How to use Revolution in a sentence
These estates were confiscated during the Revolution.
Have people since the Revolution become happier?
In 1917 the Russian revolution swept away the old order.
The dotcom revolution is going to lead to even more information anarchy.
The ideas of the Revolution and the general temper of the age produced Napoleon's power.Advertisement
The name remained in use until after the revolution of 1688.
Sadly, on this side of the socialist revolution, that's the way things are.
When the March Revolution of 1917 broke out Guchkov was called in to take charge of the Ministry of War.
This revolution was accompanied by a conflict with Sparta and other powers.
Then along came the Industrial Revolution, and I am sure it all seemed very foreign.Advertisement
After the revolution in Russia in the spring of 1917 Mr. Henderson visited that country on behalf of the British Government.
The semi-centennial of this debate was celebrated in 1908, when the Illini Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, caused a suitably inscribed boulder weighing 23 tons to be set up in Washington Park as a memorial.
In spite of his absolute lack of talent, he attained the highest of positions - an exceptional fact in the history of the French Revolution.
This scene was the beginning of the actual events of the Revolution.
In the next year the revolution opened for him, as for so many of his contemporaries, the way to public life, and he was elected as representative for his native district in the second chamber of the reformed Hanoverian parliament.Advertisement
The anomalistic revolution of a planet or other heavenly body is the revolution between two consecutive passages through the pericentre.
He was a prominent opponent of the oligarchical party in the revolution which took place on the approach of Napoleon; and he was one of the envoys sent to seek the protection of the French.
Another element is the time of revolution of the body in its orbit, called its period.
It follows that putting n for the mean motion and T for the period of revolution we shall have in degrees nT=3600.
As a statesman he has been very variously estimated, but it is generally agreed that a large number of the reforms and ideas of the Revolution were due to him; the ideas did not as a rule originate with him, but it was he who first gave them prominence.Advertisement
The introduction of new plants, which made it possible to dispense with the bare fallow, and still later the application to husbandry of scientific discoveries as to soils, plant constituents and manures, brought about a revolution in farming.
Among the other writers previous to the Revolution mention must be made of John Ray the botanist and of John Evelyn, both men of great talent and research, whose works are still in high estimation.
The husbandry of the country was thus steadily improving, when suddenly the whole of Europe became involved in the wars of the French Revolution.
At the outset of the Revolution she foresaw the gravity of events, and refused to leave the king, whom she accompanied in his flight on the 10th of June 1792, and with whom she was arrested at Varennes.
Hers was one of the most touching tragedies of the Revolution; she perished because she was the sister of the king.Advertisement
It was characteristic of his nature that he should be stirred to such delight by the Revolution in France, and should labour so earnestly to make his countrymen understand with what gravity and sobriety it had been effected..
This may be, in the historical sense, merely a passing phase of human progress, due to the rapid extension of the industrial revolution to all the civilized and many of the uncivilized nations of the world, bringing in its train the consolidation of large areas, a similarity of conditions within them, and amongst peoples and governments a great increase in the strength of economic motives.
At the same time, the revolution in the means of transport and communication has destroyed, or is tending to destroy, local markets, and closely interwoven all the business of the world.
There has been no revolution in economic science, and is not likely to be any.
His notes on English history (down to the time of the revolution of 1688) were especially detailed.Advertisement
For the constitution of the year 1795 which inaugurated the period of the Directory (1795-1799) see French Revolution.
The success at the bridge of Lodi (loth of May) seems first to have inspired in the young general dreams of a grander career than that of a successful general of the Revolution; while his narrow escape at the bridge of Arcola in November strengthened his conviction that he was destined for a great future.
The revolution of 1897-98 opened the door to wider knowledge, and much exploration has ensued, for which see Crete.
Ten years later a more serious revolution, the only revolution that seriously shook the state, broke out and was also crushed.
He was recognized as the leader of the Hanoverians and of all those who opposed the "revolution from above."Advertisement
Its scene is Maryland during the American Revolution.
For Godoy the king had an unaffected liking, and the lifelong favour he showed him is almost pathetic. When terrified by the French Revolution he turned to the Inquisition to help him against the party which would have carried the reforming policy of Charles III.
At the same time a piece was cut off the park to prevent the undue contraction of the Place by the necessary bringing forward of the palace, and the pits which played a certain part in the revolution of 1830 when the Dutch defended the park for a few days against the Belgians were filled up. The Palais de la Nation was constructed between 1779 and 1783, also during the Austrian period.
These three deeds or enactments constituted the early constitution of the South Netherlands, which, with one important modification in the time of Charles V., remained intact till the Brabant revolution in the reign of Joseph II.
During the regency of his half-sister Sophia (1682-1689) he occupied the subordinate position of junior tsar, and after the revolution of 1689 Peter was still left pretty much to himself.Advertisement
The king's acceptance of two bribes - one of $75,000 and another of $80,000 for the assignment of an opium licence - precipitated the revolution of 1887.
On receiving Blount's report to the effect that the revolution had been accomplished by the aid of the United States minister and by the landing of troops from the " Boston," President Cleveland sent Albert Sydney Willis (1843-1897) of Kentucky to Honolulu with secret instructions as United States minister.
On the breaking up of the gardes du corps Biran retired to his patrimonial inheritance of Grateloup, near Bergerac, where his retired life preserved him from the horrors of the Revolution.
Through these two men a military revolution was speedily accomplished, and early in 69 Vitellius was proclaimed emperor at Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne), or, more accurately, emperor of the armies of Upper Germany and Lower Germany.
The end of the republic came when the French Revolution burst over Europe.Advertisement
In 1803, having formally surrendered the part of Hesse on the left bank of the Rhine which had been taken from him in the early days of the Revolution, Louis received in return a much larger district which had formerly belonged to the duchy of Westphalia, the electorate of Mainz and the bishopric of Worms. In 1806, being a member of the confederation of the Rhine, he took the title of Louis I., grandduke of Hesse; he supported Napoleon with troops from 1805 to 1813, but after the battle of Leipzig he joined the allies.
The revolution in its treatment is a real romance of industry.
He found time, in addition, to write a short book on Die Serbische Revolution (1829), from material supplied to him by Wuk Stephanowich, a Servian who had himself been witness of the scenes he related.
The revolution of the bull-wheels is checked by the use of a powerful hand-brake.
The island suffered from the reactionary policy of Ferdinand VII., but the few sporadic attempts at revolution between 1815 and 1820 were readily suppressed.Advertisement
The Revolution of 1868 in Spain promised such salutary changes for the Antilles as the introduction of political parties, the restoration of representation in the Spanish Cortes, and the enfranchisement of the slaves; but the imprudent "Insurrection of Lares," and other outbreaks of 1867-68, delayed these anticipated reforms. The reactionaries feared separation from the mother country.
