Respiratory sentence example

respiratory
  • These muscles act so as to pump the blood through the respiratory organs.
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  • But they have lost their respiratory function.
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  • The arches bear on the convex outer side the delicate arborescent gills, and on the concave inner side develop a membranous septum with vermicular perforations, a special sifting or filtering contrivance through which the water absorbed by the mouth has to pass before reaching the respiratory organs of the branchial apparatus.
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  • Thus, then, alike for maintenance, for increase, and for the exercise of force, the exigencies of the system are characterized more by the demand for the digestible nonnitrogenous or more specially respiratory and fat-forming constituents than by that for the nitrogenous or more specially flesh-forming ones.
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  • He defined them as possessing radial instead of bilateral symmetry, and as apparently destitute of nervous system and sense organs, as having the circulatory system rudimentary or absent, and the respiratory organs on or coextensive with the surface of the body; he included under this title and definition five classes, - Echinodermata, Acalepha, Entozoa, Polypi and Infusoria.
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  • The partial asphyxiation or suffocation stimulates the protoplasm to set up a new and perhaps supplementary series of decompositions, which result in the liberation of energy just as do those of the respiratory process.
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  • It is not surprising that with so highly developed an arterial system Limulus and Scorpio should have a highly developed mechanism for determining the flow of blood to the respiratory organs.
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  • Dorsal respiratory appendages frequently present.
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  • Though there are indications of lamelliform respiratory appendages on mesosomatic somites following that bearing the genital operculum, we cannot be said to have any proper knowledge as to such appendages, and further evidence with regard to them is much to be desired.
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  • The now well-known fact that small doses of poisonous substances may act as stimuli to living protoplasm, and that respiratory activity and growth may be accelerated by chloroform, ether and even powerful mineral poisons, such as mercuric chloride, in minimal doses, offers some explanation of these phenomena of hypertrophy, wound fever, and other responses to the presence of irritating agents.
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  • In the mature stage Pentastomida live in the respiratory passages of mammalia, principally in the nasal cavities.
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  • In primitive forms the respiratory lamellae of the appendages of the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th, or of the 1st and 2nd mesosomatic somites are sunk beneath the surface of the body, and become adapted to breathe atmospheric oxygen, forming the leaves of the so-called lung-books.
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  • It is probable that the Silurian scorpion was an aquatic animal, and that its respiratory lamellae were still projecting from the surface of the body to serve as branchiae.
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  • The pure acid thus obtained is a most dangerous substance to handle, its vapour even when highly diluted with air having an exceedingly injurious action on the respiratory organs, whilst inhalation of the pure vapour is followed by death.
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  • These respiratory processes are associated with the liberation of energy by the protoplasm, energy which it applies to various purposes.
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  • The respiratory current of water is therefore conducted to the exterior by different means from that adopted by Amphioxus, and this difference is so great that the theory which seeks to explain it has to postulate radical changes of structure, function and topography.
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  • Respiratory organs tracheal, opening upon the ventral surface of the 2nd and 3rd, and sometimes also of the 4th somite of the opisthosoma.
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  • The paired ctenidia are very greatly developed right and left of the elongated body, and form the most prominent organ of the group. Their function is chiefly not respiratory but nutritive, since it is by the currents produced by their ciliated surface that food-particles are brought to the feebly-developed mouth and buccal cavity.
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  • Septibranchia Gills have lost their respiratory function, and are transformed into a muscular septum on each side between mantle and foot.
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  • There are no specialized circulatory, respiratory or excretory organs.
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  • Respiratory infections pose a danger if weakness becomes severe.
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  • The plasma is coloured red by haemoglobin: it is sometimes (in Sabella and a few other Polychaeta) green, which tint is due to another respiratory pigment.
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  • But the pupa hangs from the surface by means of paired respiratory trumpets on the prothorax, the dorsal thoracic surface, where the cuticle splits to allow the emergence of the fly, being thus directed towards the upper air.
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  • The dorsal skeletal elements of the thorax and of the anterior six abdominal segments unite with the wing-cases to form a large respiratory chamber, containing five pairs of tracheal gills, with lateral slits for the inflow and a posterior orifice for the outflow of water.
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  • Their minute structure is closely similar in the two cases; the leaf-like plates receive blood from the great sternal sinus, and serve as respiratory organs.
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  • The Eu-arachnida are divided into two grades with reference to the condition of the respiratory organs as adapted to aquatic or terrestrial life.
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  • Respiratory organs tracheal, opening by a pair of spiracles in the prosoma above the base of the fifth appendage on IV III I composed, at least in many cases, of eleven somites, the 1 1 th somite very small, often hidden within the loth.
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  • Respiratory organs in the form of tracheal tubes opening by a pair of stigmata in the 2nd and 3rd somites of the opisthosoma.
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  • The channels of entrance are usually by the respiratory or the alimentary tract, also by the skin.
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  • This chamber serves two purposes: it is primarily 18 the respiratory cavity containing the gills, but it also serves to enclose the body so that the latter is surrounded by the shell, from which the head and foot can be protruded at the will of the animal.
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  • It may be coloured blue by haemocyanin, a respiratory compound containing copper.
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  • The final arrest is due to paralysis of the respiratory centre in the medulla oblongata, hastened by a quasi-asthmatic contraction of the non-striped muscular tissue in the bronchial tubes, and by a "water-logging" of the lungs due to an increase in the amount of bronchial secretion.
