When the Revolutionary War began he was one of the first to hurry to Boston to help the people defend themselves against the British soldiers.
His hatred of revolutionary principles was fanatical.
It was then that the long war, called the Revolutionary War, began.
His ostentatious hatred of the revolutionary parties marked him out as the natural object for these accusations.
Ever since Venetia had been ceded by ~ Austria to the emperor Napoleon, and by him to Italy, ~ after the war of 1866, secret revolutionary committees had been formed in the northern Italian provinces to prepare for the redemption of Trent and Trieste.
It is noteworthy that Romagna was the only part of Italy where the revolutionary movement was accompanied by murder.
Action from principle--the perception and the performance of right--changes things and relations; it is essentially revolutionary, and does not consist wholly with anything which was.
Then Chalier became the orator and leader of the Jacobins of Lyons, and induced the other revolutionary clubs and the commune of his city to arrest a great number of Royalists in the night of the 5th and 6th of February 1793.
He joined O'Donnell and Espartero in 1854 against a revolutionary cabinet, and shortly afterwards turned against O'Donnell to assist the Democrats and Progressists under Prim, Rivero, Castelar, and Sagasta in the unsuccessful movements of 1866, and was obliged to go abroad.
He was for nearly eighteen years the soul of the republican conspiracies, the prompter of revolutionary propaganda, the chief inspirer of intrigues concerted by discontented military men of all ranks.
Some delegates favoured the immediate formation of a new state, but the more far-sighted members argued that as the ordinance had not yet been voted upon by the people, and Virginia was still in the Union, such action would be revolutionary, since the United States Constitution provides that no state may be divided without its consent.
Refusing all honours and recompense, he prepared to return to Italy upon receiving news of the incipient revolutionary movement.
He was one of the leaders of the emeutes of the 20th of June and the 10th of August 1792, played an important part in the formation of the revolutionary commune which assured the success of the latter coup, and was made procureur of the commune.
He treated the Levellers with some severity and showed his instinctive dislike to revolutionary proposals.
The tsar, Alexander III., under the impression of the assassination of his father, desired, however, the renewal of the Dreikaiserbund, both as a guarantee of European peace and as a conservative league against revolutionary parties.
More than ever at the mercy of the Radicals and of their revolutionary allies, Rudini continued so to administer public affairs that subversive propaganda and associations obtained unprecedented extension.
The revolutionary outbreak of 1820, which extended from Spain to Naples, seemed to afford the patriots an opportunity to secure the independence of Italy.
Grattan was a reformer and a patriot without a tincture of democratic ideas; Wolfe Tone was a revolutionary whose principles were drawn from the French Convention.
The name was then given to the famous revolutionary song, composed in 1792, the tune of which, and the wild dance which accompanied it, may have also been brought into France by the Piedmontese.
In the spring of 1848 he was in Germany, and on the outbreak of the revolutionary troubles he accepted the invitation of the government of Baden to take the command against the insurgent "free companies" (Freischaaren).
These various movements proved in the first place that the masses were by no means ripe for revolution, and that the idea of unity, although now advocated by a few revolutionary leaders, was far from being generally accepted even by the Liberals; and, secondly, that, in spite of the indifference of the masses, the despotic governments were unable to hold their own without the assistance of foreign bayonets.
While these disturbances were taking place in the province of Buenos Aires, another revolutionary rising was in progress in Santa Fe.
The result was a revolutionary agitation which in Sicily, stirred up by Mazzinis agents, Rosalino Pilo and Francesco Crispi, culminated, on the 5th of April 1860, in open NII,S revolt.
The woman was said to be a rabble-rouser because she shared her revolutionary ideas on campus.
In Modena Duke Francis, ambitious of enlarging his territories, coquetted with the Carbonari of Paris, and opened indirect negotiations with Menotti, the revolutionary leader in his state, believing that he might assist him in his plans.
The revolutionary attempts of Bentivegna in Sicily ~I856) and of the Mazzinian Carlo Pisacane, who landed at Sapri in Calabria with a few followers in 1857, failed from lack of Dopular support, and the leaders were killed.
Up to the revolutionary year 1830 his religious views had remained strongly tinged with rationalism, Hegel remaining his guide in religion as in practical politics and the treatment of history.
The revolutionary and imperial epoch had seen a great development of Italian patriotism, and Santarosa was aggrieved by the great extension given to the Austrian power in Italy in 1815, which reduced his own country to a position of inferiority.
Throughout the revolutionary years he supported his brother's policy, became a member of the Erfurt parliament, and, after the collapse of the national movement, returned to the service of the duchy of Nassau.
The promise of a constitution for the empire, ~,~after made in 1849, was never carried out; the government of Lombardo-Venetia was vested in Field-Marshal Radetzky; and although only very few of the revolutionists were excluded from the amnesty, the carrying of arms or the distribution or possession of revolutionary literature was punished with death.
The rebels had hoped for assistance from Urquiza, but the powerful governor of Entre Rios maintained the peace in his province, which under his firm and beneficent rule had greatly prospered, and the revolutionary movement was quickly subdued.
On the 13th of February 1880, the minister of war, Dr Carlos Pellegrini, summoned the principal officers connected with the Tiro Nacional, General Bartolome Mitre, his brother Emilio, Colonel Julio Campos, Colonel Hilario Lagos and others, and warned them that as officers of the national army they owed obedience to the national government, and would be severely punished if concerned in any revolutionary outbreak against the constituted authorities.
His successes against the declining revolutionary cause were numerous and rapid.
It was the birthplace of both Morelos and Iturbide, and was captured by Hidalgo at the beginning of the revolutionary outbreak of 1810-1 1, and by Iturbide in 1821 when on his march to Mexico City, where he was crowned emperor.
Ferdinand, Philip's son, who succeeded under Dutillot's regency in 1765, saw his states occupied by the revolutionary forces of France in 1796, and had to purchase his lifeinterest with 6,000,000 lire and 25 of the best paintings in Parma.
An English clergyman named William Jackson, a man of infamous notoriety who had long lived in France, where he had imbibed revolutionary opinions, came to Ireland to nogotiate between the French committee of public safety and the United Irishmen.
As in 1894, excessively severe sentences were passed by the military tribunals upon revolutionary leaders and other persons considered to have been implicated in the outbreak, but successive royal amnesties obliterated these condemnations within three years.
Foremost among the leaders of the revolutionary armies were Manuel Belgrano, and after March 1812 General Jose de San Martin, an officer who had gained experience against the French in the Peninsular War.
Pressed by Cavallotti, Rudini in March 1897 dissolved the Chamber and conducted the general election in such a way as to crush by government pressure the partisans of Crispi, and greatly to strengthen the (Socialist, Republican and Radical) revolutionary parties.
It would have been well if Kossuth had had something more of Gdrgei's calculated ruthlessness, for, as has been truly said, the revolutionary power he had seized could only be held by revolutionary means; but he was by nature soft-hearted and always merciful; though often audacious, he lacked decision in dealing with men.
The murder of Kotzebue by Karl Sand, however, shocked him out of his extreme revolutionary views, and from this time he tended, under the influence of the writings of Hamann and Herder, more and more in the direction of conservatism and romanticism, until at last he ended, in a mood almost of pessimism, by attaching himself to the extreme right wing of the forces of reaction.
The king's attitude secured for him the good will and affection of a people, loyal by tradition to the house of Orange, and the revolutionary disturbances of 1848 found no echo in Holland.
Here the efforts of Dr Alem succeeded in supplying a large body of rebels with arms and ammunition, and he was able, by a bold attack, to seize the town of Rosario and there establish the revolutionary headquarters.
He embraced the revolutionary ideas with enthusiasm.
Played in double time the tune was a favourite march in the Revolutionary armies, until it was forbidden by Napoleon, on becoming First Consul.
All the while a vast amount of revolutionary literature was being printed in Switzerland, France and England, and smuggled into Italy; the poet Giusti satirized the Italian princes, the dramatist G.
This old restaurant was once a watering hole where locals, including revolutionary leaders, gathered and discussed issues of the day.
A number of officers of the army and navy agreed to lend assistance to a revolutionary outbreak, and towards the end of July 1893 matters came to a head.
He took part in the revolutionary propaganda that led to the military movement in Madrid on the 22nd of June 1866.
Calderai, who may be compared to the Black Hundreds of modern Russia, the revolutionary spirit continued to grow, but it was not at first anti-dynastic. The granting of the Spanish constitution of 1820 proved the signal for the beginning of the Italian.
Of the original 12 panels, taken to France during the Revolutionary Wars, only 4 are now here, 6 being in the Berlin museum and two in that of Brussels.
Under Antonius Felix (52-60) the revolutionary movement grew and spread.
The people, belonging to the " Celtic fringe " of Germany, had fallen during the revolutionary period completely under the.
The revolutionary agitation was of a very peculiar kind.
That he celebrated the night of St Bartholomew was due to the fact that, according to his information, the step was a last resort to ensure the preservation of the royal family and the Catholic religion from the attacks of the revolutionary Huguenots.
These reforms were practically confined to the central provinces of the monarchy; for in Hungary, as well as in the outlying territories of Lombardy and the Netherlands, it was recognized that the conservative temper of the peoples made any revolutionary change in the traditional system inadvisable.