Carrier, who was sent to stamp out resistance in the west, he lay hidden until some time after the revolution of Thermidor (July 1794), but he was readmitted to the Convention on the 8th of March 1795.
He had received from his father the smatterings of a liberal education, but until the outbreak of the Revolution he was a domestic servant, and from 1785 occupied the invidious office of cornmissaire a terrier, his function being to assist the nobles and priests in the assertion of their feudal rights as against the unfortunate peasants.
On the eve of the Revolution Babeuf was in the employ of a land surveyor at Roye.
But he also attacked, from the point of view of his own socialistic theories, the economic outcome of the Revolution.
When we contrast the expectations of the original writer and the actual events that followed, it would seem that the chief value of his work would consist in the light that it throws on this obscure and temporary revolution in the Messianic expectations of Judaism towards the close of the 2nd century.
He was much more interested in these and other political events than in his professional prospects; and his attention was specially directed to the events and tendencies which caused or preceded the Revolution in France.
Mackintosh was soon absorbed in the question of the time; and in April 1791, after long meditation, he published his Vindiciae Gallicae, a reply to Burke's Reflections on the French Revolution.
His more elaborate History of the Revolution, for which he had made great researches and collections, was not published till after his death.
Vindiciae Gallicae was the verdict of a philosophic Liberal on the development of the French Revolution up to the spring of 1791, and though the excesses of the revolutionists compelled him a few years after to express his entire agreement with the opinions of Burke, its defence of the "rights of man" is a valuable statement of the cultured Whig's point of view at the time.
The States of the Church were of course submerged for a time by the groundswell of the French Revolution, but they appeared again in 1814.
The revolution of 1820 under General Pepe began at Nola.
He had adopted the principles of the Revolution, and in 1798 he commenced his political life as a member of the Council of Five Hundred.
During the Hundred Days he was vice-president of the chamber of deputies, and when the allied armies entered Paris he drew up the declaration in which the chamber asserted the necessity of maintaining the principles of government that had been established at the Revolution.
At the revolution of 1848 Dupont de l'Eure was made president of the provisional assembly as being its oldest member.
A revolution in education was begun the first year of the United States military occupation and continued under the Republic.
The debt of the Republic in April 1908 was $48,146,585, including twenty-seven millions which were assumed in 1902 for the payment of the army of independence, four for agriculture, and four for the payment of revolutionary debts, and $2,196,585, representing obligations assumed by the revolution's representative in the United States during the War of Independence.
After the cession of the Spanish portion of San Domingo to France hundreds of Spanish families emigrated to Cuba, and many thousand more immigrants, mainly French, followed them from the entire island during the revolution of the blacks.
The separatists, headed by Carlos Manuel de Cespedes (1819-1874), a wealthy planter who proclaimed the revolution at Yara on the 10th of October, demanded the same reforms, including gradual emancipation of the slaves with indemnity to owners, and the grant of free and universal suffrage.
The preliminaries of the elections of December 1905 and March 1906 being marked by frauds and injustice, the Liberals deserted the polls at those elections, and instead of appealing to judicial tribunals controlled by the Moderates, issued a manifesto of revolution on the 28th of July 1906.1 This insurrection rapidly assumed large proportions.
Of late years, however, there has been a gradual assimilation of broader views by the leaders of Islam in Turkey, at any rate at Constantinople, and the revolution of 1908, and its affirmation in the spring of 1909, took place not only with their approval, but with their active assistance.
This movement came to a head in the revolution of 1908.
Throughout all the vicissitudes of the Revolution the relations between the two states had wit remained unimpaired, and Turkey had been one with France.
Greekce and Dardanelles confirmed, and the districts of first sultan who entered into regular relations with foreign powers, and employed permanent ambassadors; the practice was discontinued at the time of the Greek revolution and the consequent rupture with the powers.
After the Greek revolution the system of manning the navy from the Christian natives of the archipelago and the Mediterranean littoral was abandoned, and recruits for the navy are now selected under the ordinary law.
The enforcement of these reforms, however, was postponed sine die owing to the revolution which transformed the Ottoman Empire into a constitutional state; and the powers, anticipating an improvement in the administration of Macedonia by the new government, withdrew their military officers in the summer of 1908.
In these circumstances the headquarters of the Young Turks were transferred from Paris to Salonica, where a central body, known as the committee of union and progress, was established (1908) to organize the revolution.
Otherwise the revolution was effected almost without bloodshed; for a time the insurgent bands disappeared in Macedonia, and the rival " nationalities " - Greek, Albanian, Turk, Armenian, Servian, Bulgarian and Jew - worked harmoniously together for the furtherance of common constitutional aims. On the 6th of August Kiamil Pasha, an advanced Liberal, became grand vizier, and a new cabinet was formed, including a Greek, Prince Mavrocordato, an Armenian, Noradounghian, and the Sheikh-ul-Islam.
The two authors of this book played a most active part in the Roman Revolution.
This "confusion of powers," which was contrary to the philosophical theories - those of Montesquieu especially - which had inspired the Revolution at first, was one of the essential characteristics of the Convention.
See French Revolution; Girondists; Mountain; D Anton; Robespierre; Marat, &C.
The French Revolution and the insecurity of the political situation, however, exercised a depressing and retarding effect.
Marie Antoinette then obtained that ascendancy over her husband which was partly responsible for the extravagance of the ministry of Calonne, and brought on the Revolution by the resulting financial embarrassment.'
The third part of his reign began with the meeting of the statesgeneral on the 4th of May 1789, which marked the opening of the Revolution.
Even his attempted flight on the 10th of June 1791 did not entirely turn the nation against him, although he left documents which proved his opposition to the whole Revolution.
The declaration of war against the emperor Francis II., nephew of Marie Antoinette, was forced upon the king by those who wished to discredit him by failure, or to compel him to declare himself openly an enemy to the Revolution.
A devoted and sincere Roman Catholic, he refused at first to sanction a constitution for the church in France without the pope's approval, and after he had been compelled to allow the constitution to become law he resolved to oppose the Revolution definitely by intrigues.
The "orphan of the Temple," as the princess was called, was in prison for three years, ' The responsibility of Marie Antoinette for the policy of the king before and during the Revolution has been the subject of much controversy.
See the articles French Revolution and Marie Antoinette.
It is a mistake to suppose, however, that La Chetardie took a leading part in the revolution which placed the daughter of Peter the Great on the Russian throne.
