We are certain about the results of this test, though.
Later, another group will test the results and record the reactions.
The pure uniqueness of what we did virtually demands that there exist somewhere a record of what transpired and the terrible toll the results exerted on those of us involved.
Your blood test results were unusual.
She tried again with the same results.
Further, the results obtained with the water-dropper at two heights -viz.
One of the results of these investigations was to extend the meaning of the word mechanism, and comprise under it all laws which obtain in the phenomenal world, not excepting the phenomena of life and mind.
While she was concerned about the rift in our associates' relationship, she felt Quinn and Howie getting together might produce some positive results, in spite of how acrimonious they might be to each other.
Observations have usually been limited to a portion of the year, or to a few hours of the day, whilst the results from different stations differ much in details.
The results produced by the king's execution were far-reaching and permanent.
We saw the results of this in the 2009 Iranian protests, when these devices captured and relayed powerful, real-time images of events.
I've found over reaction produces results, a lesson from my tip-line experiences.
The rejection, ostensibly attributed in large part to Van Buren's instructions to Louis McLane, the American minister to England, regarding the opening of the West India trade, in which reference had been made to the results of the election of 1828, was in fact the work of Calhoun, the vice-president; and when the vote was taken enough of the majority refrained from voting to produce a tie and give Calhoun his longed-for "vengeance."
The results of Omars research werea revised edition of the Zif or astronomical tables, and the introduction of the Tarikh-i-Malikshahi or JalalI, that is, the so-called Jalalian or SeljUk era, which commences in A.H.
Long digestion of the acid with excess of phosphorus pentachloride results in the formation of the acid chloride, C 6 (0001),, which crystallizes in needles, melting at 190° C. By heating the ammonium salt of the acid to 150-160° C. as long as ammonia is evolved, a mixture of CO paramide (mellimide), C6 (CO > NH) 3, and ammonium euchroate is obtained.
The two methods have been conducted so as to be in constant touch, though the nature of the results obtained by the one differs much from those which flow naturally from the other.
In a world without abundance, socialism removes the one reliable creator of abundance—the individual profit motive—and that results in a lower standard of living for everyone.
There began the intimate gathering of five distinctly different individuals, and the unique results of our brief weekend cohabitation.
Nishani started with small adjustments to the battle before her, as if testing for the results of her decisions.
She was pleased with the results, and so was Alex.
Like the others, he would stop when it didn't get the results he wanted.
These beans have results which are not harvested by me.
All experiments are fruitful if you don't have any preconceived notions about the results.
And skew the scientific results?
It's a shame he isn't hearing this but he'll be tied up in his room all evening recording results of his tests.
We had wasted nearly the entire day with no results.
Our self-imposed prohibition against pursuing our tips once given limited our learning which sources produced the best results.
Martha was anxious to hear about the outcome of the Georgia abduction as I'd not phoned her with the results.
What we're doing together blows my imagination so I'll devote as much time and energy as I can possible muster to optimizing our results.
When I spoke with him later, he was pleased with his results.
I asked her that one of them call me with the results.
I pushed harder, as strongly as I could, with the same results.
I'd hate to think we spent that awful morning with no results.
Though she couldn't recall the thousand-year process it took to reach this very place, she knew the end results.
First and foremost was an overwhelming urge to punch his lights out but past similar responses hadn't produced positive results.
Brady looked over the newest results then called for a helo to airlift them.
She set it on top of the control panel and assessed the results, then activated the generator's artificial intelligence so it would adjust as needed to power the town.
When she came back to check it, the results were negative.
That's been said before — with about the same results.
She wasn't about to encourage Darian, not when she couldn't handle the results.
We all make our choices and live with the results.
Once again she tried the cell phone, with the same results.
This method did not give very certain results, for it could not be guaranteed that the growth in the inoculated flask was necessarily derived from a single bacterium.
Here we must be content with a statement of some of the results.
The large difference between the means obtained at Potsdam and Kremsmtinster, as compared to the comparative similarity between the results for Kew and Karasjok, suggests that the mean value of the potential gradient may be much more dependent on local conditions than on difference of latitude.
Kew 110 Mean results from June 100 ?
The results for the Sonnblick are derived from a comparatively small number of days in August and September.
if the results were expressed in absolute measure.
The following are samples from a number of days' results, given in le Cadet's book.
The results obtained from equal weights of rain and snow seem of the same order.
The loss of charge is due to more than one cause, and it is difficult to attribute an absolutely definite meaning even to results obtained with the cover on.
Thus results obtained for or a_ without the cover are of doubtful value for purposes of comparison with those found elsewhere with it on.
In the cases where the observations were confined to a few months the representative nature of the results is more doubtful.
Most dissipation results are exposed to considerable uncertainty on these grounds.
Also it requires a long series of years to give thoroughly representative results for any element, and few stations possess more than a year or two's dissipation data.
On Mountains Much Seems To Depend On Whether There Are Rising Or Falling Air Currents, And Results From A Single Season May Not Be Fairly Representative.
Simpson got similar results at Karasjok; the rise in a + and a_ with increased wind velocity seemed, however, larger in winter than in summer.
The results obtained as to the relation between dissipation and barometric pressure are conflicting.
There is a difficulty in reconciling observed values of the ionization with the results obtained from balloon ascents as to the variation of the potential with altitude.
(1773), p. 190) also gives results of measurements by Gascoigne of the diameters of the moon, Jupiter, Mars and Venus with his micrometer.
Delambre gives 3 the following comparison between the results of Gascoigne's measurements of the sun's semi-diameter and the computed results from modern determinations: Gascoigne.
21, p. 373, Adrien Auzout gives the results of some measures of the diameter of the sun and moon made by himself, and this communication led to the letters of Townley and Bevis above referred to.
This form of micrometer is of course capable of giving results of high precision, but the drawback is that the process involves a minimum of six pointings and the entering of six screw-head readings in order to measure the two co-ordinates of the star.
At the Cape of Good Hope, after more than 200,000 pointings had been made, the screw-errors were redetermined; the results proved the truth of the above conclusions, viz.
To the growth of this tendency the excellent results of the agricultural schools have especially contributed.
Later on he attempted to influence the Prussian Northern Union in the direction of the national policy, and he took part in the sessions of the Erfurt parliament; but, soon realizing the hopelessness of any good results from the vacillating policy of Prussia, he retired from the contest, and, as a major in the service of the SchleswigHolstein government, took part in the Danish War of 1850.
Since concordats are contracts they give rise to that special mutual obligation which results from every agreement freely entered into; for a contract is binding on both parties to it.
But with these reservations it must unhesitatingly be said that concordats are bilateral or synallagmatic contracts, from which results an equal mutual obligation for the two parties, who enter into a juridical engagement towards each other.
They have thus upheld the true contractual nature of concordats and the mutual juridical obligation which results from them.
The results were published in 1885 in his Uranometria Nova Oxoniensis, and their importance was recognized by the bestowal in 1886 upon him, conjointly with Professor Pickering, of the Royal Astronomical Society's gold medal.
In both these doctrines of a priori science Descartes has not been subverted, but, if anything, corroborated by the results of experimental physics; for the so-called atoms of chemical theory already presuppose, from the Cartesian point of view, certain aggregations of the primitive particles of matter.
This side of his preparation was finished by a close study of Scripture, the results of which are contained in his commentaries, In omnes Epistolas Divi Apostoli Expositio, his Super Isaiam et Jeremiam, and his In Psalmos.
for excellent results to be obtained.
This pumping action results in an extremely rapid circulation of the heating agent, enabling long distances to be traversed without much loss of heat.
Robert Napier says that these results would have been reduced to order and demonstrated consecutively but for his father's death.
Only one of the four analogies is actually given by Napier, the other three being added by Briggs in the remarks which are appended to Napier's results.
They are, however, so simply deducible from the results he has.given that all the four analogies may be properly called by his name.
