising 2000 to 3000 ft.
In the valleys of rivers which have overflowed their banks and on level bench lands there is considerable silt and vegetable loam mixed with glacial clay; but on the hills and ridges of western Washington the soil is almost wholly a glacial deposit consisting principally of clay but usually containing some sand and gravel.
Slight rocky ridges run generally along its length, and the coast has low cliffs in places.
The first, practically co-extensive with the western half of Alsace, consists of the Vosges range, which running in a northerly direction from the deep gap or pass of Belfort (trouee de Belfort) forms in its highest ridges the natural frontier line between Germany and France.
On its slope, which rises abruptly from the Bitterroot Basin, glaciers have cut canyons between high and often precipitous walls, and between these canyons are steep and rocky ridges having peaked or saw-toothed crest lines.
The sides of these ridges and pinnacles are bare of vegetation and display a variety of colours in buff, cream, pale green, grey and flesh.
These Bad Lands were once a fairly level plain, but intricate stream erosion produced the labyrinth of ravines and ridges for which the region is noted.
The uplift is completely enclosed by a rim of hog-back ridges from 300 to Goo ft.
Upon this limestone plateau there is a central area of high ridges, among them the rough crags of Harney, Custer and Dodge peaks.
The streams flowing from the central area have cut deep gorges and canons, and among the ridges the granitic rocks have assumed many strange forms. Though rising from a semi-arid plateau, these mountains have sufficient rainfall to support an abundant plant growth, and have derived their name from the fact that their slopes are dark with heavy forests.
All the higher lands of this area are covered by forests; but the Red Valley, lying between the outer ridges and the main uplift, is treeless.
The Medway, however, cuts through the entire hill system, rising in the Forest Ridges of Sussex, flowing N.E.
The northern section includes the Shickshock Mountains and Notre Dame Range in Quebec, scattered elevations in Maine, the White Mountains and the Green Mountains; the central comprises, besides various minor groups, the Valley Ridges between the Front of the Allegheny Plateau and the Great Appalachian Valley, the New York-New Jersey Highlands and a large portion of the Blue Ridge; and the southern consists of the prolongation of the Blue Ridge, the Unaka Range, and the Valley Ridges adjoining the Cumberland Plateau, with some lesser ranges.
A remarkable feature of the belt is the longitudinal chain of broad valleys - the Great Appalachian Valley - which, in the southerly sections divides the mountain system into two subequal portions, but in the northernmost lies west of all the ranges possessing typical Appalachian features, and separates them from the Adirondack group. The mountain system has no axis of dominating altitudes, but in every portion the summits rise to rather uniform heights, and, especially in the central section, the various ridges and intermontane valleys have the same trend as the system itself.
In Pennsylvania the summits of the Valley Ridges rise generally to about 2000 ft., and in Maryland Eagle Rock and Dans Rock are conspicuous points reaching 3162 ft.
The main watershed follows a tortuous course which crosses the mountainous belt just north of New river in Virginia; south of this the rivers head in the Blue Ridge, cross the higher Unakas, receive important tributaries from the Great Valley, and traversing the Cumberland Plateau in spreading gorges, escape by way of the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers to the Ohio and Mississippi, and thus to the Gulf of Mexico; in the central section the rivers, rising in or beyond the Valley Ridges, flow through great gorges (water gaps) to the Great Valley, and by southeasterly courses across the Blue Ridge to tidal estuaries penetrating the coastal plain; in the northern section the water-parting lies on the inland side of the mountainous belt, the main lines of drainage running from north to south.
The Paleozoic sediments, ranging in age from Cambrian to Permian, occupy the Great Valley, the Valley Ridges and the plateaus still farther west.
Igneous intrusions consist only of unimportant dikes of trap. The most striking and uniformly characteristic geologic feature of the mountains is their internal structure, consisting of innumerable parallel, long and narrow folds, always closely appressed in the eastern part of any crosssection (Piedmont Plateau to Great Valley), less so along a central zone (Great Valley and Valley Ridges), and increasingly open on the west (Allegheny and Cumberland Plateaus).
Former tributaries have given place to others developed with reference to the distribution of more or less easily eroded strata, the present longitudinal valleys being determined by the out-crop of soft shales or soluble limestones, and the parallel ridges upheld by hard sandstones or schists.
Parallelism of mountain ridges and intervening valleys is thus attributable to the folding of the rocks, but the origin of the interior structure of the mountains is to be kept distinct from the origin of the mountains as features of topography.
For a century the Appalachians were a barrier to the westward expansion of the English colonies; the continuity of the system, the bewildering multiplicity of its succeeding ridges, the tortuous courses and roughness of its transverse passes, a heavy forest and dense undergrowth all conspired to hold the settlers on the seaward-sloping plateaus and coastal plains.
They have a smooth gill-cover, without those radiating ridges of bone which are so conspicuous in the pilchard and other Clupeae.
The mountains of Borneo, however, rise rather in short ridges and clusters.
The view that meets the eye southwards from the heights of the Kalta-alaghan is the picture of a chaos of mountain chains, ridges, crests, peaks, spurs, detached masses, in fact, montane conformations of every possible description and in every possible arrangement.
Further, in the hydropolyp the digestive cavity either remains simple and undivided and circular in transverse section, or may show ridges projecting internally, which in this case are formed of endoderm alone, without any participation of the mesogloea.
It is made sufficiently strong to bear the weight of the animals, which are confined within their bounds by undercut overhanging ridges, and by deep and wide ditches, masked by rockwork.
The Allegheny ridges have only a thin stony soil; but good limestone, sandstone, shale and alluvial soils, occur in the valleys and in some of the plateaus of the extreme west.
The valleys and ridges of eastern Tennessee screened him as he rapidly marched on Louisville and Cincinnati.