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  • Not only is the respiratory centre stimulated but the cardiac centre is acted upon both directly by the drug and indirectly for a time by the enormous rise in blood pressure due to the contraction of the arterioles all over the body.
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  • If the case is about to terminate fatally the spasms rapidly succeed each other and death usually occurs within two hours, either from asphyxia produced by spasm of the respiratory muscles or more rarely from exhaustion.
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  • Nitrite of amyl inhalations are useful in the early stages when the respiratory muscles are freely movable.
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  • Great care should be taken in using dimethyl and diethyl sulphates, as the respiratory organs are affected by the vapours, leading to severe attacks of pneumonia.
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  • All along one side is a microscopic ciliated groove, into which the mud does not seem to enter, and along which a continuous stream of water may be kept up. Possibly this is respiratory - there are no special respiratory organs.
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  • Upper Egypt is healthier than Lower Egypt, where, especially near the coast, malarial fevers and diseases of the respiratory organs are not uncommon.
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  • In these the rhythmic activity is, however, clearly secondary to rhythmic discharges of the nerve cells constituting the respiratory centre in the bulb.
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  • Such discharges descend the nerve fibres of the spinal cord, and through the intermediation of various spinal nerve cells excite the respiratory muscles through their motor nerves.
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  • Muscles when active seem to pour into the circulation substances which, of unknown chemical composition, are physiologically recognizable by their stimulant action on the respiratory nervous centre.
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  • The respiratory rhythm is less frequent and the breathing less deep; the heart-beat is less frequent; the secretions are less copious; the pupil is narrow; in the brain there exists arterial anaemia with venous congestion, so that the blood-flow there is less than in the waking state.
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  • The respiratory centre is similarly stimulated, so that atropine must be regarded as a temporary but efficient respiratory and cardiac stimulant.
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  • The essential point here to be added is that death takes place from combined cardiac and respiratory failure.
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  • Its waters - hot alkaline springs about twenty in number - are used both for drinking and bathing, and are efficacious in chronic nervous disorders, feminine complaints and affections of the liver and respiratory organs.
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  • In bronchitis with profuse expectoration the use of morphine is particularly dangerous, as it is likely to check the cough so necessary for getting rid of the secretion, but in the converse condition it usefully allays the harassing cough by diminishing the excitability of the respiratory centre.
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  • 34, and in the constitution of its digestive, vascular, respiratory (branchial), excretory, skeletal, nervous and muscular systems it exhibits what appears to be a primordial condition of vertebrate organization, a condition which is, in fact, partly recapitulated in the course of the embryonic stages of craniate vertebrates.
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  • The atrial region extends from the mouth over about twothirds of the length of the body, terminating at a large median ventral aperture, the atriopore; this is the excurrent orifice for the respiratory current of water and also serves for the evacuation of the generative products.
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  • Alimentary, Respiratory and Excretory Systems. - Although the function of the two latter systems of organs is the purification of the blood, they are not usually considered together, and it is therefore the more remarkable that their close association in Amphioxus renders it necessary to treat them in common.
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  • These, with the main stem more or less pediform, have the epipod and exopod modified for respiratory purposes.
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  • This mechanism as a whole is unique, although, as Sars observes, the epipod of the first maxillipeds has a respiratory function also in the Lophogastridae and Mysidae and in the cheliferous isopods.
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  • When taken in an overdose paraldehyde kills by producing respiratory failure.
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  • This may occur suddenly, as when the resistance is increased in the arterial system by a e on f sudden exertion or strain, and more slowly when the resistance is increased in the pulmonary circulation of the by inflammation of the respiratory passages.
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  • The reason of this appears to he that the diplococcus is frequently present in the mouth or air-passages without giving rise to any symptoms; but when the patient is exposed to chill, and the tissues of the respiratory passages are thereby weakened, the diplococcus grows, multiplies and gives rise to inflammation of the lungs.
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  • In the same way, the reflex act of coughing is useful in removing either foreign bodies or excessive secretion from the air passages; but when the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract is irritated and inflamed, it produces a feeling of tickling and a desire to cough sometimes very violently; yet the coughing simply tends to exhaust the patient, because there is really little or nothing to bring up. The same is the case in inflammation of the lung substance itself.
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  • The presence of toxins in the blood not only affects the brain, causing delirium, but also other organs, the heart and lung, and may cause fatal syncope or respiratory failure.
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  • These bacteria therefore employ SH 2 as their respiratory substance, much as higher plants employ carbohydrates - instead of liberating energy as heat by the respiratory combustion of sugars, they do it by oxidizing hydrogen sulphide.
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  • The action on the circulation is largely secondary, however, to the all-important action of opium on the respiratory centre in the medulla oblongata.
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  • A twentieth, even a tenth of a grain of atropine sulphate should be injected subcutaneously, the drug being a direct stimulant of the respiratory centre.
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  • A very curious function sometimes discharged by the antennules or antennae of Decapods is that of forming a respiratory siphon in sand-burrowing species.
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  • In the Isopoda the respiratory function has been taken over by the abdominal appendages, both rami or only the inner becoming thin or flattened.
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  • There are no special respiratory organs, their function is carried on by the internal surface of the mantle.
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  • Similarly the depressant action on the respiratory centre in the medulla oblongata occurs only after the administration of enormous doses.
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  • Young, bromine, when dried over sulphuric acid, boils at 57.65° C., and when dried over phosphorus pentoxide, boils at 58.85° C. (under a pressure of 755.8 mm.), forming a deep red vapour, which exerts an irritating and directly poisonous action on the respiratory organs.