During the revolutionary period of 1848-49 the Hungarians defeated the Servians here on the 11th of July 1848, while on the 19th of January 1849 the town was occupied by the Austrian troops.
Jose Gonzalez, revolutionary governor or pre tendant.
The organization of the revolutionary forces went on slowly.
Italy, in constant danger from France, needed good relations with Austria and Germany, but could only attain the goodwill of the former by firm treatment of the revolutionary Irredentist agitation, and of the latter by clear demonstration of Italian will and ability to cope with all anti-monarchical forces.
About the same time, having shown too open sympathy with the revolutionary or reforming tendencies of 1848, he was for; olitical reasons obliged to leave Berlin and retire to the seclusion of Wiirzburg, the medical school of which profited enormously by his labours as professor of pathological anatomy, and secured a wide extension of its reputation.
It was also Brissot who gave these wars the character of revolutionary propaganda.
He was an able leader during the Revolutionary period, when his wealth and social position were of great assistance to the patriot party.
In 1817 Pernambuco was the scene of a revolutionary outbreak, which resulted in the separation of the present states of Alagoas and Rio Grande do Norte, Ceara and Parahyba having been detached in 1799.
The economic development of Uruguay was retarded by the corruption of successive governments, by revolutionary outbreaks, by the seizure of farm stock without adequate compensation for the support of military forces, by the consequences of reckless borrowing and over-trading in 1889 and 1890, and also by the transference of commercial undertakings from Montevideo to Buenos Aires between 1890 and 1897.
A long struggle for dominion in Uruguay between Brazil and the revolutionary government of Buenos Aires was concluded in 1828, through the mediation of Great Britain, Uruguay being declared a free and independent state.
On September 3, 1904, the revolutionary general Saraiva died of wounds received in battle; and later in the year peace was declared.
He foretold the outbreak of the revolutionary spirit in Germany and Austria, and was credited with counselling the abdication of Ferdinand in favour of Francis Joseph.
His name and exploits still live in the popular legends, and the insurrection is often referred to in revolutionary pamphlets as a laudable popular protest against tyrannical autocracy.
Thus, in spite of his academic sympathy with liberal ideas, he became, together with Metternich, a champion of political stagnation, and co-operated willingly in the reactionary measures against the revolutionary movements in Germany, Italy and Spain.
Some of these officers had been in touch with the revolutionary movements, and had adopted the idea then prevalent in France, Germany and Italy that the best instrument for assuring political progress was to be found in secret societies.
That conviction he put into practice with extreme rigour during the thirty years of his reign (1825-55), endeavouring by every means at his disposal to prevent revolutionary ideas from germinating spontaneously among his subjects and from being imported from abroad.
" This steadfast faith in autocratic methods and the exaggerated fear of revolutionary principles were shown in foreign as well as in home affairs.
During the revolutionary ferment of 1848-49 he urged the Prussian king to refuse the imperial crown, co-operated with the Austrian emperor in suppressing the Hungarian insurrection, and compelled the Prussians to withdraw their support from the insurgents in Schleswig-Holstein.
In the younger ranks of the educated classes this state of things produced keen dissatisfaction, which soon found vent in revolutionary agitation.
Finding that the walls of autocracy could not be overturned by blasts of revolutionary trumpets in the periodical press and in clandestinely printed seditious proclamations, the young enthusiasts determined to seek the support of the masses, or, as they termed it, " to go in among the people " (idti v narod).
Under the disguise of doctors, midwives, school teachers, governesses, factory hands or common labourers, they sought to make proselytes among the peasantry and the workmen in the industrial centres by revolutionary pamphlets and oral explanations.
(For details of this revolutionary movement, see Nihilism.) In respect of foreign policy the reign of Alexander II.
Stamboloff, pursued systematically an anti-Russian policy, but the cabinet of St Petersburg confined itself officially to breaking off diplomatic relations and making diplomatic protests, and unofficially to giving tacit encouragement to revolutionary agitation.
In reality the revolutionary movement was not so strong and the government not so weak as was generally supposed.
The second Duma, which met on the 5th of March 1907, avoided some of the mistakes of its predecessor, but as a legislative assembly it showed itself equally incompetent, and a large section of its members were implicated in a well-organized attempt to spread sedition in the army by revolutionary propaganda.
The supreme peril to the autocracy in Russia lay in the genuine grievances of the peasants, less political than economic, which had opened their minds to revolutionary propaganda.
As for the revolutionary " intellectuals," without the lever of agrarian discontent they In 1897 only 15% of the population were engaged in commerce or industry, including the work-people.
The opportunity thus given for debate naturally stimulated the movement in favour of constitutional government, which received new impulses from the sympathetic attitude of the emperor Alexander II., his grant in 1879 of a constitution to the liberated principality of Bulgaria, and the multiplication of Nihilist outrages which pointed to the necessity of conciliating Liberal opinion in order to present a united front against revolutionary agitation.
The result of this policy of repression, associated as it was with gross incompetence and corruption in the organs of the administration, was the rapid spread of the revolutionary movement, which gradually permeated the intelligent classes and ultimately " Tolstoi - observed that that was argument and reason, and that he paid no attention to them; he only guided himself (he said) by sentiment, which he felt sure told him what was good and right!
Chasles remarks that it would have been a revolutionary act even in republican France.
The of the revolutionary terrorists were countered by the Russian terrorists of the reaction who under the name of People."
The government had done wisely in obscuring the passion for democratic ideals by an appeal to Russian chauvinism, an appeal soon to bear fruit in disuniting the revolutionary parties.
The old tendency illustrated by the outcome of the revolutionary movements of 1848 was once more in evidence - the tendency of merely artificial theories of democratic liberty to succumb to the immemorial instinct of race and race ascendancy.
Of the numerous books on the Russian revolutionary movement, besides those of " Stepniak," Kropotkin, and other revolutionary writers, the following may be mentioned: C. A.
Thun, Geschichte der revolutionaren Bewegungen in Russland (Leipzig, 1883); Konni Zilliacus, The Russian Revolutionary movement (London, 1905).
He took stern measures against the revolutionary elements in southern Italy, and his new cabinet was essentially military and conservative.
His historical writings, with the exception of a small volume on American Political Ideas (1885), an account of the system of Civil Government in the United States (1890), The Mississippi Valley in the Civil War (1900), a school history of the United States, and an elementary story of the revolutionary war, are devoted to studies, in a unified general manner, of separate yet related episodes in American history.
Its influence was especially seen in the creation of the revolutionary army destined to assure provisions for Paris, and in the establishment of the worship of Reason.
- After the departure of Caesar, Antipater warned the adherents of Hyrcanus against taking part in any revolutionary attempts, and his son Herod, who, in spite of his youth, had been appointed governor of Galilee, dealt summarily with Hezekiah, the robber captain who was overrunning the adjacent part of Syria.
The result of this alliance between a revolutionary and a Pharisee was the formation of the party of Zealots, whose influence - according to Josephus - brought about the great revolt and so led to the destruction of Jerusalem in 70.
The revolutionary leaders, who had already taken the field, were superseded.
As time went on, a more progressive policy intervened, the special form of Jewish oath was abolished in 1846, and in 1848, as a result of the revolutionary movement in which Jews played an active part, legislation took a more liberal turn.
During the revolutionary outbreak of 1848, the Jews suffered severely in Hungary, but as many as 20,000 Jews are said to have joined the army.
For the colonial and revolutionary periods there are some excellent studies.
Cooke (ed.), Revolutionary History of North Carolina (Raleigh and New York, 1853), containing a defence of the Regulators.
When the first Russian revolutionary movement developed in 1905 he took part in the meetings of Zemstvo representatives, but did not join the Cadets, whom he considered to be too doctrinaire and cosmopolitan.
Among the conspirators was one Jose Alves Maciel, who had just returned from France where he had met Thomas Jefferson and had become infected with French revolutionary ideas.
In 1822 Minas became a province of the empire created by Dom Pedro I., though a revolutionary outbreak had occurred in Ouro Preto the year before.
for the emigres) as well as it suited the revolutionary government, and no serious attempt was made by the royal family to ascertain the truth, though they paid none of the tributes to the memory of the dead king which might reasonably have been expected, had they been convinced of his death.
When Lyons was taken by the army of the Convention in 1793, the father of Ampere, who, holding the office of juge de paix, had stood out resolutely against the previous revolutionary excesses, was at once thrown into prison, and soon after perished on the scaffold.
25 1918, when imminent catastrophe compelled Bulgaria to seek an armistice, he was released, and, after a stormy interview with the King, went to the front, where a revolutionary movement among the troops was developing.
He showed the revolutionary and unpractical character of any doctrine such as nullification based on the assumption that the general government was the agent of the state legislatures.
On the outbreak of the Revolutionary war in 1793 he was again named to the command of the Channel fleet.
These decrees were not, indeed, at once universally enforced; but the convulsions of the Revolutionary epoch and the religious reorganization that followed completed the work.
By the execution of the king and the removal of Marie Antoinette to the Conciergerie, Madame Elizabeth was deprived of her companions in the Temple prison, and on the 9th of May 1 794 she was herself transferred to the Conciergerie, and haled before the revolutionary tribunal.
The scientific and historical movement of the 19th century was revolutionary in character.
No one who is really experienced in economic investigation cares to emphasize the originality, still less the revolutionary character of his own work.
For the events of this campaign in Italy see French Revolutionary Wars.