The beak or umbo of each valve is prominent and rounded, and a number of sharp ridges and furrows radiate from the apex to the free edge of the shell, which is crenated.
The average depth varies from 1500 to 2500 fathoms, and from this level innumerable volcanic ridges and peaks rise almost or quite to the surface, their summits for the most part occupied by atolls and reefs of coral formation, while interspersed with these are depressions, mostly of small area, among which the deepest soundings recorded have been obtained.
The narrow mountain belt is part of the western edge of the Appalachian Mountain Province in which parallel ridges of folded mountains, the Cumberland and the Pine, have crests2000-3000ft.
This plateau belt is exceedingly rugged with sharp ridges alternating with narrow valleys which have steep sides but are seldom more than 150o ft.
The remains of transverse and other ranges are to be seen in the isolated ridges and peaks which rise above the level of the table-land, in some cases forming well-defined basins; otherwise the surface is singularly uniform in character and level.
Northward the slope is gentle, and is broken by several transverse ridges.
The Sierra Madre Occidental consists of several parallel ranges in the north, where a broad belt of country is covered with a labyrinth of ridges and valleys.
Trochus a pair of ridges or horseshoe open in front.
The bark is red, like that of the Scots fir, deeply furrowed, with the ridges often much curved and twisted.
The bark, of nearly the same tint as that of the redwood, is extremely thick and is channelled towards the base with vertical furrows; at the root the ridges often stand out in buttress-like projections.
Many secondary ridges and spurs shoot off the main range, forming high, narrow valleys (see Caucasus).
The linear ridges of this mIddle section are often called the Alleghany Mountains.
In a south-western section the crystalline belt again assumes importance in breadth and height, and the plateau member maintains the strength that it had in the middle section, but the intermediate stratified belt again has fewer ridges, -because of the infrequence here of ridge-making strata as compared to their frequency in the middle section.
The watercourses to-day are, as a rule, longitudinal, following the strike of the weaker strata in paths that they appear to have gained by spontaneous adjustment during the long Mesozoic cycle; but now and again they cross from one longitudinal valley to another by a transverse course, and there they have cut down sharp notches or water-gaps in the hard strata that elsewhere stand up in the long even-crested ridges.
The transition from the strongly folded structure of the Alleghany ridges and valleys to the nearly horizontal structure of the Appala; chian plateau is promptly made; and with the change of structure comes an appropriate change of form.
For the most part the rivers follow open valleys along belts of weak strata; but they frequently pass through sharp-cut notches in the na1row ridges of the stratified beltthe Delaware water-gap is one of the deepest of these notches; and in the harder rocks of the crystalline belt they have eroded steep-walled gorges, of which the finest is that of the Hudson, because of the greater height and breadth of the crystalline highlands there than at points where the other rivers cross it.
The same Paiaeozoic formations that are folded in the belt of the Alleghany ridges lie nearly horizontal in the plateau district next north-west.
Its inner border affords admirable examples of topographical discordance where it sweeps north-westward square across the trend of the piedmont belt, the ridges and valleys, and the plateau of the Appalachians, which are all terminated by dipping gently beneath the unconformable cover of the coastal The, lain strata.
Along the eastern side of the Front Range in Colorado most of the upturned stratified formations have been so well worn down that, except for a few low piedmont ridges, their even surface may now be included with that of the plains, and the crystalline core of the range is exposed almost to the mountain base.
Associated with these irregular escarpments are occasional rectilinear ridges, the work of extensive erosion on monoclinal structures, of whick Echo Cliffs, east of the Painted Desert (so called from its manycoloured sandstones and clays), is a good example.
The Cascade Range is in essence a maturely dissected highland, composed in part of upwarped Colombian lavas, in part of older rocks, and crowned with several dissected volcanoes, of which the chief are (beginning in the north) Mts Baker (Io,827 ft.), Rainier (14,363 ft.), Adams (12,470 ft.) and Hood (11,225 ft.); the first three in \Vashington, the last in northern Oregon- These bear snowfields and glaciers; while the dissected highlands, with ridges of very irregular arrangement, are everywhere sculptured in a fashion that strongly suggests the work of numerous local Pleistocene glaciers as an important supplement to preglacial erosion.
Lake Chelan, long and narrow, deep set between spurless ridges with hanging lateral valleys, and evidently of glacial origin, ornaments one of the eastern valleys.
The tubercles which cluster over the surface of the crown of the common pig are elongated and drawn out into the columns of the wart-hog, as the low transverse ridges of the mastodon's tooth become the leaf-like plates of the elephant's molar.
In the European Miocene Listriodon, which also occurs in the Indian Tertiaries, the molars have a pair of transverse ridges, like those of the proboscidean Dinotherium; but the genus is believed to be related to the Oligocene Doliochoerus and Choerotherium, in which these teeth show a more normal type of structure.
In every other part the surface is hilly or mammilated, the harder rocks, such as granite or greenstone, rising as rounded knobs, or in the case of schists forming narrow ridges, while the softer parts form valleys generally floored with lakes.
The province of New Brunswick exhibits approximately parallel but subordinate ridges, with wide intervening areas of nearly flat Silurian and Carboniferous rocks.
The peninsula of Nova Scotia, connected by a narrow neck with New Brunswick, is formed by still another and more definite system of parallel ridges, deeply fretted on all sides by bays and harbours.
The shores are sand, clay or loam throughout some 1300 m., with very rare rock ridges or rapids, and the banks rise low above ordinary water.
The filaments take on a secondary grouping, the surface of the lamella being thrown into a series of halfcylindrical ridges, each consisting of ten or twenty filaments; a filament of much greater strength and thickness than the others may be placed between each pair of groups.
Roughly speaking, the district consists of a series of parallel ridges, whose summits are depressed into beds or hollows, along which the rivers flow; while between the ridges are low-lying rice lands, interspersed with numerous natural reservoirs.