The first of these was due to the adoption by certain teachers in theological seminaries of the methods and results of the "higher criticism," and two famous heresy cases followed.
Gradually Durham, Short horn, Hereford and other stock were introduced to improve the native breeds, with results so satisfactory that now herds of threequarters-bred cattle are to be found in all parts of the country.
The results of these first experiments were not encouraging, owing mainly to the poor class of animals, but the exporters persevered, and the business steadily grew in value and importance, until in 1898 the number of live cattle shipped was 359,296, which then decreased to 119,189 in 1901, because of the foot-and-mouth disease.
President Avellaneda was frightened at the results of his action, and to avoid a collision ordered the troops to be withdrawn.
Construction proceeded under this law, but not with very satisfactory results, and new arrangements had to be made between 1852 and 1857, when the railways were concentrated in the hands of six great companies, the Nord, the Est, the Ouest, the Paris-Lyon-Mditerrane, the Orleans and the Midi.
The advantages of a purely territorial system have tempted various War Ministers to apply it, but the results were not good, owing to the want of uniformity in the military qualities and the political subordination of the different districts.
Boron chloride BC1 3 results when amorphous boron is heated in chlorine gas, or more readily, on passing a stream of chlorine over a heated mixture of boron trioxide and charcoal, the volatile product being condensed in a tube surrounded by a freezing mixture.
There are no ruins of any importance on the site of either Ialysus or Camirus, but excavations at the latter place have produced valuable and interesting results in the way of ancient vases and other antiquities, which are now in the British Museum.
In northern Queensland, also, there were several explorations about this period, with results of some interest.
His journey ranks almost with Forrest's in the importance of its results and the success with which the appalling difficulties of the journey were overcome.
The results of the election came as a complete surprise to the majority of the community.
The main results of these researches, which occupied him from 1854 to 1864, are contained in his Report on the Theory of Numbers, which appeared in the British Association volumes from 1859 to 1865.
Eisenstein, who had also given without demonstration some of the results for five squares.
Smith, at the request of a member of the commission by which the prize was proposed, undertook in 1882 to write out the demonstration of his general theorems so far as was required to prove the results for the special case of five squares.
His principal characteristic was perfect confidence in any result obtained by the treatment of symbols in accordance with their primary laws and conditions, and an almost unrivalled skill and power in tracing out these results.
His labours were continued with even more striking results by another Englishman, Winfred, better known as St Boniface, the Apostle of the Germans, who suffered martyrdom at Dokkum in A.D.
Few people south of the Balkans dreamed that Bulgaria could be anything but a Russian province, and apprehension was entertained of the results of the union until it was seen that Russia really and entirely disapproved of it.
The constitution of fulminic acid has been investigated by many experimenters, but apparently without definitive results.
Cromwell expected more results from the effects of education and culture.
The results of these researches are published in the Sitz.
The results of his work at Babylon appeared first in the Vienna serial Mines de l'orient, and in 1815 in England, under the title Narrative of a Journey to the Site of Babylon in 1811.
In cases where the direction of the air motion is always the same, as in the ventilating shafts of mines and buildings for instance, these anemometers, known, however, as air meters, are employed, and give most satisfactory results.
of fine sewing cotton has been employed to measure the wind velocity passing over a kite, the tension of the cotton being recorded, and this plan has given satisfactory results.
Though we may allow that the results obtained by Rumford and Davy demonstrate satisfactorily that heat is in some way due to motion, yet they do not tell us to what particular dynamical quantity heat corresponds.
With an apparatus similar to the above, but smaller, made of iron and filled with mercury, Joule obtained results varying from 772.814 foot-pounds when driving weights of about 58 lb were employed to 775.352 foot-pounds when the driving weights were only about 192 lb.
The close agreement between the results at least indicates that "the amount of heat produced by friction is proportional to the work done and independent of the nature of the rubbing surfaces."
He also determined a roughly approximate value for the mechanical equivalent of heat from the results of these experiments.
Shortly after Low had published his results, Grassi and Noe issued a paper dealing with the larvae of F.
By a modification of the bridge method, applied with excellent results by Dr Muirhead to submarine work, condensers are substituted for a and b, one being also placed in the circuit between P and Q.
been found under certain conditions to give better results than those obtained with sharp reversals.
The number of messages increased from about 6,500,000 in 1869 to nearly io,000,000 in 1871 and to 20,000,000 in 1875, but the expectations as to net revenue were not justified by the results.
There are several reasons for the unsatisfactory financial results apart from the high price paid for the acquisition of the telegraphs.
The following table shows the financial results of the business in the year immediately following the purchase of the telegraphs by the state, in the two years preceding and the two years following the introduction of the 6d.
Morse and Gale, who assisted him, found, however, that the distance of the plates up and down the canal must be at least three or four times the width of the canal to obtain successful results.
Preece, who took up the subject about the same time as Prof. Trowbridge, obtained improved practical results by combining together methods of induction and conduction.
His first publication of results was in 1882 (Brit.
Early in 1898 permanent stations were established between Alum Bay and Bournemouth, a distance of 142 m., where successful results were obtained.
The important results obtained showed that a weapon of great power had been provided for assisting naval warfare.
Cuyaba was founded in 1719 by Paulista gold hunters, and its goldwashings, now apparently exhausted, yielded rich results in the 18th century.
The quality of the sounds was to some extent also reproduced; but, judging from the results of later telephone investigation, it is highly probable that this was due, not to the varying duration, but to the varying firmness of the contact.
As the cost of the service varies in proportion to the amount of use, the toll rate is more scientific, and it has the further advantage of discouraging the unnecessary use of the instrument, which causes congestion of traffic at busy hours and also results in lines being " engaged " when serious business calls are made.
Tile steam mills give the best results.
The results areaa lack of water-supply and of water-power, the streams becoming mere torrents for a short period and perfectly dry for the rest of the year; lack of a sufficient supply of timber; the denudation of the soil on the hills, and, where the valleys below have insufficient drainage, the formation of swamps.
The serious condition of recruiting was quickly noticed, and the tabulation of each years results was followed by a new draft law, but no solution was achieved until a special commission assembled.
These materials, imperfect as they are, when combined with the notices derived from ancient writers and the evidence of archaeological excavations, may be considered as having furnished some results of reasonable certainty.
Looking back from the vantage-ground of history upon the issue of this long struggle, we are struck with the small results which satisfied the Lombard communes.
Equally contemptible in its political results and void of historical interest was the brief visit of John of Bohemia, son of Henry VII., whom the Ghibellines next invited to assume their leadership. He sold a few privileges, conferred a few titles, and recrossed the Alps in 1333.
The results were disastrous.
One and all they underwent the influences emanating Character from Paris; and in respe& to civil administration, of Napo- law, judicial procedure, education and public works, Ieon~s they all experienced great benefits, the results of which rule, never wholly disappeared.
But the Rudini-Cavallotti alliance was destined to produce other results than those of the campaign against Crispi.
In December 1898 he convoked a diplomatic conference in Rome to discuss secret means for the repression of anarchist propaganda and crime in view of the assassination of the empress of Austria by an Italian anarchist (Luccheni), but it is doubtful whether results of practical value were achieved.
No serious mutinies have ever occurred in the Italian army, and the only results of the propaganda were occasional meetings of hoohgans, where Hervist sentiments were expressed and applauded, and a few minor disturbances among reservists unexpectedly called back to the colors.
Many objects in nature, organisms especially, seem to resemble the works of human design; there fore with high probability we infer a designing mind behind nature, adequate to the production of these special results.
But the starting-point of the argument in question is the purely empirical evidence of a single fact or set of facts; it proceeds by way of analogy, not of strict demonstration; and it claims for its results nothing more than probability.
We may state his chief results in our own words.
Each monad works out necessary results, but these flow from its own nature; and so in a sense it is free.
