How to use Richelieu in a sentence
He appears to have retired from public life shortly after the death of Richelieu in 1643.
Her early years were clouded by the execution of the duc de Montmorency, her mother's only brother, for intriguing against Richelieu in 1631, and that of her mother's cousin the comte de Montmorency-Boutteville for duelling in 1635; but her parents made their peace with Richelieu, and being introduced into society in 1635 she soon became one of the stars of the Hotel Rambouillet, at that time the centre of all that was learned, witty and gay in France.
The first important industry of the state was "rafting" lumber from Vermont through Lake Champlain and the Richelieu and St Lawrence rivers to Quebec. Burlington became a great lumber market for a trade moving in the direction of Boston after the Richelieu river was blocked to navigation and railway transportation began, and in 1882 Burlington was the third lumber centre in the United States.
Water communication is afforded by Lake Champlain to the south, for seven months of the year, by way of the Champlain canal, via Whitehall, New York, to Troy and the Hudson river and the Atlantic coast, and to the north by way of the Richelieu river and the Chambly canal to the St Lawrence.
Louise became maid of honour to Anne of Austria, and Richelieu sought to attract the attention of Louis XIII.Advertisement
The king did indeed make her the confidante of his affairs and of his resentment against the cardinal, but she, far from repeating his confidences to the minister, set herself to encourage the king in his resistance to Richelieu's dominion.
Richelieu intercepted the letters, and by omissions and falsifications succeeded in destroying their mutual confidence.
During the siege of La Rochelle he performed a mission which brought him in touch with Richelieu, who shortly afterwards nominated him intendant de justice in Beam (1631), and in 1639 summoned him to Paris with the title of counsellor of state.
In this capacity he did very useful work, and after the Restoration continued in this post at the request of the duc de Richelieu, his work being recognized by his election as a member of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres in 1820.
After the reconciliation of Louis with his mother, Marie de' Medici, through his agency, he was appointed a councillor of state, but had to resign this office, owing to his Austrian policy, which was opposed by Richelieu.Advertisement
The original name of the family was Du Plessis, but in the 15th century a younger branch obtained by marriage the estate of Richelieu with its strong castle surrounded by the waters of the Mable, and took the name of Du Plessis de Richelieu.
The family produced not a few turbulent warriors during the Hundred Years' War, and the cardinal's father, Francois du Plessis, seigneur de Richelieu, began his career by killing the murderer of his elder brother and then fighting through the wars of religion, first as a favourite of Henry III., and after his death under Henry IV.
The right of preferment to that see had been given to the Richelieu family by Henry III.
When the cathedral chapter found courage to oppose this and opened suit to recover the ecclesiastical revenues for ecclesiastical purposes, Richelieu's mother proposed to make her second son, Alphonse, bishop. He defeated this scheme, however, by becoming a monk of the Grande Chartreuse, and Armand, whose health was rather feeble in any case for a military career, was induced to propose himself for the priesthood.
In 1606, at the age of twenty-one, Richelieu was nominated bishop of Luton by Henry IV.Advertisement
In the winter of 1608 Richelieu went out to his poverty-stricken little bishopric, and for the next six years devoted himself seriously to his episcopal duties.
The reign which Richelieu was to dominate so absolutely began with his exile from the court.
As this ungrateful work brought no reward, Richelieu, in spite of the earnest entreaties of the queen-mother, retired once more to his bishopric. But the king, while approving his conduct, was still suspicious of him, and he was exiled to Avignon, along with his brother and brother-in-law, on the 7th of April 1618.
Richelieu seized his opportunity.
Marie zealously pushed her favourite towards office, and had gone so far as to absent herself from court for three months on account of the king's persistent refusal, when Charles, duc de La Vieuville, then head of the council, in need of her aid in his negotiations with reference to the marriage of her daughter Henriette Marie, finally agreed to force Richelieu's appointment to office upon the king, Louis XIII.Advertisement
Richelieu raised many objections to such a partial realization of his ambition, but the king ended them in April 1624 by naming him as a member of his council.
For the next eighteen years the biography of Richelieu is the history of France, and to a large degree that of Europe.
The local authorities proceeded to carry this out with a zeal due to long suffering, and the ruined medieval chateaus of France still bear witness to the action of Richelieu.