This is a limestone belt with parallel hard rock ridges left standing by erosion to form mountains.
Although the general direction of the mountains, ridges and valleys is N.E.
The Great Valley Region consists of folded sedimentary rocks, extensive erosion having removed the soft layers to form valleys, leaving the hard layers as ridges, both layers running in a N.E.-S.W.
In this the crowns of the molars are more or less shortened, with their cusps either arranged in longitudinal lines, or forming four upper and three lower more or less distinct oblique ridges.
The Nannosciurinae, or second sub-family of Sciuridae, are represented only by the pigmy squirrels (Nannosciurus), characterized by their very short-crowned molars (which approximate to those of dormice in structure) and small premolars, of which the first upper pair is often deciduous, while the upper molars have only three oblique ridges.
In the typical Australian and Papuan Hydromys, locally known as water-rats, the molars originally have transverse ridges, the enamel folds between which form cutting edges whose sharpness depends upon the degree to which the teeth have been worn, while the large hind feet are webbed.
Many of them, like ungulates, are specialized for swift running, and have unusually long limbs, with ridges developed on the articular surfaces of the lower bones; the clavicles are more or less reduced; the thorax is more compressed than usual, with a narrower breast-bone; and there is a marked tendency to the reduction or loss of the lateral toes, more especially in the hind limb.
The remaining and more typical members of the family, one of which is aquatic, are characterized by their short incisors, the strong masseteric ridges on the sides of the lower jaw, the long and curved par-occipitals and the palate contracted in front.
In Europe these form the genus Ischyrornys and the family Ischyromyidae, and have premolars i, and all the cheek-teeth low-crowned, with simple cusps or ridges.
Deep valleys separate the gently rounded ridges of forest-clad mountains, lofty spurs descend from the interior, and, running down to the sea, terminate frequently in bold rocky headlands 800 to moo ft.
The lower ridges of the frontier mountain system are usually bare and treeless, but here and there, as in the Kaitu valley, in northern Waziristan and round Kaniguram in the south, are forest clad and enclose narrow but fertile and well-irrigated dales.
That the mountainous mass of western Maui is much older is shown by the destruction of its crater, by its sharp ridges and by deeply eroded gorges or valleys.
The peaks of the mountain are irregular, abrupt and broken; its sides are deeply furrowed by gorges and ravines; the shore plain is broken by ridges and by broad and deep valleys; no other island of the group is so well watered on all sides by large mountain streams; and it is called " garden isle."
Its western slopes, where it abuts on the mountain masses which dominate the Kabul plain, are forest-covered and picturesque, with deep glens intersecting them, and bold craggy ridges; the same may be said of the northern spurs which reach downward through the Shinwari country towards Gandamak and Jalalabad.
Lying south and east of the main stream is a vast, densely forested region called Venezuelan Guiana, diversified by ranges of low mountains, irregular broken ridges and granitic masses, which define the courses of many unexplored tributaries of the Orinoco.
The Pennsylvania portion of the younger Appalachian ridges and valleys, known as the central province of the state, embraces the region between the South Mountains, on the south-east, and the crest of the Alleghany plateau or Alleghany Front, on the north-west.
The ridges and intervening valleys, long parts of which have an approximately parallel trend from south-west to north-east, were formed by the erosion of folded sediments of varying hardness, the weak belts of rock being etched out to form valleys and the hard belts remaining as mountain ridges.
Then came a broad uplift followed by the erosion which carved out the valleys, leaving hard rocks as mountain ridges which rise about to the level of the old erosion plain.
In Bedford county and elsewhere the ridges rise to 2400 ft.
The valleys rarely exceed more than a few miles in width, are usually steep-sided, and frequently are traversed by longitudinal ranges of hills and cross ridges; but the Pennsylvania portion of the Appalachian or Great Valley, which forms a distinct division of the central province and lies between the South Mountains and the long rampart of Blue Mountain, is about to m.
The Susquehanna is a wide and shallow stream with a zigzag course and numerous islands, but both the Susquehanna and the Delaware, together with their principal tributaries, flow for the most part transverse to the geological structure, and in the gorges and water-gaps through which they pass ridges in the mountain region, is some of the most picturesque scenery in the state; a number of these gorges, too, have been of great economic importance as passages for railways.
The crests of the higher ridges in the central province are delightfully cool in summer, but the adjacent valleys are subject to excessive heat in summer and severe cold in winter.
There is some of the same formation as well as that derived from red shales on the sandstone hills in the south-east province and in many of the middle and western valleys, but often a belt of inferior slate soil adjoins a limestone belt, and many of the ridges are covered with a still more sterile soil derived from white and grey sandstones.
Those species which are distinctive of the eastern border ridges are found to reach the plateau, but do not spread westwards, so that a botanic separation or distinction is found to exist between the true plateau of Tibet in the west and the alpine tracts of the east.
There appear to be volcanic centres in both the east and the west of the island, and the surface is everywhere extremely rugged, with ridges from 4000 to 8000 ft.
It consists of a well-marked main chain, accompanied in its central part by subsidiary ridges.
But in many parts deep transverse valleys intersect the prevailing direction of the ridges, and facilitate the passage of man, plants and animals, as well as of currents of air which mitigate the contrast that would otherwise be found between the climates of the opposite slopes.
The accumulation of vast masses of snow, which have gradually been converted into permanent glaciers, maintains a gradation of very different climates within the narrow space that intervenes between the foot of the mountains and their upper ridges; it cools the breezes that are wafted to the plains on either side, but its most important function is to regulate the water-supply of that large region which is traversed by the streams of the Alps.
Of course each of these semi-detached ranges has a watershed of its own, like the lateral ridges that branch off from the main watershed.
On the other hand, in the Eastern Alps, it is generally necessary to cross three distinct ridges between the northern and southern plains, the central ridge being the highest and most difficult.