The means whereby he engaged the energies of the Italians on behalf of the French Republic and yet refrained from persecuting the Roman Catholic Church in the way only too common among revolutionary generals, bespoke political insight of no ordinary kind.
Time was on the side of the moderates; they succeeded in placing General Pichegru, already known for his tendencies towards constitutional monarchy, in the presidential chair of the Council of Five Hundred; and they proceeded to agitate, chiefly through the medium of a powerful club founded at Clichy, for the repeal of the revolutionary and persecuting laws.
For an account of the Egyptian and Syrian campaigns see French Revolutionary Wars.
Napoleon intended it as a protest against the spirit of equality which pervaded revolutionary thought.
(For the campaigns of 1796-1800, 1805-7, 1808-9, 1812-15, see French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Campaigns.) The chief works on civil, diplomatic and personal affairs in the life of Napoleon for the period1796-1799are: P. Gaffarel, Bonaparte et les republiques italiennes, 1796-1799 (Paris, 1895); C. Tivaroni, Storia critica del risorgimento italiano (3 vols., Turin, 1899 - (in progress)); E.
On the 31st the warrant of arrest was signed and executed, and on the 3rd, 4th and 5th of April the trial took place before the Revolutionary Tribunal.
During the troubles of1848-1849Feuerbach's attack upon orthodoxy made him something of a hero with the revolutionary party; but he never threw himself into the political movement, and indeed had not the qualities of a popular leader.
Subsequent writers have, for the most part, increased the number of recognized orders; and during the last few years several schemes of classification have been published, in the most revolutionary of which - that of A.
Faneuil Hall (the original hall of the name was given to the city by Peter Faneuil, a Huguenot merchant, in 1742) is associated, like the Old South, with the patriotic oratory of revolutionary days and is called " the cradle of American liberty."
(1806-1877), to meet the fury of the revolutionary year 1848.
He seconded the Progressist and revolutionary campaign of Prim and the Progressists against the throne of Queen Isabella, conspiring and going into exile with them.
Sagasta ultimately headed the most Conservative groups of the revolutionary politicians against Ruiz Zorrilla and the Radicals, and against the Federal Republic in 1873.
From an almost contemporary period he has been the subject of song; and he who was chanted by wandering minstrels in the 12th century has survived to be hymned in revolutionary odes of the 19th.
Apparently his views changed as the revolutionary tendency of the Presbyterian party became more pronounced, for in 1648/9 he addressed to Lord Fairfax A Religious and Loyal Protestation ...
In the meantime he had done much useful work, especially that of laying down, conjointly with Merlin of Douai, the principles on which the legislation of the revolutionary epoch should be codified.
Taken by the Spaniards in 1587 Zutphen was recovered by Maurice, prince of Orange, in 1591, and except for two short periods, one in 1672 and the other during the French Revolutionary Wars, it has since then remained a part of the United Netherlands.
In 1685 Kalamata was captured by the Venetians; in 1770, and again in 1821, it was the revolutionary headquarters in the Morea.
He was a type of the French revolutionists, excitable, warm-hearted, half-educated, who lost their mental and moral balance in the chaos of the revolutionary period.
In these men the millennarianism of the ancient church came to life again; and in the revolutionary movements of the i 5th and 16th centuries - especially in the Anabaptist movements - it appears with all its old uncompromising energy.
The great motor of the parallel effort in England was the Christian spirit; in France it was the enthusiasm of humanity which was associated with the revolutionary movement.
Shortly before Catherine's death the friends quarrelled over a tragedy which the princess had allowed to find a place in the publications of the Academy, though it contained revolutionary principles, according to the empress.
But he was entirely lacking in practical statesmanship. Brought up in a revolutionary atmosphere, his enthusiasm was uncontrolled by judgment.
chap. i., and Wharton's Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States (6 vols., Washington, 1889).
Jewish orthodoxy found itself attacked by the more revolutionary aspects of mysticism and its tendencies to alter established customs. While the medieval scholasticism denied the possibility of knowing anything unattainable by reason, the spirit of the Kabbalah held that the Deity could be realized, and it sought to bridge the gulf.
The debt of the Republic in April 1908 was $48,146,585, including twenty-seven millions which were assumed in 1902 for the payment of the army of independence, four for agriculture, and four for the payment of revolutionary debts, and $2,196,585, representing obligations assumed by the revolution's representative in the United States during the War of Independence.
Vladimir entered the university of Kazan as a student of law, but was expelled for taking part in revolutionary agitation.
Their intrigues in favour of the Greek and other revolutionary movements induced the Porte to dismiss them in 1806, contrary to the arrangement of 1802.
Ignaz Jozsef Martinovics (1755-1795) and his associates, the Hungarian Jacobins, vainly attempted a revolutionary propaganda (1795), and Napoleon's mutilations of the ancient kingdom of St Stephen did not predispose the Hungarian gentry in his favour.
Croats, Vlachs, Serbs and Slovaks resented Magyar domination - a domination which had been carefully secured under the revolutionary constitution by a very narrow franchise, and out of the general chaos each race hoped to create for itself a separate national existence.
Jellachich, who as a soldier was devoted to the interests of the imperial house, realized that the best way to break the revolutionary power of the Magyars and Germans would be to encourage the Slav national ideas, which were equally hostile to both; to set up against the Dualism in favour at Pest and Vienna the federal system advocated by the Sla y s, and so to restore the traditional Habsburg principle of Divide et impera.
All hope of crushing revolutionary Vienna with Magyar aid was thus at an end, and Jellachich, who on the 10th issued a proclamation to the Croat regiments in Italy to remain with their colours and fight for the common fatherland, was free to carry out his policy of identifying the cause of the southern Sla y s with that of the imperial army.
The Austrian diet was transferred on the i 5th of November to Kremsier, remote from revolutionary influences; and, though the government still thought it prudent to proclaim its constitutional principles, it also proclaimed its intention to preserve the unity of the monarchy.
It was plain that at the first revolutionary blast from without, or the first insurrectionary outburst from within, the " Bach System would vanish like a mirage.
The two main items in the published programme of the new government were the introduction of universal suffrage and - even more revolutionary from the Magyar point of view - the substitution of state-appointed for elected officials in the counties.
During an access of revolutionary suspicion, he was removed from the commission of weights and measures; but the slight was quickly effaced by new honours.
The political leaders were far more conscious than either Vienna or Budapest of the volcanic state of public opinion: but when in genuine alarm and from a sense of impotence they attempted to restrain their followers, the only result was a loss of influence over the younger generation, which had become increasingly infected by revolutionary ideas.
a mainly Yugoslav revolutionary committee had almost gained control of the Cattaro naval base, which would have fallen into Entente hands if the ringleaders, who crossed the Adriatic for help, had not been detained by subordinate Italian subordinates until the Pola squadron had time to crush the mutiny.
4 Stepanek and Giunio, as delegates of the Czech and Yugoslav revolutionary committees, reached Italy in a fishing-boat, to concert with the Allies a general rising along the coast, but were closely imprisoned in Rome and not allowed to communicate with Doctor Benes and Doctor Trumbic till nearly three weeks had been lost.
Making friends with Alityrus, a Jewish actor, who was a favourite of Nero, Josephus obtained an introduction to the empress Poppaea and effected his purpose by her help. His visit to Rome enabled him to speak from personal experience of the power of the Empire, when he expostulated with the revolutionary Jews on his return to Palestine.
For a people so accustomed to revolutionary outbreaks, the Venezuelans are singularly deficient in military organization.
For two decades after the close of these revolutionary troubles in 1870 the supreme power in Venezuela was, for all practical purposes, in the hands of Guzman Blanco.
Towards the end of the year a revolutionary movement took place with the object of ousting Andrade from power.
On the outbreak of the revolutionary war he was sent to the Mediterranean as commander-in-chief.
Hahnemann (1753-1844) was in conception as revolutionary a reformer of medicine as Paracelsus.
As to such reforms in our conceptions of disease the advances of bacteriology profoundly contributed, so under the stress of consequent discoveries, almost prodigious in their extent and revolutionary effect, the conceptions of the etiology of disease underwent no less a transformation than the conceptions of disease itself.
French revolutionary doctrines had become ominously popular, and no one sympathized with them more warmly than Lord Edward Fitzgerald, who, fresh from the gallery of the Convention in Paris, returned to his seat in the Irish parliament and threw himself actively into the work of opposition.
When the anti-clerical policy of the revolutionary powers provoked the rising of the peasantry, of La Vendee, he put himself at the head of the men of his neighbourhood, and came rapidly to the front among the gentlemen whom the peasants took for leaders.
high, erected by the Emperor Francis Joseph in 1851 to commemorate the successful resistance of the town to the siege of 107 days laid by the Hungarian revolutionary army in 1849.
It endured another siege in 1849, when it resisted successfully the attacks of a Hungarian revolutionary army.
His brother officers, whose leanings were liberal, denounced him to the revolutionary government, and asked that he might be removed.
This was followed, next year, by translations of works on the Revolution by Mallet du Pan and Mounier, and at this time he also founded and edited a monthly journal, the Neue deutsche Monatsschrift, in which for five years he wrote, mainly on historical and political questions, maintaining the principles of British constitutionalism against those of revolutionary France.