His governor, Marshal D'Ornano, was arrested by Richelieu's orders, and then his confidant, Henri de Talleyrand, marquis de Chalais and Vendome, the natural sons of Henry IV.
The overthrow of the Huguenots in 1629 made Richelieu's position seemingly unassailable, but the next year it received its severest test.Advertisement
Richelieu left the presence feeling that all was lost.
But before taking further steps he retired to Versailles, then a hunting lodge, and there, listening to two of Richelieu's friends, Claude de Saint-Simon, father of the memoir writer, and Cardinal La Valette, sent for Richelieu in the evening, and while the salons of the Luxembourg were full of expectant courtiers the king was reassuring the cardinal of his continued favour and support.
The queen-mother followed the king and cardinal to Compiegne, but as she refused to be reconciled with Richelieu she was left there alone and forbidden to return to Paris.
The next summer she fled across the frontiers into the Netherlands, and Richelieu was made a duke.
The voyage was symbolical of Richelieu's whole pitiless career.Advertisement
The year of Richelieu's triumph over the Huguenots (1629) was also that of the Emperor Ferdinand's triumph in Germany, marked by the Edict of Restitution, and France was threatened by a united Germany.
Richelieu, however, turned against the Habsburgs young Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, paying him a subsidy of a million livres a year by the treaty of Barwald of the 23rd of January 1631.
The dismissal of Wallenstein, which is often attributed to the work of Father Joseph, Richelieu's envoy to the diet of Regensburg in July and August of 1630, was due rather to the fears of the electors themselves, but it was of double value to Richelieu when his Swedish ally marched south.
After the treaty of Prague, in May 1635, by which the emperor was reconciled with most of the German princes, Richelieu was finally obliged to declare war, and, concluding a treaty of offensive alliance at Compiegne with Oxenstierna, and in October one at St Germain-en-Laye with Bernard of Saxe-Weimar, he proceeded himself against Spain, both in Italy and in the Netherlands.
The war opened disastrously for the French, but by 1642, when Richelieu died, his armies - risen from 12,000 men in 1621 to 150,000 in 1638 - had conquered Roussillon from Spain; they held Catalonia, which had revolted from Philip IV.Advertisement
The lines of the treaty of Westphalia, six years later, were already laid down by Richelieu; and its epochal importance in European history is a measure of the genius who threw the balance of power from Habsburg to Bourbon.
The piquant comments of his platonic friend, Mademoiselle de Hautefort, upon Richelieu were relished by the king until he was informed of others said to have been made by her upon himself.
When this devout maiden began to denounce the ungodly cardinal who was allied with heretics, her confessor - in Richelieu's service - succeeded in inducing her to become a nun.
Such was the atmosphere of the court in which Richelieu had to maintain his authority.
Like all statesmen of his time, Richelieu made money out of politics.Advertisement
Richelieu was anxious for literary fame, and his writings are not unworthy of him.
Retz received no preferment of importance during Richelieu's life, and even after the minister's death, though he was presented to Louis XIII.
Retz, who had, according to some accounts, already plotted against Richelieu, set himself to work to make the utmost political capital out of his position.
Voltaire had made, however, a useful friend in another grand seigneur, as profligate and nearly as intelligent, the duke of Richelieu, and with him he passed 1724 and the next year chiefly, recasting Mariamne (which was now successful), writing the comedy of L'Indiscret, and courting the queen, the ministers, the favourites and everybody who seemed worth.
He was much employed, owing to Richelieu's influence, in the fetes of the dauphin's marriage, and was rewarded through the influence of Madame de Pompadour on New Year's Day 1745 by the appointment to the post of historiographer-royal, once jointly held by Racine and Boileau.Advertisement
In the centre of the old town is the Place d'Armes, in which stands the former hotel-de-ville (rebuilt in 174.0, restored in 1867), with busts of Eustache de St Pierre, Francis, duke of Guise, and Cardinal Richelieu.
The duc de Richelieu was compelled to admit to the cabinet two of the chiefs of the Left, Villele and Corbiere.
Villele resigned within a year, but on the fall of Richelieu at the end of 1821 he became the real chief of the new cabinet, in which he was minister of finance.
The title of count of Agenais, which the kings of England had allowed to fall into desuetude, was revived by the kings of France, and in 1789 was held by the family of the dukes of Richelieu.
