Revenue Sentence Examples
The gross revenue of all the states is estimated at 24 millions sterling.
Revenue is derived principally from customs duties, direct taxation being light.
The estimated gross revenue is 126,322.
The revenue of the state went up by leaps and bounds.
The revenue from stamps includes as its chief items the returns from stamped paper, stamps on goods traffic, securities and share certificates and receipts and cheques..Advertisement
Corporations are run by "officers," comprised of multiple "divisions," and set revenue "targets."
The state revenue is derived mainly from a general property tax, licence taxes levied on various businesses and occupations, a collateral inheritance tax and a capitation tax.
He derived a revenue from taxes which he was empowered to exact.
The following figures in later years are typical Revenue.
The revenue was about 3,600,000; after deduction of taxes, interest on debts, expenses of management, &c., 2,080,000.Advertisement
The estimated gross revenue is £27,189; the tribute, £1460.
After the consolidation of the companies in1889-1890the profits declined, patent rights had expired, material reductions were made in the rates for telephone services, and considerable replacements of plant became necessary, the cost of which was charged to revenue.
By economies and new taxes Sella had reduced the deficit to less than 2,000,000 in 1871, but for 1872 he found himself confronted with a total expenditure of 8,ooo,ooo in excess of revenue.
By dint of expedients he gradually overcame the chronic deficit, and, owing to the normal increase of revenue, ended his term of office with the announcement of a surplus of some 720,000.
Depretis, for his part, was compelled to declare impracticable the immediate abolition of the grist tax, and to frame a bill for the increase of revenue, acts which caused the secession of some sixty Radicals and Republicans from the ministerial majority, and gave the signal for an agitation against the premier similar to that which he himself had formerly undertaken against the Right.Advertisement
Notwithstanding this prospective loss of revenue, parliament showed great reluctance to vote any new impost, although hardly a year previously it had sanctioned (3oth June 1879) Depretiss scheme for spending during the next eighteen years 43,200,000 in building 5000 kilometres of railway, an expenditure not wholly justified by the importance of the lines, and useful principally as a source of electoral sops for the constituents of ministerial deputies.
Unfortunately, the calculation of probable railway revenue on The railwhich the conventions had been based proved to be way C0fl enormously exaggerated.
From 1876, when equilibrium between expenditure and revenue had first been attained, taxation yielded steady annual surpluses, which in 1881 reached the satisfactory level of 2,120,000.
The policy of fiscal transformation inaugurated by the Left increased revenue from indirect taxation from 17,000,000 in 1876 to more than 24,000,000 in 1887, by substituting heavy corn duties for the grist tax, and by raising the sugar and petroleum duties to unprecedented levels.
Drastic measures were necessary to limit expenditure and to provide new sources of revenue.Advertisement
The approximate revenue for 1906 was £65,000, and the expenditure about £60,000, but some of the revenue was still collected in paper of uncertain value.
The revenue is obtained chiefly from land and forests, the latter being leased to the British government.
Other things being equal, that route is best which will serve the district most conveniently and secure the highest revenue; and the most favourable combination of curves and gradients is that by which the annual cost of conveying the traffic which the line will be called on to carry, added to the annual interest on the capital expended in construction, will be made a minimum.
Practically all the revenue is derived from the taxation of real and personal property.
Antipas became tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea, with a revenue of 200 talents.Advertisement
The Jews had been expelled from England by Edward I., after a sojourn in the country of rather more than two centuries, during which they had been the licensed and oppressed money-lenders of the realm, and had - through the special exchequer of the Jews - been used by the sovereign as a means of extorting a revenue from his subjects.
The mode of election to the assembly was altered, the number of its members reduced, and the customs revenue, which had hitherto been shared with the island, was appropriated by the Turkish treasury.
It meets in regular session quadrennially, in special sessions in the middle of the interval to pass the appropriation and revenue bills, and in extraordinary session whenever the governor sees fit to call it.
Revenue measures may originate in either house, but a three-fifths vote in each is necessary to their enactment.
The chief sources of revenue are taxes on realty, personalty and corporations, a poll-tax, and licences.
The province has a population of about ioo,000 and pays a yearly revenue of about 30,000.
In France there is still a tax on doors and windows, and this forms an appreciable amount of the revenue.
Legislative power is in the hands of the commissioner, and revenue is obtained largely from customs. The revenue, £22,000 in 1900-1901, was £30,000 in 1908-1909, while the expenditure, £51,000 in the first-named year, was £134,000 in 1908-1909.
Responsible government after the British model is followed, and the revenue is chiefly derived from grants from the Dominion government.
About 4000 were thus annually imported, and an ad valorem duty was levied by the sultan, which produced about 4800 of annual revenue.
Milner returned to England in 1892, and was appointed chairman of the Board of Inland Revenue, being made C.B.
The principal items of revenue and expenditure are as follows, the figures being taken from the published budget above-mentioned.
The climax was reached in1897-1898when the net revenue amounted to only £63,975 as compared with T352,000 in 1894-1895, and it did not revert to its previous level until 1902-1903.
The internal revenue is affected by the remarkable spread of the prohibition movement.
In addition to the gifts of votaries, the temple enjoys a further source of revenue from the rents of villages assigned by former rajas.
The revenue is derived mainly from import duties, and the most important branches of expenditure are the salaries of public officials, the army, public instruction and debt.
The Conversion Office, which is authorized to sell or lend gold, receives a fixed revenue of £30,000 from certain import and export dues; it was reorganized in 1903 for the administration of the public debt.
According to Herodotus, Cyrus devoted the revenue of four great towns to meet the expenses of his hunting establishments.
The revenue is £670,000; tribute, f80,000; military force, 1360 infantry, 61 cavalry and 30 artillery with 6 guns.
These powers include direct taxation within the province in order to raise revenue for provincial purposes and the control of municipalities and other local bodies, and of " elementary education " - which embraces all education other than university.
The subsidies paid to the Cape provincial council varied from £862,000 in 1913-4 to £999,000 in 1917-8; the revenue raised by the province was £405,000 and £426,000 respectively in the years named, but had been as low as £316,000 in 1914-5.
The same year he obtained the position of adjoint to Baudon, one of the farmers-general of the revenue, subsequently becoming a full titular member of the body.