Opposition to France was the inspiring principle of the Historisches Journal founded by him in 1799-1800, which once more held up English institutions as the model, and became in Germany the mouthpiece of British policy towards the revolutionary aggressions of the French republic. In 1801 he ceased the publication of the Journal, because he disliked the regularity of journalism, and issued instead, under the title Beitrdge zur Geschichte, &c., a series of essays on contemporary politics.
"ROSA LUXEMBURG (1870-1919), German Socialist and revolutionary agitator, was born a Jewess on Dec. 25 1870 in Russian Poland.
After the revolution she edited in conjunction with Karl Liebknecht the Rote Fahne, the organ of the Spartacist or Communist advocates of violent revolutionary methods.
In March 1848 the Austrian garrison was driven from the town by the revolutionary party, but in the following June the town was bombarded and compelled to capitulate.
As civil commissioner at Troyes he was accused of terrorism by some, and by the revolutionary tribunal of moderation.
He attempted to prevent the creation of the Revolutionary Tribunal, but when called to the first Committee of Public Safety he worked on it energetically to organize the armies.
He was responsible, especially, for the great operation known as the opening of the Grand Livre (August 2 4), which was designed to consolidate the public debt by cancelling the stock issued under various conditions prior to the Revolution, and issuing new stock of a uniform character, so that all fund-holders should hold stock of the revolutionary government and thus be interested in its stability.
In matters of finance Cambon was now supreme; but his independence, his hatred of dictatorship, his protests against the excesses of the Revolutionary Tribunal, won him Robespierre's renewed suspicion, and on the 8th Thermidor Robespierre accused him of being antirevolutionary and an aristocrat.
In 1848 there was a liberal revolutionary movement in Florence, and Leopold granted a constitution.
In August 1791, Fersen was sent to Vienna to induce the emperor Leopold to accede to a new coalition against revolutionary France, but he soon came to the conclusion that the Austrian court meant to do nothing at all.
The Martello tower was introduced in consequence of an incident of the French revolutionary wars.
He was recalled to Paris for a time in order to take part in the new determination of weights and measures, which had been decreed by the Revolutionary government.
He was arrested on the 23rd of September at Ville d'Avray, near Paris, and taken before the Revolutionary Tribunal, where he was accused of having conspired for the restoration of the monarchy, and of having insulted national representation by resigning his position in the legislature.
Labour disturbances are frequent, for, like Barcelona, Alcoy has become one of the centres of socialistic and revolutionary agitation, while preserving many old-fashioned customs and traditions, such as the curious festival held annually in April in honour of St George, the patron saint of the town.
This report, the proposal that he made (August 27, 1795) to lessen the severity of the revolutionary laws, and the eulogies he received from several Paris sections suspected of disloyalty to the republic, resulted in his being obliged to justify himself (October 1 5, 1 795).
THE REVOLUTIONARY TRIBUNAL (le tribunal revolutionnaire), a court which was instituted in Paris by the Convention during the French Revolution for the trial of political offenders, and became one of the most powerful engines of the Terror.
The news of the failure of the French arms in Belgium gave rise in Paris to popular movements on the 9th and 10th of March 1793, and on the 10th of March, on the proposal of Danton, the Convention decreed that there should be established in Paris an extraordinary criminal tribunal, which received the official name of the Revolutionary Tribunal by a decree of the 29th of October 1793.
The excesses of the Revolutionary Tribunal increased with the growth of Robespierre's ascendancy in the Committee of Public Safety; and on the 10th of June 1794 was promulgated, at his instigation, the infamous Law of 22 Prairial, which forbade prisoners to employ counsel for their defence, suppressed the hearing of witnesses and made death the sole penalty.
Before 22 Prairial the Revolutionary Tribunal had pronounced 1220 death-sentences in thirteen months; during the forty-nine days between the passing of the law and the fall of Robespierre 1376 persons were condemned, including many innocent victims. The lists of prisoners to be sent before the tribunal were prepared by a popular commission sitting at the museum, and signed, after revision, by the Committee of General Security and the Committee of Public Safety jointly.
The Revolutionary Tribunal was suppressed on the 31st of May 1 795.
Whatever power they did secure, whether as potent subsidiary organs of the municipal polity for the regulation of trade, or as the chief or sole medium for the acquisition of citizenship, or as integral parts of the common council, was, generally speaking, the logical sequence of a gradual economic development, and not the outgrowth of a revolutionary movement by which oppressed craftsmen endeavoured to throw off the yoke of an arrogant patrician gild merchant.
Compromised in the falsification of a decree suppressing the India Company and in a plot to bribe certain members of the Convention, especially Fabre d'Eglantine and C. Bazire, he was arrested, brought before the Revolutionary Tribunal, and was condemned and executed at the same time as the Dantonists, who protested against being associated with such a "fripon."
This enterprise, of which the expenses were defrayed by the Jacobin Club, made him well known to the revolutionary leaders; and he made himself still more conspicuous in organizing the great "Fete de la Liberte" on the 1 5th of April 1792, in honour of the released soldiers of Chateau-Vieux, with Collot d'Herbois.
Manuel, and he was one of the most active popular leaders in the attack upon the Tuileries on the Toth of August, on which day he was appointed secretary or clerk to the revolutionary commune of Paris.
Suspected of "Moderatism" on account of this incident, especially when he was recalled to Paris, Tallien increased, in appearance, his revolutionary zeal, but Therese abated his revolutionary ardour, and from the lives she saved by her entreaties she received the name of "Our Lady of Thermidor," after the 9th of Thermidor.
He showed himself a vigorous Thermidorian; he was instrumental in suppressing the Revolutionary Tribunal and the Jacobin Club; he attacked J.
In 1848 the city was for a time in the hands of the revolutionary party; but it was bombarded by the imperial forces' and compelled to surrender on 30th October of the same year.
These men he denounced as traitors; but a band of youthful enthusiasts encouraged their leader in his revolutionary course.
In the month of August 1894 General Caceres was again elected to fill the office of president, but the revolutionary movement rapidly gained ground.
The Peruvians were now heartily tired of revolutionary Pierola disturbances, and an insurrectionary outbreak in President.
Revolutionary troubles again disturbed the country in 1899, when the presidency of Senor Pierola was drawing to a close.
Part of the Revolutionary debt was paid in depreciated paper, part was assumed by the United States government, part was paid at various rates of depreciation between 1803 and 1820, and the remainder, $43,971, was repudiated in 1847.
There he came under the influence of Kant, who was just then passing from physical to metaphysical problems. Without becoming a disciple of Kant, young Herder was deeply stimulated to fresh critical inquiry by that thinker's revolutionary ideas in philosophy.
It was the scene of a revolutionary outbreak against Spain in 1810.
During the revolutionary period of 1848 the people of Frankfort, where the united German parliament held its sessions, took a chief part in political movements, and the streets of the town were more than once the scene of conflict.
Karl Hillebrand became involved, as a student in Heidelberg, in the Baden revolutionary move ment, and was imprisoned in Rastatt.
With the approach of the revolutionary year 1848, however, Radicalism once more began to lift up its head.
Dayton's site was purchased in 1795 from John Cleves Symmes by a party of Revolutionary soldiers, and it was laid out as a town in 1796 by Israel Ludlow (one of the owners), by whom it was named in honour of Jonathan Dayton (1760-1824), a soldier in the War of Independence, a member of Congress from New Jersey in 1791- ' 799, and a United States senator in 1799-1805.
The third type of heresy is the revolutionary or reformatory.
In 1792 he produced his Caius Gracchus, which was even more revolutionary in tone than its predecessors.
He is the chief tragic poet of the revolutionary period, and as Camille Desmoulins expressed it, he decorated Melpomene with the tricolour cockade.
He started the Journal de Levis, and his revolutionary doctrines compelled him to leave Canada for the United States.
But in the last years during which this circle kept together a new spirit appeared in Roman politics and a new power in Roman literature, the revolutionary spirit evoked by the Gracchi in opposition to the long-continued ascendancy of the senate, and the new power of Roman satire, which was exercised impartially and unsparingly against both the excesses of the revolutionary spirit and the arrogance and incompetence of the extreme party among the nobles.
bringing no changes in Lithuania and only slight modifications in the kingdom of Poland, the revolutionary spirit led to the great rebellion of 1863.
The first National Lithuanian Assembly, which, however, in the eyes of the Tsar's Government was merely a revolutionary body tolerated for the time being, met at Vilnius (Vilna).
The Social Revolutionary and the Communist parties were not legally recognized and were unrepresented.
.23,116,501 Prior to 1820 there was no official record of immigration, but it is estimated that the total number of immigrants from the close of the Revolutionary War was 250,000.
Often in cases of political revolution the members of the defeated party have sought refuge elsewhere, as after the revolutionary movements of 1848.
Looking back even at the short remove of a single generation, it is difficult to appreciate how revolutionary was the conception of the antiquity of man thus inculcated.
As James Otis's vigour and influence declined, Adams took a more and more prominent place in the revolutionary councils; and, contrary to the opinion of Otis and Benjamin Franklin, he declared that colonial representation in parliament was out of the question and advised against any form of compromise.
Many of the Massachusetts revolutionary documents, including the famous "Massachusetts Resolves" and the circular letter to the legislatures of the other colonies, are from his pen; but owing to the fact that he usually acted as clerk to the House of Representatives and to the several committees of which he was a member, documents were written by him which expressed the ideas of the committee as a whole.