So swiftly and noiselessly indeed had the whole revolution proceeded that as late as eight o'clock the next morning very few people in the city were aware of it.
The revolt against Democratic rule was undoubtedly serious, but a study of the popular vote shows that the election of Harrison, the Whig candidate, was less of a revolution than many affected to think.
He was an accomplished writer and scholar, contributed largely to William Hutchinson's History of the County of Cumberland (2 vols., 1794 seq.), and published A View of the Causes and Consequences of the American Revolution (1797), dedicated to George Washington, and consisting of thirteen discourses delivered in America between 1763 and 1775.
Although, when Beam was annexed to the domains of the crown, it was granted a conseil d'etat and a parlement, which sat at Pau, the province also retained its fors until the Revolution.
After the revolution in Greece and the disappearance of King Otho, the people most earnestly desired to have Queen Victoria's second son, Prince Alfred, for their king.
This office he held till the 12th of September 1863, when finding it impossible to resist the rising current of radicalism and revolution he resigned all his offices, and obtained at his own request unlimited leave of absence.
The cases of greatest practical importance are those of a sphere (which is an ellipsoid with three equal axes) and an ovoid or prolate ellipsoid of revolution.
When it is desired to have a uniform magnet with definitely situated poles, it it usual to employ one having the form of an ovoid, or elongated ellipsoid of revolution, instead of a rectangular or cylindrical bar.
An important instance in which the calculation can be made is that of an elongated ellipsoid of revolution placed in a uniform field H o, with its axis of revolution parallel to the lines of force.
Since that date it has more than once been suggested that the molecular currents producing magnetism might be due to the revolution of one or more of the charged atoms or " ions " constituting the molecule.
As a consequence of the structure of the molecule, which is an aggregation of atoms, the planes of the orbits around the latter may be oriented in various positions, and the direction of revolution may be right-handed or left-handed with respect to the direction of any applied magnetic field.
For those orbits whose projection upon a plane perpendicular to the field is righthanded, the period of revolution will be accelerated by the field (since the electron current is negative), and the magnetic moment consequently increased; for those which are left-handed, the period will be retarded and the moment diminished.
By Ancillon he was grounded in religion, in history and political science, his natural taste for the antique and the picturesque making it easy for his tutor to impress upon him his own hatred of the Revolution and its principles.
He was an idealist; but his idealism was of a type the exact reverse of that which the Revolution in arms had sought to impose upon Europe.
For Frederick William the position of leader of Germany now meant the employment of the military force of Prussia to crush the scattered elements of revolution that survived the collapse of the national movement.
What the war and revolution had left of the large farms, subsequent agrarian legislation further damaged; and in 1921 the Latvian state was still struggling against the dislocating effects of war and revolution, and its finance and commerce were seeking new methods of reconstruction.
His treatise was remarkable, not only as offering a satisfactory explanation of the coincidence between the lunar periods of rotation and revolution, but as containing the first employment of his radical formula of mechanics, obtained by combining with the principle of d'Alembert that of virtual velocities.
The Revolution roused him once more to activity and cheerfulness.
The ideas of the French Revolution profoundly influenced him, and wholly altered his career.
In 1820 he was allowed to return to France, and after the Revolution of 1830, Louis Philippe, king of the French, made him a peer of France; he also held two high offices for a few days.
The revolution of 1889 and the constitution adopted in 1891 not only effected a radical change in the form of government, but also brought about the separation of church and state.
In 1640 the revolution which placed the house of Braganza on the throne of Portugal restored Brazil to masters more inclined to promote its interests and assert its possession than the Spaniards.
The successful issue of the recent revolution of the English colonies in North America had filled the minds of some of the more educated youth of that province; and in imitation, a project to throw off the Portuguese yoke was formed, - a cavalry officer, Silva Xavier, nicknamed Tiradentes (tooth-drawer), being the chief conspirator.
Indirectly, however, the fate of this isolated country was decided by the consequences of the French Revolution.
These causes and the fermentation of liberal principles produced by the French Revolution originated a conspiracy in Lisbon in 1817, which was, however, discovered in time to prevent its success.
In Portugal the popular discontent produced the revolution of 1820, when representative government was proclaimed - the Spanish constitution of 1812 being provisionally adopted.
As the king could not abandon Portugal to itself he determined at first to send the prince thither as regent, but Dom Pedro had acquired such popularity by his conduct in the revolution, and had exhibited such a thirst for glory, that the king feared to trust his adventurous spirit in Europe, and decided to go himself.
With great activity he set off to the central provinces of Minas and Sao Paulo to suppress disaffected movements and direct the revolution.
Meanwhile, the revolution in Rio Grande do Sul had revived; and in July 1893 the federal government was forced to send most of the available regular troops to that state to hold the insurgents in check.
After the outbreak of the revolution of 1848 he was elected to the Constituent Assembly, and in 1849 to the Legislative Assembly, but his speeches on behalf of the extreme socialist wing were of so abstract and mystical a character that they had no effect.
When driven from the French throne by the revolution of 1830, Charles once more found a home in the ancient palace of the Stuarts.
The Revolution seems to have greatly affected him.
It is also certain that he liked to excite applause in the galleries by some platitude about the "glorious Revolution" or the "Protestant succession."
Meanwhile the monte of the nine, the chief promoters of the revolution of 1480, were exposed to the growing hatred and envy of their former allies, the monte del popolo, who, conscious of their superior strength and numbers, now sought to crush the noveschi and rise to power in their stead.
Cardinal Granvella, who was a native of the city, became archbishop in 1584, and founded a university which existed until the French Revolution.
On account of his friendship with Robespierre, Saliceti was denounced at the revolution of 9 Thermidor, and was saved only by the amnesty of the year IV.
The revolution of 1848 forced the historian into practical politics.
After the revolution of1848-1849the Hungarian budget was amalgamated with the Austrian, and it was only after the Compromise of 1867 that Hungary received a separate budget.
These triumphs were achieved while the monarchy was absolute, and thus able to concentrate in its hands all the resources of the state, but towards the end of the period a political revolution began.
We cannot trace the gradations of this political revolution, but we know that it met with determined opposition from the crown, which resulted in the utter destruction of the Arpads, who, while retaining to the last their splendid physical qualities, now exhibited unmistakeable signs of moral deterioration, partly due perhaps to their too frequent marriages with semi-Oriental Greeks and semi-savage Kumanians.
For the next quarter of a century he, as the champion of legitimacy,was fighting the Revolution on countless battle-fields, and the fearful struggle only bound the Magyar nation closer to the Habsburg dynasty.