In1907-1908the total school revenue, ninetenths of which was derived from local taxation and the remainder chiefly from a state appropriation (for the year in question, $1,057,000) including the proceeds derived from permanent school funds secured by the gift and sale of public lands on the part of the United States Government, was $39,989,510 22.
The system of revenue is based upon the general property tax; the local assessment of all real and personal property is required, with the aim of recording all kinds of property upon the assessment rolls.
Among other sources of revenue are an inheritance tax, which yields approximately $1,000,000 a year, and 7% of the annual gross earnings of the Illinois Central railway, given in return for the state aid in the construction of the road.
Economic depression gave the Granger Movement considerable popularity, and an outgrowth of the Granger organization was the Independent Reform Party, of 1874, which advocated retrenchment of expenses, the state regulation of railways and a tariff for revenue only.
The Uitlanders were increasing in numbers, as well as providing the state with a revenue.
Revenue was £76,000 in 1909-10, had risen to £118,000 in 1914-5 and was £186,000 in 1919-20.
For the first time since 1914-5 expenditure exceeded revenue in 1919-20.
To this relatively conservative bill, which substituted in many instances ad valorem for specific duties, and was intended by its author to be a revenue as well as a protective measure, were added many amendments which made the bill more strongly protectionist, and in some cases were vigorously opposed by Morrill.
The unexpected effect of the Theses was that the sale of Indulgences began to decline rapidly, and the archbishop of Mainz, disappointed in his hopes of revenue, sent a copy to Rome.
The effect of the controversy was a great decrease in the sale of Indulgences in Germany, and the Papal Curia saw with alarm a prolific source of revenue decaying.
It pays a yearly revenue of about £5000.
The estimated revenue is X83,000.
The soil of Bukovina is fertile, and agriculture has made great progress, the principal products being wheat, maize, rye, oats, barley, potatoes, flax and hemp. Cattlerearing constitutes another important source of revenue.
He played an influential part in the Republican national convention in 1860, and in 1862 after the passage of the war tax measures he was appointed by President Lincoln the first commissioner of internal revenue, which department he organized.
There are government departments for the administration of revenue, customs, post-office, military affairs, &c. The general law administered in all the courts of Afghanistan is that of Islam and of the customs of the country, with developments introduced by the Amir Abdur Rahman.
Without a regular revenue no effective administration could be organized; but the attempt to raise taxes showed that it might raise the people, so that for both men and money the shah's government was still obliged to rely principally upon British aid.
The result was that whereas in former times the forces of an Afghan ruler consisted mainly of a militia, furnished by the chiefs of tribes who held land on condition of military service, and who stoutly resisted any attempt to commute this service for money payment, the amir had at his command a large standing army, and disposed of a substantial revenue paid direct to his treasury.
The estimated revenue for the year1908-1909amounted to about 0650,000, and the expenditure to a like sum.
He watched the roads, built new ones, opened markets, protected the only bankers of the country, the Jews, and reorganized the administration so as to draw the utmost revenue possible from the prosperity thus secured.
They were informed that the king could raise his revenue without consulting them.
The several departments of administration - Foreign, Home, Finance, Legislative, Army, Revenue and Agriculture (with Public Works), Commerce and Industry, Education (added in 1910) - are distributed among the council after the fashion of a European cabinet, the foreign portfolio being reserved by the viceroy; but all orders and resolutions are issued in the name of the governor-general in council and must be signed by a secretary.
Broadly speaking, the subdivision is characteristic of Bengal, where revenue duties are in the background, and the tahsil of Madras, where the land settlement requires attention year by year.
The village still remains as the agricultural unit, and preserves its independence for revenue purposes in most parts of the country.
The same body draws up the list of males liable to the poll-tax and of the lands liable to land-tax, these being the chief sources of revenue.
This custom, which owes its origin to Henry II., meant a loss of revenue to the lords, whose victory in this matter, however, was a step backwards.
The university of Orihuela, founded in 1568 by the archbishop of Valencia, was closed in 1835, part of the revenue being applied to the support of a college affiliated to the university of Valencia.
The country was at this period conducted practically as if it were the private estate of the president, and no accounts of revenue or expenditure were vouchsafed to the public. In 1894 the Colorados nominated Senor Idiarte Borda for the presidency.
From the mines of Thrace, and perhaps from the harbour dues and from the mines of Laurium, he derived a large revenue; under his encouragement, Miltiades had planted an Athenian colony on the shores of the Thracian Chersonese; he had even made friends with Thessaly and Macedonia, as is evidenced by the hospitality extended by them to Hippias on his final expulsion.
The ordinary revenue of the empire is in excess of the ordinary expenditure, but the extraordinary expenditure not only swallows up this surplus, but necessitates the raising of fresh F loans every year.
But since 1894 all extraordinary items of expenditure, with the exception of those for the construction of new lines of railway, have been defrayed out of ordinary revenue.
The only sources of extraordinary revenue still remaining under that head are the money derived from loans and the perpetual deposits in the Imperial Bank.
Other noteworthy sources of revenue are trade licences, direct taxes on lands and forests, stamp duties, posts and telegraphs, indirect taxes on tobacco, sugar and other commodities, the crown forests, and land redemption payable annually by the peasants since 1861.
Taking the Lake Aral and Siberian river fisheries into account, it is estimated that altogether the fishing industries yield a revenue to the state of £330,000 annually.'
The population of the province has been estimated at 750,000 and the yearly revenue it pays to the state amounts to about £150,000.
The colony is self-supporting, the revenue being largely derived from the drink duties, and there is no public debt.
Early in 1881 he was appointed assistant prosecuting attorney of Hamilton (disambiguation)|Hamilton county (in which Cincinnati is situated), but resigned in 1882 on being appointed collector of internal revenue of the United States for the first district of Ohio.
The revenue derived from the sales and leases of this land constitutes an endowment fund upon which the state as trustee pays 6% interest.
The estimated revenue of the state is £250,000, and the state pays a subsidy of £13,000 for the Bhopal battalion.
This was on the 29th of December 1829, and after Senator Benton of Missouri had denounced the resolution as one inspired by hatred of the East for the West, Hayne, on the 19th of January 1830, made a vigorous attack on New England, and declared his opposition to a permanent revenue from the public lands or any other source on the ground that it would promote corruption and the consolidation of the government and "be fatal to the sovereignty and independence of the states."