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  • The springs, the Arminius Quelle and the Liborius Quelle, for which it is famous, are saline waters of a temperature of 70° F., and are utilized both for bathing and drinking in cases of pulmonary consumption and chronic diseases of the respiratory organs.
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  • With weakness of the voluntary muscles went intermittent spasms which weakened the patient and ultimately led to death by implication of the respiratory muscles.
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  • One special feature was the importance attributed to the respiratory arrangements as a source of expression, and it was shown how the physician and surgeon might derive information regarding the nature and extent of important diseases by observing the expression of bodily suffering.
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  • The circumoesophageal water-ring communicates indirectly with the exterior; the podia, when present, are respiratory, not locomotor, in function.
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  • - A suture, and hanging down into the thecal cavity as Eu blast o i d, respiratory organs (hydrospires).
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  • The circumoesophageal water-ring may lose its connexion with the exterior medium; the podia (absent only in some exceptional forms) may be locomotor, respiratory or sensory in function, but usually are locomotor tube-feet.
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  • Such a form gave rise to descendants differing inter se as regards the suppression of the radial canals and of the podia, the form of the tentacles, and the development of respiratory trees.
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  • Absorption may also take place from the skin, from the rectum, from the respiratory passages, or from wounds, and from direct injection into the subcutaneous tissue or into a blood vessel.
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  • In all cases there is a longer or shorter period of excitement, followed by intoxication or narcosis, and with large doses this passes into paralysis and death from depression of the respiratory centre or of the heart.
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  • It has in addition a markedly depressing action upon the respiratory centre, it lessens all the secretions except the sweat, and diminishes bowel peristalsis and the size of the pupil.
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  • It kills by its paralysing effect on the motor ganglia of the heart and on the respiratory centre.
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  • Drugs acting on the respiratory system.
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  • Oxygen is only involved at the very last stage of respiration as the final electron acceptor, but without the whole respiratory chain stops.
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  • The respiratory drive is increased and the arterial blood gas shows a partially compensated metabolic acidosis.
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  • For example, in patients with severe lung disease a pyrexia or high carbohydrate diet may result in respiratory acidosis.
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  • They all suffer from respiratory ailments which they blame on air pollution.
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  • Also, fine particles may be drawn into the respiratory airways where they may adversely affect health.
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  • In more serious disease states, such as severe asthma or moderate pulmonary embolism, respiratory alkalosis may occur.
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  • Specific Hazards - in adults, a mixed respiratory alkalosis and metabolic acidosis is usual.
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  • Health surveillance must be carried out, as flour dust and improvers including amylase are respiratory sensitisers.
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  • Respiratory depression associated with patient-controlled analgesia: a review of eight cases.
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  • Perhaps we saw a cocaine friend die of respiratory arrest, and still we went on using!
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  • The monitor works by measuring respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA ).
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  • Alcohol or drug intoxication, delirium, obesity and respiratory problems (asthma among them) can increase the risk of positional asphyxia.
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  • However, he had died from respiratory failure due to accidental smothering and traumatic asphyxia.
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  • There is the possibility that incorrectly assembled respiratory therapy devices connected to a tight fitting facemask could also be a hazard.
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  • She is a Respiratory Pediatrician with a special interest in asthma particularly pre-school wheeze, non-CF bronchiectasis and congenital lung abnormalities.
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  • The respiratory bronchioles have single alveoli off their walls.
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  • Know the link between smoking and respiratory diseases Eg bronchitis, lung cancer.
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  • This in itself was not surprising, since plants normally fix CO2 in the dark using PEP carboxylase as part of their respiratory pathway.
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  • In the body it helps to clear respiratory congestion, including sinuses and relieving catarrh and asthma.
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  • All fruits that ripen in response to ethene show a characteristic rise in respiratory rate before the ripening phase, called a climacteric.
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  • The aim is to evaluate the potential of exhaled breath condensate as a diagnostic tool for respiratory disease.
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  • For 2 years he went tho similar recurrences of respiratory distress each time he got croup.
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  • However it is a potent respiratory depressant and should be used with caution, starting with low doses of 50mg twice a day.
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  • Precautions All patients who have been given morphine must be carefully observed for evidence of respiratory depression.
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  • Work in Respiratory genetics is leading to the development of improved diagnostics and novel therapeutics.
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  • The case fatality ratio for respiratory diphtheria is 5-10% .
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  • Acid rain has also been linked to respiratory diseases in children.
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  • These areas are invasive species, foot and mouth disease and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome.
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  • He was found to be improving with a decrease in his respiratory distress.
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  • It was also suggested that bronchopulmonary dysplasia be added to the list of chronic respiratory diseases.
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  • Death may result from circulatory or respiratory failure or cardiac dysrhythmia.
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  • In two patients from southern Viet Nam, the clinical diagnosis was acute encephalitis; neither patient had respiratory symptoms at presentation.
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  • Bird flu is transmitted from bird to bird by direct contact with bodily excrement and respiratory secretions.
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  • Breast fed babies are less likely to suffer many serious illnesses including gastroenteritis, respiratory and ear infections, eczema and asthma as children.
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  • All our digestive, blood and respiratory systems are needed to provide energy for muscle systems - again - to overcome gravitation!
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  • The contribution of the respiratory rhythm to sinus arrhythmia in normal unanesthetized subjects during mechanical hyperventilation with positive pressure.
