Revival sentence example
Where the ritual, as in most cases, is a revival of pre-Reformation.
So the revival of Zoroastrianism came from Persis.
This epoch is marked by the renaissance of Sanskrit literature and the gradual revival of Hinduism at the expense of Buddhism.
Many of them, however, are of considerable architectural importance and the revival of the Renaissance style is perhaps illustrated nowhere better than in Stuttgart.
Methodism began in a revival of personal religion, and it professed to have but one aim, viz.Advertisement
Had his successor been as prudent and able, he might have made a unified Netherlands the nucleus of a mighty middle kingdom, interposing between France and Germany, and a revival of that of the Carolingian Lothaire.
A majority of the Ulster Protestants were Presbyterians, and in a great religious revival which took place the ministers of the Scottish regiments stationed in Ireland took a leading part.
His administration was marked by a revival of American industries and a reduction of the public debt, and at its conclusion the country was left in a condition of prosperity and on friendly terms with foreign nations.
Before modern philosophy began its career, there was a great revival of ancient philosophy at the Renaissance; sometimes anti-Christian, sometimes pro-Christian.
There is told of him a story which illustrates the temper of the early humanistic revival in Italy.Advertisement
A dispute between Selinus and Segesta (probably the revival of a similar quarrel about 454, when an Athenian force appears to have taken part 2) was one of the causes of the Athenian expedition of 415 B.C. At its close the former seemed to have the latter at its mercy, but an appeal to Carthage was responded 1 The plant was formerly thought to be wild parsley.
The relation of the plastic arts to the revival of learning is similar to that which has been sketched in the case of poetry.
He was a considerable force in the educational revival of Jewish education in France.
On the 8th of May about thirty officers presented a petition to parliament against the revival of the monarchy, and Fleetwood, Desborough and Lambert threatened to lay down their commissions.
Since the pacification of the Sudan by the British (1886-1889) there has been some revival of trade between Gondar and the regions of the Blue Nile.Advertisement
After the revival of learning Plautus was reinstated, and took rank as one of the great dramatists of antiquity; cf.
From this date, however, we are able to trace the revival of independent thought among the Italians.
A revival of Irredentism in connection with the execution of an Austrian deserter named Oberdank, who after escaping into Italy endeavoured to return to Austria with explosive bombs in his possession, and the cordial references to France made by Depretis at Stradella (8th October 1882), prevented the French government from suspecting the existence of the alliance, or from ceasing to strive after a Franco-Italian understanding.
The period of the revival of learning, which was also that of a renewed study of nature, is marked by a considerable amount of speculation respecting the origin of the universe.
Then parliament enacted a new system of Church courts which, though to some extent in its turn superseded by the revival of episcopacy under James VI., was revived or ratified by the act of 1690, c. 7, and stands to this day.Advertisement
The old arguments of Aristotle and the old measurements of Ptolemy were used by Toscanelli and Columbus in urging a westward voyage to India; and mainly on this account did the Revival of crossing of the Atlantic rank higher in the history of geography.
The older navigation by utilizing the power of the wind demands a very intimate knowledge of these conditions, and it is probable that a revival of sailing ships may in the present century vastly increase the importance of the study of maritime meteorology.
The revival of the Moravian Brethren was German in origin.
Moreover, a spiritual revival mitigated the crushing effects of material ruin.
The powers of a dictator were a temporary revival of those of the kings; but there were some limitations to his authority.Advertisement
For some time thereafter the office was in abeyance, but under Arabic rule there was a considerable revival of its dignity.
It is doubtless to be regarded as a revival of ancient habits of thought and feeling among a people who had adopted the Koran, not by affinity, but by compulsion.
Still, at the opening of the 16th century, it became manifest what fruits of noble quality the Revival of Letters was about to bring forth for modern literature.
In the drama the pedantry of the Revival, which had not injured romantic literature, made itself perniciously felt.
The medieval curriculum offered no defined place for the new learning of the Revival, which had indeed no recognized name.Advertisement
But that audacious exploratory energy which formed the motive force of the Renaissance as distinguished from the Revival of Learning took, as we shall see, very different directions in the several nations who now were sending the flower of their youth to study at the feet of Italian rhetoricians.
These two main streams of modern progress had been proceeding upon different tracks to diverse issues, but they touched in the studies stimulated by the Revival, and they had a common origin in the struggle of the spirit after self-emancipation.
It was not in the nature of the Italians, sceptical and paganized by the Revival, to be revival keenly interested about questions which seemed to revive in Italy.
He already displayed those gifts for leadership which were to find so conspicuous a field in the evangelical revival.
We have therefore to recognize that the four greatest writers of the 14th century, while the Revival of Learning was yet in its cradle, each after his own fashion acknowledged the vivifying touch upon their spirit of the antique genius.Advertisement
The lack of printed books in the first period of the Revival, and the comparative rarity of Greek erudition among students, combined with the intense enthusiasm aroused for the new gospel of the classics, gave special value to the personal teaching of these professors.
The four main instruments of the reaction were the papacy, which had done so much by its sympathy with the revival to promote the humanistic spirit it now dreaded, the strength of Spain, and two Spanish institutions planted on Roman soil - the Inquisition and the Order of Jesus.
The revival of learning produced in Spain no slavish imitation as it did in Italy, no formal humanism, and, it may be added, very little of fruitful scholarship. The Renaissance here, as in England, displayed essential qualities of intellectual freedom, delight in life, exultation over rediscovered earth and man.
The Spanish Renaissance would in itself suffice, if other witnesses were wanting, to prove how inaccurate is the theory that limits this movement to the revival of learning.
We have now to speak of France, which earliest absorbed the influence of the Italian revival, and of England, which received it latest.Advertisement
It was left for the Poussins and Claude Lorraine in the next century, acting under mingled Italian and Flemish influences, to embody the still active spirit of the classical revival.
The Rhetoriqueurs, while protracting medieval traditions by their use of allegory and complicated metrical systems, sought to improve the French language by introducing Latinisms. Thus the Revival of Learning began to affect the vernacular in the last years of the 15th century.
Some of the names just mentioned remind us that in France, as in Germany and Holland, the Reformation was closely connected with the revival of learning.
It marked, moreover, in the condition of armed resistance against established authority which was forced upon it by the Counter-Reformation, a firm resolve to assert political liberty, leading in the course of time to a revolution with which the rebellious spirit of the Revival was sympathetic. This being the relation of humanism in general to reform, French learning in particular displayed such innovating boldness as threw many of its most conspicuous professors into the camp at war with Rome.
The Van Eycks, followed by Memling, Metsys, Mabuse, Lucas van Leyden, struck out a new path in the revival of painting and taught Europe the secret of oil-colouring.Advertisement
Yet no other treatment was possible upon the lines laid down at the outset, where it was explained why the term Renaissance cannot now be confined to the Revival of Learning and the effect of antique studies upon literary and artistic ideals.