Realizing his folly he abdicated on the 6th of December 1796, and retired to Sardinia, That princess, in spite of her French origin, resisted the attempts of France, then dominated by Cardinal Richelieu, to govern Savoy, but her quarrels with her brothers-in-law led to civil war, in which the latter obtained the help of Spain, and Christina that of France.Advertisement
In 1618 he was named councillor of state and in 1624 was called to Paris, where he found favour with Richelieu.
He afterwards became the confidential counsellor of Maurice, prince of Orange, and afterwards of Frederick Henry, prince of Orange, in their conduct of the foreign affairs of the republic. He was sent on special embassies to Venice, Germany and England, and displayed so much diplomatic skill and finesse that Richelieu ranked him among the three greatest politicians of his time.
The childlessness of the king was a constant threat to the policy of his great minister Richelieu; for the king's brother and heir, Gaston of Orleans, was a determined opponent of that policy.
After completing his studies in Paris, he was appointed by Cardinal Richelieu inspector of the printing-press at the Louvre.
After Richelieu's death he left Paris, joined the Reformed Church, and in 1651 obtained a professorship at the academy of Saumur, which he filled with great success for nearly twenty years.
From the point of view of purely judicial administration, Anjou was subject to the parlement of Paris; Angers was the seat of a presidial court, of which the jurisdiction comprised the senechaussees of Angers, Saumur, Beauge, Beaufort and the duchy of Richelieu; there were besides presidial courts at Château-Gontier and La Fleche.
Jealous of their " sharing the State with the king," Richelieu twenty-five years later reduced the exceptional privileges of the Huguenots, and with the advent of Louis XIV.
The decisive incident for his private life as well as for his reign was the entrance of Cardinal Richelieu, hitherto the queen's chief adviser, into the king's council in 1624.
Henceforth the policy of France was directed by Richelieu, who took up in its main features the system of Protestant alliances and opposition to the power of Austria and Spain, which had been begun by Henry IV.
It is not easy to define his relations to Richelieu.
Then the queen-mother and the king's brother passionately attacked the minister, and for a moment it was believed that Richelieu was dismissed and that the queenmother and a Spanish policy had triumphed.
Richelieu's position was much strengthened by these incidents, but to the end of life he had to struggle against conspiracies which were designed to deprive him of the king's support, and usually Gaston of Orleans had some share in these movements.
But the last great effort to overthrow Richelieu was closely connected with the king.
The king is said to have allowed him to speak hostilely of Richelieu and even to recall the assassination of Marshal d'Ancre.
Yet when Richelieu died in December of the same year he allowed himself to speak of him in a jealous and satirical tone.
Richelieu's own Memoirs are chiefly concerned with politics and diplomacy.
His old ambition changed into a desire for the safe aggrandizement of his family, which he magnificently achieved, and with that end he bowed before Richelieu, whose niece he forced his son to marry.
The next in succession was Henry Jules, prince of Conde (1643-1709), the son'of the great Conde and of Clemence de Maille, niece of Richelieu.
Thus, in 1611 or the following year whalers from Hull named it Trinity Island; in 1612 Jean Vrolicq, a French whaler, called it Ile de Richelieu; and in 1614 Joris Carolus named one of its promontories Jan Meys Hoek after the captain of one of his ships.
This system, which dates from Richelieu and culminated in the reign of Louis XIV., was based on the secular rivalry of the houses of Bourbon and Habsburg, and presently divided all Europe into two hostile camps.
He was one of the hundred associates of the Company of New France, created by Richelieu to reform abuses and take over all his country's interests in the new world.
Richelieu was dead, and Anne of Austria was compassionate.
He had been introduced to Richelieu in 1623, and by his humour and his talent as a raconteur soon made himself indispensable to the cardinal.
Boisrobert became one of the five poets who carried out Richelieu's dramatic ideas.
It was Boisrobert who suggested to Richelieu the plan of the Academy, and he was one of its earliest and most active members.
After the death of Richelieu, he attached himself to Mazarin, whom he served faithfully throughout the Fronde.
Richelieu, in 1640, formed a scheme for a college in which Latin was to have a subordinate place, while room was to be found for the study of history and science, Greek, and French and modern languages.