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  • The virus caused severe respiratory illness in 18 people, 6 of whom died.
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  • Inhaled nitric oxide in full-term and nearly full-term infants with hypoxic respiratory failure.
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  • Subjects were excluded if they reported having suffered symptoms of a respiratory tract infection in the prior 8 weeks.
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  • Effect of sequential porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome aand swine influenza on the growth and performance of finishing pigs.
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  • It damages the central nervous system and skin, and causes respiratory irritation.
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  • Medical therapy Upper respiratory tract infections, eg acute laryngitis, are commonly caused by viral infections.
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  • This includes legionnaire 's disease, caused by a bacterium, and SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) caused by a virus.
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  • These embrace respiratory conditions such as chronic bronchitis, small airways disease, asthma, chronic airflow limitation and emphysema.
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  • It irritates the mucous membrane of the respiratory system, causing coughing, choking and impaired lung function and exacerbating asthma symptoms.
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  • Awaiting the onset of labor appears to be beneficial in preventing respiratory morbidity in term neonates delivered by elective cesarean section.
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  • Teaching staff specialize in sports physiotherapy pediatrics respiratory care neurology musculoskeletal work.
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  • Respiratory signs and skin nodules also occur and myxomatosis is very often fatal.
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  • Only £ 49 View details Solaria Junior Massage Table Portable, collapsible, it includes a respiratory face orifice.
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  • Respiratory cell outgrowths from nasal polyps can be considered a suitable model to study gene transfer protocols in vitro.
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  • Further projects are focussed on the structure and function of bacterial and mammalian cytochromes P450 and a family of plant respiratory burst oxidases.
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  • She is currently doing research in viral pathogenesis at Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute in Albuquerque, New Mexico.
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  • Decongestant: removes phlegm and mucous, especially from the respiratory system.
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  • Respiratory System Acute or chronic interstitial pneumonitis, often associated with blood eosinophilia may occur and deaths have been reported.
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  • To assist in a respiratory function study in a new cohort of infants born extremely preterm.
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  • It typically starts suddenly with fever, chills, headache, aching muscles, general prostration and a cough or other respiratory symptoms.
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  • Evidence (see below) shows clear links between living in cramped conditions and ill health, especially respiratory and skin disease.
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  • N.B: Conditions which require medical clearance include respiratory, coronary or infectious illness.
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  • If progressive scoliosis is contributing to respiratory insufficiency then spinal surgery may be undertaken.
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  • In the UK, respiratory conditions are the third commonest cause of chronic sickness in working people aged 45 - 64 years.
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  • Upper respiratory tract infections caused by organisms sensitive to cefpodoxime, including sinusitis.
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  • All the clinical problems associated with a high spinal will reverse when cardiovascular and respiratory support are provided.
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  • She is not in any respiratory distress but a soft inspiratory stridor is audible and she is drooling saliva.
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  • Natural surfactant extract vs synthetic surfactant in the treatment of established respiratory distress syndrome.
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  • Some people also experience mild respiratory symptoms at the outset.
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  • The clinical signs of lactation tetany are muscular spasms and convulsions, and death due to respiratory failure.
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  • These fumes may cause occupational asthma and can also irritate the upper respiratory tract and eyes.
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  • The money was also used to purchase 2 transport backpacks to carry a portable ventilator, respiratory equipment & the relevant emergency drugs.
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  • Fitting is quite a serious symptom, with dangers of inhaling vomit causing respiratory spasm.
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  • The disease progressively weakens all muscles, notably respiratory muscles, compromising life expectancy.
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  • The ctenidium is atrophied, and the edge of the mantle-skirt is fused to the dorsal integument by concrescence, except at one point which forms the aperture of the mantle-chamber, thus converted into a nearly closed sac. Air is admitted to this sac for respiratory and hydrostatic purposes, and it thus becomes a lung.
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  • No respiratory or circulatory organs are known.
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  • Not only are the blood corpuscles of Limulus more like in form and granulation to those of Scorpio than to those of any Crustacean, but the fluid is in both animals strongly impregnated with the blue-coloured respiratory proteid, haemocyanin.
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  • In the numerous degenerate forms simplification occurs by obliteration of the demarcations of somites and the fusion of body-regions, together with a gradual suppression of the lamelliferous respiratory organs and the substitution for them of tracheae, which, in their turn, in the smaller and most reduced members of the group, may also disappear.
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  • - Degenerate Arachnids resembling the Opiliones in many structural points, but chiefly distinguishable from them by the following features: - The basal segments of the appendages of the 2nd pair are united in the middle line behind the mouth, those of the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th pairs are widely separated and not provided with sterno-coxal (maxillary) lobes, and take no share in mastication; the respiratory stigmata, when present, belong to the prosoma, and the primitive segmentation of the opisthosoma has entirely or almost entirely disappeared.
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  • There are five alkaline springs with temperatures from 69° to 102° F., the waters of which are specific in chronic catarrh of the respiratory organs, gout, rheumatism and diabetes.
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  • This system is in no true sense a vascular system; there are no capillaries, and the fluid it contains, which is corpusculated, can hardly have a respiratory or nutritive function.
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  • Gum benzoin, which contains from 12 to 20% of benzoic acid, is used in medicine as the essential constituent of benzoated lard, Adeps benzoatus, which owes its antiseptic properties to benzoic acid; and in friar's balsam, Tinctura benzoini composita, which is an ancient and valuable medicament, still largely used for inhalation in cases of laryngitis, bronchitis and other inflammatory or actually septic conditions of the respiratory tract.