The Renaissance closed the middle ages and opened the modern era, - not merely because the mental and moral ideas which then sprang into activity and owed their force in large measure to the revival of classical learning were opposed to medieval modes of thinking and feeling, but also because the political and international relations specific to it as an age were at variance with fundamental theories of the past.
That this is the right way of regarding the subject appears from the events of the first two decades of the 16th century, those years in which the humanistic revival attained its highest point in Italy.
A great work in the revival of an interest in the Finnish language was done by the Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura (the Finnish Literary Society), which from the year 1841 has published a valuable annual, Suomi.
The first sign of revival from the catastrophe of the invasions is the reorganization of the Imperial household under Charlemagne with the intention of establishing a more exact collection of revenue.Advertisement
After the fall of the Western Empire, a partial revival of city life, particularly in Italy and Germany, gave some scope for a return to the type of finance presented by the Athenian state.
The new activity which sprang up everywhere after the French Revolution produced in Scotland a revival of Evangelicalism which has not yet spent its force.
This revival was largely due on the one hand to the improvement of her worship which began with the efforts of Dr Robert Lee (1804-1868), minister of Old Greyfriars, Edinburgh, and professor of Biblical criticism in Edinburgh university.
After this, however, there was a revival on the part of some of the clergy of High Church and orthodox sentiment.
A subordinate matter in the book that attracted much attention at the time is the conception of the "Plastic Medium," which is a mere revival of Plato's "World-Soul," and is meant to explain the existence and laws of nature without referring all to the direct operation of God.
For the failure of Assyria in Egypt in 668-664, and the revival of Egypt as a phil-Hellene state under the XXVIth Dynasty, admitted strong GraecoEgyptian influences in industry and art, and led about 560 B.C. to the political conquest of Cyprus by Amasis (Ahmosi) II.; once again Cypriote timber maintained a foreign sea-power in the Levant.
But for this sudden revival of Cymric literature under the patronage of Elizabeth (for the obtaining of which Wales must ever owe a deep debt of gratitude to Bishop Richard Davies, " her second St David "), there is every reason to believe that the ancient language of the Principality must either have drifted into a number of corrupt dialects, as it then showed symptoms of doing, or else have tended to ultimate extinction, much as the Cornish tongue perished in the 17th century.
Meanwhile the writings and personal example of the pious rector of Llanddowror were stirring other Welshmen in the work of revival, chief amongst them being Howell Harris of Trevecca (1713-1773), a layman of brilliant abilities but erratic temperament; and Daniel Rowland (1713-1790), curate of Llangeitho in Mid-Cardiganshire, who became in time the most eloquent and popular preacher throughout all Wales.
Incidentally, it will be noticed that this important Methodist revival had its origin and found its chief supporters and exponents in a restricted corner of South Wales, of which Carmarthen was the centre, in curious contrast with the literary movement in Elizabeth's reign, which was largely confined to the district round St Asaph.
Towards the close of the, 8th century the Methodist revival spread to North Wales under the influence of the celebrated Thomas Charles, commonly called Charles of Bala (1755-1814), formerly curate of Llanymowddwy and the founder of Welsh Sunday schools.
All the religious bodies, including the Church, have been extremely active in educational and pastoral work; whilst the peculiar religious movement known as a revival (Diwygiad) has occurred from time to time throughout the Principality, notably in the years 1859 and 1904.
The enthusiastic course of the Methodist movement under Howell Harris, Daniel Rowland and William Williams; the establishment of Welsh Sunday Schools; the founding of the Bible Society under Thomas Charles of Bala; and the revival early in the 19th century of the Eisteddfodau (the ancient bardic contests of music, poetry and learning), have all contributed to extend the use of the Welsh language and to strengthen its hold as a popular medium of education throughout the Principality.
The Christian apologists of the 2nd century, however, found plenty of testimony to their doctrine of the unity of God in the writings of Greek poets and philosophers; it was a commonplace in the revival under the Empire; and among the group of religions embraced under the name Buddhism more than one form must be ranked as monotheistic. The idealist philosophy of the Prajiia Paramita in the system of the " Great Vehicle " declared that " every phenomenon is the manifestation of mind " (Beal, Catena, p. 303).
Further, there are elements of Islam, like the usages of the hajj (or pilgrimage to the sacred places at Mecca), the dryness of its official doctrine and the limitations of its real character as indicated in the Wahhabi revival, which so impair its apparent universalism that Kuenen found himself obliged to withdraw it from the highest rank of religions.
The First Church, Boston, had become Socinianized and discountenanced the revival.
Inge's attachment to Christianity caused him to be expelled after a short time by his brother-in-law Sweyn or Blotsweyn, so called Holston, from his revival of the old sacrifices.
Altogether a remarkable revival of belles-lettres has taken place in Sweden after a long period of inertness and conventionality.
The Church had shrunk considerably since the 18th century, but in the first decade of the 10th showed signs of revival as a point d'appui for Catholics restive under the yoke of the ultramontanism dominant in the Roman Church.
The formality and conventional grace of the epistle were elements with which the leaders of romantic revival were out of sympathy, and it was not cultivated to any important degree in the 19th century.
Jevons's general theory of induction was a revival of the theory laid down by Whewell and criticized by Mill; but it was put in a new form, and was free from -some of the non-essential adjuncts which rendered Whewell's exposition open to attack.
The usage in this respect in some " ritualistic " churches is a revival of pre-Reformation ceremonial.
The end of the 19th century saw a revival of this same tyrannical monopolist policy in the Transvaal.
And though there was a complete remedy just coming into notice, in the Evangelical revival, it was not of a kind that commended itself to Butler, whose type of mind was opposed to everything that savoured of enthusiasm.
Antoninus may perhaps be explained in harmony with the older Stoic teaching; but, when taken in connexion with the rise of Neoplatonism and the revival of superstition, they are certainly significant.
Their origin is to be sought not so much in the Revival of Learning as in the fact that the Portuguese had learned, on their voyages of discovery, to see and think for themselves.
Again, in no country was the victory of the Italian Renaissance and the classical revival so complete, so enduring.
A revival of the old Spanish-Moorish " mission " (monastery) style has exercised an increasing influence and is altogether the most pleasing development of Californian architecture.
The use of the mitre, pastoral staff and pectoral cross, which had fallen into complete disuse by the end of the 18th century, has been now very commonly, though not universally, revived; and, in some cases, the interpretation put upon the "Ornaments rubric" by the modern High Church school has led to a more complete revival of the pre-Reformation vestments.
The lost books seem to have disappeared between the 7th century and the revival of letters in the 15th - a fact sufficiently accounted for by the difficulty of transmitting so voluminous a work in times when printing was unknown, for the story that Pope Gregory I.
Gautier (Geneva, 1878); the great work, Ihya ul-` Ulum (" Revival of the sciences") (Bulaq, 1872; Cairo, 1889); see a commentary by al-Murtada called the Ithaf, published in 13 vols.