As late as 1905, the highest pass over the main chain that had a carriage road was the Great St Bernard (8111 ft.), but three still higher passes over side ridges have roads-the Stelvio (9055 ft.), the Col du Galibier (8721 ft.), in the Dauphine Alps, and the Umbrail Pass (8242 ft.).
After this, supposing the work to have occupied most of the summer, the whole may be laid up in ridges, to expose as great a surface as possible to the action of the winter's frost.
It should be laid up in ridges of good loamy soil in alternate layers to form a compost, which becomes a valuable stimulant for any very choice subjects if cautiously used.
The ranges seldom exceed the height of 3000 or 4000 ft.; but the ridges in the south, towards Tirol, frequently attain an elevation of 9000 or 10,000 ft.
The gentler synclines and anticlines of the earlier part of the period became accentuated, giving rise to pronounced mountain ridges, right across Europe.
The communities which inhabited the detached hills and projecting ridges which later on formed the city of Rome were in a specially favourable position.
The jaws are short and strong, and the width of the zygomatic arches, and great development of the bony ridges on the skull, give ample space for the attachment of the powerful muscles by which they are closed.
To the north-west, and parallel to the long ridges of the Tarnak watershed, stretches the great road to Kabul, traversed by Nott in 1842, and by Stewart and subsequently by Roberts in 1880.
In bedwork irrigation, which is eminently applicable to level ground, the ground is thrown into beds or ridges.
The next process is the forming of the ground intended for a water-meadow into beds or ridges.
It is situated in an elevate valley between the bold ridges of Hindhead (895 ft.) and Black down (918ft.).
Thus, in front of the Light Brigade was a valley over a mile long, at the end of which was the enemy's cavalry and twelve guns, and on the ridges on either side there were in all twenty-two guns, with cavalry and infantry.
The coasts are generally low and sandy; the whole western shore of Jutland is a succession of sand ridges and shallow lagoons, very dangerous to shipping.
The cheek-teeth are low-crowned, with the external cones of the upper molars fused into a W-like outer wall, and the inner ones retaining a regular conical form; while in the lower teeth the crown is formed of crescentic ridges, of which there are three in the last and two each in the other teeth.
These rocks are much folded and the shales are locally cleaved into slates, while the sandstones and conglomerates form scarps and ridges.
They are made up of a succession of more or less parallel confluent ridges, having in the main a trend from north-east to south-west.
These ridges are separated by longitudinal and furrowed by transverse valleys.
The rocks project in innumerable bosses and crags, which roughen the sides and crests of the ridges.
Farther to the south-west, in the shires of Perth, Inverness and Argyll, they give place to the ordinary hummocky crested ridges of Highland scenery, which, however, in Ben Nevis and Aonach Beg reach a height of over 4000 ft.
On the whole, these disturbances have followed the prevalent north-easterly trend, and hence a general tendency may be observed among the main ridges and valleys to run in that direction.
Though Scotland is pre-eminently land of mountain and of flood," yet its leading physical features are not the lofty ridges carved out of the primeval plateau Valleys.
The longitudinal valleys, which run in the same general direction as the ridges - that is, north-east and south-west--have had their trend defined by geological structure, such as a line of dislocation (the Great Glen), or the plications of the rocks (Lochs Ericht, Tay and Awe, and most of the sea lochs of Argyllshire).
The crumpling of the earth's crust which folded the rocks of the Highlands and Southern Uplands probably upraised above the sea a series of longitudinal ridges having a general north-easterly direction.
The earliest rain that fell upon these ridges would run off them, first in transverse watercourses down each short slope, and then in longitudinal depressions wherever such had been formed during the terrestrial disturbance.
Traced westwards, these forms gradually give place to narrow ridges and crests.
No contrast, for instance, can be greater than that between the wide elevated moors of the eastern Grampians, and the crested ridges of western Inverness-shire and Argyllshire - Loch Hourn, Glen Nevis, Glencoe - or that between the broad uplands of Peeblesshire and the precipitous heights of Galloway.
The ridges, too, are more and more trenched until they become groups of detached hills or mountains.
The process by which the ancient tablelands have been trenched into valleys and confluent ridges is most instructively displayed among the higher mountains, where erosion proceeds at an accelerated pace.
Among these high grounds also the gradual narrowing of ridges into sharp, narrow, knife-edged crests and the lowering of these into cols or passes can be admirably studied.
In many instances the beginning of the formation of a cone may be detected on ridges which have been deeply trenched by valleys.
Rock-tarns are small lakes lying in rock-basins on the sides of mountains or the summits of ridges, and on rocky plateaus or plains.
The slate hills, weathering more readily, assume gentle slopes and rounded ridges, as in the high land from Holy Loch to the Kyles of Bute.
Next day, 9th of September, Surrey crossed the Till, unobserved, by Twizel bridge and Millford, and moved south against Branxton hill, the middle of three ridges on the Flodden slope.
It is probable that the lakes themselves are evidence of (geologically) a comparatively recent deliverance from the thraldom of the ice covering, which has worn and rounded the lower ridges into the smooth outlines of undulating downs.
All that we know about this river (which is called the Ragh or Sadda) is that towards its junction with the Oxus it cuts through successive mountain ridges, which renders its course impracticable as a roadway.
The three great basins, which are broken and subdivided by mountainous spurs and ridges, descend gradually toward the south, the Quito plain having an average elevation of 9500 ft.
Many of the rivers of eastern Ecuador are subject to similar floods from the Andean slopes, which have cut away broad, deep channels, through the adjacent plains, leaving long, narrow ridges between their courses which the natives call cuchillas.
Even here there are local modifications, as at Ambato, where a shallow depression, surrounded by barren, dust-covered ridges exposed to cold winds, is celebrated for its warm, equable climate and its fruit.