A more recent book and one embodying the results of the latest research is W.
Maas in Results of In its arrangement the muscular tissue the "Albatross " Expedition, forms two s stems: the one composed Museum of Comparative Y P Zoology, Cambridge, Masse, of striated fibres arranged circularly, that U.S.A. is to say, concentrically round the central FIG.
Their fundamental conception is that of Democritus; they seek to account for the formation of the cosmos, with its order and regularity, by setting out with the idea of an original (vertical) motion of the atoms, which somehow or other results in movements towards and from one another.
Here we are first struck by th ° results of advancing physical speculation in their bearing on the conception of the world.
Nature (says Zeller) is to Hegel a system of gradations, of which one arises necessarily out of the other, and is the proximate truth of that out of which it results.
Instead of regarding living things as capable of arrangement in one series like the steps of a ladder, the results of modern investigation compel us to dispose them as if they were the twigs and branches of a tree.
Aristotle, Haller, Harvey, Kielmeyer, Autenrieth, and many others have either made this observation incidentally, or, especially the latter, have drawn particular attention to it, and drawn therefrom results of permanent importance for physiology."
The chief pitfall appears to be the tendency to attach more meaning to the results than from their nature they can bear.
The results of these investigations show that in Ceylon from the 3rd century B.C. onwards there has been a continuous succession of teachers and scholars.
These causes produced similar results in different parts of Greece.
This results in the number of bundles present at any (Sachs.).
As a secondary function we may recognize, in certain cases, the power of closing wounds, which results from the rapid coagulation of exuded latex in contact with the air.
Sometimes the activity of the successive cambiums simply results in the formation of concentric rings or arcs of secondary xylem and phloem.
It is only comparatively recently that the methods of histological investigation used by animal physiologists have been carefully and systematically applied to the study of the vegetable organisms. They have, however, been attended with wonderful results, and have revolutionized the whole study of vegetable structure.
There is, no doubt, a direct interchange of heat between the plant and the air, which in many cases results in a gain of heat by the plant.
Numerous wild hypotheses as to changes in the constitution of the host-plant, leading to supposed vulnerability previously non-existent, would probably never have seen the light had the full significance of the truth been grasped that an epidemic results when the external laciors favor a parasite somewhat more than they do the host.
Over-transpiration in bright wintry weather, when the roots are not absorbing, often results in yellowing.
White or grey spots may be due to Peronospora, Erysiphe, Cystopus, Entyloma and other Fungi, the mycelium of which will be detected in the discoloured area; or they may be scale insects, or the results of punctures by Red-spider, &c. Yellow spots, and especially bright orange spots, commonly indicate Rust Fungi or other Uredineae; but Phyllosticta, Exoascus, Clasterosporium, Synchytrium, &c., also induce similar symptoms. Certain Aphides, Red-spider, Phylloxera and other insects also betray their presence by such spots.
Aphidesand may be easily penetrated by certain Fungi such as Peziza, Nectria; and when thus attacked, the repeated conflicts between the cambium and callus, on the one hand, trying to heal over the wound, and the insect or Fungus, on the other, destroying the new tissues as they are formed, results in irregular growths; the still uninjured cambium area goes on thickening the branch, the dead parts, of course, remain unthickened, and the portion in which the Fungus is at work may for the time being grow more rapidly.
NecrosisA number of diseases the obvious symptoms of which are the local drying up and death of tissues, in many cases with secondary results on organs or parts of organs, may be brought together under this heading.
It is the common result of fires passing alongtoo rapidly to burn the trees; and thin-barked treeshornbeam, beech, firs, &c. may exhibit it as the results of sunburn, especially when exposed to the south-west after the removal of shelter.
It is clear, however, that an equal quantitative division and distribution of the chromatin to the daughter cells is brought about; and if, as has been suggested, the chromatin consists of minute particles or units which are the carriers of the hereditary characteristics, the nuclear division also probably results in the equal division and distribution of one half of each of these units to each daughter cell.
results so far obtained show that the connecting threads may be either - -
Recent Work on the Results of Fertilization in Angiosperms, Ann.
The direct action of changed conditions leads to definite or indefinite results.
AdaptationThe morphological and physiological differentiation of the plant-body has, so far, been attributed to (I) the nature of the organism, that is to its inherent tendency towards higher organization, and (2) to the indefinite results of the external conditions acting as a stimulus which excites the organism to variation, but does not direct the course of variation.
The definite results of the action of external conditions have still to be considered.
The results arrived at may be read as a sequel to the article on PALAEOBOTANY.
It results that besides a horizontal distribution of plants, there is also an altitudinal: a fact of cardinal importance, the first observation of which has been attributed to Tournefort.
de Lapparent and Elisee Reclus - has his individual point of view, one devoting more attention to the results of geological processes, another to anthropological conditions, and the rest viewing the subject in various blendings of the extreme lights.
The voyages of Columbus and of Vasco da Gama were so important that it is unnecessary to detail their results in this place.
and mean heights - the best results which have yet been obtained - led to the following conclusions.'
By the device of a hypsographic curve co-ordinating the vertical relief and the areas of the earth's surface occupied by each zone of elevation, according to the system introduced by Supan, 2 Wagner showed his results graphically.
The results are as interesting from a morphological point of view (showing the subtle and gradual modifications of these organs in their various adaptations), as they are sparse in taxonomic value, far less satisfactory than are those of the hind-limb.
Granting this is a general truth, it must yet be acknowledged as a special fact, that in fossil birds we have as yet but scanty means of arriving at any precise results which will justify bold generalization in the matter of avine distribution.
Birds being of all animals most particularly adapted for extended and rapid locomotion, it became necessary for him to eliminate from his consideration those groups, be they small or large, which are of more or less universal occurrence, and to ground his results on what was at that time commonly known as the order Insessores or Passeres, comprehending the orders now differentiated as Passeriformes, Coraciiformes and Cuculiformes, in other words the mass of arboreal birds.
We see in them the thought of the ancient Church taking shape in the minds of her bishops and doctors; and in many cases they express the results of the great doctrinal controversies of their age in language which leaves little to be desired.6 Authorities.
With regard to the date of the Psalms, internal evidence, from the nature of the case, leads to few results which are convincing.
But though educa tion spread, the results were somewhat disappointing.
But the gradual and indirect results of the Norman conquest of England are easily to be seen to this day, and they have been largely, though indirectly, results for good.
The imitation of Greek comedy, tragedy and epic poetry, which produced great results in the hands of Naevius, Plautus, Ennius and their successors, received its first impulse from him.
In a steam vessel running at high speed on an ocean route, with engines working smoothly and uniformly, a careful officer with correct line and glass can obtain very accurate results with the common log.
Sublimed sulphur also results from the spontaneous combustion of coal seams containing pyrites.
In the latter part of his career his main object was to raise the prestige of Russia by undoing the results of the Crimean War, and it may fairly be said that he in great measure succeeded.
But the particular way in which oligarchy was finally established at Venice had some singular results.
Stories like these prove even more than the real rise of Hagano and Eadric. In England the nobility of the thegns was to a great extent personally displaced, so to speak, by the results of the Norman Conquest.
Essays and Reviews (1860) was a vehement announcement of scientific results - startling English conservatism awake for the first time.
For other sources see articles "Bohmische-Bruder" and "Zinzendorf" in Hauck's Realencyklopaedie; and for latest results of historical research, Zeitschrift fur Briidergeschichte (half-yearly).
Their influence was extended by the results of the war which they waged with the natives about 1847-49.
According to the results obtained by the census committee of 1897, working on a linguistic basis, the distribution of races was as given in the table opposite: 1 Taken as a whole, only 13% of the population of Russia lived in towns in 1897, but in the years 1857-60 less than 10% was urban.
This act liberated the serfs from a yoke which was really terrible, even under the best landlords, and from this point of view it was obviously an immense benefit.2 But it was far from securing corresponding economic results.