At the Evangelical Revival the old questions came up, as Wesley favoured Arminianism and George Whitefield Calvinism.
His resolve to become a minister was deepened by the revival of 1858-1859.
There was still no statute by which he could be condemned to the stake, but Hooper was kept in prison; and the revival of the heresy acts in December 1554 was swiftly followed by execution.
Pye, brought him under further suspicion, and his revival of the powers of convocation lessened his influence at court; but his unfailing tact and wide sympathies, his marvellous energy in church organization, the magnetism of his personality, and his eloquence both on the platform and in the pulpit, gradually won for him recognition as without a rival on the episcopal bench.
Each played a foremost part in the revival of learning.
Standing within the threshold of the middle ages, he surveyed the kingdom of the modern spirit, and, by his own inexhaustible industry in the field of scholarship and study, he determined what we call the revival of learning.
Much as he effected by restoring to the world a sound conception of learning, and by rousing that genuine love and curiosity which led to the revival, he did even more by impressing on the age his own full-formed and striking personality.
Georg Voigt's Wiederbelebung des classischen Alterthums (Berlin, 1859) contains a well-digested estimate of Petrarch's relation to the revival of learning.
The American War of Independence suspended progress for a brief interval, but revival set in in 1783, and within the following seven years shipping trebled in amount.
From the sublimity of Thucydides, and Xenophon's straightforward story, history passed with Theopompus and Ephorus into the field of rhetoric. A revival of the scientific instinct of investigation is discernable in Timaeus the Sicilian, at the end of the 4th century, but his attack upon his predecessors was the text of a more crushing attack upon himself by Polybius, who declares him lacking in critical insight and biased by passion.
In the same year new harbour works and lighting arrangements were undertaken on a large scale, and a movement was initiated for the revival of shipbuilding.
In 1733 a revival of religion began in Northampton, and reached such intensity in the winter of 1734 and the following spring as to threaten the business of the town.
A year later he published Discourses on Various Important Subjects, the five sermons which had proved most effective in the revival, and of these none, he tells us, was so immediately effective as that on the Justice of God in the Damnation of Sinners, from the text, " That every mouth may be stopped."
Aunt Annie was here! she announced like a saved soul at a revival.
The low quotations which ruled for a number Copper of years had a depressing effect upon the industry, and many mines once profitably worked were temporarily closed, but in 1906 there was a general revival.
The effect of their preaching, and their example and their work among the poor, made itself felt throughout Umbria and brought about a great religious revival.
Nevertheless his proposal met with strong opposition in the Corps Legislatif and Tribunate, where members saw that it portended a revival of the older distinction.
The revival of learning was at hand, and William Turner, a Northumbrian, while residing abroad to avoid persecution at home, printed at Cologne in 1544 the first commentary on the birds mentioned by Aristotle and Pliny conceived in anything like the spirit that moves modern naturalists.'
The full meaning of the change which had come over Venetian architecture, of the gulf which lies between the early Lombardesque style, so purely characteristic of Venice, and the fully developed classical revival, which now assumed undisputed sway, may best be grasped by comparing the old and the new Procuratie.
In recent times the general prosperity of the city, which is on the ascendant, has brought about a revival of domestic and civic architecture.
Under Austrian rule a revival began, which has been continued and intensified since Venice became part of united Italy.
Even in England, where the church retained most strongly the Catholic tradition, this distinction of " Protestant" and " Catholic" was clearly maintained, at least till the " Catholic revival " in the Church of England of the 19th century.
By careful selection (the methods of which are described below) in the United States, the quality of the product was much improved, and on the recent revival of the cotton industry in the West Indies American " Sea Island " seed was introduced back again to the original home of the species.
At the close of the war in 1815 the revival of trade led to an increased demand, and the progress of cotton cultivation in America became rapid and continuous, until at length about 85% of the raw material used by English manufacturers was derived from this one source.
Under the influence of the Cluniac revival, which began in the 10th century, pilgrimages became increasingly frequent; and the goal of pilgrimage was often Jerusalem.
They protected Europe from the new revival of Mahommedanism under the Turks; they gave it a time of rest in which the Western civilization of the middle ages developed.
But while the Christians of the West were thus winning fresh ground from the Mahommedans, in the course of the 11th century, the East Roman empire had now to bear the brunt of a Mahommedan revival under the Seljuksa revival which, while it crushed for a time the Greeks, only acted as a new incentive to the Latins to carry their arms to the East.
The union of Mardin and Aleppo under the sway of these two amirs, connecting as it did Mesopotamia with Syria, marks an important stage in the revival of Mahommedan power (Stevenson, Crusades in the East, p. 109).
For his position in the history of the revival, see Voigt's Wiederbelebung des classischen Alterthums, and Symonds's Renaissance in Italy.
As has been said, however, the contention of the common law judges prevailed, and the Admiralty Court (except for a temporary revival under Cromwell) sank into comparative Modern in si insignificance during the r th century.
A chapel was built at Harrisehead, and a second revival occurred in September 1804, largely the result of a meeting held at Congleton by some enthusiasts from Southport.
The rhetorical schools experienced a brilliant revival under Constantine and his successors, when Athens became the alma mater of many notable men, including Julian, Libanius, Basil and Gregory of Nazianzus, and in her professors owned the last representatives of a humane and moralized paganism.
The revival of learning had led many away from Christ; intellectual culture must be used as a means of bringing them back.
The gradual accumulation of data referring to organic compounds brought in its train a revival of the discussion of atoms and molecules.
The brilliant success of Humperdinck's Hansel and Gretel, in which Wagnerian technique is applied to the diatonic style of nursery songs with a humorous accuracy undreamed of by Wagner's imitators, points a moral which would have charmed Wagner himself; but until the revival of some rudiments of musical common sense becomes widespread, there is little prospect of the influence of Wagner's harmonic style being productive of anything better than nonsense.
The autobiographies of these early Methodist preachers are among the classics of the Evangelical Revival.
It is certainly Wesley's most picturesque biography and the most vivid account of the evangelical revival that we possess.
The year 1827 marks the revival of Morse's interest in electricity.
He had early fallen under the influence of the great revival movement in Wales, and at the age of seventeen had been "converted" by a sermon of Daniel Rowland's.
A powerful revival broke out at Bala in the autumn of 1791, and his account of it in letters to correspondents, sent without his knowledge to magazines, kindled a similar fire at Huntly.
But the Turkish reform movement of 1908 seemed to promise a revival of Ottoman power, which might in time have enabled the Turks to demand the promised evacuation, and thus to reap all the ultimate benefits of the Austrian administration.
The Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life (1728), together with its predecessor, A Treatise of Christian Perfection (1726), deeply influenced the chief actors in the great Evangelical revival.
Whatever the theoretical value of this injunction may have been, however, in practice the use of the pastoral staff was discontinued until its gradual revival in the last decades of the 19th century.