The Christian governments either uttered useless and impotent complaints at Constantinople, or endeavoured to negotiate directly with Algiers, as in the case of the negotiations of Sanson Napollon during the ministry of Richelieu.
The comte de Chinon, as the heir to the Richelieu honours was called, was married at fifteen to Rosalie de Rochechouart, a deformed child of twelve, with whom his relations were never more than formal.
By the death of his father in February 17 9 1, he succeeded to the title of duc de Richelieu.
Richelieu returned to France in 1814; on the triumphant return of Napoleon from Elba he accompanied Louis XVIII.
Richelieu's character and antecedents alike marked him out as valuable support of the monarchy after its second restoration.
The Society also gained ground steadily in France; for, though held in check by Richelieu and little more favoured by Mazarin, yet from the moment that Louis XIV.
Attached to the household of Gaston, duke of Orleans, brother of Louis XIII., he gained a complete ascendancy over the weak prince by pandering to his pleasures, and became his adviser in the intrigues against Cardinal Richelieu.
It was Puylaurens who arranged the escape of Gaston to Brussels in 1632 after the capture of Henri, duc de Montmorency, and then negotiated his return with Richelieu, on condition that he should be reconciled to the king.
As a reward Richelieu gave him Aiguillon, erected into a duchy.
In 162 4 the town gave its name to a treaty of alliance concluded by Richelieu with the Dutch; and it was in the palace that Louis XV.
Just at this time was formed under the aegis of Cardinal Richelieu the " Company of New France," known popularly as " The Company of One Hundred Associates."
The company planned by Richelieu was not a success.
But he began to wish for a wider shpere than papal negotiations, and, seeing that he had no chance of becoming a cardinal except by the aid of some great power, he accepted Richelieu's offer of entering the service of the king of France, and in 1639 became a naturalized Frenchman.
In 1640 Richelieu sent him to Savoy, where the regency of Christine, the duchess of Savoy, and sister of Louis XIII., was disputed by her brothers-in-law, the princes Maurice and Thomas of Savoy, and he succeeded not only in firmly establishing Christine but in winning over the princes to France.
On the 4th of December 1642 Cardinal Richelieu died, and on the very next day the king sent a circular letter to all officials ordering them to send in their reports to Cardinal Mazarin, as they had formerly done to Cardinal Richelieu.
Mazarin had inherited the policy of France during the Thirty Years' War from Richelieu.
This celebrated treaty belongs rather to the history of Germany than to a life of Mazarin; but two questions have been often asked, whether Mazarin did not delay the peace as long as possible in order to more completely ruin Germany, and whether Richelieu would have made a similar peace.
On the second point, Richelieu's letters in many places indicate that his treatment of the great question of frontier would have been more thorough, but then he would not have been hampered in France itself.
At home Mazarin's policy lacked the strength of Richelieu's.
As the war had progressed, Mazarin had steadily followed Richelieu's policy of weakening the nobles on their country estates.
It is that immense mass of letters that prove the real greatness of the statesman, and disprove De Retz's portrait, which is carefully arranged to show off his enemy against the might of Richelieu.
It is true that we find none of those deep plans for the internal prosperity of France which shine through Richelieu's policy.
If he had no sympathy with revolutionary disturbers of the peace, he had even less with the fatuous extravagances of the comte d'Artois and his reactionary entourage, and his influence was thrown into the scale of the moderate constitutional policy of which Richelieu and Decazes were the most conspicuous exponents.
On two occasions he was obliged to leave France for conspiring against the government of his mother and of Cardinal Richelieu; and after waging an unsuccessful war in Languedoc, he took refuge in Flanders.
Reconciled with his brother Louis XIII., he plotted against Richelieu in 1635, fled from the country, and then submitted to the king and the cardinal.
Orleans stirred up Cinq-Mars to attempt Richelieu's murder, and then deserted his unfortunate accomplice.
If it was Richelieu and not the pope who was the real arbiter of destinies from 1624 to 1642, Urban VIII.
As an historian he published Origines de l'institution des intendants de provinces (1884), which is the authoritative study on the intendants; Etudes historiques sur les X VI e et X VIP siecles en France (1886); Histoire de Richelieu (2 vols., 1888); and Histoire de la Troisieme Republique (1904, &c.), the standard history of contemporary France.