He was hurried away to the desolate town of Cucusus (Cocysus), among the ridges of Mount Taurus, with a secret hope, perhaps, that he might be a victim to the Isaurians on the march, or to the more implacable fury of the monks.
Their lower articular surfaces, instead of being pulley-like, with deep ridges and grooves, as in other Artiodactyla, are simple, rounded and smooth.
The skull generally resembles that of Camelus, the relatively larger brain-cavity and orbits and less developed cranial ridges being due to its smaller size.
The long, straight, level-backed ridges which divide the Argandab, the Tarnak and Arghastan valleys, and flank the route from Kandahar to Ghazni, determining the direction of that route, are outliers of this system, which geographically includes the Khojak, or Kwaja Amran, range in Baluchistan.
The hot season throughout this part of the country is rendered more trying by frequent dust storms and fiery winds; whilst the bare rocky ridges that traverse the country, absorbing heat by day and radiating it by night, render the summer nights most oppressive.
The lowest terminal ridges, especially towards the west, are, as has been said, naked in aspect.
The vines are sometimes trained on trellises, but most frequently over ridges of earth 8 or io ft.
Along the banks of the Kulik river, the undulating ridges and long lines of mango-trees give the landscape a beauty which is not found elsewhere.
They consist of vast masses of forests, ridges and peaks, broken by cultivated valleys and broad high-lying plains.
Contrary to what might be anticipated from its size and from the habits of its African cousin, the Indian elephant is now, at any rate, an inhabitant, not of the plains, but of the hills; and even on the hills it is usually found among the higher ridges and plateaus, and not in the valleys.
The conditions were very hard, and frostbite was responsible for many casualties, for the snow still lay deep on the high ridges, but the spirit of the troops was proof against all trials, and it was against the iron lines of Pasubio that the Austrian offensive came to failure.
The cranium, pronounced by Huxley to be the most ape-like yet discovered, was remarkable for its enormous superciliary ridges.
The main streams are tortuous, and their dendritic tributaries have cut the region into ridges.
Erosion buttes and mesas occasionally rise as picturesque monuments above the general level of the plains, and in the vicinity of the mountains the plains strata, elsewhere nearly horizontal, are bent sharply upward and carved by erosion into " hogback " ridges.
It consists for the most part of isolated igneous peaks, sometimes connected by low intervening ridges.
Along the shores of the lakes the cordillera may be described as a double range, consisting of two series of ridges divided by a great longitudinal valley.
The great rivers which flow eastward to the sea have fissured and moulded the surface into deep ravines alternating with high plateaus, ridges and isolated hills.
The ridges in front of it rose steeply, and were strongly held by the Italians, whose position, however, suffered from two grave drawbacks.
There was a drizzle of snow on the high ridges, rain below, and mist everywhere.
A little later the Bavarian Alpenkorps, advancing from Tolmino, attacked the ridges below the Passo di Zagradan, while Berrer and Scotti attacked farther south.
The ridges which ramify from the Paramera are covered with valuable forests of beeches, oaks and firs, presenting a striking contrast to the bare peaks of the Sierra de Gredos.
Occasional hard rock ridges rise to a moderate elevation above the general level, while areas of unusually weak Triassic sandstones have been worn down to form lowlands.
The belts of non-resistant rock have been worn away, leaving longitudinal valleys separated by hard rock ridges.
The increasing mass of the population dwelt along the western border or on the less fertile ridges which make up the major part of the land even in tide-water Virginia.
One of those consists in forming the rim of each wheel into a series of alternate ridges and grooves parallel to the plane of rotation; it is applicable to cylindrical and bevel wheels, but not to skew-bevel wheels.
The relative motion of the faces of contact of the ridges anc grooves is a rotatory slidiug or grinding motion, about the line 01 contact of the pitch-surfaces as an instantaneous axis.
The ridges lie in vast folds and wrinkles; and elevations in the valley are often found to be pierced by erosion.
They differ in certain respects, as in the proportion of the limbs, in the bony development of the eyebrow ridges, and in the opposable great toe, which fits the foot to be a climbing and grasping organ.
Cirques, valley troughs, numberless beautiful cascades, sharpened alpine peaks and ridges, glacial lakes, and valley moraines offer everywhere abundant evidence of glacial action, which has modified profoundly practically all the ranges.
The quartz takes the shape of long serrated ridges, which are in many places a characteristic feature of the landscape.
The"meridional ridges which formerly used to be traced here along the main water-partings do not exist in reality, and the country appears on the hypsometrical map in the Atlas de Finlande as a plateau of 350 ft.
A notable feature of Finland are the asar or narrow ridges of morainic deposits, more or less reassorted on their surfaces.
In what is now the republic of Ecuador, the only peopled portions are the central valley, between the two ridges of the Andes - height 7000 to 12,000 feet - and the hot plain at their western base; nor do the wooded slopes appear to have been inhabited, except by scattered savage hordes, even in the time of the Incas.
Level plains, with rich open meadows and cultivated lands, the monotony of which is in some parts relieved by beech woods, are separated by slight ridges with a general direction from N.W.
It is the opinion of almost all who have studied the subject that any natural bed may in time be destroyed by overfishing (perhaps not by removing all the oysters, but by breaking up the colonies, and delivering over the territory which they once occupied to other kinds of animals), by burying the breeding oysters, by covering up the projections suitable for the reception of spat, and by breaking down, through the action of heavy dredges, the ridges which are especially fitted to be seats of the colonies.'
These hills run in rocky and precipitous parallel ridges, in some places upwards of 2200 ft.
Ruggens ridges, applied to undulating slopes or un - irrigated hilly country.
The ridges are then hooped over, allowing about 2 ft.
North of the railway line, hedged in between Afghanistan and the plains of the Indus, stretch the long ridges of rough but picturesque highlands, which embrace the central ranges of the Suliman system (the prehistoric home of the Pathan highlander), where vegetation is often alpine, and the climate clear and bracing and subject to no great extremes of temperature.