South Carolina, however, insisted that its doctrine was sound, and in November 1832 passed an ordinance declaring the revenue laws of the United States null and void.
President Jackson responded with a proclamation denying the right of nullification, and asked Congress for authority to collect the revenue in South Carolina by force if necessary.
They are sometimes in the position of landlords, but often they are the assignees of the land revenue, which they are entitled under special grants to collect for themselves instead of for government, paying merely a small sum to Government by way of quit-rent.
But his proposal to substitute for all aides and customs duties a single capitation tax of a tenth of the revenue of all property was naturally opposed by the farmers of taxes and found little support.
The commissioner of the revenue is appointed for a term of four years by the judge of the corporation court.
In spite of the vast increase in national wealth, it was found a matter of increasing difficulty to meet a comparatively slight strain without recourse to measures of a highly controversial character; and the search for new sources of revenue (as in 1909) at once raised, in an acute form, questions of national commercial policy and the relations between the United Kingdom and the colonies.
The revenues of the state are classified into four funds; the general revenue fund, the sinking fund, the state common school fund and the university fund.
The chief sources of the general revenue fund are taxes on real and personal property, on liquors and cigarettes, on corporations and on inheritances; in 1909 the net receipts for this fund were $8,043,257, the disbursements $9,103,301, and the cash balance at the end of the fiscal year $3,428,705.
When the war was over and these cessions had been made a great number of war veterans wished an opportunity to repair their broken fortunes in the West, and Congress, hopeful of receiving a large revenue from the sale of lands here, passed an ordinance on the 20th of May 1785 by which the present national system of land-surveys into townships 6 In.
During the four years that followed he was collector of internal revenue for Iowa, leaving that post in 1869 to become secretary of war.
About a third of its revenue goes for such uses or for Suffolk county expenditures over which it has but limited control.
It is true that the king had a revenue, collected by the vicomte and paid into the secretum or treasury - a revenue composed of tolls on the caravans and customs from the ports, of the profits of monopolies and the proceeds of justice, of poll-taxes on Jews and Mahommedans, and of the tributes paid by Mahommedan powers.
Revenue is obtained from a hut tax of £1 per hut; the sale of licences to trade; customs and post office receipts.
Seven-eighths of the revenue comes from the hut tax and customs. The average annual revenue for the five years 1901-1905 was £96,880; the average annual expenditure £69,559.
This policy, coupled with certain administrative and revenue reforms, and some private attempts in behalf of public education, made the last seven years of his rule, from 1827 to 1834, the most prosperous in the Spanish regime.
The island now has free trade with the United States, and receives into its general revenue fund all customs duties and internal taxes collected in the island.
The revenue derived from the tax in the first year of its levy amounted to £1,200,000.
The tax contributed £1,856,000 to the imperial revenue the year before its repeal.
In addition to the common treasury, supported by the general taxes and charged with the ordinary expenditure, there was a special reserve fund, also in the temple of Saturn, the aerarium sanctum (or sanctius), probably originally consisting _of the spoils of war, afterwards maintained chiefly by a 5% tax on the value of all manumitted slaves, this source of revenue being established by a lex Manlia in 357.
As the immediate result of this change the offices of heads of departments in Berar, except the j udicial commissionership and the conservatorship of forests, were amalgamated with the corresponding appointments in the Central Provinces, and Berar is now treated as one of the divisions of that province for purposes of revenue administration, with a divisional commissioner as its immediate head.
The expenditure on relief alone was about a million sterling; and the total cost of the famine, including loss of revenue, amounted to nearly twice that amount.
The ordinary revenue and expenditure amount each to about £4,000,000 annually, the chief taxes being an income-tax, succession duties and stamp tax.
The royal domains, again, and royal monopolies, such as salt-mines, were a source of revenue.
In his own kingdom Charles took some steps to reform the financial and judicial administration and so to increase his revenue; but he was soon occupied once more with foreign entanglements, and in July 1362, in alliance with Peter the Cruel, king of Castile, he invaded Aragon, deserting his new ally soon afterwards for Peter IV., king of Aragon.
Ten years later it became one of the wards of Trinidad, under a warden and magistrate; its revenue, expenditure and debt were merged into those of the united colony, and Trinidadian law, with very few exceptions, was made binding in Tobago.
Sir Alfred Milner remained at the Board of Inland Revenue until 1897.
Harcourt while at the Inland Revenue, marked him out as one in whom all parties might have confidence.
He provided a steady revenue by the levying of a tax of 10% on the annual net produce of the gold mines, and devoted special attention to the repatriation of the Boers, land settlement by British colonists, education, justice, the constabulary, and the development of railways.
The state leases the beds at a low annual rental in tracts (limited for each person, firm or corporation to 1000 acres), and draws from them a considerable revenue.
Revenue or appropriation bills originate in the House of Representatives, but may be amended by the Senate.
There was ostensible government regulation of rates after 1877, but the roads were guaranteed outright against any loss of revenue, and in fact practically nothing was ever done in the way of reform in the Spanish period.
Both provinces and municipalities are forbidden by the constitution to contract debts without a coincident provision of permanent revenue for their settlement.
More than half of the revenue was derived from customs duties (two-thirds of the total being collected at Havana).
The revenue receipts under the Republic have increased especially over those of the old regime in the item of customs duties; and the expenditure is very differently distributed.
Lotteries which were an important source of revenue under Spain were abolished under the Republic. The debt resting on the colony in 1895 (a large part of it as a result of the war of 1868-1878, the entire cost of which was laid upon the island, but a part as the result of Spain's war adventures in Mexico and San Domingo, home loans, &c.) was officially stated at $168,500,000.
The revenue is £141,000.
The benefits of canal irrigation were introduced in the 'seventies, and the revenue thus doubled.
The patriarch of Constantinople is the nominal head of the Orthodox priesthood; but by an arrangement concluded in 1879, his authority was delegated to the Austrian emperor, in exchange for a revenue equal to the tribute previously paid by the clergy of the provinces; and his nominations for the metropolitanate of Serajevo, and the bishoprics of Dolnja Tuzla, Banjaluka and Mostar require the imperial assent.