This change synchronized with the revival of the Western Empire under Charlemagne, a revival which necessarily gave an impulse to the claims of the see of Rome.
As a teacher he was one of the first to discriminate between the various strata in rabbinic records; to him was due the revival of interest in the older Midrash and in the Palestinian Talmud, interest in which had been weak for some centuries before his time.
There was some revival of the art of the sermon at Versailles a century later, where the Abbe Maury, whose critical work has been mentioned above, preached with vivid eloquence between 1770 and 1785; the Pere Elisee (1726-1783), whom Diderot and Mme Roland greatly admired, held a similar place, at the same time, in Paris.
He was associated with Marsilius Ficinus, Angelus Politianus, and Theodorus Gaza, in the revival of letters in the western world.
The title was, however, cheapened by its revival under Napoleon.
Previously Natal had only 221% of the traffic, and this agreement led to a revival in trade.
Somewhat apart from current controversies stood the teaching of the school of Chartres, humanistically nourished on the study of the ancients, and important as a revival of Platonism in opposition to the formalism of the Aristotelians.
The last stage of Scholasticism preceding its dissolution is marked by the revival of Nominalism in a militant form.
Alarmed at the sudden revival of the Eastern Empire, which under the Macedonian dynasty extended once more to the Danube, and thus became the immediate neighbour of Hungary, Duke Geza, who succeeded Taksony in 972, shrewdly resolved to accept Christianity from the more distant and therefore less dangerous emperor of the West.
Having thus become the tongue of the educated and privileged classes, Latin continued to monopolize the chief fields of literature until the revival of the native language at the close of the 18th century.
The first two, marking respectively the progress of the " Regeneration of the Native Literature " (1772-1807) and the " Revival of the Language " (1807-1830), were introductory to and preparatory for the third or " Academy," period, which began about 1830.
Closely connected with the preceding period is that of the " Revival of the Language " (1807-1830), with which the name of Francis Kazinczy (q.v.) is especially associated.
To him it was Revival left to perfect that work of restoration begun by Baroti t th and amplified by Revai.
The Franciscan friar Kacic, who did so much for the revival of popular poetry in Bosnia and Dalmatia in the mid-18th century, shows similar traces of Serbophil feeling, and the achievements of Dusan and other Serbian Tsars have bulked almost as largely in the modern literature of the Croats as of the Serbs themselves.
When sin 0 = 2A/a, the phases range one and a half periods, and there is revival of illumination.
The alternate Fresnel's zones are blocked out or otherwise modified; in this way the original compensation is upset and a revival of light occurs in unusual directions.
After completing his preliminary education in the little school at Lexington, Virginia, which later developed into Washington and Lee University, he came under the influence of the religious movement known as the "great revival" (1789-1790) and devoted himself to the study of theology.
He often preached with John Wesley and for him, and became known as a fervent supporter of the revival.
For the Psalms, as for the other books of the Old Testament, the scholars of the period of the revival of Hebrew studies about the time of the Reformation were mainly dependent on the ancient versions and on the Jewish scholars of the middle ages.
Apart from this movement the most notable events in the Transvaal at this period were the development of agriculture,' the gradual revival of trade (the output of the gold mines in 1909 totalled f 30,925,000, and at the end of the year 156,000 native labourers were employed), and the continued difficulty with regard to British Indians.
In January 1725, on the revival of the Bath, the red riband was offered to him, but was declined.
Here may be mentioned the archaic revival in Egypt in the 8th century B.C., which also extended to the costume.
The district was one of the chief centres of the Methodist revival of the 18th century, the first synod of the Calvinistic Methodists being held in 1743 at Watford farm close to the town, from which place George Whitefield was married at Eglwysilan church two years previously.
Lamartine did not himself go the complete length of the Romantic revival, but he went far in that direction.
The methodic school lasted certainly for some centuries, and influenced the revival of medical science in the middle ages, though overshadowed by the greater reputation of Galen.
These poor compilations, together with Latin translations of certain works of Galen and Hippocrates, formed a medical literature, meagre and unprogressive indeed, but of which a great part survived through the middle ages till the discovery of printing and revival of learning.
It is important to remember that this obscure stream of tradition flowed on, only partially affected by the influx of Arabian, or even the early revival of purer classical learning.
The supremacy of Arabian medicine lasted till the revival of learning, when the study of the medical classics in their original language worked another revolution.
The impulse which all departments of intellectual activity received from the revival of Greek literature in Europe was felt by medicine among the rest.
It was at first very naturally imagined that the simple revival of classical and especially of Greek literature would at once produce the same brilliant results in medicine as in literature and philosophy.
The revival of Galenic and Hippocratic medicine, though ultimately it conferred the greatest benefits on medical sciences, did not immediately produce any important or salutary reform in practical medicine.
A minute knowledge of printed books and a methodical examination of departmental and communal archives furnished him with material for a long course of successful lectures, which gave rise to some important works on municipal history and led to a great revival of interest in the origins and significance of the urban communities in France.
In the Church of England the use of incense was gradually abandoned after the reign of Edward VI., until the ritualistic revival of the present day.
In the general revival of church ceremonial which accompanied and followed the Oxford Movement incense was not forgotten, and its ceremonial use in the pre-Reformation method has been adopted in a few extreme churches since 1850.
Notwithstanding these decisions, it was insisted by those who defended the revival of the ceremonial use of incense that it was a legal custom of the Church of England.
At the beginning of the 13th century the remarkable evangelical revival, instituted almost simultaneously by St Dominic and St Francis, swept over Europe.
The revival in recent years of the craft of glass-blowing in England must be attributed to William Morris and T.G.
In the year 1838 Signor Bussolin revived several of the ancient processes of glass-working, and this revival was carried on by C. Pietro Biguglia in 1845, and by others, and later by Salviati, to whose successful efforts the modern renaissance of Venetian art glass is principally due.
In 1864 Booth went to London and continued his services in tents and in the open air, and founded a body which was successively known as the East London Revival Society, the East London Christian Mission, the Christian Mission and (in 1878) the Salvation Army.
He studied law, and in 1817 came under the influence of a religious revival in Vermont, where at Lyndon in the following year he was licensed as a local preacher and was admitted to the New England conference.
A great literary revival followed the recovery of Babylonian independence, and the rule of Babylon was obeyed as far as the shores of the Mediterranean.
Gratian's Decretum mirrors two tendencies, the church legislation with its growingly less extended application, and the wide meaning as in Justinian's Code, owing to the revival of Roman law in the 11th century.
The questions naturally suggest themselves - Are the reappearances due to a revival of the contagion derived from previous outbreaks in the same place, or to some favouring condition which the place offers for the development of infection derived from some other quarter; and have favouring conditions any dependence upon the character and state of the soil?
The revival of the nationality agitation has produced a marked change in this respect.