They have achieved good results, but do not exhibit, on the whole, the same unity of organization as those which have arisen in a natural way among the peasants and artisans.
When the results proved unsatisfactory, remedies were sought in increased administrative supervision, draconian legislation and severe punishment, and no attempt was made to get out of the vicious circle.
Education produced many unforeseen and undesirable practical results.
Partly from disappointment and nervous exhaustion, and partly from a conviction that the country required rest in order to judge the practical results of the reforms already accomplished, the tsar refrained from further initiating new legislation, and the government gave it to be understood that the epoch of the great reforms was closed.
It was dissolved, therefore, on the 16th of June 1907, and the electoral law which had given such unsatisfactory results was modified by imperial ukase.
A majority of the states have railway commissions, but the investigation of railway accidents, with comparatively few exceptions, has not been done in such a way as to make the results useful in promoting improved practice.
Aspinall on the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway to ascertain the resistance of trains of bogie passenger carriages of different lengths at varying speeds, and the results are recorded in a paper, " Train Resistance," Proc. Inst.
Aspinall's results are expressed by the formula S 5+ 50.8 12 r„ =2 -}-0 0278,L where r ro is the resistance in pounds per ton, S is the speed in miles per hour, and L is the length of the train in feet measured over the carriage bodies.
Eng., October 1898), it appeared that the engine resistance was about 35% of the total resistance, and in the train-resistance experiments on the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway quoted above the engine resistance was also about 35% of the total resistance, thus confirming the North-Eastern railway results.
17, together with a curve expressing generally the results of some early experiments on the Great Western railway carried out by Sir D.
A few experimental results are set forth in Table XX., from which it will be seen that with a relatively low rate of combustion, a rate which denotes very light service, namely lb of coal per square foot of grate per hour, the efficiency of the boiler is %, which is as good a result as can be obtained with the best class of stationary boiler or marine boiler even when using economizers.
D According to the Report, for the best results both H and h should be made as great as practicable, and then d= o 21D-l-o 16h, b=2d or o.
Its critics, however, accuse it of lack of stability, and assert that the use of large leading wheels as drivers results in rigidity and produces destructive strains on the machinery and permanent way.
A current development is the application of superheaters to locomotives, and the results obtained with them are exceedingly promising.
The fouling of the air that results from the steam-engine, owing to the production of carbonic acid gas and of sulphurous fumes and aqueous vapour, is well known, and its use is now practically abandoned for underground working.
(2 vols., Toulouse, 1900), embodies the results of long research.
The necessary elements of a Hindu sacrifice are: (I) the sacrificer, who provides the victim, and is affected, directly or indirectly, by the sacrifice; he may or may not be identical with (2) the officiant, who performs the rite; we have further (3) the place, (4) the instruments of sacrifice and (5) the victim; where the sacrificer enjoys only the secondary results, the direct influence of the sacrifice is directed towards (6) the object; finally, we may distinguish (7) three moments of the rite - (a) the entry, (b) the slaughter, (c) the exit.
Pertz made frequent journeys of exploration to the leading libraries and public record offices of Europe, publishing notes on the results of his explorations in the Archiv.
As results of Roberval's labours outside the department of pure mathematics may be noted a work on the system of the universe, in which he supports the Copernican system and attributes a mutual attraction to all particles of matter; and also the invention of a special kind of balance which goes by his name.
In the following pages we shall not attempt to do more than to sketch in very succinct outline the general results of investigation into the origins and growth of Hebrew religion.
Such a theory appears to ignore the remarkable results of archaeology since 1887.
In his Memoirs he speaks of the results of his " childish revolt against the religion of his country " with undisguised self gratulation.
The yield reached its lowest point in 1899, but subsequently increased through the application of improved machinery, while the tailings of the old diggings were treated by the cyanide process with profitable results.
The results vindicated the governor's action; he obtained a majority of 114,000 votes (out of a total of 510,000).
those on the Germanic mark and on the allodium and beneficium) were models of learning and sagacity, all were dominated by his general idea and characterized by a total disregard for the results of such historical disciplines as diplomatic. From this crucible issued an entirely new work, less well arranged than the original, but richer in facts and critical comments.
Thomson) had, in 1846, shown that a totally different assumption, based upon other analogies, led (by its own special mathematical methods) to precisely the same results.
From the time of Hippocrates onwards the malarial or periodical fevers have engaged the attention of innumerable observers, who have suggested various theories of causation, and have sometimes anticipated - vaguely, indeed, but with surprising accuracy - the results of modern research; but the true nature of the disease remained in doubt until the closing years of the 19th century.
In 1900 further experiments gave still better results.
This was in 1889; but in spite of the encouraging results the use of arsenic does not appear to have made any further progress.
"The results are due to mosquito reduction.
A systematic campaign for the destruction of breedingplaces has been inaugurated in the British West African colonies, with encouraging results.
Though in his ten years of preaching a large number of converts were made, it has to be said that the results were not such as had been hoped for, and after it all, and after the crusade, the population still remained at heart Albigensian.
Berthelot, on the other hand, assumed that the heat-capacity of an aqueous solution is equal to that of an equal volume of water, and calculated his results on this assumption, which involves much the same uncertainty as that of Thomsen.
histories of any value are necessarily compromises between the biblical traditions and the results of recent investigation, and those studies which appear to depart most widely from the biblical or canonical representation often do greater t justice to the evidence as a whole than the slighter or more conservative and apologetic reconstructions.
On the one hand, a sweeping invasion of all the tribes of Israel moved by a common zeal may, like the conquests of Islam, have produced permanent results.
the results of excavation), and with any careful inspection of the narratives themselves.
If, as seems probable, the continued methodical investigation, which is demanded by the advance of modern knowledge, becomes more drastic in its results, it will recognize ever more clearly that there were certain unique influences in the history of Palestine which cannot be explained by purely historical research.
In Egypt and in Cyrene fugitive Zealots endeavoured to continue their rebellion against the emperor, but there also with disastrous results.
Economically the results were also injurious.
These men often rendered great services to their fellow-Jews, and one of the results was the growth in Jewish society of an aristocracy of wealth, where previously there had been an aristocracy of learning.
Two results emanated from Mendelssohn's work.
Brilliant results accrued from all this participation in the general life of Germany.
But these concessions are unfavourably interpreted and much extortion results.
The Whitehall conference of 1655 marks a change in the status of the Jews in England itself, for though no definite results emerged it was clearly defined by the judges that there was no legal obstacle to the return of the Jews.
In this Assembly he proposed that " a confession of faith, a catechism, a directory for all the parts of the public worship, and a platform of government, wherein possibly England and we might agree," should be drawn up. This was unanimously approved of, and the laborious undertaking was left in Henderson's hands; but the " notable motion " did not lead to any immediate results.
or Reconstruction and its Results (Baltimore, 1890).
Though he was unable to reach Khiva the results of the journey afforded a great deal of political, geographical and military information, especially as to the advance of Russia in central Asia.
Their labour often results in the complete defoliation of the tree.
Others are relics of an earlier geological period, when land areas 1 Authorities differ in their methods and results of computation of these and other similar measurements.
Following Prjevalsky the Russian explorers, Pevtsov and Roborovski, in 1889-1890 (and again in 1894), added greatly to our knowledge of the topography of western Chinese Turkestan and the northern borders of Tibet; all these Russian expeditions being conducted on scientific principles and yielding results of the highest value.
This was Colonel Woodthorpe's opportunity, and he was then enabled to verify the results of W.
Miles made his adventurous journey through Oman, while Theodore Bent threw searchlights backwards into ancient Semitic history by his investigations in the Bahrein Islands in 1888 and in Hadramut in 1894 - 181n northern Asia it is impossible to follow in detail the results of the organized Russian surveys.