He was not very successful in negotiating the treaty on behalf of the Protestant interest in Germany, Richelieu having a special dislike to him.
Richelieu required the assistance of the Dutch fleet to enable him to overcome the resistance of the Huguenot stronghold of La Rochelle.
Pauw was replaced as pensionary by Jacob Cats, and the objections of Richelieu were met and satisfied.
Aarssens, the strongest advocate of the French alliance, passed away in 1641, and his death was quickly followed by those of Richelieu and Louis XIII.
In 1817, after the modification of the constitution by the ordonnance of the 5th of September, he was returned to the chamber of deputies, where he attached himself to the left centre and supported the moderate policy of Richelieu and Decazes.
He was again a member of the chamber from 1819 to 1824, and vigorously opposed the exceptional legislation which the second administration of Richelieu passed under the influence of the ultra-Royalists.
Etienne Pascal, who had bought some of the hotel-de-ville rentes, protested against Richelieu's reduction of the interest, and to escape the Bastille had to go into hiding.
He was, according to the `story (told by Jacqueline herself), restored to favour owing to the good acting and graceful appearance of his daughter Jacqueline in a representation of Scudery's Amour tyrannique before Richelieu.
Mme d'Aiguillon's intervention in the matter was perhaps as powerful as Jacqueline's acting, and Richelieu gave Etienne Pascal (in 1641) the important and lucrative 2 In vi.
For twenty years the double office was held by Bismarck, who, supported as he was by the absolute confidence of the emperor, and also of the allied princes, held a position greater than that ever attained by any subject in modern Europe since the time of Richelieu.
His widow followed the fortunes of Marie de' Medici, from whom she received many marks of favour, and was secretly married to Francois de Bassompierre, who joined her in conspiring against Cardinal Richelieu.
In the Wars of the League it suffered severely, and in 1632 its castle was destroyed by Richelieu.
The revocation of the edict of Nantes owes quite as much to the dream of political absolutism, inherited from Richelieu, as to religious bigotry.
Indeed, many prominent French and German divines still denied papal infallibility altogether; and Louis Napoleon had regularly fallen back on Richelieu's old device of stirring up the embers of Gallicanism, whenever the French clergy grew restive about his alliance with Victor Emmanuel.
Mole supported the policy of the duc de Richelieu, who in 1817 entrusted to him the direction of the ministry of marine, which he held until December 1818.
Cassini (1625-1712) from Italy to superintend, the Academies of Inscriptions and Medals, of Architecture and of Music, the French Academy at Rome, and Academies at Arles, Soissons, Nimes and many other towns, and he reorganized the Academy of Painting and Sculpture which Richelieu had established.
According to the Abbe Soulavie, the duke of Richelieu's advice was to reflect on Voltaire's "last utterances" on the subject.
In Soulavie's Memoires of Richelieu (London, 1790) the masked man becomes (on the authority of an apocryphal note by Saint-Mars himself) the legitimate twin brother of Louis XIV.
He was well treated at Rome by the pope, but on the outbreak of a new conspiracy headed by his pupil, Tommaso Pignatelli, he was persuaded to go to Paris (1634),(1634), where he was received with marked favour by Cardinal Richelieu.
Even the Jesuits, whose influence in Portugal had steadily increased since 1555, were now prepared to act in the interests of Cardinal Richelieu, and therefore against Philip IV.
Richelieu and the states-general of the Netherlands despatched fleets to the Tagus; but commercial rivalry in Brazil and the East led soon afterwards to a colonial war with the Dutch, and Portugal was left without any ally except France.
Her success surpassing his expectations, his hopes took a higher flight, and through Lebel, valet de chambre of Louis XV., and the duc de Richelieu, he succeeded in installing her as mistress of the king.
He was, however, soon recalled to Paris by Richelieu, and the rest of his life was spent in incessant literary labour.
In 1634 also, having been selected as the composer of a Latin elegy to Richelieu on the occasion of the cardinal visiting Rouen, he was introduced to the subject of his verses, and was soon after enrolled among the "five poets."