In faith healing proper not only are powerful direct suggestions used, but the religious atmosphere and the autosuggestions of the patient co-operate, especially where the cures take place during a period of religious revival or at other times when large assemblies and strong emotions are found.
Looking at the problem in this way, even a moralist who does not expect theology to be the instrument of social revival, might still ask whether the sympathetic instincts will not necessarily be already developed to their highest point, before people will be persuaded to accept the religion, which is at the bottom hardly more than sympathy under a more imposing name.
He had left Oxford just before the beginning of that Catholic revival which has transfigured both the inner spirit and the outward aspect of the Church of England.
Talented representatives of the Kose, Takuma Thhd and Tosa lines maintained the reputation of the Period, native and Buddhist schools, and the long-neglected Chinese school was destined to undergo a vigorous revival.
This continued until the old traditions were well-nigh exhausted, but since i88o there has been a distinct revival.
About the time (1843) of the ao-Kutani revival, a potter called lida Hachiroemon introduced a style of decoration which subsequently came to be regarded as typical of all Kaga procelains.
But as Fox on this occasion aided the vested interests of some English manufacturers he secured a certain revival of popularity.
While the establishment of the empire produced a revival of national and imperial feeling, it suppressed all independent political thought and action.
He first vindicates the claims of his own age to literary pre-eminence, and then seeks to stimulate the younger writers of the day to what he regarded as the manlier forms of poetry, and especially to the tragic drama, which seemed for a short time to give promise of an artistic revival.
These fragments of the "province of Italy," as it was when reconquered by Justinian, were almost all lost either to the Lombards, who finally conquered Ravenna itself about 750, or by the revolt of the pope, who separated from the empire on account of the iconoclastic reforms. The intervention of Pippin the Carolingian, who was called in by the popes to protect them against the Lombards and the Eastern emperors alike, made a revival of the exarchate impossible.
The year 1890 was one of great depression following the exhaustion of the surface ore, but the provision of better machinery and cheaper coal led to a revival in 1891.
On the other hand, the progressive reduction of mining and metallurgical costs effected by improved transportation and machinery, and the use of high explosives, compressed air, electric-power transmission, &c., resulted in California (as elsewhere) in a notable revival of deep mining.
But certain forces were at work which were destined to bring about a great revival, viz.
With the revival of its political and commercial importance the city became the centre of resistance against Rome.
Contributing causes were Philip's support of the Scots and Edward's alliance with the Flemish cities, which were then on bad terms with their French overlord, and the revival of Edward's claim, first made in 1328, to the French crown.
After the battle of Leuctra the philo-Laconian party was expelled with Mantineian help. Tegea henceforth took an active part in the revival of the Arcadian League and the prosecution of the war in alliance with Thebes against Sparta (371-362), and the ultimate defection of Mantineia confirmed it in its federalist tendencies.
In the revival of learning, scholarship supplanted scholasticism, and the old ways of medieval thinking were forgotten.
Simultaneously with the revival, Italy had passed into that stage of her existence which has been called the age of despots.
But the growing secularism of the Church led to a revival of the former method in the beginning of the 13th century amongst the Franciscans.
A revival, however, set in during the 19th century.
With this mention Prester John ceases to have any pretension to historical existence in Asia (for we need not turn aside to Mandeville's fabulous revival of old stories or to the barefaced fictions of his contemporary, John of Hese, which bring in the old tales of the miraculous body of St Thomas), and his connexion with that quarter of the world gradually died out of the memory of Europe.(fn 3) When next we begin to hear his name it is as an African, not as an Asiatic prince; and the personage so styled is in fact the Christian king of Abyssinia.
It was in no small degree due to his stanch and unwavering leadership that the Church was saved from the peril of being overwhelmed by the rising tide of the pagan revival which swept over Asia during the first half of the 2nd century, and it was his unfaltering allegiance to the Apostolic faith that secured the defeat of the many forms of heresy which threatened to destroy the Church from within.
The revival of pre-Reformation ritual by many of the High Church clergy led to the designation "ritualist" being applied to them in a somewhat contemptuous sense; and "High Churchman" and "Ritualist" have often been wrongly treated as convertible terms. Actually many High Churchmen are not Ritualists, though they tend to become so.
It is pretty clear that the common accounts of the Renaissance and of the revival of learning grossly exaggerate the influence of the writers of Greece and Rome, for they produced no obvious rationalistic movement, as would have been the case had Plato and Cicero, Lucretius and Lucian, been taken really seriously.
The monasteries, however, played a great part in the educational side of the Carolingian revival; and certainly from that date schools for boys destined to live and work in the world were commonly attached to Benedictine monasteries.
And when such declensions occurred, they soon called forth efforts at reform and revival; indeed these constantly recurring reformmovements are one of the most striking features of Benedictine history, and the great proof of the vitality of the institute throughout the ages.
The first of these movements arose during the Carolingian revival (c. 800), and is associated with the name of Benedict of Aniane.
But the influence of Cluny, even on monasteries that did not enter into its organism, was enormous; many adopted Cluny customs and practices and moulded their life and spirit after the model it set; and many such monasteries became in turn centres of revival and reform in many lands, so that during the 10th and 11th centuries arose free unions of monasteries based on a common observance derived from a central abbey.
Of the monks professed there during this momentary revival, one, Sigebert Buckley, lived on into the reign of James I.; and being the only survivor of the Benedictines of England, he in 1607 invested with the English habit and affiliated to Westminster Abbey and to the English congregation two English priests, already Benedictines in the Italian congregation.
About 1450, at the time of the revival of learning, a Latin version was made and published by Laurentius Valla.
The revival of preaching, which was the work of the order of St Dominic, did more to combat heresy, especially where its persuasions were enforced by law.
Reaping the benefits of the revival of learning brought about by Charlemagne, he was on intimate terms with Alcuin, was well versed in Latin literature, and knew some Greek.
Yet long before the Evangelical Revival proper, ' For the distinction between " Gathered " and " Re-formed " churches in this connexion, see Dale, p. 376.
So was it in the long run with the Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion, springing from Whitefield's Calvinistic wing of the Revival, not to mention the congregational strain in some minor Methodist churches.
They underwent great extension owing to the Evangelical Revival, and became largely centres of evangelistic activity (Dale, p. 593 ff.).
During the 18th century, though the Independents increased at the expense of the Presbyterians, it is doubtful whether they kept pace with the increase of population, until the Evangelical Revival.
Partly owing to its own faults and partly owing to the stress of political excitement which followed it, the Edwardean revival was followed by nearly half a century of lethargy, during which the chief interest centred in the gradual growth of doctrinal controversy.
From 1791 onwards revival work again became prominent with results which far surpassed those of the Edwardean period.
There is a marked revival of national feeling, favoured by "Young Esthonia."
At the beginning of the 19th century a revival of the popularity of this instrument took place, and quartets were played on four sets of pipes of different sizes and pitch.