The first great result of recent geogra phical research has been to modify pre-existing ideas of results vestigate the orography of the vast central region represented by in.
Asiatic Russia, especially eastern Siberia and Mongolia, have been brought within the sphere of Russian exploration, with results so surprising as to form an epoch in the history of Asia.
causes an accumulation of air over the cold area, The diminution of barometric pressure which takes place all over Asia during the summer months, and the increase in the winter, are hence, no doubt, the results of the alternate heating and cooling of the air over the continent.
The necessary and immediate results of such periodical changes of pressure are winds, which, speaking generally, blow from the area of greatest to that of least pressure - subject, however, to certain modifications of direction, arising from the absolute motion of the whole body of the air due to the revolution of the earth on its axis from west to east.
The same results are found along the mountains at a distance from the sea, the heaviest rainfall known to occur anywhere in the world (not less than 600 in.
The predatory habits of the Turkish, Mongolian and Manchu population of northern Asia, and their irruptions into other parts of the continent and into Europe, have produced very remarkable results in the history of the world.
The general results of recent inquiry into the ethnography of Afghanistan is to support the general correctness of Bellew's theories of the origin of the Afghan races.
Whereas the earlier conquests were mostly the results of large half-conscious national movements working out their destinies in the East, these later ones were annexations deliberately planned by European cabinets.
In the preceding account the biblical narratives have been followed as closely as possible in the light of the critical results generally accepted.
In view of the results of this analysis, Reid's theory (and the theory of Scottish philosophy generally) has been dubbed natural realism or natural dualism, in contrast to theories like subjective idealism and materialism or to the cosmothetic idealism or hypothetical dualism of the majority of philosophers.
Berthelot, and many other chemists, from whose researches it results that glycerin is a trihydric alcohol indicated by the formula C 3 H 5 (OH) 3j the natural fats and oils, and the glycerides generally, being substances of the nature of compound esters formed from glycerin by the replacement of the hydrogen of the OH groups by the radicals of certain acids, called for that reason "fatty acids."
His colonizing system was exposed to very severe criticism, yet it is impossible not to admire the results of his stupendous activity.
The application of these facts to surgical operations, in the able hands of Lord Lister, was productive of the most beneficent results, and has indeed revolutionized surgical practice.
Yet he persevered: "Travailler, travailler toujours" was his motto, and his patience was rewarded by results which have not merely rendered his name immortal, but have benefited humanity in a way and to a degree for which no one could have ventured to hope.
Empiricism, hitherto the only guide, if indeed a guide at all, was replaced by exact scientific knowledge; the connexion of each phenomenon with a controllable cause was established, and rule-of-thumb and quackery banished for ever by the free gift to the world of the results of his researches.
In September of the same year he was able to announce results which pointed to the means of securing immunity from the dreaded plague.
Pasteur had the good fortune, and just reward, of seeing the results of his work applied to the benefit both of the human race and of the animal world.
The results of his investigations were communicated from time to time in papers to the Philosophical Transactions of London and other scientific journals, and were admirably and impartially summarized by James D.
An ample inherited fortune permitted him to pursue his studies undistracted by the necessity for earning a livelihood, and to maximize the results of his time and labour by the employment of amanuenses and secretaries.
To trace the results of his teaching in England alone would be to write a history of the legislation of half a century.
There are no limits to the good results of his introduction of a true method of reasoning into the moral and political sciences.
In this he has anticipated the spirit and method as well as many of the results of Reid and the Scottish school.
It spread rapidly over the country, affecting all domesticated animals except horses, and although seldom attended by fatal results, caused everywhere great alarm and loss.
He cannot afford to ignore the results that have been gradually accumulated - the truths that have been slowly established - at the agricultural experiment stations in various parts of the world.
The results of more than half a century of sustained experimental inquiry were communicated to the world by Lawes and his collaborator, Sir J.
The results show that, unlike leguminous crops such as beans or clover, wheat may be successfully grown for many years in succession on ordinary arable land, provided suitable manures be applied and the land be kept clean.
The average results show that, under all conditions of manuring - excepting with farmyard manure - the produce was less over the later than over the earlier periods of the experiments, an effect partly due to the seasons.
Experiments similar to the foregoing were carried on for many years in succession at Rothamsted upon oats, and gave results which were in general accordance with those on the other cereal crops.
The results for the thirty years, 1877-1906, are in their general features entirely confirmatory of those obtained at Rothamsted.
Considering that the results of Hellriegel and Wilfarth on this point were, if confirmed, of great significance and importance, it was decided to make experiments at Rothamsted on somewhat similar lines.
The benefits that accrue from the practice of rotation are well illustrated in the results obtained from the investigations at Rothamsted into the simple four-course system, which may fairly be regarded as a self-supporting system.
The live animals are judged and subsequently the carcases, and, though the results sometimes agree, more often they do not.
What were the results?
And in the same spirit Mill desired, whilst incorporating all the results arrived at in the special science by Smith's successors, to exhibit purely economic phenomena in relation to the most advanced conceptions of his own time in the general philosophy of society, as Smith had done in reference to the philosophy of his century.
The neglect of it in the domain of private business can now only lead to disastrous results.
The first step is to see whether there is a prima facie case for inquiry, for many acts of parliament have been passed which have never come into operation at all, or have been administered only for a short time on too limited a scale to have important or lasting results.
In historical and statistical investigation, or in special studies of particular subjects, it is possible, given the pecuniary means, to organize a whole army of skilled assistants, and with ordinary care to combine the results of their separate efforts.
This is largely a question of the organization of economic studies, and it is of the greatest importance that, if possible, such an effort should be made to present in a connected form the best results of modern criticism and analysis.
It is therefore extraordinarily difficult at present to know what happens, or rather what would happen if it were not prevented, when a country reaches " the stage of diminishing returns "; what precisely it is which comes into operation, for obviously the diminishing returns are the results, not the cause; or how commodities " obey " a law which is always " suspended."
It thus became the work of economic science ruthlessly to analyse the existing situation, explain the issues involved in the commercial policy of different countries, and point out the alternative methods of dealing with present difficulties, with their probable results.
On this subject many monographs and larger works have been published in recent years, but dealing rather with such questions as trade unionism, co-operation and factory legislation, than the structure and organization of particular industries, or the causes and the results of the formation of the great combinations, peculiarly characteristic of the United States, but not wanting in England, which are amongst the most striking economic phenomena of modern times.
(Anushirvan) the contemporary of Mahomet, and by order of that monarch, an attempt had been made to collect, from various parts of the kingdom, all the popular tales and legends relating to the ancient kings, and the results were deposited in the royal library.
The results of more than twenty years' labour were set forth in his Hexapla and Tetrapla, in which he placed the Hebrew text side by side with the various Greek versions, examined their mutual relations in detail, and tried to find the basis for a more reliable text of the LXX.
The results of this day were out of all proportion to the comparatively small number of casualties.
In the sphere of European diplomacy, no less than in that of French politics, the results of the coup d'etat of Fructidor were momentous.
The indirect results, however, were incalculably great.
In the domain of science the results of the expedition were of unique interest.
The brave Breton peasant thus summed up the results of his plot: "We meant to give France a king and we have given her an emperor."
Its results indeed were not only astounding at the time, but were such as to lead up to a new cycle of wars.
There would perhaps have been more general satisfaction with the results of Mr. Churchill's undoubtedly energetic and patriotic administration at the Admiralty, if he had not shown himself so vehement a partisan in internal politics.
The offspring of the virgin females are in most of these instances females; but among the bees and wasps parthenogenesis occurs normally and always results in the development of males, the " queen " insect laying either a fertilized or unfertilized egg at will.
The segmentation of the fertilized nucleus results in the formation of a number of nuclei which arrange themselves around the periphery of the egg and, the protoplasm surrounding them becoming constricted, a blastoderm or layer of cells, enclosing the central yolk, is formed.