Chapelain's Sentiments de l'Acaddmie francaise sur la tragi-comddie du Cid (1638), when its arbitration was demanded by Richelieu, and not openly repudiated by Corneille, was virtually unimportant; but it is worth remembering that no less a writer than Georges de Scudery, in his Observations sur le Cid (1637), gravely and apparently sincerely asserted and maintained of this great play that the subject was utterly bad, that all the rules of dramatic composition were violated, that the action was badly conducted, the versification constantly faulty, and the beauties as a rule stolen!
The esprit bourru by which he was at all times distinguished, and which he now displayed in his rather arrogant Excuse a Ariste, unfitted him for controversy, and it was of vital importance to him that he should not lose the outward marks of favour which Richelieu continued to show him.
In 1639, or at the beginning of 1640, appeared Horace with a dedication to Richelieu.
Richelieu not only allowed him 500 crowns a year, but soon afterwards, it is said, though on no certain authority, employed his omnipotence in reconciling the father of the poet's mistress, Marie de Lamperiere, to the marriage of the lovers (1640).
But he was assassinated by Ravaillac (q.v.) on the 14th of May 1610, upon the eve of his great enterprise, leaving his policy to be followed up later by Richelieu.
The central square is adorned with a statue of Armand, duc de Richelieu (1826), who was governor of Odessa in 1803-1814.
A magnificent flight of nearly 200 granite steps leads from the Richelieu monument down to the harbours.
It is also the chief town of the Novorossian (New Russian) educational district, and has a university, which replaced the Richelieu Lyceum in 1865, and now has over 1700 students.
In 1803 Odessa became the chief town of a separate municipal district or captaincy, the first captain being Armand, duc de Richelieu, who did very much for the development of the young city and its improvement as a seaport.
About this time Richelieu offered him a pension.
Concini surrounded himself with new men, insignificant persons ready to do his bidding, such as Barbin or Mangot, while in the background was Richelieu, bishop of Lucon.
Richelieu had appeared behind Marie de Medici; Albert de Luynes rose behind Louis XIII., the neglected child whom he had contrived to amuse.
The treaties of Angoulme and Angers (1610-1620), negotiated by Richelieu, recalled the unwholesome treaties of Sainte-Menehould and Loudun.
Richelieu came into power at a lucky moment.
Richelieu contrived to raise hope in the minds of all.
Despite the concessions necessary at the outset to the partisans of a Catholic alliance, it was the programme of the Politiques that Richelieu adopted and laid down with a masters hand in his Political Testament.
He was accustomed to listen to his mother, who detested Richelieu as her ungrateful protg.
Neither did he love his brother, Gaston of Orleans, and the feeling was mutual; for the latter, remaining for twenty years heir-presumptive to a crown which he could neither defend nor seize, posed as the beloved prince in all the conspiracies against Richelieu, and issued from them each time as a Judas.
Add to this that Louis XIII., like Richelieu himself, had wretched health, aggravated by the extravagant medicines of the day; and it is easy to understand how this pliable disposition which offered itself to the yoke caused Richelieu always to fear that his king might change his master, and to declare that the four square feet of the kings cabinet had been more difficult for him to conquer than all the battlefields of Europe.
Richelieu, therefore, passed his time in safeguarding himself from his rivals and in spying upon them; his suspicious nature, rendered still more irritable by his painful practice of a dissimulation repugnant to his headstrong character, making him fancy himself threatened more than was actually the case.
In his state-papers Richelieu has shown that at the outset he desired that the Huguenots should share no longer in public affairs, that the nobles should cease to behave as rebellious subjects, and the powerful RICh.
The land-tax was doubled and trebled by war, by the pensions of the nobles, by an extortion the profits of which Richelieu disdained neither for himself nor for his family; and just when the richer and more powerful classes had been freed from taxes, causing the wholesale oppression of the poorer, these few remaining were jointly and severally answerable.
Richelieu went so far as to make poverty systematic and use famine as a means of government.
While Richelieu was opposing the designs of the pope and of the Spaniards in the Valtellina, while he was arming the duke of Savoy and subsidizing Mansfeld in Germany, Henri, duc de Rohan, and his brother Benjamin de Rohan, duc de Soubise, the Protestant chiefs, took the initiative in a fresh revolt despite the majority of their party (1625).
Under pressure of this new danger and urged on by the Catholic dvts, supported by the influence of Pope Urban VIII., Richelieu concluded with Spain the treaty of Monzon (March 5, 1626), by which the interests of his allies Venice, Savoy and the Grisons were sacrificed without their being consulted.