Its general progress may be seen in the increase of the fishery revenue - derived from duties, permits, &c. - of the public debt administration.
The budget of Eyubi Effendi is particularly interesting as giving the statement of revenue and expenditure for an average year, whereas the budget of Ainy-Ali was a budget of expenditure only, and even in this respect the budget of Eyubi Effendi is far more detailed and complete.
Reform of this system, and, further, very necessary reforms of the methods of collection of the wines and spirits revenue (which is protection turned upside down, the home-growers being far more heavily taxed than importers), and of the customs (in which almost every possible administrative sin was exemplified), were also undertaken.
The only exception made to this rule was in the case of revenues showing a yearly increase, such as Post Office revenue, tobacco, salt, for which were taken the figures of 1323 (1907) increased by a certain average."
The estimated revenue from this source is £T1, 289,612.
Allowing for these, the estimated revenue is £T553,938.
The first revenue specified among these in the budget is that accruing from the wine and spirit duties, which is again among those assigned to the Public Debt, £T283,079.
By far the most important " indirect " revenue is that produced by the customs, consisting of import, export and transit duties, and various unspecified receipts.
Since then the import duties have been collected at the rate of 11% ad valorem under the supervision of the Public Debt Administration, the bondholders having certain rights, under the decree of Muharem, described below, over any increase of revenue arising from modification of the commercial treaties.
By the provisions of the " Annex Decree," also described below, three-quarters of the additional revenue is assigned to the Turkish government, and one-quarter to the Public Debt Administration to swell the sinking-fund.
The " Monopolies " thus render a total revenue of £T3,262,424.
Apart from the sources of revenue specified above, of which the amounts actually transferred from the civil list are not stated, Section VI.
Section VII., formed of the tributes of dependencies of which the two principal are the Egyptian, ET765,000, and that of Cyprus, T102,590 (assigned to the public, debt) comprises a total revenue of T871,316.
No other items in the budget call for special remark, but in order that the information given may be complete, each head of expenditure is shown separately below, and the budget for 1910-1911, as first placed before the Turkish parliament, presents the following picture, from which it may be observed that the public debt absorbs 26% of the revenue, war service 38% and civil services 36%.
On the other hand, the minister of finance reckoned that the revenue would probably show an increase of £TI,Soo,000, while about £T2,000,000 of expenditure would remain undisbursed, which, with a reserve of £T2,000,000 from 1909, would reduce the deficit to roughly £T5,000,000.
As before stated reorganization was quickly followed by a marked increase of revenue, and it seemed probable that the forecast of the minister of finance that within a comparatively short time that increase would amount to £T5,000,000 Was not excessive.
They were therefore naturally open to bribery and corruption, with the result that, while the rich often got off almost scot free, the poor were unduly taxed, and often cruelly oppressed by the tax collectors and farmers of revenue.
In all departments there ensued, thus, an alarming leakage of revenue, amounting, it was credibly estimated, to quite 40%.
In consequence of the piling up of the exterior public debt as described above, it amounted after the issue of " general debt " in 1875 to £T1 9 o,750,000, and swallowed up annually upwards of Tio,000,000, or nearly half the revenue of the empire as it was then constituted.
As pointed out by Sir Adam Block, the representative of the British and Dutch bondholders, in his report for 1908-1909, the above arrangement would have been prejudicial to the bondholders had the public debt not been " unified " (as described below) since, however, as a result of that unification, the ceded revenues now produced a sum more than sufficient for the service of the debt, it was only the surplus of revenue reverting to the government which was affected.
Any surplus of revenue beyond that necessary to provide 4% interest and I% sinking fund was to be handed over to the government.
These efforts have been rewarded by the increase of the salt revenue from £T635,000 in 1881-1882, the year preceding the establishment of the council, to £T1,075,880 in 1907-1908.
It came into force on the 13th of July 1907, and produced during the remainder of the financial year U544,987; 2 5% of this revenue is ceded to the public debt; the remainder reverts to the government.
In 1888 it was proposed by the public debt administration to undertake the collection of specified revenues to be set aside for the provision of railway guarantees, the principle to be followed being, generally, that such revenues should consist of the tithes of the districts through which the railways would pass, and that the public debt should hand over to guaranteed railway companies the amounts of their guarantees before transmitting to the imperial government any of the proceeds of the revenue so collected.
The bonds are secured on the surplus of the revenues assigned to the guarantee of the Anatolian railway collected by the Public Debt Administration, on the excess revenue, after certain deductions, accruing to the government under the " Annex-Decree to the Decree of Muharrem " above described, on the sheep tax of the vilayets of Koniah, Adana and Aleppo, and on the railway itself.
Any estate with a revenue exceeding 100,000 aspres was a khas, and was conferred on a prince or on a high dignitary as long as he held his post; for each 5000 aspres of revenue one armed warrior had to be furnished in war.
Fiefs with a revenue of from 20,000 to 100,000 aspres were called ziamets and were conferred on similar terms on inferior officers, usually for life or during good behaviour.
Fiefs with a revenue of from 3000 to 20,000 aspres were timars, furnishing one armed warrior for every 3000 aspres' revenue; the grant of a fief was conditional on obligatory residence.
The Danish mission in Greenland has a yearly grant of £ 2000 from the trading revenue of the colony, besides a contribution of £880 from the state.
The following is a summary of the local budget of Cambodia The chief sources of revenue are the direct taxes, including the poll-tax and the taxes on the products of the soil, which together amounted to £172,636 in 1904.
All bills for raising revenue must originate in the House of Representatives, but the senate may propose and concur with amendments as on other bills.
In England this revenue was annexed to the crown by Henry VIII.
The alake exercises little authority apart from his council, the form of government being largely democratic. Revenue is chiefly derived from tolls or import duties.
In each of the years 1903-1909 the expenditure exceeded the revenue (about $70,000 in 1909-1910), deficits being made good by grants from the British parliament.
In 1820 he secured the appointment of a committee to report on the expense of collecting the revenue.
The Bishnupur raj was one of the largest estates in Bengal in the end of the 18th century, but it was sold for arrears of revenue shortly after the conclusion of the permanent settlement in 1793.
The estimated gross revenue is 38,000 and the tribute £3000.
While, however, he was theoretically paid by the king, he seems to have been himself one of the sources of the royal revenue.