In 1823, when the reactionary powers were meditating joint action to suppress the - revolution in Spain, the government without consultin P ?
The moderates, alarmed not so much by the motion itself as by its tone, again tried to intervene; but on the 13th of March the Vienna revolution broke out, and the king, yielding to pressure or panic, appointed Count Louis Batthyany premier of the first Hungarian responsible ministry, which included Kossuth, Szechenyi and Deak.
The emperor and his ministers hoped that, having conceded the demands of the Magyars, they would receive the help of the Hungarian government in crushing the revolution elsewhere, a hope that seemed to be justified by the readiness with which Batthyany consented to send a contingent to the assistance of the imperialists in Italy.
But the opposition, while unable to deny the recuperation of Hungary, shut their eyes to everything but Tisza's " tyranny, " and their attacks were never so savage and unscrupulous as during the session of 1889, when threats of a revolution were uttered by the opposition leaders and the premier could only enter or leave the House under police protection.
Laplace treated the subject from the point of view of the gradual aggregation and cooling of a mass of matter, and demonstrated that the form which such a mass would ultimately assume must be an ellipsoid of revolution whose equator was determined by the primitive plane of maximum areas.
Legendre, in 1783, extended Maclaurin's theorem concerning ellipsoids of revolution to the case of any spheroid of revolution where the attracted point, instead of being limited to the axis or equator, occupied any position in space; and Laplace, in his treatise Theorie du mouvement et de la figure elliptique des planetes (published in 1784), effected a still further generalization by proving, what had been suspected by Legendre, that the theorem was equally true for any confocal ellipsoids.
This came in 1614 when he was elected by the clergy of Poitou to the last States-general which met before the Revolution.
His tomb, erected in 1694, though rifled at the Revolution, still exists.
Bodin showed a more rational appreciation than many of his contemporaries of the causes of this revolution, and the relation of the variations in money to the market values of wares in general as well as to the wages of labour.
The power of the collective episcopate to maintain Catholic unity was disproved long before it was overshadowed by the centralized authority of Rome; before the Reformation, its last efforts to assert its supremacy in the Western Church, at the councils of Basel and Constance, had broken down; and the religious revolution of the 16th century left it largely discredited and exposed to a double attack, by the papal monarchy on the one hand and the democratic Presbyterian model on the other.
The accession of the Emperor Charles, and the ferment aroused by the Russian Revolution, led to considerable political changes in both halves of the Dual Monarchy, the most notable being the dismissal of Count Tisza from the Hungarian premiership (May 23 1917), the grant of a general political amnesty, and the summons of the Austrian Reichsrat, which had not been allowed to meet since March 1914.
The three groups communicated secretly through Switzerland, and it was felt that the time had come for the exiles to take a fresh step forward, in view of the prominence given to the doctrine of self-determination since the Russian Revolution and America's entry into the war.
In this way it may happen that although there is almost perfect periodicity with each revolution of the screw after (say) loo lines, yet the loo lines themselves are not equally spaced.
Hussein Hilmi, he, with Niazi Bey, imported the flag of revolution in the Macedonian moun - tains, originally with the object of restoring the constitution of 1876, which had been disregarded by 'Abdul Hamid, but also to save himself from a threatened arrest.
This was to be the signal for the outbreak of revolution.
These eighteen months of storm and stress established his influence in the capital once for all and at the same time knitted him closely to Frederick III., who recognized in Nansen a man after his own heart, and made the great burgomaster his chief instrument in carrying through the anti-aristocratic Revolution of 1660.
How far Nansen was content with the result of the Revolution - absolute monarchy - it is impossible to say.
After the Revolution Nansen continued in high honour, but he chiefly occupied himself with commerce, and was less and less consulted in purely political matters.
In reviewing an incident so important in the history of the Transvaal as the appointment of the Potchefstroom assembly it is of interest to note the gist of the complaint among the Boers which led to this revolution in the government of the country as it had previously existed.
He rendered great service to the Revolution by his practical knowledge of education.
In October 1793 he was sent by the Convention to the south-western departments and did not return to Paris until after the revolution of Thermidor.
The following years were marked by recurring attempts at revolution, but on the whole Venezuela during the period1830-1846was less disturbed than the neighbouring republic owing to the dominating influence of General Paez, who during the whole of that time exercised practically dictatorial power.
In 1849 a successful revolution broke out and Paez was driven out of the country.
On the outbreak of the Sicilian revolution at Palermo (January 12, 1848) he hastened to the island and took an active part in guiding the insurrection.
After the revolution of 1848-1849, the Banat together with another county (Bács) was separated from Hungary, and created into a distinctive Austrian crown land, but in 1860 it was definitely incorporated with Hungary.
In this revolution Thrasybulus and his mercenaries held the fortified quarters of Ortygia and Achradina; the revolted people held the unwalled suburbs, already, it is plain, thickly inhabited.
This revolution and the peace with the Carthaginians confirmed Dionysius in the possession of Syracuse, but of no great territory beyond, as Leontini was again a separate city.
In the interval of twenty years between the death of Timoleon and the rise of Agathocles to power another revolution at Syracuse transferred the government to an oligarchy of 600 leading citizens.
It was shortly after this revolution, in 317, that Agathocles with a body of mercenaries from Campania and a host of exiles from the Greek cities, backed up by the Carthaginian Hamilcar, who was in friendly relations with the Syracusan oligarchy, became a tyrant or despot of the city, assuming subsequently, on the strength of his successes against Carthage, the title of king.
After his death in 289 comes another miserable and obscure period of revolution and despotism, in which Greek life was dying out; and but for the brief intervention of Pyrrhus in 278 Syracuse, and indeed all Sicily, would have fallen a prey to the Carthaginians.
Lamartine was in Switzerland, not in Paris, at the time of the Revolution of July, and, though he, put forth a pamphlet on "Rational Policy," he did not at that crisis take any active part in politics, refusing, however, to continue his diplomatic services under the new government.
At the revolution of February Lamartine was one of the first to declare for a provisional government, and became a member of it, with the post of minister for foreign affairs.
Madame de Stael was dead; Chateaubriand, though alive, was something of a classic, and had not effected a full revolution.
The supremacy of Arabian medicine lasted till the revival of learning, when the study of the medical classics in their original language worked another revolution.
The reform of medicine in France must be dated from the great intellectual awakening caused by the Revolution, but more definitely starts with the researches in anatomy and physiology of Marie Francois Xavier Bichat (1771-1802).