These two channels carry the rush of mountain streams from the western slopes of the massif right across the axis of the mountains and through the intervening barrier of minor ridges to the plains of the Indus.
Westwards, looking towards Afghanistan, line upon line of broken jagged ridges and ranges, folds in the Cretaceous series overlaid by coarse sandstones and shales, follow each other in order, preserving their approximate parallelism until they touch the borders of Baluchistan.
Beyond it are the grey outlines of the close-packed ridges which enclose the lower reaches of the Zhob and the Kundar.
Looking eastwards from the Kaisargarh, one can again count the backs of innumerable minor ridges, smaller wrinkles or folds formed during a process of upheaval of the Suliman Mountains, at the close of a great volcanic epoch which has hardly yet ceased to give evidence of its existence.
Being fed by tributaries which for the most part drain narrow valleys where gradual denudation has washed bare the flat-backed slopes of limestone ridges, and which consequently send down torrents of rapidly accumulating rainfall, both these central lines of water-course are liable to terrific floods.
Routes which converge on Kalat from the south pass for the most part through narrow wooded valleys, enclosed between steep ridges of denuded hills, and, following the general strike of these ridges, they run from valley to valley with easy grades.
The mountain ranges of Baluchistan consist chiefly of Cretaceous and Tertiary beds, which are thrown into a series of folds running approximately parallel to the mountain ridges.
In the broader depressions between the mountain ridges the beds are said to be but little disturbed.
The last premolar and the molars have quadrate crowns, provided with two strong transverse ridges, or with four obtuse cusps.
The crowns of the molars have two prominent transverse ridges.
In the rat-kangaroos, or kangaroo-rats, as they are called in Australia, constituting the sub-family Potoroinae, the first upper incisor is narrow, curved, and much exceeds the others in length; the upper canines are persistent, flattened, blunt and slightly curved, and the first two premolars of both jaws have large, simple, compressed crowns, with a nearly straight or slightly concave free cutting-edge, and both outer and inner surfaces usually marked by a series of parallel, vertical grooves and ridges.
In the members of the typical genus Potorous (formerly known as Hypsiprymnus) the head is long and slender, with the auditory bullae somewhat swollen; while the ridges on the first two premolars are few and perpendicular, and there are large vacuities on the palate.
Interspersed between these main geological axes are many other minor ridges, on some of which are peaks of great elevation.
Recent investigations show that all the chief rivers of Nepal flowing southwards to the Tarai take their rise north of the line of highest crests, the " main range " of the Himalaya; and that some of them drain long lateral high-level valleys enclosed between minor ridges whose strike is parallel to the axis of the Himalaya and, occasionally, almost at right angles to the course of the main drainage channels breaking down to the plains.
The reason assigned for these extraordinary diversions of the drainage right across the general strike of the ridges is that it is antecedent - i.e.
Lesser ranges, which are included in the Beirene system and vary in height from 2000 to 4000 ft., are the Mesas, between the rivers Coa and Zezere; the Guardunha and Moradal, separating the Zezere from the Ponsul and Ocreza, tributaries of the Tagus; the Serra do Aire, and various ridges which stretch south-westward as far as the mountains of Cintra (q.v.).
North-east of Lake Titicaca there is a confused mass or knot (the Nudo de Apolobamba) of lofty intersecting ridges which include some of the highest peaks in South America.
The plateau is bleak and inhospitable in the north, barren and arid toward the south, containing great saline depressions covered with water in the rainy season, and broken by ridges and peaks, the highest being the Cerro de Tahua, 17,454 ft.
The eastern ranges of the Bolivian Andes are formed of Palaeozoic rocks with granitic and other intrusions; the Western Cordillera consists chiefly of Jurassic and Cretaceous beds, together with the lavas and ashes of the great volcanoes; while the intervening plateau is covered by freshwater and terrestrial deposits through which rise ridges of Palaeozoic rock and of a series of red sandstones and gypsiferous marls of somewhat uncertain age (probably, in part at least, Cretaceous).
These plains, the third or desert region of the state, have their mountains also, but they are lower, and they are not compacted; the plains near the mountain region slope toward the Gulf of California across wide valleys separated by isolated ranges, then across broad desert stretches traversed by rocky ridges, and finally there is no obstruction to the slope at all.
The region is made up in general of high ranges deeply glaciated, preserving some remnants of ancient glaciers, and having fine " Alpine " scenery, with many sharp peaks and ridges, U-shaped valleys, cirques, lakes and waterfalls.
The strata are thrown into folds which run in the direction of the mountain ridges, forming a curve with the convexity facing the south-east.
To the south of this is the Menominee iron district, marked somewhat regularly by east and west ridges.
The north portion of these ranges, together with Isle Royale some distance farther north, which is itself traversed by several less elevated parallel ridges, contains the Michigan copperbearing rocks; while to the south, along the Wisconsin border, is another iron district, the Gogebic. The rivers of the entire state consist of numerous small streams of clear water.
The whole mountain was traversed and surveyed by the Takht-i-Suliman Survey Expedition of 1883 (see Sherani) and was found to consist of two parallel ridges running roughly north and south, the southern end of the eastern ridge culminating in a point 11,070 ft.
Between these two ridges is a connecting tableland about 9000 ft.
This plateau and the interior slopes of the ridges are covered with chilghosa (edible pine) forests.
The ranges generally run in parallel ridges, inclosing extensive valleys, with a normal direction from N.W.
The southern ridges, although generally much lower, have the highest point of the whole system in the Shah Kuh (13,000) between Shahrud and Astarabad.
South of this northern highland several parallel ridges run diagonally across the province in a N.W.
They consist of a series of ridges and peaks, with a breadth varying from 6 to 60 m.