The national revenue is derived largely from the duties on imports, the duties on exports having been surrendered to the states when the republic was organized.
President Campos Salles entered upon his tenure of office on the 15th of November 1898, and at once proceeded to initiate fiscal legislation for the purpose of reducing expenditure and increasing the revenue.
Suraj Mall raised the Jat power to its highest point; and Colonel Dow, in 1770, estimated the raja's revenue (perhaps extravagantly) at £2,000,000 and his military force at 60,000 or 70,000 men.
The state came under British management, and the administration was improved, the revenue increased, a system of irrigation developed, new tanks and wells constructed and an excellent system of roads and public buildings organized.
The estimated revenue is £180,000.
Revenue is derived chiefly from customs and excise, railways, land sales, posts and telegraphs and a capitation tax.
In 1852 the revenue was £27,158 and the expenditure £ 24,296, and in 1862 the corresponding figures were £98,799 and £85,928.
In 1872 revenue had risen to £ 180, 499 anci expenditure to £132,978.
Ten years later the figures were, revenue £657,738, expenditure £659,031.
In 1888 the revenue for the first time exceeded a million, the figures for that year being, revenue £1,130,614, expenditure £781,326; in1898-1899the figures were £2,081,349 and £1,914,725.
The Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902) caused both revenue and expenditure to rise abnormally, while the depression in trade which followed the war adversely affected the exchequer.
For the next four years there were deficits, but in1908-1909a surplus was realized, the revenue being £3,569,275 and the expenditure £3,530,576.
For 1909-1910, the last year of Natal's existence as a colony, the revenue, £4,035,000, again exceeded the expenditure.
During the years1891-1895the annual revenue was £42,100,000 and the expenditure £39,000,000; in 1900 the revenue and expenditure balanced themselves at £45,400,000.
Two-thirds of the revenue of the county went into the royal treasury, the remaining third the lord-lieutenant retained for administrative purposes.
The financial authority estimates what additional amount beyond revenue is required for the expenses of administration, and levies a rate to meet it.
In 1883, before the Rand gold mines had been found revenue and expenditure were about £150,000; in 1887, when the mines were beginning to be developed, the receipts were £668,000 and the expenditure £721,000; in 1889 the receipts had risen to £1,577,000 and the expenditure to £1,226,000.
The chief sources of revenue are customs, mining royalties, railways, native revenue (poll tax and passes), posts and telegraphs, stamp and transfer duties, land revenue and taxes on trades and professions.
The inter-colonial council received and spent in the four years1903-1907over £21,500,000, including some £3,500,000 paid in from revenue by the Transvaal and Orange River colonies to make good deficits.
Fully two-thirds of the revenue and ' Besides this £5,000,000 an additional sum of £9,500,000 was spent by the imperial government in relieving the necessities of those who had suffered during the war, but of this £9,500,000 the sum of £2,500,000 was in payment for goods received.
The Transvaal revenue (apart from railway receipts) in 1908-1909 was £5,735,000, the corresponding expenditure £4,524,000.
The diamond revenue yielded £235,000 and the gold profits tax £965,000.
The revenue for 1869 was stated as £31,511; the expenditure at 30,836.
They are still deprived of all political rights, they are denied any voice in the government of the country, they are taxed far above the requirements of the country, the revenue of which is misapplied and devoted to objects which keep alive a continuous and wellfounded feeling of irritation, without in any way advancing the general interest of the state.
The consequent small gold output meant a serious decrease of revenue, which was not compensated for by the heavy tax levied on the output of the Premier diamond mine, where operations began in 1903.
Milner, anxious above everything else to obtain sufficient revenue to carry on his work of reconstruction, gave his consent to the experiment.
Successive civil wars prevented their recovery, and these great plains which ought to be one of the chief sources of meat supply for the world are comparatively destitute of stock, and the only source of revenue from this industry is the small number of animals shipped to the West Indies.
From 60 to 70% of the revenue is derived from the custom-house, and the next largest source is the transit tax.
As revenue flowed in from the gold-mines on the Rand many fine buildings were erected in the capital, which was placed in railway communication with Cape Town in 1893 and with Lourenco Marques and Durban in 1895.
The Indian government formerly maintained a large preventive establishment for the preservation of the revenue, but it was withdrawn in 1898.
Many of the riparian potentates derived the bulk of their revenue from this source, and it is calculated that in the 18th century the Rhine yielded a total revenue of X200,000, in spite of the comparatively insignificant amount of the shipping.
Matsukata showed the government the danger of the situation, and urged that the issue of further paper currency should be stopped at once, the expenses of administration curtailed, and the resulting surplus of revenue used in the redemption of the paper currency and in the creation of a specie reserve.
Estimated revenue £9422.
There are, besides, a chief secretary, revenue secretary, secretary and two under-secretaries, a public works department secretary with two assistants.
The revenue administration of the province is superintended by a financial commissioner, assisted by two secretaries, and a director of land records and agriculture, with a land records departmental staff.
There are four commissioners of revenue and circuit, and nineteen deputy commissioners in Lower Burma, and four commissioners and seventeen deputy commissioners in Upper Burma.
The commissioners of division are ex officio sessions judges in their several divisions, and also have civil powers, and powers as revenue officers.
Subordinate to the deputy commissioners are assistant commissioners, extra-assistant commissioners and myooks, who are invested with various magisterial, civil and revenue powers, and hold charge of the townships, as the units of regular civil and revenue jurisdiction are called, and the sub-divisions of districts, into which most of these townships are grouped.
In Upper Burma these headmen have always been revenue collectors.
The Shan States Act of 1888 vests the civil, criminal and revenue administration in the chief of the The Shan state, subject to the restrictions specified in the sanad States.
The gross revenue of Lower Burma from all sources in 1871-1872 was Rs.1,36,34,520, of which Rs.1,21,70,5 o was from imperial taxation, Rs.3,73,200 from provincial services, and Rs.10,90,790 from local funds.
The land revenue of the province was Rs.34,45,230.
In 1890-1891 the revenue of Lower Burma has risen to Rs.2,08,38,872 from imperial taxation, Rs.1,55,51,897 for provincial services, and Rs.12,14,596 from incorporated local funds.