The result of his discovery was an entire revolution in the knowledge of diseases of the chest; but it would be a mistake to forget that an essential factor in this revolution was the simultaneous study of the condition of the diseased organs as seen after death.
Forbes also translated the works of Laennec and Auenbrugger, and an entire revolution was soon effected in the knowledge of diseases of the chest.
His Whig connexions combined with his transatlantic experiences to predispose Lord Edward to sympathize with the doctrines of the French Revolution, which he embraced with ardour when he visited Paris in October 1792.
On the completion of the feudal revolution of 1868 he was appointed governor of the province of Tosa, and having served six years in this office, was transferred to Tokyo as assistant minister of finance.
At the outbreak of the Revolution the chief of the family was Henri Louis Auguste, marquis de La Rochejacquelein, marechal de camp in the royal army, who had three sons named after himself - Henri, Louis and Auguste.
A striking point in this municipal revolution is that the new privileges extended to the city of London were entirely copied from those of continental cities, and Mr Round shows that there is conclusive proof of the assertion that the Commune of London derived its origin from that of Rouen.
He attracted no attention at headquarters, and was still a captain when the revolution of 1820 broke out.
The engine is direct-acting, the drums making one revolution for each double stroke.
In geared hoists the drums. are on a separate shaft, driven from the crank-shaft by tooth or friction gearing, and make one revolution for, say, 4 or 5 double strokes.
He became minister plenipotentiary at Madrid and at Lisbon, but the revolution of 1848 caused him to withdraw into private life, from which he did not emerge until in 1871 he was elected deputy to the National Assembly by the Gironde.
His interest in public affairs was, however, first aroused by the outbreak of the French Revolution.
This was followed, next year, by translations of works on the Revolution by Mallet du Pan and Mounier, and at this time he also founded and edited a monthly journal, the Neue deutsche Monatsschrift, in which for five years he wrote, mainly on historical and political questions, maintaining the principles of British constitutionalism against those of revolutionary France.
Moreover, he was from the first aware of the probable developments of the Revolution and of the consequences to Prussia of the weakness and vacillations of her policy.
After the revolution she edited in conjunction with Karl Liebknecht the Rote Fahne, the organ of the Spartacist or Communist advocates of violent revolutionary methods.
About the same time a revolution broke out which resulted in King Pagan's dethronement.
The absence of traces of the transition strengthens the supposition that the revolution in technique merely consisted in the discovery that it was more convenient to finish the base of a vessel before its mouth, and such a revolution would leave no trace behind.
In 1776 appeared his (anonymous) pamphlet on the American revolution in opposition to Dr Price's Observations on the Nature of Civil Liberty, in which he sympathized with the views of the British legislature.
Although Louis Philippe had been his friend since the days of the Revolution, he accepted no office from the monarchy of July.
His chief works deal with the soldiers of the Revolution.
He was responsible, especially, for the great operation known as the opening of the Grand Livre (August 2 4), which was designed to consolidate the public debt by cancelling the stock issued under various conditions prior to the Revolution, and issuing new stock of a uniform character, so that all fund-holders should hold stock of the revolutionary government and thus be interested in its stability.
With the revolution which speedily followed this impolitic trial, new troubles encountered Ken; for, having sworn allegiance to James, he thought himself thereby precluded from taking the oath to William of Orange.
He then supposed this cylindrical column of water to be divided into two parts, - the first, which he called the " cataract," being an hyperboloid generated by the revolution of an hyperbola of the fifth degree around the axis of the cylinder which should pass through the orifice, and the second the remainder of the water in the cylindrical vessel.
As the molten metal is run in, the upward thrust on the outside mould, when the level has reached PP', is the weight of metal in the volume generated by the revolution of APQ; and this, by a theorem of Archimedes, has the same volume as the cone ORR', or rya, where y is the depth of metal, the horizontal sections being equal so long as y is less than the radius of the outside FIG.
Motion symmetrical about an Axis.-When the motion of a liquid is the same for any plane passing through Ox, and lies in the plane, a function ' can be found analogous to that employed in plane motion, such that the flux across the surface generated by the revolution of any curve AP from A to P is the same, and represented by 2s-4 -11'o); and, as before, if d is the increase in due to a displacement of P to P', then k the component of velocity normal to the surface swept out by PP' is such that 274=2.7ryk.PP'; and taking PP' parallel to Oy and Ox, u= -d/ydy, v=dl,t'/ydx, (I) and 1P is called after the inventor, " Stokes's stream or current function," as it is constant along a stream line (Trans.
This is so when the axis of revolution is a principal axis, say Oz; when S21=0, t 2 =0, =o, o=0.
A rotation about the axis of a figure of revolution does not set the medium in motion, so that C 1 is.
When he ascended the throne of Babylon in 747 B.C. Assyria was in the throes of a revolution.
The office was abolished in France at the Revolution in 1789, revived by Pius IX.
A revolution was only averted through the intervention of Pope Eugenius IV., who was then in Florence.
In 1859, after the Franco-Italian victories over the Austrians in Lombardy, by a bloodless revolution in Florence Leopold was expelled and Tuscany annexed to the Sardinian kingdom.
Fersen stood quite aloof from the revolution of 1809.
The inn was purchased in 1901 by the Daughters of the American Revolution, who restored it and made it a Putnam Memorial.
In 1781 he was stationed permanently at Paris, but on the outbreak of the Revolution in 1789 he resigned his appointment as intendant des eaux et fontaines, and retired to a small estate which he possessed at Blois.
At the outbreak of the Revolution, Kersaint, in spite of his high birth, took the side of the latter.
He did not accept the principles of the Revolution, but emigrated.
After studying law he soon entered politics, and was on the staff of the ministry of justice after the revolution of February 1848.
Then, elected deputy by the department of the Loiret, he joined the group of the Left Centre, and was a supporter of the revolution of the 4th of September 1870.
Palladio inaugurated a school of followers who continued to erect similar buildings in Vicenza even down to the French Revolution.
In 1789 Armagnac was a province forming part of the Gouvernement-general of Guienne and Gascony; it was divided into two parts, High or White Armagnac, with Auch for capital, and Low or Black Armagnac. At the Revolution the whole of the original Armagnac was included in the department of Gers.
When Queen Isabella and her husband were forced to leave Spain by the revolution of 1868 he accompanied them to Paris, and from thence he was sent to the Theresianum at Vienna to continue his studies.
In his short reign peace was established both at home and abroad, the finances were well regulated, and the various administrative services were placed on a basis that afterwards enabled Spain to pass through the disastrous war with the United States without even the threat of a revolution.