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  • Amongst these, the most important is fever with increased protein metabolism, attended with disturbances of the circulatory and respiratory systems. Nervous symptoms, somnolence, coma, spasms, convulsions and paralysis are of common occurrence.
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  • Young, bromine, when dried over sulphuric acid, boils at 57.65° C., and when dried over phosphorus pentoxide, boils at 58.85° C. (under a pressure of 755.8 mm.), forming a deep red vapour, which exerts an irritating and directly poisonous action on the respiratory organs.
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  • The springs, the Arminius Quelle and the Liborius Quelle, for which it is famous, are saline waters of a temperature of 70° F., and are utilized both for bathing and drinking in cases of pulmonary consumption and chronic diseases of the respiratory organs.
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  • During the winter months respiratory tract infections with a variety of viruses are more common.
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  • A complete list of known respiratory sensitisers is available from the HSE.
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  • The direct benefits revolve mainly around considerations of respiratory health.
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  • Reduced secretion of mucus in the lungs predisposes to irritation and infection throughout the upper and lower respiratory tract.
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  • Exposures to sublethal concentrations of this gas may permanently damage the respiratory system.
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  • Death is due to respiratory muscle spasm (remember " tetanic contractions " from your work in physiology - where muscle never rests).
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  • Respiratory related evoked potentials during the transition from alpha to theta EEG activity in Stage 1 NREM sleep.
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  • Prolonged tourniquet times have been related to respiratory failure requiring postoperative ventilation, especially in trauma.
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  • This includes respiratory problems from coal dust inhaled while they were working in mines and Vibration White Finger from using damaging vibratory tools.
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  • In weaned pigs, respiratory disease is the predominant problem.
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  • Infants can inhale the small, powder particles, and this may cause respiratory problems.
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  • Some babies develop RDS, which is respiratory distress syndrome.
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  • A baby will receive antibodies through her mom's milk, and breastfeeding your baby will lower her chances of contracting meningitis, diabetes, allergies, respiratory illnesses, obesity, and childhood cancers, such as leukemia.
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  • Transient tachypena of the newborn, or TNN, is a relatively rare respiratory condition, affecting roughly one percent of births.
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  • The Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia offers information about transient tachypena of the newborn including other terms used in reference to this infant respiratory problem.
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  • Cesarean section can increase the risks of developing this respiratory condition in newborns.
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  • This is especially true considering how similar the symptoms of TTN are to other respiratory problems in newborns.
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  • A physician must diagnose the newborn respiratory problem.
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  • These additional symptoms might indicate a respiratory infection, something your vet should have been able to diagnose when he examined your kitten.
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  • Kittens are highly susceptible to respiratory infections, so runny, crusty eyes are often thought to be a direct symptom of distemper, when they are actually a symptom of the secondary illness.
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  • It presents as a respiratory infection, rather than as a heart problem like it would in dogs.
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  • Could a vaccination reaction, an allergy or a respiratory infection be the reason why one visitor's cat can't stop sneezing?
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  • Second, did your vet check your cat for a respiratory infection when you took her back in?
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  • No, she did not check for a respiratory infection when I took her back, nor did she call the manufacturer of the vaccine, as far as I am aware.
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  • What you describe are some of the symptoms of Feline Upper Respiratory Infection (URI).
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  • In felines, upper respiratory can include nose, eyes and mouth area.
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  • Has your cat been tested for an upper respiratory infection recently?
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  • This disease can cause a lot of respiratory infections and seems to impact very young and very old cats the most.
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  • It sounds as though your kitten has a severe respiratory infection.
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  • Although the mucous discharge is not a direct symptom of distemper, the disease lowers a cat's immunity, so it's possible for an affected animal to develop a secondary respiratory infection.
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  • Even though that was years ago, she still has occasional upper respiratory problems, and so we put the Respiratory formula in the drinking water bowl.
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  • Animals in this condition may have an allergy, cold or upper respiratory infection.
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  • These particles are carcinogens that can have an effect on the respiratory systems of both cats and people.
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  • Although not prevalent in the United States, lungworms may be the cause if a cat has ongoing respiratory problems.These worms can grow up to 10 millimeters long, and they look like hairs.
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  • Purring involves a continuous effort throughout the respiratory cycle.
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  • This virus was previously known as feline rhinotracheitis because of symptoms, such as a runny nose and sneezing, in the upper respiratory system.
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  • Vocalizations are determined by physical structure as well as the action of the respiratory system muscles and the acts of inhaling or exhaling.
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  • This dust can be inhaled by cats or pet owners and may cause respiratory issues for both.
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  • Although silica may cause respiratory distress when breathed, it is more difficult to inhale into the lungs.
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  • This clay dust particulate is thought to be unsafe because it can cause respiratory issues when inhaled.
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  • This can make the use of this litter easier for people and pets with respiratory issues.
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  • Are you using any room sprays or cleaning chemicals that could possibly irritate the nose and respiratory tract?
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  • Even silica litters have been said to cause respiratory irritation, so they may not be the best option over pine and corn varieties.
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  • It's fairly common to encounter upper respiratory infections in cats, but that doesn't make these infections any less harmful.
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  • An upper respiratory infection can grow to be quite serious and may become chronic in some animals.
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  • Certain viruses that cause your cat's symptoms may also lead to feline upper respiratory disease which is a serious and sometimes life threatening condition.