In January 1784 Governor George Clinton recommended legislation for the " revival and encouragement of seminaries of learning," with the result that the legislature passed an act establishing a state university of which Columbia College, formerly King's, was the " mother " portion.
Besides being a leader of the evangelical revival, he was well known as the author of The Compleat Duty of Man (London, 1763), a work in which he intended to supplement the teaching embodied in the anonymous Whole Duty of Man.
In 1895 began a marked commercial revival, mainly due to the steady conversion of the colony's waste lands into pasture; the development of frozen meat and dairy exports; the continuous increase of the output of coal; the invention of gold-dredging; the revival and improvement of hemp manufacture; the exploiting of the deposits of kauri gum; the reduction in the rates of interest on mortgage money; a general rise in wages, obtained without strikes, and partially secured by law, which has increased the spending power of the working classes.
In the 15th century it was the seat of a celebrated academy, founded by the humanist Rodolphus Agricola, which contributed not a little to the revival of learning in this part of Germany; Erasmus of Rotterdam was one of its students.
Much was also done to promote trade and industry, notably by the revival of the Kammer Kollegium, or board of trade, and the abolition of some of the most harmful monopolies.
There was no revival of industry until the orders of the military authorities began to come in, which gave lucrative employment.
His personal courage and extreme affability made him highly popular among the lower orders, but he showed himself quite incapable of taking advantage permanently of the revival of the national energy, and the extraordinary overflow of native middle-class talent, which were the immediate consequences of the revolution of 1660.
The names of the oldest foundations which still survive, such as the Hotel Dieu in Paris, St Thomas's and St Bartholomew's in London, the order of St Augustine, and (in the form of a modern revival) that of St John of Jerusalem, sufficiently indicate the original religious connexion.
He was educated at Westminster and Oriel College, Oxford, then the centre of the ecclesiastical revival.
It has received the sanction of Convocation, and the Lambeth Conference in 1897 declared that it "recognized with thankfulness the revival of the office of deaconess," though at the same time it protested against the indiscriminate use of the title and laid it down emphatically that the name must be restricted to those who had been definitely set apart by the bishop for the position and were working under the direct supervision and control of the ecclesiastical authority in the parish.
Little, however, was done in the science of botany, properly so called, until the 16th century of the Christian era, when the revival of learning dispelled the darkness which had long hung over Europe.
At the date of his death the Catholic revival, with its fell antipathy to art and letters, was only in its infancy; and when times became dangerous, Erasmus cautiously declined to venture out of the protection of the Empire, refusing repeated invitations to Italy and to France.
A revival of the custom was effected in 1855 by Harrison Ainsworth, author of the novel The Flitch of Bacon, but the scene of the ceremony was transferred to the town hall of Great Dunmow.
The foundation of the Mongolian empire in the beginning of the 13th century did not disturb the position of the Nestorian church; but the revival of the Mahommedan power, which was coincident with the downfall of the Mongolian empire, was pregnant with disaster for her.
Faith in the infallibility of the scholastic system was thus shaken, and the system itself was destroyed by the revival of philosophic nominalism, which had been discredited in the 11th century by the realism of the great schoolmen.
The revival of the Czechs after a hundred years of torpor, due to the loss of their independence in 1620 and subsequent oppression at the hands of the Habsburgs and the dominant Germans, gave birth, from 1780 onwards, to a literary activity which still continues to yield rich fruit.
To this factor was added the revival of national feeling and prejudice, with growing political complications and jealousies.
Neither a turbulent minority, nor the neglect of an absentee king; neither the revival of separatist tendencies in Lithuania, nor the outbreaks of aristocratic lawlessness in Poland, could do more than shake the superstructure of the imposing edifice.
Nothing indeed did so much to popularize the new doctrines in Poland as this beneficial revival of the long-negle-ted vernacular by the reformers.
But these demoralizing and disintegrating influences had been suspended by the religious revival due to the Catholic reaction and the Jesuit propaganda, a revival which reached its height towards the end of the 16th century.
But this extraordinary religious revival had wellnigh spent itself by the middle of the 17th century.
In the patronage of learning and in the exercise of authority over the morals and education of youth Laud was in his proper sphere, many valuable reforms at Oxford being due to his activity, including the codification of the statutes, the statute by which public examinations were rendered obligatory for university degrees, and the ordinance for the election of proctors, the revival of the college system, of moral and religious discipline and order, and of academic dress.
Seven lay exhorters were also at the meetings; they were questioned as to their spiritual experience and allotted their several spheres; other matters pertaining to the new conditions created by the revival were arranged.
The societies split up into Harrisites and Rowlandites, and it was only with the revival of 1762 that the breach was fairly repaired.
This revival is a landmark in the history of the Connexion.
A powerful revival broke out at Llangeitho in the spring of 1780, and spread to the south, but not to the north of Wales.
In 1791 a revival began at Bala; and this, strange to say, a few months after the Bala Association had been ruffled by the proceedings which led to the expulsion of Peter Williams from the Connexion, in order to prevent him from selling John Canne's Bible among the Methodists, because of some Sabellian marginal notes.
Thomas Charles had tried to arrange for taking over Trevecca College when the trustees of the Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion removed their seminary to Cheshunt in 1791; but the Bala revival broke out just at the time, and, when things grew quieter, other matters pressed for attention.
It is a remarkable fact that every Welsh revival, since 1735, has broken out among the Calvinistic Methodists.
Ira David Sankey (1840-1908) joined him in Chicago in 1870 and helped him greatly by the singing of hymns; and in a series of notable revival meetings in England (1873-1875, 1881-1884, 1891-1892) and America they carried on their gospel campaign, and became famous for the Moody and Sankey Gospel Hymns.
The scholars of these times are the natural precursors of the earliest representatives of the Revival of Learning in the West.
Through the invitation of Charles the Great, he became associated with the revival of learning which marks the reign of that monarch, by presiding over the School of the Palace (782-790), and by exercising a healthy influence as abbot of St Martin's at Tours (796-804).
This was partly due to the recovery of some of the lost works of ancient literature, and the transition from the middle ages to the revival of learning was attended by a general widening of the range of classical studies and by a renewed interest in Plato.
By the fall of Constantinople in 1 453, " Italy (in the eloquent phrase of Carducci) became sole heir and guardian of the ancient civilization," but its fall was in no way necessary for the revival of learning, which had begun a century before.
In producing Plato, Athenaeus and Aristophanes, the scholar-printer was largely aided by Musurus, who also edited the Aldine Pausanias (1516) and the Etymologicum printed in Venice by another Greek immigrant, Callierges (1499) The Revival of Learning in Italy ends with the sack of Rome (1527).
Scholars have been enabled to realize in their own experience some of the enthusiasm that attended the recovery of lost classics during the Revival of Learning.
Sandys, Harvard Lectures on the Revival of Learning (1905); also P. de Nolhac, Pe'trarque et l'humanisme (2nd ed., 1907).