In the midst of the French Revolution respect for civic festivals was sternly enacted, but sacrilege was an almost daily matter of state policy.
There is no exact parallel in England to the conflict between these two classes in Scotland in the 16th century, or to the great continental revolution of the 13th and 14th centuries, by which the crafts threw off the yoke of patrician government and secured more independence in the management of their own affairs and more participation in the civic administration.
The Norwalk Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution has erected here a drinking fountain in memory of Nathan Hale, who obtained in Norwalk his disguise as a Dutch school teacher and then started on his fatal errand to Long Island.
Being much excited by the first events of the Revolution, he gave up his desk to enter a printer's office, and by 1791 he was overseer of the printing department of the Moniteur.
Even before the outbreak of the revolution he included Socialistic claims in his programme.
Russia's military prestige was at a low ebb, her finance in a state of chaos, the Tsarist regime discredited and the country in the throes of revolution.
He lived to see the World War of 1914 and the Russian revolution of 1917, which forced him into impoverished retirement at his villa at Biarritz.
John Hodgson (1779-1845), the historian of Northumberland, in a short memoir published in 1831, held that he was born in 1685, at Pinkie House, in the parish of Inveresk, Midlothian, and that his father was a Northumberland Nonconformist, who had migrated to Scotland, but returned to England soon after the Revolution of 1688.
The machinery worked so badly that the revolution of the turret was stopped.
But the times of revolution are doubtful; the probable period of the comet is 121 years and that of the meteors 1051 years.
With the progress of the Revolution, however, this attitude was changed.
At the outbreak of the revolution of 1820 the king called him to his councils, and when the constitution had been granted Colletta was sent to put down the separatist rising in Sicily, which he did with great severity.
But even at this crisis Savonarola's influence was all-powerful, and a bloodless revolution was effected.
In 1792 the citizens welcomed the ideas of the French Revolution; they expelled their archbishop, Friedrich Karl Joseph d'Erthal, and opened their gates to the French troops.
In 1848, when the political air was charged with stimulating elements, he founded the Positive Society, with the expectation that it might grow into a reunion as powerful over the new revolution as the Jacobin Club had been in the revolution of 1789.
The charter was suspended at the beginning of the Andros regime in 1686, but was restored again after the Revolution of 1689.
The movement as a whole was of exactly the same character as the industrial revolution in England, and it led to the same result, a struggle for electoral reform.
A second letter and a third followed, and their effect, though for a while retarded, was unmistakably felt in the subsequent revolution which created a free and united Italy.
It is the seat of a Greek-Orthodox bishop, and possesses a Greek-Orthodox theological seminary, two training schools for teachers - one Hungarian, and the other Rumanian - and a conservatoire for music. The town played an important part in the Hungarian revolution of 1848-49, and possesses a museum containing relics of this war of independence.
His accession in 1547 gave rise to a veritable revolution at the court.
The July Revolution led to no disturbances in Baden; but the new grand-duke from the first showed liberal tendencies.
The news of the revolution of February 1848 in Paris brought this agitation to a head.
A military mutiny at Rastatt on the r r th of May showed that the army sympathized with the revolution, which was proclaimed two days later at Offenburg amid tumultuous scenes.
During the revolution of 1848 against the Bourbons of Naples, Messina was bombarded for three consecutive days.
Just before the Revolution it developed fresh activity, but the troubles of 1792 caused it to be discontinued until 1796, when it again failed to appear after twelve numbers had been issued.
The Decade philosophique (year V., or 1796/1797), founded by Ginguene, is the first periodical of the magazine class which appeared after the storms of the Revolution.
He declined to accept the revolution settlement as final, or to think with Burke that the constitution of the House of Commons could not be bettered.
The French Revolution affected Fox profoundly.
But when the development of the Revolution caused a general reaction, he adhered stoutly to his opinion that the Revolution was essentially just and ought not to be condemned for its errors or even for its crimes.
A subsequent revolution at the Persian court led to the dethronement of Chosroes in favour of his son Kavadh II.
He came into temporary prominence again during the revolution of 1908.
The startling successes of the French produced a revolution among the Dutch people, who naturally turned for help to the scion of the house of Orange.
This revolution was followed by a riot, in which John de Witt and his brother Cornelius were murdered by the mob at the Hague.
A strong constitutionalist, Chenier took the view that the Revolution was already complete and that all that remained to be done was the inauguration of the reign of law.
He next engaged in literary and tutorial work in Bremen, and on the outbreak of the revolution, in February 1848, was sent to Paris, as correspondent of the Bremer Zeitung.
Burke wrote his Vindication of Natural Society in imitation of Bolingbroke's style, but in refutation of his principles; and in the Reflections on the French Revolution he exclaims, "Who now reads Bolingbroke, who ever read him through?"
The initial difficulties of setting up an administrative machine on national lines were the greater as the troops of the occupying Power, affected by the revolution which had broken out in Germany, engaged in pillage and highway robbery, which a national militia as yet barely armed had to suppress.
The above expressions for the capacity of an ellipsoid of three unequal axes are in general elliptic integrals, but they can be evaluated for the reduced cases when the ellipsoid is one of revolution, and hence in the limit either takes the form of a long rod or of a circular disk.
Thus if the ellipsoid is one of revolution, and ds is an element of arc which sweeps out the element of surface dS, we have dS = 27ryds = 27rydx/ (Ts) = 27rydx/ (b y) = 2 p2 dx.
Accordingly the distribution of electricity is such that equal parallel slices of the ellipsoid of revolution taken normal to the axis of revolution carry equal charges on their curved surface.
The capacity C of the ellipsoid of revolution is therefore given by the expression I I dx (7) C 2a ?
But an artistic temperament was hardly that required of a king of Prussia on the eve of the Revolution; and Frederick the Great, who had employed him in various services - notably in an abortive confidential mission to the court of Russia in 1 780 - openly expressed his misgivings as to the character of the prince and his surroundings.
For, meanwhile, the French Revolution had entered upon alarming phases, and in August 1791 Frederick William, at the meeting at Pillnitz, arranged with the emperor Leopold to join in supporting the cause of Louis XVI.
A subsidy treaty with the sea powers (April 1 9, 1 794) filled his coffers; but the insurrection in Poland that followed the partition of 1793, and the threat of the isolated intervention of Russia, hurried him into the separate treaty of Basel with the French Republic (April 5, 1795), which was regarded by the great monarchies as a betrayal, and left Prussia morally isolated in Europe on the eve of the titanic struggle between the monarchical principle and the new political creed of the Revolution.