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  • Respiratory illnesses are not a small matter for your pet, and you should make an immediate visit to your veterinarian if your cat shows any suspicious symptoms.
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  • Upper respiratory infections are usually caused by two major viruses that are very easily spread.
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  • Activities such as shared grooming or shared utensils like water bowls can account for the spread of respiratory pathogens.
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  • Even depression has been implicated in upper respiratory infections.
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  • Respiratory infections caused by the herpesvirus can sometimes result in reproductive troubles, including the abortion of a pregnancy.
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  • The trouble with so many of the pathogenic causes of respiratory infections is that they cannot be eliminated.
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  • Prevention is key when it comes to mitigating respiratory infections and also lowering the chances that these organisms will spread.
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  • Purchasing your cat from a breeder that has no outstanding history of feline respiratory infections is a good start, but it is no guarantee.
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  • However, your chances of acquiring a cat that harbors respiratory disease is infinitely higher when you select your animal from a shelter or pet store where exposure to other cats and animals is high and difficult to regulate.
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  • Even if your cat already harbors the organisms responsible for respiratory infections, there are preventive measures you can take to improve your cat's overall immunity.
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  • Children and seniors are at risk for respiratory problems.
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  • Cleaning products that affect the air quality are perhaps the most dangerous to children and can cause prolonged and severe respiratory problems.
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  • Respiratory illnesses can be caused by the poor air quality and groundwater is subject to some contamination as well, which can lead to a host of health impacts.
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  • This tea soothes the throat and opens up the bronchial tubes while supporting the respiratory system.
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  • It is commonly used for digestive problems, sore throats and respiratory problems.
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  • Since ancient times, herbalists recommended cinnamon as an antimicrobial agent, to treat exhaustion and tiredness, for stomach upsets, colds and other upper respiratory ailments.
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  • While the top herbs for allergies are shown to be effective against respiratory allergies, they are not intended to be used all year round.
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  • The top herbs for allergies are typically very effective for respiratory allergies.
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  • Though often used in the United States as a treatment for respiratory infections, studies regarding effectiveness have been inconclusive.
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  • Karastan rugs are ideal for people with asthma or respiratory difficulties.
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  • Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any diseases affecting your respiratory system, you've experienced severe depression or suicidal thoughts, or you have a history of alcohol or drug dependency.
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  • Inhalant use is deadly and can also lead to brain damage and respiratory problems.
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  • Cardio Respiratory Endurance: This refers to the ability to perform a strenuous activity over a length of time, and is more commonly known as aerobic exercise.
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  • When taken in large doses, respiratory depression may also occur.
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  • It has weaker opiate effects than other forms of treatment, is less likely to cause overdose problems, has a lower level of dependence, and is thought to cause less respiratory depression than other opioid treatments.
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  • Because of the side effects of what came to be marketed as heroin, most notably respiratory depression, it was seen as an effective treatment for pneumonia and tuberculosis.
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  • Lung issues may not be the first problems that come to mind with alcoholism but it is highly associated with pneumonia and a lung disease called acute respiratory distress syndrome that can be fatal.
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  • Many people die because they choke on their own vomit or their brain's respiratory center stops working and they cease breathing.
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  • Lung ailments: Children who live with smokers are more likely to experience respiratory infections, including bronchitis and pneumonia, as well as asthma.
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  • Your lung function increases, improving your circulation and decreasing your risk for respiratory infections and heart disease.
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  • There are clubs devoted to hobbies, like the Anime Club, and organizations focused on specific career fields, such as the Respiratory Therapists Club.
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  • Kennel cough is a very contagious respiratory illness that is easily passed by hand-to-hand contact, but I need more information in order to make an educated guess whether this might be the problem.
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  • The cough is likely due to some sort of respiratory infection, and could even be kennel cough which is actually contagious.
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  • For the most part, any pet that contracts this virus will have to endure the hacking cough, runny nose and gagging until the respiratory infection runs its course.
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  • Your vet is able to confirm or rule out that your pet has a viral respiratory infection, and he can test for the presence of other respiratory bugs.
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  • According to Vet Info.com, steam treatments can be a valuable aid in the fight against a respiratory infection.
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  • The canine respiratory system serves two functions.
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  • The first thing your veterinarian must do is rule out the possibility of the digested blood coming from a wound the dog was licking or swallowing blood from its respiratory tract or mouth.
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  • Some critics of these foam products claim that the chemical odor of the foam may cause respiratory ailments.
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  • However, this foam is also more resistant to dust mites and mildew than regular mattresses, and this makes them a better mattress choice for an animal with respiratory problems.
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  • Respiratory masks - You need to wear respiratory masks while sanding the floors and during the cleanup process.
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  • The root has been used throughout history to treat a variety of illnesses, including respiratory infections, canker sores, arthritis, urinary tract infections, and more.
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  • Some people do become ill after having influenza or another type of respiratory illness.
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  • Occupational and physical therapy, respiratory, and even speech therapy is provided in many centers.
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  • This feeling of uncertainty, coupled with wearing the mask for the first time in the doctor's of respiratory therapist's office, often makes it difficult to evaluate which mask will work the best for you.
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  • A respiratory therapist can quickly measure your face and determine the correct size mask.
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  • Snoring can occur because the respiratory system is damaged or irritated.
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  • The first masks were basically respiratory masks that covered the nose and the mouth, such as those used to deliver emergency oxygen.
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  • Most sleep apnea patients start out with a basic mask that is recommended by their doctor or respiratory therapist.