The valleys between the ridges are generally sandy deserts, with an occasional oasis of cultivation.
The Aravalli hills send off rocky ridges in a north-easterly direction through the states of Alwar and Jaipur, which from time to time reappear in the form of isolated hills and broken rocky elevations to near Delhi.
The quadrangular mouth is seen in the centre; the outline of the stomach wall, seen by transparency around it, is nipped in four places interradially to form the four gastric ridges.
The four gastric interradial ridges are seen through the mouth.
The four longitudinal gastric ridges are seen by transparency.
It consists of an upland plateau now dissected by streams into a series of hills and ridges, and corresponds to the Piedmont Belt farther to the S.W.
A noteworthy feature of this area is the series of trap rock ridges, between which the Passaic river makes its irregular way through a region of flat bottom lands.
It is free from mountainous ridges, but there are a number of isolated hills, such as the Navesink Highlands (259 ft.) in Monmouth county.
About one-eighth of the area consists of tidal marsh, lying chiefly between the long sandy ridges or barrier beaches of the Atlantic coast and the mainland.
The western plains contain isolated ridges of the old Archean and Lower Palaeozoic rocks; but in the main, they consist of plains of Cretaceous beds covered by Cainozoic drifts.
It is covered in places by tablelands and ridges of the Desert Sandstone, the remnants of a sheet which doubtless once covered the whole of the Western Plains.
The walls of the pyloric chamber bear a series of pads and ridges beset with hairs and so disposed as to form a straining apparatus.
Thus in succession there are the famous white cliffs about Dover, terminating the North Downs, the low coast of Romney Marsh, projecting seaward in Dungeness, the cliffs above Hastings, terminating an offshoot of the Forest Ridges, the low shore between Hastings and Eastbourne, to which succeeds the lofty Beachy Head, terminating the South Downs.
The greater part of the Forest Ridges is almost without inhabitants.
The main roads laid out as arteries of intercommunication by the Romans, suffered to fall into neglect, and revived in the coaching days of the beginning of the 19th century, fell into a second period of comparative neglect when the railway system was completed; but they have recovered a very large share of their old importance in consequence of the development of motortraffic. Following the Roman roads, the high roads of the Eastern Division very frequently run along the crests of ridges or escarpments; but in the Western Division they are, as a rule, forced by the more commanding relief of the country to keep to the river valleys and cross the rougher districts through the dales and passes.
Rounded hills, level meads and persistent flat-topped ridges, composed of rocks of varying structure, rise to about the same level and give the impression that they are the remnants of a former continuous surface.
Few other regions have so many large lakes so variously ' This condition results from the fact that Maine and the adjacent region were worn down nearly to sea-level by stream erosion, except certain peaks and ridges inland; then the region was elevated and numerous river valleys were cut down below the general erosion surface formed before.
Freshfield,' " consists of a number of short parallel or curved horseshoe ridges, crowned with rocky peaks and enclosing basins filled by the neves of great glaciers..
On the north the schists come first, sometimes rising into peaks and ridges in a state of ruin.
Their ridges attain to 9000 to Io,000 ft.
Beyond, again, lies a broad furrow, or ` longitudinal fold,' as geologists call it, parallel to the ridges, and then rises the last elevation, a belt of low calcareous hills, on which, here and there among the waves of beech forest, purple or blue with distance, a white cliff retains its local colour and shines like a patch of fresh snow.
They are hemmed in and separated by snowcapped mountain peaks and ridges, which are seamed with glaciers terminating in moraines and shingle slopes at the base of the foot-hills.
It is traversed by mountain ridges, with peaks of 6000 to 8000 ft.
The chief sierras, or ranges, are those of Maria, in the north; Estancias and Oria, north of the Almanzora river; Filabres, in the middle of the province; Cabrera and Gata, along the southeast coast; Alhamilla, east of the city of Almeria; Gador in the south-west; and, in the west, some outlying ridges of the Sierra Nevada.
In man the surface of the skull is comparatively smooth, and the brow-ridges project but little, while in the gorilla these ridges overhang the cavernous orbits like penthouse roofs.
To bring this to the reader's notice, top and side views of three skulls, as placed together in the human development series in the Oxford University Museum, are represented in the plate, for the purpose of showing the great size of the orbital ridges, which the reader may contrast with his own by a touch with his fingers on his forehead.
Antlers arising at acute angles to the median line of the skull (as in the following genera), at first projecting from the plane of the forehead, and then continued upwards nearly in that plane, supported on short pedicles, and furnished with a brow-tine, never regularly forked at first division, but generally of large size, and with not less than three tines; the skull without ridges on the frontals forming the bases of the pedicles of the antlers.
The upper (Magdala group) contains much trachytic rock of considerable thickness, lying perfectly horizontally, and giving rise to a series of terraced ridges characteristic of central Abyssinia.
On the north, fine forests extend to the Col de la Ruchere, and on the west rise well-wooded heights, while on the east tower white limestone ridges, culminating in the Grand Som (6670 ft.).
The epoch was characterized by cold wet climate, by the supposed existence of Man of the Olom type, that is, nearly as dolichocephalous as the Neanderthal type, but with superciliary ridges flat, and frontal bones high, and by the occurrence of the musk-ox, the horse, the cave-bear, Rhinoceros tichorhinus and the mammoth.
These projections and ridges may be homologous with the seminiferous scale of the pines, firs, cedars, &c. The simplest interpretation of the cone of the Abietineae is that which regards it as a flower consisting of an axis bearing several open carpels, which in the adult cone may be very small or large and prominent, the scale bearing the ovules being regarded as a placental outgrowth from the flat and open carpel.
A well-grown plant projects less than a foot above the surface of the ground; the stem, which may have a circumference of more than 12 ft., terminates in a depressed crown resembling a circular table with a median groove across the centre and prominent broad ridges concentric with the margin.