During the revolutionary struggles of 1848-49 the fortress was held by the insurgents for a short time.
He adopted revolutionary ideas and became colonel of his regiment.
Being one of the promoters of the insurrection at Caracas in April 18ro, he received a colonel's commission from the revolutionary junta, and was associated with Louis Lopez Mendez in a mission to the court of Great Britain.
From Cumana Bolivar repaired to Cartagena, and thence to Tunja, where the revolutionary congress of New Granada was sitting.
He was instrumental in the establishment of the Revolutionary Tribunal and contributed to the downfall of the Girondists.
He was implicated in the revolutionary movements of 1831 and 1832, after which he was obliged to take refuge abroad.
He sympathized warmly and actively with the French revolutionary doctrines, expostulating with Burke on his vehement denunciation of the same.
He demanded the formation of a revolutionary army, and preached the extermination of all traitors.
On the 23rd of the same month he obtained a decree closing all the churches of Paris, and placing the priests under strict surveillance; but on the 25th he retraced his steps and obtained from the Commune the free exercise of worship. He wished to save the Hebertists by a new insurrection and struggled against Robespierre; but a revolutionary decree promulgated by the Commune on his demand was overthrown by the Convention.
Robespierre had him accused with the Hebertists; he was arrested, imprisoned in the Luxembourg, condemned by the Revolutionary tribunal and executed on the 13th of April 1794.
On the 4th of May the temper of the council on the doctrinal questions in dispute was fully revealed in its unanimous condemnation of Wycliffe, especially of the so-called "forty-five articles" as erroneous, heretical, revolutionary.
As reporter of the diplomatic committee, in which he supported the policy of Brissot, he proposed two of the most revolutionary measures passed by the Assembly: the decree of accusation against the king's brothers (January 1, 1792), and the declaration of war against the king of Bohemia and Hungary (April 20, 1792).
He was tried by the Revolutionary Tribunal on the 24th of October 1793, condemned to death and guillotined on the 31st of the month, displaying on the scaffold a stoic fortitude.
One of the earliest and most determined of the partisans of a constitutional monarchy under the duke of Orleans, he was deputy for Bayonne in July 1830, when his house in Paris became the headquarters of the revolutionary party.
more moderate members of the government - including Guizot, the duc de Broglie and Casimir-Perier - to hand over the administration to a ministry which, possessing the confidence of the revolutionary Parisians, should be in a better position to save the ministers from their fury.
The origin of Roman political and social satire is to be traced to the same disturbing and disorganizing forces which led to the revolutionary projects and legislation of the Gracchi.
An attempt was made on his life early in 1 9 04, and he was assassinated on the 28th of July of the same year by a bomb thrown under his carriage as he was on his way to Peterhof to make his report to the tsar; the assassin, Sasonov, was a member of the fighting organization of the socialist revolutionary party.
Espartero crushed with much energy a revolutionary rising in Barcelona, but on his return to Madrid was so coldly welcomed that he perceived that his prestige was on the wane.
Riego now started on a revolutionary propaganda through Andalusia at the head of his regiment.
The popular revolutionary tune of Spain, the "himno de Riego," is named after him, and his picture is hung in the Cortes, but he was a poor creature, and a bad example of the light-headed military agitators who have caused Spain much misery.
On the fall of Napoleon in 1814 the Piedmontese court returned to Turin and the king was anxious to secure the succession for Charles Albert, knowing that Austria meditated excluding him from it in favour of an Austrian archduke, but at the same time he regarded him as an objectionable person on account of his revolutionary upbringing.
But there were strong Italian nationalists and anti-Austrian tendencies among the younger nobles and army officers, and the Carbonari and other revolutionary societies had made much progress.
Early in 18 20 a revolutionary movement was set on foot, and vague plans of combined risings all over Italy and a war with Austria were talked of.
The revolutionary movement throughout Italy was breaking down, but Charles Albert felt that while he possessed an army he could not abandon the Lombards and Venetians, and determined to stake all on a last chance.
The first rumblings of the revolutionary storm were making themselves heard.
I The growing discontent of the poor people, whether in country town, is clearly traceable in Germany during the 15th century, ostility and revolutionary agitation was chronic in southern Germany at least during the first two decades of the 1 6th.
This was based upon ancient " uses," and represented no revolutionary change in the traditions of the " old religion."
While there was in a certain sense freedom of opinion, all printers had to seek a licence from the government for every manner of book or paper, and heresy was so closely affiliated with treason that the free expression of thought, whether reactionary or revolutionary, was beset with grave danger.
The constitution of 1780, which still endures (the only remaining state constitution of the r8th century), was framed in the main by Samuel Adams, and as an embodiment of colonial experience and revolutionary principles, and as a model of constitution-making in the early years of independence, is of very great historical interest.
The services of Horace Mann as secretary of the state board (1837-1848) were productive of almost revolutionary benefits not only to Massachusetts but to the entire country.
Generals Henry Knox and Benjamin Lincoln were the most distinguished officers contributed by the state to the revolutionary army.
Daniel Shays (1747-1825), the leader, was a brave Revolutionary captain of no special personal importance.
On the revolutionary epoch, Mellen Chamberlain, John Adams ...
Though the vast ultimate consequences of this sudden appearance of the great western republic in the arena of international politics were not realized even by those in sympathy with Monroe's action, the weight of the United States thrown into the scale on the side of Great Britain made any effective protest by the European powers impossible; Russia, Austria and Prussia contented themselves with joining in a mild expression of regret that the action of Great Britain "tended to encourage that revolutionary spirit it had been found so difficult to control in Europe."
The Revolutionary tribunal condemned him to death, and he was guillotined on the 24th of November 1793.
David's revolutionary ideas, which led to his election to the presidency of the Convention and to the committee of general security, inspired his pictures "Last Moments of Lepelletier de Saint-Fargeau" and "Marat Assassinated."
He supported the revolutionary cause in Lorraine, and fought at Valmy (1792) and Wissembourg (1793) in the republican army.
His opposition to the extreme democratic and revolutionary party made him unpopular with the mob, who broke his windows, as his liberalism made him suspected at court.
For the history of German thought it was of the greatest importance that a Liberal from the Rhine, by a systematic history of the Revolution, attempted to overthrow the influence which the revolutionary legend, as expounded by French writers, had acquired over the German mind; and the book was an essential part of the influences which led to the formation of a National Liberal school of thought.
For some revolutionary articles in the local papers of Marseilles he was condemned in 1871 to three years' imprisonment and a fine of 6000 francs.
In 1807 its population had risen to 15,000, principally through its commercial importance, but on the 26th of March 1812 it was totally destroyed by an earthquake, and with it 1500 lives, including a part of the revolutionary forces occupying the town.
He took an active part in the levee-en-masse, and in November 1793 was given the task of establishing the revolutionary government in the departments of Meuse and Moselle, where he gained an unenviable notoriety by ordering the execution of the sentence of death decreed by the revolutionary tribunal on some young girls at Verdun who had offered flowers to the Prussians when they entered the town.
In 1792 he took part as a volunteer in the campaign of Champagne; in 1793 he assumed, in conformity with the Revolutionary fashion, the pre-name of Atticus, and became secretary to Claviere, then finance minister.
Warned by the sympathy excited in Saxony by the revolutionary events at Paris in 1848, the king dismissed his reactionary ministry, and a Liberal cabinet took its place in March 1848.
"Sachez que vous etes rois et plus des rois," said a revolutionary orator cited by Taine.
In 1820 he was accused of being connected with some of the students' revolutionary societies, and was compelled to resign.
JOHN HANCOCK (1737-1793), American Revolutionary statesman, was born in that part of Braintree, Massachusetts, now known as Quincy, on the 23rd of January 1737.
And in the other states of Europe there existed, more or less, a similar desire for peace and an equal dread of a fresh outbreak of revolutionary violence.
Even before this, the earliest germs can be traced back into the revolutionary period itself - the movement characterized above had begun working in France on the same lines; and, as it showed great zeal for the increase of the papal authority, it received the support of the Curia.
JEAN PAUL MARAT (1743-1793), French revolutionary leader, eldest child of Jean Paul Marat, a native of Cagliari in Sardinia, and Louise Cabrol of Geneva, was born at Boudry, in the principality of Neuchatel, on the 24th of May 1743.
The Girondins conquered at first in the Convention, and ordered that Marat should be tried before the Revolutionary Tribunal.
Discords arose between the Vatican and the French Republic, and it is clear that Napoleon and the French Directory ordered Joseph to encourage revolutionary movements in Rome.
After the battle his remains were brought to Toulon and buried in Fort La Malgue, and the revolutionary government paid tribute to his memory by a ceremony of public mourning (Sept.
He had been born with the hopes of the Renaissance, with its anticipation of a new Augustan age, and had seen this fair promise blighted by the irruption of a new horde of theological polemics, worse than the old scholastics, inasmuch as they were revolutionary instead of conservative.
was impervious to their counsels, and, the republic once established, they were anxious to arrest the revolutionary movement which they had helped to set in motion.
They had behind them the revolutionary Commune, the Sections and the National Guard of Paris, and they had gained control of the Jacobin club, where Brissot, absorbed in departmental work, had been superseded by Robespierre.
They strengthened the revolutionary Commune by decreeing its abolition, and then withdrawing the decree at the first sign of popular opposition; they increased the prestige of Marat by prosecuting him before the Revolutionary Tribunal, where his acquittal was a foregone conclusion.