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  • Aromatherapy used at night while sleeping may improve your respiratory system's function.
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  • Tests measure heart rate, respiratory function, and sleep behavior.
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  • A neurologist is very helpful in treating central sleep apnea, a relatively rare form of the nighttime breathing problem that involves the disruption of signals from the brain to the respiratory system.
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  • In some cases, heart problems can lead to the disruptions in breathing, and in turn, the respiratory problem can lead to heart problems.
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  • Patients who have already been diagnosed with sleep apnea who are having trouble with their CPAP equipment are encouraged to contact the Center to speak with a respiratory therapist.
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  • When you first started with a CPAP mask your mask was probably selected for you by your doctor or a respiratory professional.
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  • If you are not sure of which size mask to purchase be sure to speak with your respiratory professional or speak with the representatives at the mask retailer.
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  • Ask your respiratory profession for their suggestions on the best mask model for your particular sleeping style.
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  • BiPAP machines are used for a number of respiratory problems in addition to sleep apnea.
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  • The respiratory disturbance index (RDI) is a measurement that includes hypopneas and apneas in its calculations.
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  • The countered shape and firmness of the pillow helps a person to stay sleeping without disturbing the CPAP machine or other respiratory devices.
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  • In spite of the disturbances, they may not become fully conscious of the respiratory problem.
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  • A poison may severely depress the central nervous system, leading to coma and eventual respiratory and circulatory failure.
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  • Some poisons directly affect the respiratory and circulatory system.
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  • In the case of narcotic analgesics this means the addiction potential, as well as respiratory depression and constipation.
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  • Narcotic analgesics may be contraindicated in patients with poor respiratory function.
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  • The primary adverse effects of the narcotic analgesics are addiction, constipation, and poor respiratory function.
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  • Smoking is also the leading cause of bladder cancer and has been shown to contribute to cancers of the upper respiratory tract, esophagus, larynx, kidney, pancreas, stomach, and possibly breast as well.
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  • Common symptoms of food allergies include hives, angioedema (swelling), rashes, respiratory congestion, and gastrointestinal problems such as constipation, diarrhea, and/or gas.
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  • About 50-60 percent of children with HSP were diagnosed with strep throat or another upper respiratory infection two to three weeks before the onset of the vasculitis.
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  • Although the ultimate cause of HSP was unknown as of 2004, the disease is preceded by an acute upper respiratory infection in at least half the children diagnosed with it.
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  • Wegener's most commonly affects the upper respiratory tract, the eyes, ears, kidneys, and skin.
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  • The child's doctor may be able to narrow the diagnostic possibilities on the basis of the patient's age, sex, ethnicity, and a history of recent vaccinations or upper respiratory infections.
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  • Apart from minimizing a child's exposure to strep throat and similar upper respiratory infections, there is nothing that parents can do to prevent vasculitis in children, in that the cause(s) of these disorders are still unknown.
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  • About 80 percent of these infections are acquired during the birth process itself; the virus enters the infant through its eyes, skin, mouth, and upper respiratory tract.
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  • Deterioration is often rapid with symptoms such as seizures, dementia, feeding and speech difficulties, respiratory dysfunction, heart problems, and muscle weakness.
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  • Other symptoms include failure to thrive in infants, poor growth, short stature, fatigue, respiratory disorders, swallowing difficulties, and increased risk of infection.
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  • Fevers are caused in most cases by viral or bacterial infections, such as otitis media (ear infection), upper respiratory infection, pharyngitis (throat infection), pneumonia, chickenpox, and urinary tract infection.
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  • Croup is one of the most common respiratory illnesses in children.
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  • One of the most common respiratory illnesses in children, croup is frequently noted in infants and children and can have a variety of causes.
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  • Spasmodic croup is usually precipitated by an allergy or mild upper respiratory infection.
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  • It is usually transmitted via the respiratory route, entering through the nose and nasopharynx.
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  • Croup accounts for about 15 percent of all respiratory tract infections in children seen by physicians.
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  • Croup may also be caused by influenza A and B, adenovirus, measles, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).
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  • Parents should practice excellent hand washing, especially during the cold and flu season, and avoid close contact with anyone who has a respiratory infection.
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  • The leading causes of infant death include congenital abnormalities, pre-term/low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), problems related to complications of pregnancy, and respiratory distress syndrome.
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  • Sore throats are most common during the winter months when upper respiratory infections (colds) are more frequent.
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  • The infection spreads to the lymphatic system, respiratory system, liver, spleen, and throat.
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  • Choking is a major cause of respiratory emergencies and cardiac arrest in infants and children.
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  • If the foreign body cannot be expelled from the child's airway using the Heimlich maneuver, cardiac and/or respiratory arrest may occur, and the child may stop breathing.
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  • Pertussis, also called whooping cough, is a respiratory disease caused by Bordatella pertussis.
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  • Side effects include generalized weakness, including weakness of the respiratory muscles, as well as drowsiness, fatigue, diarrhea, and sensitivity to the sun.
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  • Common symptoms of food allergies include hives and rashes; swelling of the eyes, lips, and mouth; respiratory symptoms; and digestive problems.
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  • These histamines trigger allergic symptoms that affect many areas of the body, particularly the skin, respiratory system, nervous system, and digestive system.
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  • Food allergies and sensitivities can produce a wide range of symptoms involving the skin, respiratory system, and nervous system.
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  • H., et al. "Infant with inadequate feeding and weight gain, progressive respiratory difficulty, hypotonia, and weakness, with onset at birth."