In Upper Burma the chief source of revenue is the thathameda, a tithe or income tax which was instituted by King Mindon, and was adopted by the British very much as they found it.
Other important sources of revenue are the rents from state lands, forests, and miscellaneous items such as fishery, revenue and irrigation taxes.
The amount then collected was Rs.87,47,020 The total revenue of Burma in the year ending March 31, 1900 was Rs.7,04,36,240 and in 1905, Rs.9,65,62,298.
The principal items of revenue in the budget are the land revenue, railways, customs, forests and excise.
Taxes and land revenue are light; markets for the disposal of produce are constant and prices good; while fresh land is still available in most districts.
In the reserves the trees of commercial value can only be cut under a licence returning a revenue to the state, while unreserved trees can be cut by the natives for home consumption.
In addition to teak, which provides the bulk of the revenue, the most valuable woods are sha or cutch, india rubber, pyingado, or ironwood for railway sleepers, and padauk.
The Abyssinians then held the fort, but as the result of frontier arrangement the town was definitely included in the Sudan, though Abyssinia takes half the customs revenue.
Taxes on imports and exports, not exceeding the equivalent of io% ad valorem, direct taxation of Europeans, and a poll tax on native adult males, a tax on ivory and the Government share in the exploitation of mines were the chief sources of revenue; the administrative services and interest on debt the largest items of expenditure.
Revenue increased from about £1,400,000 in 1909 to £2,320,000 in 1918.
Another very important source of revenue is the so-called "tourist industry," which in late years has assumed immense proportions; the city contains a large number of hotels and boarding-houses which every year are filled to overflowing with strangers from all parts of the world.
The old systems of raising revenue no longer corresponded to the needs of the republic, and as early as 1336 the various loans made to the state were consolidated into one national debt (monte).
The estimated revenue is 46,000, the tribute X8000.
In nearly all civilized countries the cultivation of tobacco and its manufacture are conducted under state supervision and form an important source of public revenue.
The foundation of the feudal relationship proper was the fief, which was usually land, but might be any desirable thing, as an office, a revenue in money or kind, the right to collect a toll, or operate a mill.
This acted at once and without any consciousness of difference of function, as judiciary, as legislature, in so far as there was any in the feudal period, and as council, and it exercised final supervision and control over revenue and administration.
Shammar, who derives a considerable revenue from the pilgrimage.
Moreover, the hierarchy derives a vast revenue from the fees for burials in the sacred limits.
His financial position was from the outset strong, for not only had he the revenue from the accustomed papal dues but he had also the support of the powerful religious orders; e.g.
The revenue for the year 1900 was £1,456,640, and the expenditure was £1,452,597.
The principal sources of revenue are direct taxation, stamp and death duties, customs, port and lighthouse dues, octroi and tithes, tobacco, salt and gunpowder monopolies, postal and telegraph receipts, and revenue from the state domains (lands, fisheries, forests, mines).
Occasionally acts of chastisement, of which the bombardment of Porto Farina by Blake in 1655 was the most notable, and repeated treaties, extorted by European powers, checked from time to time, but did not put an end to, the habitual piracies, on which indeed the public revenue of Tunis was mainly dependent.
In the third quarter of the 19th century not more than a tenth part of the fertile land was under cultivation, and the yearly charge on the public debt exceeded the whole annual revenue.
From guano an immense revenue was derived during the third quarter of the 19th century and it is still one of the largest exports.
In 1869 the government of Santo Domingo (or the Dominican Republic) expressed a wish for annexation by the United States, and such a step was favoured Washington, comprising wholesale frauds on the public revenue, awakened lively disgust.
The chief sources of revenue in the order named are the general property tax, the tax on savings banks, the tax on insurance companies, and liquor licences.
The budget is voted in either duchy for four years, a distinction being made between domain revenue and state revenue.
The civil list of the reigning duke is fixed at £i 5,000 a year, in addition to half the proceeds of the Gotha domains, after £s000 has been deducted and paid into the state exchequer, and half the net revenue of the Coburg domains.
The chief sources of revenue are direct and indirect taxes, domains and railways.
In addition, they formed a source of revenue and power for their founders, who on their part conceded liberal charters to the new towns.
His father held the offices of comes privatarum and sacrarum largitionum (controller of the emperor's private revenue and the public exchequer) under Odoacer, and subsequently attached himself to Theodoric, by whom he was appointed corrector (governor) of Bruttii and Lucania, and praefectus praetorio.
This was the maximum expansion possible under the conditions prevailing in 1920 -I, of a crisis in the political relations with Poland; but the maintenance of this establishment for any length of time appeared to be impracticable, since on this basis the army absorbed close on 60% of the revenue of the State, viz.
In almost all countries heavy taxes are levied on manufactured alcohol mainly as a source of revenue.
In America the internal revenue tax on denaturized alcohol (formerly duty-free only to scientific institutions) was removed by Congress in 1906 (act of June 7th).
The liberality of William the Lion had bestowed upon the corporation an extensive grant of lands; while in addition to the well-endowed church of St John, it had two monasteries, each possessed of a fair revenue.
Estimated revenue X22,000; tribute f,iioo.
Bhutias do not care to extend their cultivation, as an increased revenue is exacted in proportion to the land cultivated, but devote their whole energies to make the land yield twice what it is estimated to produce.
Other principal public buildings, nearly all to be included in modern schemes of development, are the city hall, occupying the site of the old Linen Hall, in Donegall Square, estimated to cost £300,000; the commercial buildings (1820) in Waring Street, the customhouse and inland revenue office on Donegall Quay, the architect of which, as of the court house, was Sir Charles Lanyon, and some of the numerous banks, especially the Ulster Bank.
A period elapsed before the government of Malta again became self-supporting, during which over £600,000 was contributed by the British exchequer in aid of revenue, and for the importation of food-stuffs.
Tenders were strictly enforced in letting government property and contracts; a largely increased revenue was applied on water supply, drainage and other works.
He had derived a considerable revenue from the enemy's country, and he had moreover quartered his troops without expense.
Under this minister are the police, sanitary, harbour master's and revenue offices.
Local revenues are collected by the revenue office.
It is governed by an active municipality, whose revenue and expenditure have rapidly increased.
In the reign of the emperor Akbar the mines of Panna produced diamonds to the amount of Ioo,000 annually, and were a considerable source of revenue, but for many years they have not been so profitable.