After the Revolution of 1688, he commanded 1 The bird, however, does not inhabit Iceland, and the language to which the name belongs would perhaps be more correctly termed Old Teutonic. From this word is said to come the French Freux.
Arrested in the Isle of Bourbon under the Terror, he was set free by the revolution of Thermidor (July 1794).
It was proposed to utilize the money set free by this operation to indemnify by a milliard francs the emigres for the loss of their lands at the Revolution; it was also proposed to restore their former privileges to the religious congregations.
At the end of the ancien regime it formed part of the "Gouvernement" of Guienne, and at the Revolution it was incorporated in the department of Lotet-Garonne, of which it constitutes nearly the whole.
Between that date and the Revolution there had been only two secretaries of state, whose duties were divided by a geographical division of the globe into northern and southern departments.
Often in cases of political revolution the members of the defeated party have sought refuge elsewhere, as after the revolutionary movements of 1848.
On the outbreak of the French Revolution he sided with the royalists and was eventually brought into conflict with the French republic. The army being demoralized and the treasury empty, the kingdom The fell an easy prey to the republican forces.
Under the will of Corradino a representative of the blood of Roger the Norman, Peter of Aragon claimed the succession, and it came to him by the revolution known as " the Sicilian Vespers " when 28,000 French were exterminated in Sicily.
The last but one of the Grand Masters who reigned in Malta, de Rohan, restored good government, abated abuses and promulgated a code of laws; but the ascendancy acquired by the Inquisition over the Order, the confiscation of the property of the knights in France on the outbreak of the Revolution, and the intrigues of the French made the task of regenerating the Order evidently hopeless in the changed conditions of Christendom.
The revolution in Milan and Vienna aroused a fever of patriotic enthusiasm in Tuscany, where war against Austria was demanded; Leopold, giving way to popular pressure, sent a force of regulars and volunteers to co-operate with Piedmont in the Lombard campaign.
Thus the revolution was accomplished without a drop of blood being shed, and after a period of provisional government Tuscany was incorporated in the kingdom of Italy.
Here no such ology and revolution has been effected as that which virtually classical created anew the history of Oriental antiquity; yet history.
The English Revolution is popularly called the Revolution of 1688.
Had the year then begun, as it now does, with the ist of January, it would have been the revolution of 1689, William and Mary being received as king and queen in February in the year 1689; but at that time the year was considered in England as beginning on the 25th of March.
The Chinese divide the time of a complete revolution of the sun with regard to the solstitial points into twelve equal portions, each corresponding to thirty days, ten hours, thirty minutes.
As the /see' is longer than a synodic revolution of the moon, the sun cannot arrive twice at a chung-ki during the same lunation; and as there are only twelve tsee, the year can contain only twelve months having different names.
But he was rather a destructive than a constructive statesman, and his most important service was in organizing the forces of revolution before 1775.
To trace in any detail the fortunes of Herat would be to write the modern history of the East, for there has hardly been a dynastic revolution, or a foreign invasion, or a great civil war in Central Asia since the time of the prophet, in which Herat has not played a conspicuous part and suffered accordingly.
Having completed his education, he spent some time in travelling, chiefly in the south of Europe, and visited Paris, where he was an eye-witness of some of the last scenes of the Revolution.
After this bloodless revolution the third division embarked at Callao on the 17th of March 1827, and landed in the southern department of Colombia in the following month.
A revolution placed William of Orange at the head of the government.
In the Ten Years' War of 1868-78 and in the revolution of 1895-98 Holguin was an insurgent centre.
When the revolution of 96 came, and Nerva replaced the murdered Domitian, one of the most important posts in the empire, that of consular legate of Upper Germany, was conferred upon Trajan.
An officer whose nature, as the event showed, was interpenetrated with the spirit of legality was a fitting servant of a revolution whose aim it was to substitute legality for personal caprice as the dominant principle of affairs.
But he proved incapable of dealing with the Revolution of 1848, and the remainder of his life was spent in retirement in Corsica.
Before the Revolution he was an avocat at Bernay.
Then the English Revolution came in 1688 and changed England from a wavering ally into the most determined of the enemies of France.
Returning to Italy on the outbreak of the revolution of 1848, he was appointed commander of a division of the pontifical forces, and fought against the Austrians in Venetia until the fall of Vicenza, when he returned to Piedmont as major-general.
If the whole globe were covered with a uniformly deep ocean, and if there were no difference of density between one part and another, the surface would form a perfect ellipsoid of revolution, that is to say, all the meridians would be exactly equal ellipses and all parallels perfect circles.
The soundings are made by means of a special machine fitted with a brake so adjusted that the revolution of the drum is stopped automatically the instant the lead touches the bottom, and the depth can then be read directly from an indicator.
Everywhere he bent his energies to the exposition of the new thoughts which were beginning to effect a revolution in the thinking world.
For flat ropes the drum or bobbin consists of a solid disk, of the width of the rope fixed upon the shaft, with numerous parallel pairs of arms or horns, arranged radially on both sides, the space between being just sufficient to allow the rope to enter and coil regularly upon the preceding lap. This method has the advantage of equalizing the work of the engine throughout the journey, for when the load is greatest, with the full cage at the bottom and the whole length of rope out, the duty required in the first revolution of the engine is measured by the length of the smallest circumference; while the assistance derived from gravitating action of the descending cage in the same period is equal to the weight of the falling mass through a height corresponding to the length of the largest lap, and so on, the speed being increased as the weight diminishes, and vice versa.
The public held her responsible for the bankrupt state of the country; and though in 1788, following the popular outcry, she prevailed upon the king to recall Necker, it was impossible for him to avert the Revolution.
She was naturally incapable of seeing the full import of the Revolution, and merely temporised with Mirabeau.
He took, at an early date, a very active part in the literary and political movements immediately preceding the Hungarian Revolution of 1848.
It effected a revolution in his mode of thinking; so completely did the Kantian doctrine of the inherent moral worth of man harmonize with his own character, that his life becomes one effort to perfect a true philosophy, and to make its principles practical maxims. At first he seems to have thought that the best method for accomplishing his object would be to expound Kantianism in a popular, intelligible form.
During this period he published anonymously two remarkable political works, Zuriickforderung der Denkfreiheit von den Fiirsten Europas and Beitrdge zur Berichtigung der Urtheile des Publicums fiber die franzOsische Revolution.
The French Revolution seemed to many earnest thinkers the one great outcry of modern times for the liberty of thought and action which is the eternal heritage of every human being.