The trial of the twenty-one, which began before the Revolutionary Tribunal on the 24th of October, was a mere farce, the verdict a foregone conclusion.
With his colleague Jacques Pinet (1754-1844) he established at Bayonne a revolutionary tribunal with authority in the neighbouring towns.
They pursued a Marxist programme aiming at the socialization of the State, the means of production and consumption: they were opposed to a dictatorship of the proletariat, and were for evolutionary as opposed to revolutionary methods.
He shared in the fall of the Girondists, was arrested on the 2nd of June 1793, but somehow was left in prison until the 8th of December, when, on receiving notice that he was to appear on the next day before the Revolutionary Tribunal, he committed suicide.
During his stay in England he :'made use of the unique collection of materials for the revolutionary period preserved at the British Museum to complete his Histoire de la Revolution Franraise 12 vols.
He successfully thwarted all the schemes of the emperor Sigismund, by adroitly supporting the revolutionary party in Bohemia.
The constitution of the 3rd of May had scarce been signed when Felix Potocki, Severin Rzewuski and Xavier Branicki, three of the chief dignitaries of Poland, hastened to St Petersburg, and there entered into a secret convention with the empress, whereby she undertook to restore the old constitution by force of arms, but at the same time promised to respect the territorial integrity of the Republic. On the 14th of May 1792 the conspirators formed a confederation, consisting, in the first instance, of only ten other persons, at the little town of Targowica in the Ukraine, protesting against the constitution of the 3rd of May as tyrannous and revolutionary, and at the same time the new Russian minister at Warsaw presented a formal declaration of war to the king and the diet.
A true disciple of Pitt, he came to the congress with an overwhelming distrust of the growing power of Russia, which was only second to his hatred of revolutionary France.
Late in 1793, Bailly quitted Nantes to join his friend Pierre Simon Laplace at Melun; but was there recognized, arrested and brought (November 10) before the Revolutionary Tribunal at Paris.
The council refused to dissolve, renewed the revolutionary resolutions by which the council of Constance had been declared superior to the pope, and cited Eugenius to appear at Basel.
In 1848, when nearly every throne in Europe was shaken by the spread of revolutionary sentiments, he was elected delegate to the national German assembly at Frankfort, - a sufficient proof that at this time he was regarded as no mere narrow and technical theologian, but as a man of wide and independent views.
During his studies he became involved in the revolutionary movement.
On the collapse of the revolutionary government he was arrested (1850), but managed to escape to France, where he engaged in commerce and banking, became naturalized, and acquired a large fortune.
The Convention also sent representatives on mission into Vendee to effect the purging of the municipalities, the reorganization of the national guards in the republican towns, and the active prosecution of the revolutionary propaganda.
After an offer of the crown of Castile, made by the revolutionary leaders in the civil war, had been declined by her, she was in 1468 formally recognized by her brother as lawful heir, after himself, to the united crowns of Castile and Leon.
This was too revolutionary to stand long and in 1867 it was superseded by the present constitution.
PETER ALEXEIVICH KROPOTKIN, Prince (1842-), Russian geographer, author and revolutionary, was born at Moscow in 1842.
But by this time he had determined that it was his duty not to work at fresh discoveries but to aid in diffusing existing knowledge among the people at large, and he accordingly refused the offer, and returned to St Petersburg, where he joined the revolutionary party.
In 1877 he went to Paris, where he helped to start the socialist movement, returning to Switzerland in 1878, where he edited for the Jura Federation a revolutionary newspaper, Le Revolte, subsequently also publishing various revolutionary pamphlets.
When Mr Lloyd George, on the 29th of April, introduced his budget, its revolutionary character, however, created widespread dismay in the City and among the propertied classes.
Ranck, Boonesborough: Its Founding, Pioneer Struggles, Indian Experiences, Transylvania Days and Revolutionary Annals (1901), and The Centenary of Kentucky (1892), containing an address, " The State of Kentucky: Its Discovery, Settlement, Autonomy and Progress in a Hundred Years," by Reuben T.
But he was just the man for a hero in extremities, and his whole course of procedure was, of necessity, revolutionary.
The Catalonians are a frugal, sharp-witted, and industrious people, having much national pride, and a strong revolutionary spirit.
It was the scene of civil war in 1823, and of important revolutionary operations in the Carlist wars.
There he had been informed in confidence of the renewal by the Allies of their treaty binding them to interfere in case of a renewal of revolutionary trouble in France; and it was partly owing to this knowledge that he resigned office in December of the same year, on the refusal of his colleagues to support a reactionary modification of the electoral law.
According to one story, the enfants perdus of the revolutionary party - Catiline, Autronius and others - designed to assassinate the consuls on the 1st of January 65, and make Crassus dictator, with Caesar as master of the horse.
In Great Britain, whither they began to straggle over during the revolutionary troubles at the close of the 18th century, and where, practically unaffected by the clause directed against them in the Emancipation Act of 1829, their chief settlement has been at Stonyhurst in Lancashire, an estate conferred on them by Thomas Weld in 1795, they have been unmolested; but there has been little affinity to the order in the British temperament, and the English province has consequently never risen to numerical or intellectual importance in the Society.
pledged the town to his brother Baldwin, archbishopelector of Trier, and it remained in the possession of the electors until it was absorbed by France during the Revolutionary epoch.
The European wars of the French revolutionary period interfered with the traffic with Spain, and so relaxed the bonds of a commercial system which hampered the manufactures of Mexico and drained away its wealth.
A similar fear helped to keep down the tendencies inspired by French revolutionary literature, though plots occurred against the viceroy Branciforte in 1798 and 1799.
Though revolutionary movements still continued, by 1817 only one leader, Vincente Guerrero, was left in the field.
On both sides in Mexico there was an element consisting of honest doctrinaires; but rival military leaders exploited the struggles in their own interest, sometimes taking each side successively; and the instability was intensified by the extreme poverty of the peasantry, which made the soldiery reluctant to return to civil life, by the absence of a regular middle class, and by the concentration of wealth in a few hands, so that a revolutionary chief was generally sure both of money and of men.
An attempt at revolt, headed by Nicolas Bravo, vice-president, the Grand Master of the Escoceses, was suppressed, but dissensions ensued in the Yorkino party between the followers of President Guerrero (a man largely of native blood, and the last of the revolutionary leaders) and of Gomez Pedraza, the war minister.
He joined the revolutionary movement with more enthusiasm than energy, and though the emperor Nicholas I.
The cause of this expulsion is said to have been his activity in writing revolutionary proclamations.
It was in conjunction with Marx and Laf argue that he drew up the programme accepted by the national congress of the Labour party at Havre in 1880, which laid stress on the formation of an international labour party working by revolutionary methods.
active revolutionary patriot, Paulding inherited strong anti-British sentiments.
The latter's most serious loss was that of General Joseph Warren, one of the prominent leaders of the revolutionary movement in Massachusetts.
Soc., 1877), "Yorktown Campaign" (New York, 1881), &c.; Sargent's Life of Major John 845 Andre (Boston, 1861), one of the best of Revolutionary biographies; Gen.
In 1849 he was in the civil service of the revolutionary government, and after the final catastrophe returned to his native place, living as best he could on his small savings till 1850, when Lajos Tisza, the father of Kalman Tisza, the future prime minister, invited him to his castle at Geszt to teach his son Domokos the art of poetry.
On the 2nd of June 1 793 he proposed a decree of accusation against the Girondists; on the 9th, at the Jacobin club, he outlined a programme which the Convention was destined gradually to realize: the expulsion of all foreigners not naturalized, the establishment of an impost on the rich, the deprivation of the rights of citizenship of all "anti-social" men, the creation of a revolutionary army, the licensing of all officers ci-devant nobles, the death penalty for unsuccessful generals.
On his return he was added to the Committee of Public Safety, which had decreed the arrest en masse of all suspects and the establishment of a revolutionary army, caused the extraordinary criminal tribunal to be named officially "Revolutionary Tribunal" (on the 29th of October 1793), demanded the execution of Marie Antoinette and then attacked Hebert and Danton.
This reflects the revolutionary change in the history of lead mining since the first discovery of argentiferous lead ores in the Rocky Mountain states in 1864, which became available only after the building of railways.
These precedents were followed in all the revolutionary constitutions, except in Georgia, where election by the people was established.
The national government set out in 1790 with a revolutionary debt of about 75 millions of dollars.
7 1918, which the same day led to the overthrow of the Bavarian monarchy, the flight of the King, and the institution of a Bavarian revolutionary Government under the presidency of Eisner.
A red-haired Jew, he possessed a magnetic and artistic temperament, and had various special methods of arousing and restraining the revolutionary masses, including orchestral and vocal concerts of high excellence in the formerly royal theatres and the opera house of Munich.
He received a liberal education, and, when he left school, became an officer in the artillery; but his sympathy with the peasants, among whom he had lived during his boyhood in the country, developed in him at first democratic and, later, revolutionary opinions.
His sympathetic nature was influenced by indignation against the brutal methods adopted towards prisoners, especially political prisoners, and by the stern measures which the government of the tsar felt compelled to adopt in order to repress the revolutionary movement.
He settled for a short time in Switzerland, then a favourite resort of revolutionary leaders, and after a few years came to London.