But if the state is created then this revenue will be used to develop this own region.
Bills for raising revenue may originate only in the House of Representatives, but may be amended or rejected by the Senate.
The revenue for schools in 1907-08 was $8,020,229, of which $2,761,651 was from the state tax, $2,080,159 from the local tax, $1,640,969 from the one dollar poll tax on males between the ages of twenty-one and sixty, $481,899 from a state occupation tax, $4 2 9,3 6 5 from county funds, and $105,806 from tuition fees.
The constitution of 1876 forbids the borrowing of money except to supply casual deficiencies of revenue (amount limited to $200,000 at a time), repel invasion, suppress insurrection, defend the state in war, or pay existing debts.
Administration, Revenue, f&c. - For administrative purposes the country is divided into districts (Bezirkscimter), and stations (Stationsbezirke).
Revenue is raised by taxes on imports and exports, on licences for the sale of land and spirituous liquors, and for wood-cutting, by harbour and other dues, and a hut tax on natives.
The deficiency between revenue and expenditure is met by a subsidy from the imperial government.
In no case during the first twenty-one years' existence of the colony had the local revenue reached 60% of the local expenditure, which in normal years amounted to about £500,000.
Between 1903 and E 1909 the revenue increased from £51,000 to £102,000.
Revenue is chiefly derived from hut and poll taxes, R customs, wharfage dues, game licences and land tax.
By extensive reorganizations, and in spite of having to cope with a rising in Nandi, his commission resulted in the reduction of expenditure and increase of local revenue.
The expenditure is about £38,000 annually, and the revenue, mainly derived from customs duties, is rapidly increasing.
Species of Palaquium, the genus from which, in the Indian Archipelago, the best gutta-percha is obtained, occur on the hills, and from their cultivation there might in time be obtained a large revenue independently of European labour.
The protectorate is included in the Universal Postal Union; each harbour has its post office, also a leading official with a number of assistants to control the natives and the revenue.
The revenue of German New Guinea is derived from taxes, dues and licences, and amounted on the 31st of March 1892 to about £3000; on the same rate, 1901, to £3750.
The annual revenue is averaged at £5000, and the expenditure at £4200.
The budget for 1910 showed a revenue of £57,000 and a like expenditure.
The personnel, revenue, jurisdiction, ritual, even the faith of the Church, were in this way placed under the complete control of the territorial governments.
The pope, moreover, had come to depend to a considerable extent for his revenue upon the payments made by his nominees, which represented a corresponding drain on the resources of the secular states.
The Good Parliament of 1376 declared that, in spite of the laws restricting papal provisions, the popes at Avignon received five times as much revenue from England as the English kings themselves.
The states in the Catholic League were permitted to retain for their own uses about one-fifth of the ecclesiastical revenue; the clergy was to be subjected to careful discipline; and only authorized preachers were to be tolerated, who based their teachings on the works of the four Latin Church fathers.
The beginning of the active opposition to the crown may be placed in the resistance, led by James Otis, to the issuing of writs (after 1 75 2, Otis's famous argument against them being made in 1760-1761) to compel citizens to assist the revenue officers; followed later by the outburst of feeling at the imposition of the Stamp Act (1765), when Massachusetts took the lead in confronting the royal power.
The merchants combined to prevent the importation of goods which by law would yield the crown a revenue; and the patriots - as the anti-prerogative party called themselves - under the lead of Samuel Adams, instituted regular communication between the different towns, and afterwards, following the initiative of Virginia, with the other colonies, through " committees of correspondence "; a method of the utmost advantage thereafter in forcing on the revolution by intensifying and unifying the resistance of the colony, and by inducing the co-operation of other colonies.
In 1853 exhaustive experiments were carried out in England with a view to ascertaining whether it would be possible so to treat alcohol as to allow it to be used industrially without, at the same time, any risk of the revenue being defrauded.
The revenue of the islands shows a fairly regular increase during the last years of the 19th century and the first of the loth, as from £37,830 in 1895 to £63,457 in 1904; expenditure is normally rather less than revenue.
About two-thirds of the public revenue was derived from duties on imports, in the adjustment of which the doctrine of protection to native industry had a large place.
With the disappearance of direct taxation as a source of federal revenue, the motive mentioned for understating the population disappeared.
One of the most important duties of the warden was the collection from the contractor of the seigniorage which was claimed by the sovereign by virtue of his prerogative as a source of revenue to the Crown.
Revenues for state purposes are derived from special taxes collected from the liquor traffic, corporations, transfers of decedents' estates, transfers of shares of stock, recording tax on mortgages, sales of products of state institutions, fees of public officers including fines and penalties, interest on deposits of state funds, refunds from department examinations and revenue from investments of trust funds, the most important of which are the common school fund and the United States deposit fund.
Some of them preferred charges against him relating to his administration of the revenue.
Other acts divided the province into counties, established courts of justice, and provided for a revenue.
He then attempted to revive the act of 1683 for raising revenue, but met with so much opposition that he issued writs for the election of another assembly.
Until 1737 it had been the custom to continue the revenue acts from three to five years, but thereafter the assembly insisted on annual appropriations.
The mullahs, who fix the burial fees, derive an enormous revenue from the faithful.
The colonial revenue is chiefly derived from customs, stamp duties, land tax, income tax, beer excise, postal and telegraphic services, railways, and crown land sales and rents.
Customs duties, railways and stamps are by far the most important sources of revenue.
They yielded £3,103,000, L2,765,000 and £1,550,000 respectively out of a total revenue of £9,056,000 in the financial year 1907-1908.
Revenue is derived chiefly from customs receipts and a capitation tax of frs.
The government of Alexander Mackenzie refused to consider a protection policy, and determined to adhere to Free Trade, with a tariff for revenue only.
The revenue for state, county and municipal purposes is derived principally from a general property tax, a privilege tax levied on the gross receipts of express companies and private car companies, an inheritance tax and licence fees for the sale of intoxicating liquors.
The annual revenue and expenditure are each somewhat in excess of £3,000,000.
Customs and indirect taxes yield more than three-fifths of the total revenue, and direct taxes less than one-fourth.
During each of its seven years of existence there had been a surplus of revenue over expenditure, despite the fact that taxation had not materially increased, save in respect to mining, which did not affect the general population.