To direct attention to the true nature of revolution, to demonstrate how inextricably the right of liberty is interwoven with the very existence of man as an intelligent agent, to point out the inherent progressiveness of state arrangements, and the consequent necessity of reform or amendment, such are the main objects of the Beitrage; and although, as is often the case with Fichte, the arguments are too formal and the distinctions too wiredrawn, yet the general idea is nobly conceived and carried out.
Wooten (ed.), A Comprehensive History of Texas, 1685-1897 (2 vols., Dallas, 1898), contains a reprint of Yoakum with notes and several chapters by various writers on Anglo-American colonization, the revolution against Mexico, the land system, the educational system, &c. A series of monographs dealing mostly with the period before 1845 will be found in The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association (Austin, 1897 sqq.).
Until the Revolution he lived a somewhat wandering life, interesting himself particularly in botany.
He studied law, and at the outbreak of the Revolution was an advocate of the parlement of Bordeaux.
The value n = 2 is appropriate to bodies of which the shape is that of a solid of revolution, so that there is no rotation about the axis of symmetry.
He refused to allow his name to be brought forward as a candidate when the Cortes of 1868, after the Revolution, sought for a ruler.
Charles Albert no doubt was aware of this, but he never actually became a Carbonaro, and was surprised and startled when after the outbreak of the Neapolitan revolution of 1820 some of the leading conspirators in the Piedmontese army, including Count Santorre di Santarosa and Count San Marzano, informed him that a military rising was ready and that they counted on his help (2nd March 1821).
France having decided to intervene in the Spanish revolution on the side of autocracy, Charles Albert asked permission to join the duc d'Angouleme's expedition.
The rest of his life calls for little notice except that at the time of the July Revolution of 1830, which unseated the elder branch of the Bourbons, he urged Louis Philippe, duke of Orleans, to take the throne offered to him by popular acclaim.
These works effected a complete revolution in his mind.
See an article by Louis Madelin in La Revolution francaise (1900).
A change of constitution, imposed perhaps by the Macedonians, was nullified (about 250) by a revolution through which democracy was restored.
The city was not much disturbed by the struggle for independence, but it was afterwards the scene of many a revolution until the dictatorial authority of Porfirio Diaz put an end to petty pronunciamentos and partisan intrigues.
Three or four monasteries of the revived English Benedictines were established on the continent at the beginning of the 17th century, and remained there till driven back to England by the French Revolution.
The wars of the French Revolution and of the emperor Napoleon, in which Spain was entangled, interrupted its communications with its colonies, and weakened its hold on them.
And though in recent years Spanish America has seemingly settled down, and republican institutions have followed upon long periods of continual revolution, yet over the American continent as a whole there is an overwhelming predominance, material and intellectual, of the communities of English speech and politically of English origin.
Henceforward he lived in retirement until, during the Revolution, he was involved in the charges against the financiers of the old regime.
But about the close of the 18th century this remarkable prosperity had also come to an end, and it was not till after the Belgian revolution of 1830-1831 that Haarlem began to develop the manufactures in which it is now chiefly engaged.
The English Revolution of 1688 divided the people of New York into two well-defined factions.
The aristocrats also favoured the Revolution, but preferred to continue the government under authority from James II.
The Revolution drew him into political life, and he was elected a deputy for the Pas de Calais.
The 18th century, however, was a time of religious decadence even among the Alpine valleys, and the outbreak of the French Revolution saw the Vaudois made subjects of France.
In the last quarter of the 19th century spectroscopy and photography together worked a revolution in observational astronomy, and in both branches Huggins acted as pioneer.
The revolution need not be complete, but may be through any angle.
Similarly a surface of revolution can be divided by planes at right angles to the axis into elements, each of which is approximately a section of the surface of a right circular cone.
The theorems are of use, not only for finding the volumes or areas of solids or surfaces of revolution, but also, conversely, for finding centroids or centres of gravity.
The revolution of an eccentric A causes two short steel cylinders or cutters mounted on a block of iron B, suitably guided, to enter two holes in a plate fixed to the bed of the machine.
When the excitement caused by the Revolution had subsided, Congregationalism entered upon a new period of energy.
In eight years of hard work as director of a special land commission he settled the titles of land acquired by the French nation at the Revolution, and placed on an unassailable basis the rights of the proprietors who had bought this land from the government.
The news of the English revolution of 1688, however, caused an uprising in Boston, and in April.
William Smith's History of the Late Province of New York, from itsDiscovery to 1762 (1st part, 1757, reprinted in the 1st series of the New York Historical Society Collections, 2 vols., 1829-1830) is still the chief authority for the period from the English Revolution of 1688 to the eve of the War of Independence.
For the history of German thought it was of the greatest importance that a Liberal from the Rhine, by a systematic history of the Revolution, attempted to overthrow the influence which the revolutionary legend, as expounded by French writers, had acquired over the German mind; and the book was an essential part of the influences which led to the formation of a National Liberal school of thought.
Besides continuing his work on the Revolution and on the middle ages, he was occupied with the Historical Seminar which heinstituted; with the Historische Zeitschrift which he founded, the original and model of the numerous technical historical publications which now exist; and as secretary of the new historical commission.
He practised as a barrister in Paris; and under the Revolution was elected as a depute suppleant in the Constituent Assembly, and later as deputy in the Legislative Assembly.
He was called to Paris by his brother in 1787, and during the Revolution belonged, like him, to the party of the Feuillants.
The first constitutional Government which came into power in Turkey after the revolution speedily found itself opposed by the "Young Turk" Committee of Union and Progress - the same occult body which had organized and carried through the revolution.
The Committee had, in fact, a definite policy before them for execution; a policy by no means in harmony with the professions of liberty and equality for all Ottoman subjects upon which the revolution had been accomplished.
The revolution had given birth to a strong nationalistic spirit in Turkish Moslems and a desire to restore the empire to something of its former power, but had not diminished their religious zeal.
The troops in the capital were won over (the same troops who had effected the revolution of the previous year), and on April 1 2 they demanded that the constitution should be subject to Mahommedan sacred law, and great demonstrations, attended by fighting, taking place against the Government.
During the first two weeks of April, while Constantinople was in the throes of revolution, serious events were taking place in Adana, the prosperous capital of the Cilician plain.
This triumph of the mutiny was the beginning of the German revolution, and the sailors from Kiel and other northern ports carried the idea of Workmen's and Soldiers' Councils throughout the north of Germany and ultimately to Berlin.
Many Jews questioned this diagnosis, and refused to see in the new anti-Semitism (q.v.) which spread over Europe in 1881 any more than a temporary reaction against the cosmopolitanism of the French Revolution.
The restored fugitives selected five "ephors," including Critias, to organize a revolution, while the radicals.