In England, the two great schools of Winchester (1382) and Eton (1440) had been founded during the life of Vittorino, but before the revival had reached Britain.
The influence of the revival extended to many other schools, such as Christ's Hospital (1552), Westminster (1560), and Merchant Taylors' (1561); Repton (1 557), Rugby (1567) and Harrow (1571).
Greek began to decline in the university about 1650, at the very time when the PortRoyalists were aiming at its revival.
The new humanism was a kind of revival of the Renaissance, which had been retarded by the Reformation in Germany and by the Counter-Reformation in Italy, or had at least been degraded to the dull classicism of the schools.
It is best, however, to separate Ezekiel from other writers, since he belongs to what may be called a great mythological revival.
Their real importance was that they embodied an intenser vein of feeling than was expressed in the ordinary feasts and sacrifices, and that the greater intensity was not artificial, but due to a revival of national sentiment.
Yahweh's ever-present kingship in Israel, which was the chief religious idea brought into prominence by the national revival, demanded a more continuous manifestation of His revealing spirit than was given either by the priestly lot or by the rise of occasional seers; and where could this be sought except among the prophets?
On the one hand we have the revival of apocalyptic exegesis by Cocceius and his school,.
He returned to Polling in 1735 and devoted the rest of his life to the revival of learning in Bavaria.
The word "awakening" in this sense was frequently (and possibly first) used by Jonathan Edwards at the time of the Northampton revival of 1734-1735, which spread through the Connecticut Valley and prepared the way for the work in Rhode Island, Massachusetts and Connecticut (1740-1741) of GeorgeWhitefield, who had previously been preaching in the South, especially at Savannah, Georgia.
Edwards personally reprimanded Whitefield for presuming to say of any one that he was unconverted, and in his Thoughts Concerning the Present Revival of Religion devoted much space to "showing what things are to be corrected, or avoided, in promoting this work."
At its May session in 1742 the General Court of Massachusetts forbade itinerant preaching save with full consent from the resident pastor; in May 1743 the annual ministerial convention, by a small plurality, declared against "several errors in doctrine and disorders in practice which have of late obtained in various parts of the land," against lay preachers and disorderly revival meetings; in the same year Charles Chauncy, who disapproved of the revival, published Seasonable Thoughts on the State of Religion in New England; and in 1744-1745 Whitefield, upon his second tour in New England, found that the faculties of Harvard and Yale had officially "testified" and "declared" against him and that most pulpits were closed to him.
It was retarded and took false directions until the revival of learning in Italy.
By his theory of the disputes between the patricians and plebeians arising from original differences of race he drew attention to the immense importance of ethnological distinctions, and contributed to the revival of these divergences as factors in modern history.
In a minor degree revival of memory during sleep and similar phenomena of the sub-conscious life may have contributed to the same result.
At the time of the "Great Awakening" of 1740-1743 and afterwards, Chauncy was the leader of the so-called "Old Light" party in New England, which strongly condemned the Whitefieldian revival as an outbreak of emotional extravagance.
His views were ably presented in his sermon Enthusiasm and in his Seasonable Thoughts on the State of Religion in New England (1743), written in answer to Jonathan Edwards's Some Thoughts Concerning the Present Revival of Religion in New England (1742).
Of recent years there has been a great revival of interest in the improvement of inland waterways upon systematic plans, which promises better than an earlier period of internal improvements in the first half of the 19th century, the results of which were more or less disastrous for the state and local governments that undertook them, and only less so for the national government.
There has been of late years a revival in the case of some able governors of the old respect for, and deference to, the office.
During the course of its history it has passed through two periods of greatness, two of decay and one of revival.
The history of monasticism is one of alternate periods of decay and revival.
The Cluniac revival, with all its brilliancy, was but short-lived.
The next great monastic revival, the Cistercian, arising in the last years of the 11th century, had a wider diffusion, and a Cistercian.
Such an epoch was the revival of Latin and Greek learning in the 15th century, and a modern scholar would for that reason naturally prefer to have a manuscript to work on, which was written immediately before this epoch to one which was written immediately after it.
A marked revival of business and a period of general prosperity ensued.
An important step in its revival seemed to be made in the constitution of 1868, which forbade any private recompense for instruction in the public schools and appropriated one-fifth of the state's revenue to common schools.
He was one of the first to attack the realist doctrines of Duns Scotus, and is interesting mainly as the precursor of William of Occam in his revival of Nominalism.
In a word, the Jewish doctrine of the Messiah marks the fusion of Pharisaism with the national religious feeling of the Maccabean revival.
Meanwhile Otto I., the German king, whose English wife Edgitha had died in 946, had formed the design of marrying her and claiming the Italian kingdom in her right, as a step towards the revival of the empire of Charlemagne.
This was a revival, as the office was in existence from 1534 till the death of Edward VI.
In this lie was helped by the revival of a strong national feeling in France, provoked by the international crisis of 1911.
He was one of the pioneers in the revival of Jewish learning which followed on the age of Moses Mendelssohn.
For the moment the balance of his faculties seemed to be restored by a revival of the antagonistic sentiment of humanism which he had imbibed from the Oxford circle of friends, and specially from Erasmus.
The last chapter of the part published during the author's lifetime ends with the revival of letters and the philosophy of the 15th century.
These causes, scientific, industrial and philosophical, led to the domination of materialism in the middle of the 19th century in Germany, or rather to its revival; for in its main position, that matter and motion are everything and eternal, it was a repetition of the materialism of the i 8th century in France.
But Cousin's psychological method of proceeding from consciousness outwards, and the emphasis laid by him on spirit in comparison with body, prevented a real revival of realism.
His leadership of the House of Commons in the first session of the new parliament was marked by considerable firmness in the suppression of obstruction, but there was a slight revival of the criticisms which had been current in 1896.
Yet the wave of reaction which soon overwhelmed the freer tendencies of the first reformers, brought back the old view until the revival of biblical criticism more than a century ago.
The missionary revival which marked the Nottingham Conference of 1906 quickened the interest at home and abroad and the Foreign Field (monthly) is prominent among missionary periodicals.
It was the wish of the pope that the jubilee should be followed by a revival of religious life in all Christian countries.
At the Reformation the celebration of All Souls' Day was abolished in the Church of England, though it has been renewed in certain churches in connexion with the "Catholic revival."
In 1745 the Capuchin mission finally collapsed after a revival had been attempted in 1741 by a party under Orazio della Penna, of which Cassiano Beligatti was chronicler.
The revival of Buddhism began with the two sons of the last-named, the elder of whom became a monk.
These orders arose at the beginning of the 13th century, when the Benedictines, together with their various reformed branches, had terminated their active mission, and Christian Europe was ready for a new religious revival.
The Gupta dynasty appears to have fostered a revival of Brahmanism at the expense of Buddhism, and to have given an impulse to art and literature.
Greek monachism underwent no development or change for four centuries, except the vicissitudes inevitable in all things human, which in monasticism assume the form of alternations of relaxation and revival.