About one-half of the revenue for state and county purposes is derived from a general property tax.
Among the other sources of revenue are a poll-tax of two dollars on each man between the ages of twenty-one and sixty, licences, an inheritance tax, rent of state lands and the income from invested funds received from the sale of state lands.
From the year 1902 to the financial year 1914-5 the State revenues doubled, rising from 1,730 millions of kronen to 3,460 millions of kronen, but this increase in revenue could only be achieved by placing an extraordinary strain on the taxable capacity of the country.
Of the estimated net revenue of 2,102 millions of kronen, 432 millions (20.5%) came under the head of receipts from direct taxation, 905 millions (43%) under the head of receipts from indirect taxation and taxes on commerce, while 294 millions (14%) were the proceeds of State property and State institutions.
But James was unmoved by his application, and granted the revenue of his see to the duke of Lennox.
The general property tax is the chief source of revenue for state, county and local purposes.
The revenue of Penang, that is to say, not only of the island but of the entire settlement, amounted in 1906 to $6,031,917, of which $2,014,033 was derived from the revenue farms for the collection of import duties on opium, wine and spirits; $160,047 from postal revenue; $119,585 from land revenue; $129,151 from stamps.
As secretary of the treasury (1874-1876) he prosecuted with vigour the so-called "Whisky Ring," the headquarters of which was at St Louis, and which, beginning in 1870 or 1871, had defrauded the Federal government out of a large part of its rightful revenue from the distillation of whisky.
Distillers and revenue officers in St Louis, Milwaukee, Cincinnati and other cities were implicated, and the illicit gains - which in St Louis alone probably amounted to more than $2,500,000 in the six years 1870-1876 - were divided between the distillers and the revenue officers, who levied assessments on distillers ostensibly for a Republican campaign fund to be used in furthering Grant's re-election.
His eldest SOn, SIR Charles John Herries (1815-1882), was chairman of the board of inland revenue.
With a supply pressure of 200 volts a 5 c.p. carbon filament lamp takes only 0.1 ampere; hence unless a meter will begin to register with 1 1 - 6 - ampere it will fail to record the current consumed by a single small incandescent lamp. In a large supply system such failure would mean a serious loss of revenue.
The chief source of revenue for the state, counties and municipalities is the general property tax.
The revenue administration is controlled by the ministers of the interior, of metropolitan government and of finance, by means of well-organized departments and with expert European assistance.
Bowring's treaty of 1855, fixing the rates of land revenue, were abrogated in order to facilitate Siamese financial reform.
Estimated revenue, £70,000; tribute to Sindhia paid through the 1 Lat.
The revenue of Netherlands India has been derived mainly from customs, excise, ground-tax, licences, poll-tax, &c., from monopolies - opium, salt and pawn-shops (the management of which began to be taken over by the government in 1903, in place of the previous system of farming-out), coffee, &c., railways, tin mines and forests, and from agricultural and other concessions.
In the second half of the 17th century the monopoly system and the employment of slaves and forced labour gave rise to many abuses, and there was a rapid decline in the revenue from sugar, coffee and opium, while the competition of the British East India Company, which now exported spices, indigo, &c. from India to Europe, was severely felt.
Raffles (q.v.) held office until March 1816, and introduced many important changes in the departments of revenue, commerce and judicature.
In 1863 Fransen van de Putte, minister for the colonies, introduced the first of the annual colonial budgets for which the Regulations had provided, thus enabling the statesgeneral to control the revenue and expenditure of Netherlands India; in 1865 he reduced and in 1872 abolished the differentiation of customs dues in favour of goods imported from Holland, substituting a uniform import duty of 6% and establishing a number of free ports throughout the archipelago.
The import duty was considered so moderate that an increase required for revenue purposes was readily conceded in 1886.
It has a population of about 70,000, and, together with the district Tusirkhan, pays a yearly revenue of about X13,000.
The estimated gross revenue is £17,000 and the tribute £2500.
This flourishing industry, which fully occupied 40,000 boats and 300,000 fishers assembled from all parts of Europe to catch and salt the favourite Lenten fare of the whole continent, was the property of the Danish crown, and the innumerable tolls and taxes imposed by the king on the frequenters of the market was one of his most certain and lucrative sources of revenue.
A large part of his revenue is derived from tribute exacted from the salt caravans.
Together with Khunsár it forms a small province, paying a yearly revenue of about L6000.
The budgets of 1919 and 1920 disclosed deficits of 5 billion and 3 billion kronen respectively, but in that for 1921 the revenue slightly exceeded the expenditure.
Resort is made to tariffs, or duties on imports, partly to secure revenue, partly to affect the course of industry within a country.
But in a great number of cases the imposition of a duty causes only a partial displacement of the foreign supply, and hence brings some revenue from that which remains.
This circumstance strengthens the hold of the protective system, especially in countries where customs duties are an important source of revenue, the combination of fiscal convenience and of protection to home industry being a highly attractive one.
The first of them, in 1842, was signalized by the introduction of the Income Tax as a means of raising revenue to replace that lost by the diminished import duties.
A great number of articles had been enumerated in the earlier tariff acts, each of which was imported in very small quantity and yielded an insignificant revenue.
A very few articles (spirits, beer, wine, tobacco, tea, coffee, cocoa) yield practically all of the customs revenue, and, so far as these articles are produced within the country, they are subject to an excise duty, an internal tax precisely equal to the import duty.
In 1901, to aid in meeting the expenses of the South African war, a moderate revenue duty was again imposed on sugar; and in 1902 the shilling duty on corn and flour (abolished in 1869) was restored, but again taken off in 1903.
The customs revenue was divided among the several states in proportion to population.
It had been the design of Madison, and of other firm supporters of the new constitution, to adopt in 1789 a very simple measure, designed solely to secure revenue.
The import duties were correspondingly raised, partly by way of off-set to the internal taxes, partly as a means of getting additional revenue, and finally in some degree because of a disposition to protect domestic industries.
The most important acts were the great revenue acts of 1862 and 1864.
The main features of the tariff history of the United States since the Civil War have been that the internal taxes have been almost entirely swept away, the import duties on purely revenue articles similarly abolished, while those import duties that operated to protect domestic industries have