The Catholic Valtellina, freed from the claims of the Protestant Grisons, became an independent state under the joint protection of France and Spain; the question of the right of passage was left open, to trouble France during the campaigns that followed; but the immediate gain, so far as Richelieu was concerned, was that his hands were freed to deal with the Huguenots.
La Rochelle was now invested, the Huguenots were hard pressed also on land, and, but for the reluctance of the Dutch to allow their ships to be used for such a purpose, an end might have been made of the Protestant opposition in France; as it was,, Richelieu was forced to accept the mediation of England and conclude a treaty with the Huguenots (February 1626).
The amnesty of Alais, prudent and moderate in religious matters, gave back to the Protestants their common rights within the body politic. Unfortunately what was an end for Richelieu was but a first step for the Catholic party.
The little Protestant group eliminated, Richelieu next wished to establish Catholic religious uniformity; for though in France the Catholic Church was the state church, Unity did not exist in it.
But Richelieu had no love for innovators, and showed this very plainly to dii Vergier de Hauranne, abbot of Saint Cyran, who was imprisOned at Vincennes for the good of Church and State.
Between 1631 and the edict of February I641 Richelieu strove against the continually renewed opposition of the parlements to his system of special commissions and judgments; in 1641 he refused them any right of interference in state affairs; at most would he consent occasionally to take counsel with assemblies of notables.
Not that Richelieu was hostile to them in principle; but he was obliged at all hazards to find money for the upkeep of the army, and the provincial states were a slow and heavy machine to put in motion.
In order to establish this absolute despotism Richelieu created no new instruments, but made use of a revolutionary institution Methods of the 16th century, namely intendants (q.v.), employed agents who were forerunners of the commissaries of by Riche- the Convention, gentlemen of the long robe of inferior lieu, condition, hated by every one, and for that reason the more trustworthy.
Richelieu completed the work of Francis I.; he endowed France with the fatal tradition of autocracy.
As soon as Richelieu became minister in 1624 there was an end to cordial relations with Spain.
During these eight years, however, Richelieu had pressed on matters as fast as possible.
Unlike the Valois, Richelieu only desired to free Italy from Spain in order to restore her independence.
The fact that the French Protestants in the Cvennes were again in arms enabled the Habsburgs and the Spaniards to make a fresh attack upon the Alpine passes; but after the peace of Alais Richelieu placed himself at the head of forty thousand men, and stirred up enemies everywhere against the emperor, victorious now over the king of Denmark as in 1621 over the elector palatine.
Thus by the hand of Richelieu a union against Austrian imperialism was effected between the Bavarian Catholics and the Protestants who dominated in central and northern Germany.
Twice had Richelieu, by means of the purse and not by force of arms, succeeded in reopening the passes of the Alps and of the Rhine.
Neither the prayers nor the threats of Richelieu, who wished indeed to destroy Spain but not Catholicism, nor the death of Gustavus Adolphus at Llltzen (1632), could repair the evils caused by this immoderate ambition.
Moreover, Wallenstein, who had been urged by Richelieu to set up an independent kingdom in Bohemia, had been killed on the 23rd of February 1634.
His allies no longer able to stand alone, Richelieu was obliged to intervene directly (MayI9th, 1635).
Richelieu attempted to operate simultaneously ar.
Richelieu obtained Alsace, Breisach and the forest-towns on the Rhine; while in the north, thanks to the Dutch and owing to the conquest of Artois, marshals de la Meilleraye, de Chtillon and de Brz forced the barrier, of the Netherlands.
But thanks to Mazarin, who completed his work, France gathered in the harvest sown by Richelieu.
This Spaniard of waning charms, who had been neglected by her husband and insulted by Richelieu, now gave her indolent and full-blown person, together with absolute power, into the hands of the Sicilian.
There he found himself face to face with all the difficulties that Richelieu had neglected to solve, and that were now once more giving trouble.
Richelieu, by setting his special agents above the legal but complicated machinery of financial administration, had so corrupted it as to necessitate radical reform; all the more so because financial charges had been increased to a point far beyond what the nation could bear.