These results were confirmed by the observations of K.
The standing of the Trichoptera in a position almost ancestral to the Lepidoptera is one of the assured results of recent morphological study, the mobile mandibulate pupa and the imperfectly suctorial maxillae of the Trichoptera reappearing in the lowest families of the Lepidoptera.
His studies were chiefly in Oriental languages and the textual criticism of the New Testament, though his work as a bibliographer showed such results as the exhaustive list of writings (5300 in all) on the doctrine of the future life, appended to W.
His attempt at classification was certainly better than that of Linnaeus; and it is rather curious that the researches of the latest ornithologists point to results in some degree comparable with Brisson's systematic arrangement, for they refuse to keep the birds-of-prey at the head of the Class A y es, and they require the establishment of a much larger number of " Orders " than for a long while was thought advisable.
But in 1681 Gerard Blasius had brought out at Amsterdam an Anatome Animalium, containing the results of all the dissections of animals that he could find; and the second part of this book, treating of Volatilia, makes a respectable show of more than one hundred and twenty closely-printed quarto pages, though nearly two-thirds is devoted to a treatise De Ovo et Pullo, containing among other things a reprint of Harvey's researches, and the scientific rank of the whole book may be inferred from bats being still classed with birds.
Unfortunately for him, as will appear in the sequel, it seems not to have occurred to him to use any of the results he obtained as the basis of a classification.
9 The results of Forsk5.l's travels in the Levant, published after his death by Niebuhr, require mention, but the ornithology they contain is but scant.
It is to be remarked, however, that the wealth of the Paris Museum, which he enjoyed to the full, placed him in a situation incomparably more favourable for arriving at results than that which was occupied by Merrem, to whom many of the most remarkable forms were wholly unknown, while L'Herminier had at his disposal examples of nearly every type then known to exist.
The preceding list is given to show the very marked agreement of L'Herminier's results compared with those obtained fifty years later by another investigator, who approached the subject from an entirely different, though still osteological, basis.
Cuvier seems to have acquiesced in the corrections of his views made by Geoffroy, and attempted no rejoinder; but the attentive and impartial student of the discussion will see that a good deal was really wanting to make the latter's reply effective, though, as events have shown, the former was hasty in the conclusions at which he arrived, having trusted too much to the first appearance of centres of ossification, for, had his observations in regard to other birds been carried on with the same attention to detail as in regard to the fowl, he would certainly have reached some very different results.
The points at issue between Cuvier and Etienne Geoffroy St-Hilaire before mentioned naturally attracted the attention of L'Herminier, who in 1836 presented to the French Academy the results of his researches into the mode Isidore of growth of that bone which in the adult bird he had already studied to such good purpose.
It seems that this was issued as much with the object of inviting assistance from others in view of future labours, since the materials at his disposal were comparatively scanty, as with that of making known the results to which his researches had already led him.
Thus he (prompted very likely by Macgillivray) wrote: " I believe the time to be approaching when much of the results obtained from the inspection of the exterior alone will be laid aside; when museums filled with stuffed skins will be considered insufficient to afford a knowledge of birds; and when the student will go forth, not only to observe the habits and haunts of animals, but to preserve specimens of them to be carefully dissected" (Ornith.
This observation was also hailed as the discovery of a fact of extraordinary importance; and, from the results of these investigations,.
Blanchard published some Recherches sur les caracteres osteo- logiques des oiseaux appliquees a la classification naturelle de ces animaux, strongly urging the superiority of such characters over those drawn from the bill or feet, which, he remarks, though they may have sometimes given correct notions, have mostly led to mistakes, and, if observations of habits and food have sometimes afforded happy results, they have often been deceptive; so that, should more be wanted than to draw up a mere inventory of creation or trace the distinctive outline of each species, zoology without anatomy would remain a barren study.
At the same time he states that authors who have occupied themselves with the sternum alone have often produced uncertain results, especially when they have neglected its anterior for its posterior part; for in truth every bone of the skeleton ought to be studied in all its details.
Almost simultaneously with this he expounded more particularly before the Zoological Society, in whose Proceedings (1868, pp. 2 94-3 1 9) his results were soon after published, the groups of which he believed the Alectoromorphae to be composed and the relations to them of some outlying forms usually regarded as Gallinaceous, the Turnicidae and Pteroclidae, as well as the singular hoactzin, for all three of which he had to institute new groups - the last forming the sole representative of his Heteromorphae.
Barium chloride is present in some natural waters, and when this is the case the interaction of sulphates results in a deposition of barytes, as has occurred in the pipes and water-boxes of the Newcastle-on-Tyne coal mines.
His conversion apparently took place at Ephesus; there, at any rate, he places his decisive interview with the old man, and there he had those discussions with Jews and converts to Judaism, the results of which he in later years set down in his Dialogue.
Similar results are obtained in the magnificent facade of the Scuola di San Marco, at SS.
Demons, when they are regarded as spirits, may belong to either of the classes of spirits recognized by primitive animism; that is to say, they may be human, or non-human, separable souls, or discarnate spirits which have never inhabited a body; a sharp distinction is often drawn between these two classes, notably by the Melanesians, the West Africans and others; the Arab jinn, for example, are not reducible to modified human souls; at the same time these classes are frequently conceived as producing identical results, e.g.
A rise in culture often results in an increase in the number of spiritual beings with whom man surrounds himself.
Ancient philosophers, who had not the Scriptures, received direct illumination from God, and only thus can the brilliant results attained by them be accounted for.
There is no actual proof that this spider is more poisonous than others, but it is a significant fact that its species, inhabiting countries as widely separated as Chile, Madagascar, Australia, New Zealand and South Europe are held in great fear by the indigenous population, and many stories are current of serious or fatal results following their bites.
Priestley displayed much ingenuity in devising apparatus suited to his requirements and in carrying out and varying his experiments; it was in the interpretation of results that he was deficient.
An idea of the requirements of the plant will perhaps be afforded by summarizing the conditions which have been found to give the best results in the United States.
The following diagram, modified from one by Grimshaw, in accordance with the results obtained by the better class of modern mills, gives an interesting resume of the products obtained from a ton of cotton seed: - Products from a Ton of Cotton Seed.
Some of the United States planters are alert to take advantage of the application of science to industry, and in many cases even to render active assistance, and very successful results have been attained by the co-operation of the United States Department of Agriculture and planters.
Webber is prominently associated, and a full discussion of methods and results will be found in his various papers in the Year-books of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
These are propagated, and there are instances as described above of very successful and commercially important results having been attained.
The department was actively assisted by the Cotton Production in the British West Indies: 1905-1906.1 British Cotton Growing Association, and the results have been very successful, as was shown at an exhibition held in Manchester in 1908.
The results of these and similar attempts led to the conclusion that efforts to improve the indigenous cottons were most likely to be rewarded with success.
These results would prove to be beneficial to the community.
The results may be seen in the approximate estimates below of cotton grown more or less directly under the auspices of the association.
In the West Indies results are most favourable, both as regards quantity and quality of the crops.
In British Central Africa, the results on the whole have not been satisfactory.
" If a dead man did come to life, the fact would be evidence, not that any law of nature had been violated, but that these laws, even when they express the results of a very long and uniform experience, are necessarily based on incomplete knowledge, and are to be held only on grounds of more or less justifiable expectation " (Hume, p. 135).
During 1834-36 appeared the three volumes of his Die romischen Pcipste, ihre Kirche and ihr Staat 16 and 17 Jahrhundert (Berlin, 1834-36, and many other editions), in form, as in matter, the greatest of his works, containing the results of his studies in Italy.
That it results from the weight of the overlying strata.
The system is largely employed in Russia, and its use has been frequently attempted in the United States, but the results have not been satisfactory, on account, it is said, of the much greater quantity of dissolved gas contained in the American oil, the larger proportion of kerosene which such oil yields, and the less fluid character of the residue.