They took Montreal and besieged Quebec during the winter of 1775-1776; but the prudent leadership of Sir Guy Carleton, afterwards Lord Dorchester, saved Quebec and in 1776 the revolutionary army withdrew unsuccessful from Canada.
These changes become revolutionary in times of flood.
For the Revolutionary Calendar see French Revolution ad fin The principal works on the calendar are the following: Clavius Romani Calendarii a Gregorio Xiii.
He was an admirer of Marx's learning and analytical power, but he would never submit to the tyrannical pedantry of Marx's school and stood up for an elemental awaking of revolutionary instincts.
These three currents combined to produce the three fundamental ideas of Bolshevism: the conquest of society by the proletariat class, the power of revolutionary instinct and the dictatorship of a compact minority.
The centre of revolutionary ideas was St John's Parish, settled by New Englanders (chiefly from Dorchester, Massachusetts).
The war that followed was really a severe civil conflict, the Loyalist and Revolutionary parties being almost equal in numbers.
In 1778 the British seized Savannah, which they held until 1782, meanwhile reviving the British civil administration, and in 1779 they captured Augusta and Sunbury; but after 1780 the Revolutionary forces were generally successful..
Stevens's History of Georgia to 1798 (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1847-1859) and C. C. Jones, jun., History of Georgia (2 vols., Boston, 1883) for the Colonial and Revolutionary periods; C. H.
They composed the Staatsconferenz, the ill-constructed and informal regency which led the Austrian dominions to the revolutionary outbreaks of 1846-1849.
In the presence of the revolutionary troubles, which began with agrarian riots in Galicia in 1846, and then spread over the whole empire, he was personally helpless.
Millerand, the socialist, in the Waldeck-Rousseau ministry, though this led to a split with the more revolutionary section led by M.
If he had no sympathy with revolutionary disturbers of the peace, he had even less with the fatuous extravagances of the comte d'Artois and his reactionary entourage, and his influence was thrown into the scale of the moderate constitutional policy of which Richelieu and Decazes were the most conspicuous exponents.
For some years the emperor, with his sound common-sense and dislike of exaggeration, held the balance fairly between the two extremes; but long years of uninterrupted labour, anxiety and disappointment weakened his zeal for reform, and when radicalism assumed more and more the form of secret societies and revolutionary agitation, he felt constrained to adopt severe repressive measures.
The government, in accordance with this view, had encouraged scientific studies until it discovered to its astonishment that there was some mysterious connexion between natural science and revolutionary tendencies.
Many of them were arrested and imprisoned or exiled to distant provinces, but the revolutionary work was continued with unabated zeal.
Thus arose a struggle between the youthful, hot-headed partisans of revolutionary physical science and the zealous official guardians of political order - a struggle which has made the strange term Nihilism a familiar word not only in Russia but also in western Europe.
The patriotic excitement produced by the war did not weaken the revolutionary agitation.
Early in 1881, on the advice of Count Loris-Melikov, he determined to try the effect of some moderate liberal reforms on the revolutionary agitation, and for this purpose he caused a ukaz to be prepared creating special commissions, composed of high officials and private personages who should prepare reforms in various branches of the administration.
In 1822 it was raised to the rank of a city, and in 1841, as a reward for its loyalty in revolutionary wars of that province, it was distinguished by the title of Leal e valorosa (loyal and valorous).
His efforts were primarily directed to the prevention of any recrudescence of the tyranny exercised by the Jacobin Club, the commune of Paris, and the revolutionary tribunal.
The Baden insurgents gained a victory at Freiburg in 1848, and the revolutionary government took refuge in the town in June 1849, but in the following July the Prussian forces took possession and occupied it until 1851.
She had a new constitution drawn up, practically providing for an absolute monarchy, and disfranchising a large class of citizens who had voted since 1887; this constitution (drawn up, so the royal party declared, in reply to a petition signed by thousands of natives) she undertook to force on the country after proroguing the legislature on the 14th of January 1893, but her ministers shrank from the responsibility of so revolutionary an act, and with difficulty prevailed upon her to postpone the execution of her design.
These advances in natural science, which pointed to a unity and gradual evolution in nature, were accompanied by a growth in commerce, manufactures and industrialism; the same kind of spirit showed itself in the revolutionary upheaval of 1848, and in the materialistic publications which immediately followed, while these XVIII.
The Kritik and the Wissenschaftslehre belonged to the revolutionary epoch of the " Rights of Man," and produced as great a revolution in thought as the French Revolution did in fact.
He left France during the Terror and on his return was arrested by the revolutionary authorities, but was liberated through the intervention of Fabre d'Eglantine and others.
Though he had received a good education, he served throughout the early part of the revolutionary wars without rising above the rank of private.
It is tainted at its sources with the revolutionary spirit.
In the early part of the Revolutionary war, ill health kept him at home, and it was not until 1797 that he went afloat again.
In conjunction with the Minorites and the Ghibellines of Italy, Marsilius succeeded in enticing Louis to the fateful expedition to Rome and the revolutionary actions of 1328.
Scholars like Langenstein, Gerson and Zabarella, evolved a new theory as to ecumenical councils, which from the point of view of Roman Catholic principles must be described as revolutionary.
From slow beginnings these factors kept gaining momentum until they compassed the overthrow of the mighty order of the Jesuits, and culminated in the revolutionary spoliation of the Church.
The once exiled dynasties the conscientiously re-established the legitimate Church, and both conservative powers made common cause against revolutionary tendencies.
To its unification Austria was the chief obstacle; she owned Lombardo-Venetia; she controlled the three duchies, whose rulers were Austrian princes; and she upheld the autocracy of the king of Naples and that of the pope against all revolutionary movements.
In the reaction that followed the chaos of the Revolutionary epoch men turned to the papacy as alone giving a foothold of authority in a confused and quaking world.
So far as politics are concerned this sentiment was practically confined to certain classes, which saw their traditional advantages threatened by the revolutionary tendencies of the times; and the alliance between the throne and the altar, by confusing the interests of the papacy with those of political parties, tended - as Leo XIII.
that time it was only with the revolutionary party that he was in full accord.
Groen was violently opposed to Thorbecke, whose principles he denounced as ungodly and revolutionary.
The situation that resulted issued in the revolutionary year 1848 in a general manifestation of public discontent; and Frederick William, who had become elector on his father's death (November 20, 1847), was forced to dismiss his reactionary ministry and to agree to a comprehensive programme of democratic reform.
Since then it has shared in most of the revolutionary movements that have swept over Spain, and has frequently been distinguished by the violence of its civic commotions.
Among the enterprising and shrewd Catalans, who look upon their rulers as reactionary, and reserve all their sympathies for the Provencal neighbours whom they so nearly resemble in race, language and temperament, French influence and republican ideals spread rapidly; taking the form partly of powerful labour and socialist organizations, partly of less reputable bodies, revolutionary and even anarchist.
Strikes are very common, seventy-three having occurred in such a year of comparative quiet as 1903; but the causes of disturbance are almost as often political as economic, and the annals of the city include a long list of revolutionary riots and bomb outrages.
The spread of the revolutionary movement is traced by M.
His sympathy with the revolutionary ideas of 1830, expressed in his paper the Zeitgeist, cost him his appointment in 1834, and he made his way to Switzerland, where he contributed to the Jeune Suisse directed by Mazzini.
When at the beginning of 1823, as a result of the congress of Verona, the French invaded Spain,' "invoking the God of St Louis, for the sake of preserving the throne of Spain to a descendant of Henry IV., and of reconciling that fine kingdom with Europe," and in May the revolutionary party carried Ferdinand to Cadiz, he continued to make promises of amendment till he was free.
In 1772 he co-operated in the revolutionary plans of his brother Gustavus III..
In 1792 the revolutionary armies overran the Palatinate; in 1795 the French, under Moreau, invaded Bavaria itself, advanced to Munich - where they were received with joy by the long-suppressed Liberals - and laid siege to Ingolstadt.
Maximilian himself was an "enlightened" prince of the 18th-century type, whose tolerant principles had already grievously offended his clerical subjects; Montgelas was a firm believer in drastic reform "from above," and, in 1803, had discussed with the rump of the old estates the question of reforms. But the revolutionary changes introduced by the constitution proclaimed on the 1st of May 1808 were due to the direct influence of Napoleon.
When war broke out between the French revolutionary government and the coalition of kings, the Provinces remained neutral as long as they could.
had been to Ames- a large extent a personal ruler, but William II., sion of though for a time following in his father's steps, had William been moved by the revolutionary outbreaks of 1848 III' to concede a revision of the constitution.
On The to regret their revolutionary ardour.
It was captured and plundered by the Brazilians in 1869, and has been the theatre of several revolutionary outbreaks since then, one of which (1905) resulted in a blockade of several months' duration.
ELIAS BOUDINOT (1740-1821), American revolutionary leader, was born at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, of Huguenot descent, on the 2nd of May 1740.
During the revolutionary period he left the country and served in the army of the emigres and later in that of Austria.
Belgium was regarded too much in the light of an annexed territory, handed over to Holland as compensation for the losses sustained by the Dutch in the revolutionary and Napoleonic wars.
In 1792 the armies of revolutionary France assailed Austria at her weakest point by an invasion of Belgium.