Richelieu had been able to surmount these difficulties because he governed in the name of a king of full age, and against isolated adversaries; while Mazarin had the latter against Richelicu him in a coalition which had lasted ten years, with aria, the further disadvantages of his foreign origin and a royal minority at a time when every one was sick of government by ministers.
Richelieu himself had hesitated to tax labor; Louis XIV.
But the duc de Richelieu, a rou who had joined hands with the sisters of the house of Nesle and was jealous of Marshal de Noailles, soon regained his lost ground; and, under the influence of this panderer to his pleasures, Louis XV.
From the beginning of tin Restoration the great statesman, who was nicknamed at th time the Richelieu of Aiphonso XII.s reign, established a system of government which lasted for a quarter of a century.
Richelieu, on whose council was Jacques Gaffarel (1601-1681), the last of the Kabbalists, did not despise astrology as an engine of government.
Having obtained a ministry in which he could trust, having as members the duc de Richelieu and Decazes, the king now gave it his loyal support and did his best to shield his ministers from the attacks of the royal family.
While Decazes was still in power, the king's policy to a large extent followed his, and was rather liberal and moderate, but after the assassination of the due de Berry (1820), when he saw that Decazes could no longer carry on the government, he sorrowfully acquiesced in his departure, showered honours upon him, and transferred his support to Richelieu, the head of the new ministry.
After Richelieu's death her father became chief of the council of regency during the minority of Louis XIV., her brother Louis won the great victory of Rocroy in 1643 (see CoNDE), and the duchess became of political importance.
The bishop of Lugon was led to believe that the king would recommend him for a cardinalate, but, if we may trust the evidence, Luynes secretly opposed the request, and it was not until after his death that Richelieu was made a cardinal by Pope Gregory XV., on the 5th of September 1622.
Richelieu had sent to the block the first noble of France, the last of a family illustrious for seven centuries, the feudal head of the nobility of Languedoc; then, unmoved by threats or entreaties, inexorable as fate itself, he cowed all opposition by his relentless vengeance.
The magnitude of Richelieu's achievement grows when one considers his relations with the king.
Cardinal Richelieu himself, preceded by lesser dignitaries, condescended to visit Amyraut privately, to persuade him to kneel; but Amyraut held resolutely to his point and carried it.
Very large were the concessions made by Richelieu in his personal interviews with Amyraut; but, as with the Worcester House negotiations in England between the Church of England and nonconformists, they inevitably fell through.
These ideas became known to his Spanish rulers, and to assuage them he wrote a philippic called the Mars gallicus (1635), a violent attack on French ambitions generally, and on Richelieu's indifference to international Catholic interests in particular.
From the point of view of purely judicial administration, Anjou was subject to the parlement of Paris; Angers was the seat of a presidial court, of which the jurisdiction comprised the senechaussees of Angers, Saumur, Beauge, Beaufort and the duchy of Richelieu; there were besides presidial courts at ChÃ¢teau-Gontier and La Fleche.
But Richelieu discovered his treasonous relations with Spain and by this means defeated his plot.
Great part of Richelieu's correspondence with Pozzo di Borgo, Capo d'Istria and others, with his journal of his travels in Germany and the Turkish campaign, and a notice by the duchesse de Richelieu, is published by the Imperial Historical Society of Russia, vol.
His avarice and unscrupulous plundering of the revenues of the realm, the enormous fortune which he thus amassed, his supple ways, his nepotism, and the general lack of public interest in the great foreign policy of Richelieu, made Mazarin the especial object of hatred both by bourgeois and nobles.
His Le Pere Joseph et Richelieu (1894), though somewhat frigid and severe, is based on a mass of unpublished information, and shows remarkable psychologic grasp. In 1878 his Journal parisien de Jean de Maupoint, prieur de Ste Catherine-de-la-Couture was published in vol.
Every one expected from Anne of Austria a change in the government which appeared to be justified by the persecutions of Richelieu and the disdainful unscrupulousness of Louis XIII.
He was the very opposite of Richelieu, as wheedling in his ways as the other had been haughty and scornful, as devoid of vanity and rancour as Richelieu had been full of jealous care for his authority; he was gentle where the other had been passionate and irritable, with an intelligence as great and more supple, and a far more grasping nature.
Orders were given that no one should be allowed to disturb their interview, but Richelieu entered by the unguarded chapel door.