By the 16th century Laodicea had sunk very low; the revival in the beginning of the 17th was due to the new trade in tobacco.
Among Christian scholars there was no independent school of Hebraists before the revival of learning.
Frelinghuysen, who had come over as a Dutch pastor in 1720 and had opposed formalism and preached a revival.
This was a pretended revival of an order supposed to have been created by Henry IV.
The duchies of Saxe Altenburg, Saxe Coburg Gotha and Saxe Meiningen have in common the family Order of Ernest, founded in 1833 in memory of Duke Ernest the Pious of Saxe Gotha and as a revival of the Order of German Integrity (Orden der deutschen Redlichkeit) founded in 1690.
The era of modern missions, based on associate organizations, begins with William Carey, and is closely connected with the great evangelical revival of the latter part of the r8th century.
That revival had intensified the idea of the worth of the individual soul, whether Christian or heathen, and " to snatch even one brand from the burning " became a dominant impulse.
In Holland a religious revival in 1846 led to the foundation of several organizations which supplemented the work of the original Netherland Missionary Society.
In the Church of England the question was broached in Convocation, shortly after the revival of that body, in 1859; and during the next few years many suggestions were put forth for the establishment of a Board of Missions which should absorb the societies, or at least direct their work.
The revival was not a little due to the foundation in 18 22, by a few earnest but (as they called themselves) " humble and obscure " Catholics at Lyons, of a new voluntary society, called the Institution for the Propagation of the Faith.
Such a system would have been unworkable but for the fact that with the revival of the political principles of Oldenbarneveldt, there was found statesman of commanding ability to fill the office in which the famous advocate of Grand of Holland had for so many years been " minister of - all affairs " in the forming state.
To hold the mouth of the Scheldt and prevent at all costs a revival of Antwerp as a commercial port had been for two centuries a cardinal point of Dutch policy.
It is highly doubtful, however, whether he had anything to do either with the Antiphonary or with the invention or revival of the cantus planes; it is certain that he was not the founder of the Roman singing-school, though he may have interested himself in its endowment and extension.
His example was followed by others, so that the church property in the Campagna soon became considerable; and, owing to the immunities and privileges which it enjoyed, a certain revival of prosperity ensued.
The tails when split into two or three, with small strips of narrow tape so as to separate the otherwise dense fur, formerly made very handsome sets of trimmings, ties and muffs, and the probabilities are, as with other fashions, such use will have its period of revival.
The modern revival, in certain churches of an "advanced" type, of the ceremonies of blessing the palms and carrying them in procession has no official warrant, and is therefore without any significance as illustrating the authoritative point of view of the Church of England.
The effect of his preaching was immense, and large numbers of women, many of them left desolate by the loss of their husbands on crusade, came under the influence of a movement which was attended with all the manifestations of what is now called a "revival."
The earlier Flemish authors are treated under DUTCH Literature; the revival of Flemish Literature since the separation of Belgium from the Netherlands in 1830, and Walloon Literature, are each separately noticed.
His later works show the influence of the Romantic revival.
The first move in this direction was made in the Netherlands and north Germany under the influence of Gerhard Groot, and issued in the formation of the Windesheim congregation of Augustinian canons and the secular congregation of Brothers of Common Life (q.v.) founded c. 1384, both of which became centres of religious revival.
In his youth he came under the influence of the Calvinistic Methodist revival and became a preacher at nineteen.
German culture, after a short revival, perished once more amid the smoke of the fires kindled by Conrad of Marburg and his fellow inquisitors.
A revival of the idea put forward by the elector of Mainz at Worms in 1495, this counci was to consist of twenty members appointed by the electon and other princes and by representatives of the cities, with 1 president named by the king.
The discovery of America, the invention of printing, the revival of learning and many other causes had contributed to effect a radical change in the point of view from which the world was regarded; and the strongest of all medieval relations, that of the nation to the Church, was about to pass through the fiery trial of the Reformation.
She had been taught self-respect by Frederick II., and by her great writers in literature Revival of Germany.
In the dark and disordered centuries which followed there are only a few scanty notices of the Germans, mainly in the works of foreign writers like Gregory of Tours and Jordanes; and then the 8th and 9th centuries, the time of the revival of learning which is associated with the name of Charlemagne, is reached.
Parallel with this event the revival of learning was producing a great number of men who could write, and, more important still, of men who were throwing off the monastic habits of thought and passing into a new intellectual atmosphere.
Russia, justly offended, drew closer her ties with Prussia, where Bismarck was already hatching the plans which were to mature in 1866; and, if the attitude of Napoleon in the Polish question prevented any revival of the alliance of Tilsit, the goodwill of Russia was assured for France in the coming struggle with Austria in Italy.
Throughout the period of the classical revival Vitruvius was the chief authority studied by architects, and in every point his precepts were accepted as final.
In the middle ages, when Alexandria was in decay, these two towns were busy ports; with the revival of Alexandria under Mehemet Ali and the foundation of Port Said (c. 1860), their trade declined.
While the removal of ancient jealousies among the European powers interested in Egypt helped to smooth the path pursued by the Egyptian administration under the guiding hand of Great Britain, the intrigues of the Turks and movement, the danger of a revival of Moslem fanaticism threatened during 1905-1906 to disturb the peace of the country.
Of the other poets of the revival the most important were born in Norway.
The Danish inroads had told heavily upon it; the monasteries had been special points of attack, and though Alfred founded two or three monasteries and imported foreign monks, there was no general revival of monasticism under him.
He tried to calm the unrest of his conscience by correspondence with the leaders of the evangelical revival on the continent, and sought for omens and supernatural guidance in texts and passages of scripture.
Bulgarian, for nearly four centuries, ceased to be a written language except in a few monasteries; a literary revival, which began about the middle of the 18th century, was the first symptom of returning national consciousness.
Above all, and most legitimately, the revival of General Assemblies, now long discussed, was demanded vainly.
The oath of abjuration of James was another cause of division, at least till it was watered down in 1719; and by 1726 a revival of the charges of heresy against Simson, with the increase of agitation against the majority of the Assembly who supported patrons, lighted a flame which burned the slight bonds that kept the extremists in union with the kirk.
We are attracted to Beltrees and his kinsmen less by their craftsmanship than by the fact that they supplied the leaders of the vernacular revival of the 18th century with many subjects and versemodels, and that by their treatment of these subjects and models, based on the practice of an earlier day, they complete the evidence of the continuity of the domestic popular type of Scots verse.
He looked on the age in which he lived as a period of transition, to be followed either by an " eclipse of faith " or by a " revival of Christianity in a wider aspect," a " catholic, comprehensive, all-embracing Christianity " that " might yet overcome the world.
The 19th century, on the other hand, led to an extraordinary revival of the pilgrimage.
He was an eloquent professor and very fond of young people, and played an important part in the revival of higher studies in Fra