But in 1828 the two extreme parties, the Catholic Ultramontanes and the revolutionary Liberals, in their common hatred to the Dutch regime, formed an alliance, the union, for the overthrow of the government.
The extreme democratic and socialistic party made with French aid some spasmodic efforts to stir up a revolutionary movement, but they met with no popular sympathy; the throne of Leopold stood firmly based upon the trust and respect of the Belgian nation for the wisdom and moderation of their king.
Socialism of a German type had taken deep root among the working men of the Flemish towns, especially at Ghent and Brussels; socialism of a French revolutionary type among the Walloon miners and factory hands.
This drew down upon the archbishop-elector the wrath of the French republicans; in 1794 Coblenz was taken by the Revolutionary army under Marceau (who fell during the siege), and, after the peace of Luneville, it was made the chief town of the Rhine and Mosel department (1798).
ANTOINE LOUIS LEON DE RICHEBOURG DE SAINT-JUST (1767-1794), French revolutionary leader, was born at Decize in the Nivernais on the 25th of August 1767.
Schneider, who as public prosecutor to the revolutionary tribunal of the Lower Rhine had ruthlessly applied the Terror in Alsace.
The second is described below, and the third and fourth, incidents of Jourdan's campaign of 1794, under French Revolutionary Wars.
His family had been in America since 1632, and his father, Aaron Bancroft, was distinguished as a revolutionary soldier, clergyman and author.
1784) founded the university of Bonn, and in 1798, amid the confusion of the revolutionary epoch, it ceased to exist.
Debidour suggests, to compromise him with the revolutionary parties and to bind him to the throne; but it is more probable that it was no more than an expression of the good will which the king had shown him ever since 'Soo.
To conciliate the revolutionary his offers were contemptuously refused.
ARABI PASHA (c. 1839-), more correctly AUMAD `ARABI, to which in later years he added the epithet al-Misri, " the Egyptian," Egyptian soldier and revolutionary leader, was born in Lower Egypt in 1839 or 1840 of a fellah family.
The defeat of Grattan's mild proposals helped to promote more extreme opinions, which, under French revolutionary influence, were now becoming heard in Ireland.
Thus the Presbyterians of the north, who were mainly republican in sentiment, combined with a section of the Roman Catholics to form the organization of the United Irishmen, to promote revolutionary ideas imported from France; and a party prepared to welcome a French invasion soon came into existence.
It appeared, and soon its author was more lauded and decried than any other thinker of his time; but the first effect of its publication was to sever his connexion with the exiled royalist party, and to throw him for protection on the revolutionary Government.
The Jesuits of St Omer, after emigrating to Bruges and Liege, were disorganized by the revolutionary troubles at the close of the 18th century, and a large body came to England, when Thomas Weld, in 1795, conferred his property of Stonyhurst upon them.
In spite of the clamour of the mediatized princes for the restoration of their liberties, no attempt was made to reverse the essential changes in the territorial disposition of Germany made during the revolutionary epoch.
The mass of the people, as Metternich rightly observed, wished for rest, not constitutions; but the minority of thoughtful menprofessors, students, officials, many soldiersresented the dashing of the hopes of German unity aroused by the War of Liberation, and had drunk deep of the revolutionary inspiration.
These containedelaborateprovisions for supervising the universities and muzzling the press, laying down that no constitution inconsistent with the monarchical principle should be granted, and setting up a central commission at Mainz to inquire into the machinations of the great revolutionary secret society which existed only in the imagination of the authorities.
Neither Austria nor Prussia was for some time in a position to thwart it, and the sovereigns of the smaller states were too much afraid of the revolutionary elements manifested on all sides to oppose its will.
in the midst of these disputes the attention of the nation was occupied by a question which had arisen before the outbreak of the revolutionary movementsthe soSchies- called Schleswig-Holstein question.
Towards the end of r848 Vienna was completely i the hands of the revolutionary party, and it was rc taken only after desperate fighting.
The assembly summoned amid the revolutionary excitement of March met on the 22nd of May.
The change was more revolutionary in appearance than in reality.
Such a revolutionary foundation might be good enough for the ephemeral empires of France; the appeal of Prussia should be to the God of battles alone.
What began as a great revolutionary movement became a dogmatic and academic school of thought; it often almost seemed as though the orthodox interpretation of I~Iarxs doctrine was of more importance than an improvement in the condition of the working men, and the discussions in the annual Socialist Congress resembled the arguments of theologians rather than the practical considerations of politicians.
The defendants were poor smugglers from the Esthonian border marshes, who in the course of their ordinary avocations had carried bales of revolutionary tracts into Russia without troubling as to their contents.
He was implicated by Francois Chabot in the falsification of a decree relative to the East India Company, and though his share seems to have been simply that he did not reveal the plot, of which he knew but part, he was accused before the Revolutionary Tribunal at the same time as Danton and Camille Desmoulins, and was executed on the 5th of April 1794.
The spirit of revolutionary France had not yet touched the heart of the Habsburg empire, and national rivalries were expressed, not so much in expansive ambitions, aš in a somnolent clinging to traditional privileges.
French had done little to cement the Franco-Austrian alliance, which since 1763 had been practically non-existent; nor was it now the mainspring of his attitude towards revolutionary France.
The events of the period that followed, in which Austria necessarily played a conspicuous part, are dealt with elsewhere of (see Europe, French Revolutionary Wars, Effects the Revol- Napoleon, Napoleonic Campaigns).
Such, too, was the treaty of Campo Formio (October 17, 1797) which ended the first revolutionary war.
The peril from the infiltration of " revolutionary " ideas from without was met by the erection round the Austrian dominions of a Chinese wall of tariffs and censors, which had, however, no more success than is usual with such expedients.
In the German provinces also, in spite of Metternich's censors and police, the national movements in Germany had gained an entrance, and, as the revolution of 1848 in Vienna was to show, the most advanced revolutionary views were making headway.
The fall of revolutionary Vienna practically involved that of the revolution in Frankfort and in Pest.
On the 2nd of December the emperor Ferdinand, bound by too many personal obligations to the revolutionary parties to serve as a useful instrument for the new Accession policy, abdicated, and his nephew Francis Joseph Francis ascended the throne.
The revolutionary movements had been suppressed, the attempt of Prussia to assume the leadership in Germany defeated, the old Federal Diet of 1815 Triumph had been restored.
influenced by the revolutionary movement in Russia, resolved to press for franchise reform in Austria also.
By this revolutionary method of land nationalization Mehemet Ali became proprietor of nearly all the soil of Egypt, an iniquitous measure against which the Egyptians had no remedy.
In April 1797 the French, under General Hoche, defeated the Austrians near Neuwied, this being their first decisive success in the revolutionary wars.
Ravenel, Eliza Pinckney (New York, 1896), in the "Women of Colonial and Revolutionary Times" series.
Yet the document is of great interest, as in it we find formulated for the first time in an official despatch those exalted ideals of international policy which were to play so conspicuous a part in the affairs of the world at the close of the revolutionary epoch, and issued at the end of the 10th century in the Rescript of Nicholas II.'
A revolutionary conspiracy among the officers of the guard, and a foolish plot to kidnap him on his way to the congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, are said to have shaken the foundations of his Liberalism.
Though alarmed by the revolutionary agitation in Germany, which culminated in the murder of his agent, the dramatist Kotzebue, Alexander approved of Castlereagh's protest against Metternich's policy of " the governments contracting an alliance against the peoples," as formulated in the Carlsbad decrees, 1819, and deprecated any intervention of Europe to support " a league of which the sole object is the absurd pretensions of absolute power."
But the other professors rose in arms, forbade him to enter the mosque, and in 1879 procured his exile on the pretext that he entertained democratic and revolutionary ideas.
Studying the writings of Karl Marx he became a convert to an extreme revolutionary, socialistic and atheistic creed; but though he entered into correspondence with Marx, with the object of starting a revolutionary movement, he does not appear to have taken any overt part in the events of 1848-1849.
He studied in the Jesuit Gymnasium of Cologne in 1840-1846, and then entered the University of Bonn, where he became a revolutionary, partly through his friendship with Gottfried Kinkel, professor of literature and art-history.
In spite of Secretary Seward's objection, grounded on Schurz's European record as a revolutionary, Lincoln sent him in 1861 as minister to Spain.
In the following year (23rd of July 1593) Bothwell, much favoured by the preachers, made his capture of James, but had not the power to hold him long, and a later revolutionary attempt in the same year, by Atholl and the young earl of Gowrie, was a failure.
As Bothwell had become a Catholic, they excommunicated him in 1595: in 1596 James resolved to recall the exiled Catholic peers; the commissioners of the General Assembly, alarmed and infuriated, met in Edinburgh, ordered a day of humiliation, decided to excommunicate the Catholic earls and established a kind of revolutionary committee of public safety.
In November were formed " The Tables," a standing revolutionary committee of all Estates.
The first parliament (1661-1663), under Middleton, was obsequious enough to grant the king £40,000 annually, to abolish the covenants and to rescind all but the private legislation of the revolutionary years (1638-1660).
During this period he proclaimed his revolutionary doctrines in religion and politics with growing vehemence, and, so far as the lower orders were concerned, with growing success.
This change in his method of viewing Nature was looked on as revolutionary by the Royal Scottish Academy, and for some years his work found little favour in that quarter; but other artists gradually adopted the system of tone-studies, which ultimately prevailed.