Under such conditions, distillation takes place at higher temperatures than the normal boiling-points of the constituent hydrocarbons of the oil, and a partial cracking results.
Petroleum spirit is tested for specific gravity, range of boilingpoints, and results of fractional distillation.
It has been found that variations in barometric pressure affect the flash-point and accordingly corrections have to be made in obtaining strictly comparative results at different pressures.
So far as the Crusades led to permanent material results in the East, they did so in virtue of these two forces.
The political motives of these three princes, and the interaction of their different policies, was thus a great factor in determining the course and the results of the First Crusade.
The policy of Alexius was destined to produce evil results, both for the Eastern empire and for the crusading movement.
Yet it had at any rate saved for the Christians the principality of Antioch, the county of Tripoli, and some of the coast towns of the kingdom; 2 and if it had failed to accomplish its object, it had left behind, none the less, many important results.
Some results were, however, achieved by a body of German crusaders which had sailed in advance of Henry; by its influence Amalric of Cyprus succeeded Henry of Champagne, who died in 1197, as king of Jerusalem, and a vassal of the emperor thus became ruler in the Holy Land; while the Teutonic order, which had begun as a hospital during the siege of Acre (1190-1191), now received its organization.
In the second place, the Mongols of the 13th century were not as yet, in any great numbers, Mahommedans; the official religion was "Shamanism," but in the Mongol army there were many Christians, the results of early Nestorian missions to the far East.
It was in the year 1260 when it first seemed likely that any results definitely affecting the course of the Crusades would flow from the action of the Mongols.
On a kingdom thus divided ' Though Europe indulged in dreams of Mongol aid, the eventual results of the extension of the Mongol Empire were prejudicial to the Latin East.
with the Mongols, but achieving no permanent results.
Results of the Crusades.
The dissolution of feudalism, the development of towns, the growth of scholasticism, all these and much more have been ascribed to the Crusades, when in truth they were concomitants rather than results, or at any rate, if in part the results of the Crusades, were in far larger part the results of other things.
If we seek the peculiar and definite results of the Crusades, we must turn to narrower issues.
In the second place, as has already been noticed, the Crusades represent the attempt of Western commerce to find new and more easy routes to the wealth of the East; and in this respect they led to various results.
It was France which had colonized the Levant; it was the French tongue which was used in the Levant; and the results of the ancient and continuous connexion with the East are still to be traced to-day.
One of the results of the Crusades, as has just been suggested above, was a great increase in the writing of history.
Immediately after the war, strife occurred among the Basuto themselves over the question of the partition of Moirosi's territory, which had been decided on as one of the results of the war.
The soap solution which results from the combination forms soap-size and is a mixture of soap with water, the excess alkali, and the glycerin liberated from the oil.
There is no separation of underlyes in potash soap, consequently the product contains the whole constituents of the oils used, as the operation of salting out is quite impracticable owing to the double decomposition which results from the action of salt, producing thereby a hard principally soda soap with formation of potassium chloride.
The results showed that it must have been one of the most imposing and handsome in India; and it is especially important now from the large number of inscriptions found upon it.
One of the most important results of the struggle was the defection of the pope, who sought and obtained protection from Pippin, king of the Franks.
Gallatin worked at his new task with his usual industry, tact and patience, but the results were meagre, although an open breach on the delicate question of the north-east boundary of the United States was avoided by referring it to the arbitration of the king of the Netherlands.
We are principally concerned, however, with the results which add to our knowledge of the topography and architecture of the Acropolis.
The peribolos, a large artificial platform supported by a retaining wall of squared Peiraic blocks with buttresses, was excavated in 1898 without important results; it is to be hoped that the stability of the columns has not been affected by the operations.
Among its numerous enterprises have been the extensive and costly excavations at Delos and Delphi, which have yielded such remarkable results.
Besides these there are various additions to the series of meditations, which are mostly the practical results of the experiences which Ignatius went through in the early stages of his conversion.
These tactics were successful, and when Retz, weary of a struggle without definite results, resigned the archbishopric, Marca became his successor (Feb.
This legislation had several important results.
Lavoisier adequately recognized and acknowledged how much he owed to the researches of others; to himself is due the co-ordination of these researches, and the welding of his results into a doctrine to which the phlogistic theory ultimately succumbed.
By his insistence upon the use of the balance as a quantitative check upon the masses involved in all chemical reactions, Lavoisier was enabled to establish by his own investigations and the results achieved by others the principle now known as the " conservation of mass."
It is unnecessary in this place to recapitulate the many results which had accumulated by the end of the 18th century, or to discuss the labours and theories of individual workers since these receive attention under biographical headings; in this article only the salient features in the history of our science can be treated.
In his classical thesis Berthollet vigorously attacked the results deduced by Bergman, who had followed in his table of elective attractions the path traversed by Stahl and S.
To these results he was aided by the law of isomorphism formulated by E.
The bases upon which Gerhardt and Laurent founded their views were not sufficiently well grounded to lead to the acceptance of their results; Gerhardt himself returned to Gmelin's equivalents in his Lehrbuch der Chemie (1853) as they were in such general use.
From the results obtained by Laurent and Gerhardt and their predecessors it immediately followed that, while an element could have but one atomic weight, it could have several equivalent weights.
The solution came abOut by arranging the elements in the order of their atomic weights, tempering the arrangement with the results deduced from the theory of valencies and experimental observations.
Berzelius's investigation of the action of the electric current on salts clearly demonstrated the invaluable assistance that electrolysis could render to the isolator of elements; and the adoption of this method by Sir Humphry Davy for the analysis of the hydrates of the metals of the alkalis and alkaline earths, and the results which he thus achieved, established its potency.
Clarke, Gay Lussac and Stromeyer, published his masterly investigation of the various phosphoric acids and their salts, obtaining results subsequently employed by J.
Thus the thio-alcohols or mercaptans (q.v.) contain the group - CH2 SH; and the elimination of the elements of sulphuretted hydrogen between two molecules of a thio-alcohol results in the formation of a thio-ether or sulphide, R 2 S.
Oxidation of thio-ethers results in the formation of sulphoxides, R2: S: 0, and sulphones, R2: S02; oxidation of mercaptans yields sulphonic acids, R S0 3 H, and of sodium mercaptides sulphinic acids, R S0(OH).
An important class of compounds, termed amines (q.v.), results from the condensation of alcohols with ammonia, water being eliminated between the alcoholic hydroxyl group and a hydrogen atom of the ammonia.
These results may be graphically represented as follows: numbering the hydrogen atoms in cyclical order from i to 6, then the first thesis demands that whichever atom is substituted the same compound results, while the second thesis points out that the pairs 2 and 6, and 3 and 5 are symmetrical with respect to 1, or in other words, the di-substitution derivatives 1.2 and 1.6, and also 1.3 and 1.5 are identical.
From meta-brombenzoicacid two nitrobrombenzoic ac i ds are obtained on direct nitration; elimination of the bromine atom and the reduction of the nitro to an amino group in these two acids results in the formation of the same ortho-aminobenzoic acid.
Toluene or mono-methylbenzene results from the pyrocondensation of a mixture of acetylene and allylene.
Decompositions of this nature were first discovered in the naphthalene series, where it was found that derivatives of indene (and of hydrindene and indone) and also of benzene resulted; Zincke then extended his methods to the disintegration of the oxybenzenes and obtained analogous results, R-pentene and aliphatic derivatives being formed (Rsymbolizing a ringed nucleus).
To follow Baeyer's results we must explain his nomenclature of the reduced benzene derivatives.
By reducing terephthalic acid with sodium amalgam, care being taken to neutralize the caustic soda simultaneously formed by passing in carbon dioxide, A" dihydroterephthalic acid is obtained; this results from the splitting of a Para-linkage.