Numerous circular pits occur on the concentric ridges of the depressed and wrinkled crown, marking the position of former inflorescences borne in the leaf-axil at different stages in the growth of the plant.
To the south of the lake rises the south-eastern prolongation of the Cordillera of the Andes, with ridges of a uniform height of 3500 ft., in which predominate crystalline schists which do not seem to be very old.
The rocks are deeply furrowed and cut into ridges, evidence of the long period over which they have been subjected to atmospheric influences.
The second zone extends over the foothills and lower ridges of the Carpathians.
There is no arrangement in chains, but only scattered rounded peaks and short ridges, with winding valleys about them.
Cattlerearing and butter and cheese making are consequently the chief occupations, while on the coast many of the people are engaged in making mats and besoms. The river system of the province is determined by two main ridges of hills.
Cuenca stands at the northern end of a broad valley, or basin, of the Andes, lying between the transverse ridges of Azuay and Loja, and is about 8640 ft.
In northern Ecuador the Andes narrows into a single massive range which has the character of a confused mass of peaks and ridges on the southern frontier of Colombia.
The low ridges of the Sierra de Perija do not wholly shut out these moisture-laden winds, but they cause a heavy rainfall on their eastern slopes, and create a dry area on their western flanks, of which the Vale of Upar is an example.
These centres of production are also separated from each other by high ridges and deep valleys, making it extremely difficult to connect them by a single transportation route.
Very high mountain ranges usually consist of many ridges, among which rain-clouds are entangled in their ascent, and in such cases precipitation towards the windward side of the main range, though on the leeward sides of the minor ridges of which it is formed, may occur to so large an extent that before the summit is reached the clouds are exhausted or nearly so, and in this case the total precipitation is less on the leeward than on the windward side of the main range; but in the moderate heights of the United Kingdom it more commonly happens from the causes explained that precipitation is prevented or greatly retarded until the summit of the ridge is reached.
Surface drainage is usually effected by ploughing the land into convex ridges off which the water runs into intervening furrows and is conveyed into ditches.
The surface must necessarily be thrown into ridges, and the furrows and cross-cuts cleared out after each process of tillage, and upon this surface-drainage as much labour is expended in twenty years as would suffice to make under-drains enough to lay it permanently dry.
Here the coast is barren and hilly, while long ridges of rock run into the lake.
A number of ridges and peaks bearing special names, such as the Rogue river, Umpqua and Siskiyou Mountains, belong to this group. The Cascade Mountains, the most important range in Oregon, extend parallel with the coast and lie about too m.
Between these ridges lie almost level valleys, whose floors consist partly of lava flows, partly of volcanic fragmental material, and partly of detritus from the bordering mountains.
Leaving Sind, and passing by the ridges of low sandhills, - the leading feature of the desert east of the Indus, - and the isolated hills of Cutch and Kathiawar, which form geologically the western extremity of the Aravalli range, the first extensive mountain range is that separating Gujarat from the states of central India.
Towards the beach it rises into sandy ridges, from 50 to 80 ft.
The gently rolling prairie surface is diversified by an endless succession of broad plains, isolated hills and ridges, and moderate valleys.
The cheek-teeth are large, with broad flattened crowns surmounted either by simple transverse ridges, or complicated by elevations and infoldings.
The anterior part of the palate is composed of mucous membrane tightly stretched over the flat or slightly concave bony layer which separates the mouth from the nasal passages, and is generally raised into a series of transverse ridges, which sometimes, as in ruminants, attain a considerable development.
The peculiar mode of displacement of the teeth from behind forwards in some members of both groups may perhaps indicate a relationship, although in the case of the Sirenia the replacement takes place by means of a succession of similar molars, while in the Proboscidea the molars remain the same numerically, but increase greatly in size and number of transverse ridges."
Their salter waters must have been originally derived from outside, and must therefore have passed over the plateau between Falster and Mecklenburg, but their horizontal extension is checked by the ridges separating the deep hollows in the Baltic from each other.
At the present day they are extremely bare, and in this respect almost repellent; but the lack of colour is compensated by the delicacy of the outlines, the minute articulation of the minor ridges and valleys, and the symmetrical grouping of the several mountains.
The stems, the surface of which exhibits a number of ridges with intervening furrows, perform the greater part of the work of assimilation.
The determining feature of this is the Pagasaeus Sinus (Gulf of Volo), a landlocked basin, extending from Pagasae at its head to Aphetae at its narrow outlet, where the chain of Pelion, turning at right angles to its axis at the end of Magnesia, throws out a projecting line of broken ridges, while on the opposite side rise the heights of Othrys.
The country is low and gently undulating, broken by detached hills and ridges not exceeding in elevation 2 Soo ft.
The groups of lakes which lie north-west from Langjokull occupy basins formed between ridges of glacial gravel; and in Vatn, lake.
Oaks and beeches predominate in the north; pines, often of gigantic size, among the fantastic white or grey rocks of the wild south-western ridges.
Between them and bordering them run from five to seven ridges as broad as the basins and rising by gentle slopes to 13,000-16,000 ft.
The ridges rise by long, gentle slopes to flat summits, where often for many miles the sky-line is an almost straight crest, from which the rounded slopes of pure white snowfields descend towards the basins.
The quartzites here form bare white cones and ridges, notably in Errigal and Aghla Mt.
The Old Red Sandstone is most fully manifest in the rocky or heather-clad ridges that run from the west of Kerry to central Waterford, rising to 3414 ft.
In the latter place they contain workable coal-seams. The Carboniferous Limestone often contains black flint (chert), and at some horizons conglomerates occur, the pebbles being derived from the unconformable ridges of the " Caledonian " land.
The critical time had arrived when the sea was to be driven away eastward, while the immense ridges due to the " Alpine " movements were about to emerge as the backbones of new continental lands.