From these results Baeyer concluded that Claus' formula with three para-linkings cannot possibly be correct, for the Q2.5 dihydroterephthalic acid undoubtedly has two ethylene linkages, since it readily takes up two or four atoms of bromine, and is oxidized in warm aqueous solution by alkaline potassium permanganate.
It was found that the results were capable of expression by the empirical relation CaH2b= 104.3b+49'09m+105.47n, where C a H 2b denotes the formula of the hydrocarbon, m the number of single carbon linkings and n the number of double linkings, m and n being calculated on the Kekule formulae.
149, p. 20) established the symmetry of the naphthalene nucleus, and showed that whichever half of the molecule be oxidized the same phthalic acid results.
Thus ortho-phenylene diamine yields the following products: N H N ./`N; Xn NZ In some cases oxidation of condensed benzenoid-heterocyclic nuclei results in the rupture of the heterocyclic ring with the formation of a benzene dicarboxylic acid; but if the aromatic nucleus be weakened by the introduction of an amino group, then it is the benzenoid nucleus which is destroyed and a dicarboxylic acid of the heterocyclic ring system obtained.
The rapidity of the method, and the accurate results which it gave in the hands of a practised experimenter, led to its systematization by Jens Jakob Berzelius and Johann Friedrich Ludwig Hausmann, and in more recent times by K.
Another type of dry reaction, namely, the flame coloration, had been the subject of isolated notices, as, for example, the violet flame of potassium and the orange flame of sodium observed by Marggraf and Scheele, but a systematic account was wanting until Cartmell took the subject up. His results (Phil.
Experimental conditions were thoroughly worked out; the necessity of working with hot or cold solutions was clearly emphasized; and the employment of small quantities of substances instead of the large amounts recommended by Klaproth was shown by him to give more consistent results.
We may, however, notice Heinrich Rose i and Friedrich WShler, 2 who, having worked up the results of their teacher Berzelius, and combined them with their own valuable observations, exerted great influence on the progress of analytical chemistry by publishing works which contained admirable accounts of the then known methods of analysis.
Since then the subject has been extensively studied, more particularly by Alexander Classen, who has summarized the methods and results in his Quantitative Chemical Analysis by Electrolysis (1903).
Oxygen, recognized by its power of igniting a glowing splinter, results from the decomposition of oxides of the noble metals, peroxides, chlorates, nitrates and other highly oxygenized salts.
Sulphur dioxide, recognized by its smell and acid reaction, results from the ignition of certain sulphites, sulphates, or a mixture of a sulphate with a sulphide.
Sulphuretted hydrogen, recognized by its odour, results from Sulphides containing water, and hydrosulphides.
It can be shown that a more efficient washing results from alternately filling and emptying the funnel than by endeavouring to keep the funnel full.
It is therefore necessary that the solution should be free from metals which may vitiate the results, or special precautions taken by which the impurities are rendered harmless.
1904, p. 905) has obtained good results by distilling the substance with a mixture of potassium thiosulphate and sulphide.
In the investigation of these relations, the physicist and chemist meet on common ground; this union has been attended by fruitful and far-reaching results, and the correlation of physical properties and chemical composition is one of the most important ramifications of physical chemistry.
The results of Berzelius were greatly extended by Hermann Kopp, who recognized that carbon, boron and silicon were exceptions to the law.
Trans., 1900, p. 233) investigated nickel and cobalt over a wide range of temperature (from -182.5° to loo°); his results are: It is evident that the atomic heats of these intimately associated elements approach nearer and nearer as we descend in temperature, approximating to the value 4.
Other metals were tested in order to determine if their atomic heats approximated to this value at low temperatures, but with negative results.
These relations have been more thoroughly tested in the case of organic compounds, and the results obtained agree in some measure with the deductions from molecular volumes.
The researches of Julius Thomsen and others have shown that in many cases definite conclusions regarding constitution can be drawn from quantitative measurements of the heats of combustion; and in this article a summary of the chief results will be given.
These formulae, however, only apply to aliphatic amines; the results obtained in the aromatic series are in accordance with the usual formulae.
Although establishing certain general relations between atomic and molecular refractions, the results were somewhat vitiated by the inadequacy of the empirical function which he employed, since it was by no means a constant which depended only on the actual composition of the substance and was independent of its physical condition.
Soc. 63, p. 1089; 65, p. 167), whose results have thrown considerable light on the subject of the molecular complexity of liquids.
Although many pseudo-symmetric twins are transformable into the simpler form, yet, in some cases, a true polymorph results, the change being indicated, as before, by alterations in scalar (as well as vector) properties.
Spohr, however, promptly discovered its merits, and produced it at Cassel some months later, with very favourable results.
This last-named legend introduces the incidental poem of " Loherangrin," and so led Wagner to the study of Wolfram von Eschenbach's Parzival and Titurel, with great results later on.
But that he was sufficiently alert as the principal adviser of the elector the results of his labours in that capacity amply prove.
The results published in the Archaeological Survey of Nubia 6 by Messrs.
The Sumerians cast the heads of their lions in copper, not always with successful results, and filled them with bitumen and clay (like the image in " Bel and the Dragon," which was " clay within and brass without ") to give them solidity.
They were admirable work, and at Sherqat especially have produced results of the greatest historical and archaeological importance.
It is not, however, proposed to give here a list of the newly discovered names 37 of the Babylonian kings on tablets from Nippur, published by Poebel 38 and others, as results of this kind belong to the realm of history rather than to that of archaeology.
In Mesopotamia more than any other country literary results have been regarded as archaeology, owing to the enormous mass of the written material recovered, which has caused the study of the art and general civilization of different periods to be neglected in comparison with the same subjects in Egypt.
dynasties have had interesting results.
CH(000H 3) CO 2 R,C. Paal obtained similar results.
A blue product is obtained at once, but a red tinge often results.
The expedition, if it produced no material results, laid bare the weakness of the Italian political system and the country's incapacity for resistance.
Measurements made on a topographical map yield the most satisfactory results.
Still more expeditious is the use of a planimeter, such as Captain Prytz's " Hatchet Planimeter," which yields fairly accurate results, or G.
In compiling his map he was able to avail himself of the information obtained by the bematists (surveyors who determined distances by pacing) who accompanied Alexander the Great on his campaigns; of the results of the voyage of Nearchus from the Indus to the Euphrates, and of the " Periplus " of Scylax of Caryanda, which described the coast from between India and the head of the Arabian Gulf.
On the other hand he unwisely rejected the results of the observations for latitude made by Pytheas in 326 B.C. at his native town, Massilia, and during a subsequent voyage to northern Europe.
The information which it furnishes, in spite of a legend intended to lead us to believe that it presents us with the results of Portuguese explorations up to the year 1493, is of more ancient date.
It was only after the publication of Kepler's Rudolphine Table (1626) that more exact results could be obtained.
The ingenuity of the compiler is frequently taxed when called upon to illustrate graphically the results of statistical information of every description.
Pullar, was completed in 1908, and the results published by the Royal Geographical Society.
The results have been published on a scale of 1:25,000 (776 sheets, since 1866), 1:50,000 (Topographic and Military Map, 62 sheets, 1850-1864, and a Waterstaatskaart, 1864-1892), and 1:200,000 (Topographical Atlas, 21 sheets, 1868-1871).
Algeria has been in course of survey since 1868, Tunis since 1878, and the results have been published on scales of I :50,000 and 1:250,000.
The results of a survey of southern Rhodesia are given on the map of the British general staff (1:500,000; 1909), while of north-eastern Rhodesia we have an excellent map compiled by C. L.
Whitehouse (1898-1900), and the results have been published on a scale of 1:292,000.
Dr Sacchi, who was returning to Lugh with some of the scientific results of the mission, was also killed by natives.
We have so far dealt with the political results of ancient slavery, and have found it to have been in certain respects not only useful but indispensable.