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  • Close attention to and prompt treatment of respiratory and digestive complications have dramatically increased the expected life span of a person with CF.
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  • The most severe effects of cystic fibrosis are seen in two body systems: the gastrointestinal (digestive) system and the respiratory tract from the nose to the lungs.
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  • For unknown reasons, recurrent respiratory infections lead to digital clubbing, in which the last joint of the fingers and toes becomes slightly enlarged.
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  • The decision to test a child for cystic fibrosis may be triggered by concerns about recurring gastrointestinal or respiratory symptoms or salty sweat.
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  • The key to maintaining respiratory health in a person with CF is regular monitoring and early treatment.
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  • Lung function tests are done frequently to track changes in functional lung volume and respiratory effort.
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  • Respiratory failure may develop, requiring temporary use of a ventilator to perform the work of breathing.
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  • Emphysema-A chronic respiratory disease that involves the destruction of air sac walls to form abnormally large air sacs that have reduced gas exchange ability and that tend to retain air within the lungs.
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  • Symptoms include labored breathing, the inability to forcefully blow air out of the lungs, and an increased susceptibility to respiratory tract infections.
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  • Mucociliary escalator-The coordinated action of tiny projections on the surfaces of cells lining the respiratory tract, which moves mucus up and out of the lungs.
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  • Other effects of methamphetamine include respiratory problems, irregular heartbeat, and extreme anorexia.
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  • However, if these allergies are left untreated, infants and children may be more likely to develop chronic allergies, asthma, and respiratory infections later in life.
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  • An infant's shoulder becomes stuck on the mother's pelvic bone during birth; the infant's neck may be stretched and the brachial plexus injured as the physician pulls on the baby to free it before circulatory or respiratory stress occurs.
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  • Adenoviruses are small infectious agents that cause upper respiratory tract infections, conjunctivitis, and other infections in humans.
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  • Adenovirus infections can occur throughout the year, unlike the seasonality associated with other respiratory viruses.
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  • In children, adenoviruses most often cause acute upper respiratory infections with fever and runny nose.
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  • Occasionally more serious lower respiratory diseases, such as pneumonia or bronchitis, may occur.
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  • Adenoviruses are responsible for 3 to 5 percent of acute respiratory infections in children.
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  • Symptoms common to respiratory illnesses caused by adenovirus infection include cough, fever, runny nose, sore throat, and watery eyes.
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  • In children with gastroenteritis caused by the adenovirus, symptoms may include diarrhea, fever, nausea, vomiting, and respiratory symptoms.
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  • Whooping cough-An infectious disease of the respiratory tract caused by a bacterium, Bordetella pertussis.
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  • Doctors pay special attention to the ears, nose, throat, sinuses, and chest as sites of infection, since most childhood infections are respiratory in nature.
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  • A-T is a progressive disease that affects the cerebellum (the body's motor control center) and, in about 70 percent of cases, weakens the immune system as well, leading to respiratory disorders.
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  • Damage to the respiratory and cardiovascular systems is highest at time of injury.
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  • Electric shocks can paralyze the respiratory system or disrupt heart action, causing instant death.
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  • It can lead to respiratory infections, ulcers, and even cancer.
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  • Respiratory symptoms are twice as likely to occur in children with GERD as those who do not have it.
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  • A drop in the baby's heart rate or respiratory rate will sound an alarm, and a nurse can stimulate the baby to resume breathing, if necessary.
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  • Stridor is a term used to describe noisy breathing in general and to refer specifically to a high-pitched crowing sound associated with croup, respiratory infection, and airway obstruction.
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  • It can be a symptom of a life-threatening respiratory emergency.
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  • Coughing protects the respiratory system by clearing it of irritants and secretions.
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  • While people can generally cough voluntarily, a true cough is usually a reflex triggered when an irritant stimulates one or more of the cough receptors found at different points in the respiratory system.
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  • However, when the level of irritants in the air is high or when the respiratory system becomes infected, coughing may become frequent and prolonged.
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  • In the case of cigarette smokers, the nicotine present in the smoke paralyzes the hairs (cilia) that regularly flush mucus from the respiratory system.
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  • Expectorant-A drug that promotes the discharge of mucus from respiratory system.
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  • Physicians prefer not to suppress a productive cough, since it aids the body in clearing respiratory system of infective agents and irritants.
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  • Coughs due to bacterial or viral upper respiratory infections may be effectively treated with botanical and homeopathic therapies.
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  • Autonomic nervous system-The part of the nervous system that controls so-called involuntary functions, such as heart rate, salivary gland secretion, respiratory function, and pupil dilation.
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  • Most cases of bronchiolitis are caused by viruses, the most common of which is respiratory syncytial virus.
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  • Like most types of respiratory viruses, the viruses that cause bronchiolitis are usually contracted through breathing in infected droplets that are sprayed out by another ill individual during coughing or sneezing.
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  • A doctor should always be called when a child appears to be in any respiratory distress.
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  • Initial diagnosis of respiratory distress is made based on clinical signs of difficulty breathing.
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  • Bronchiolitis is spread the same way that most other respiratory viruses are communicated, through droplets and contact with infected nasal secretions.
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  • Diphtheria-A serious, frequently fatal, bacterial infection that affects the respiratory tract.
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  • The newborn receives a total score (Apgar score) that ranges from 0 to 10 based on rating color, heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, and reflex irritability.
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  • A score of 4, 5, or 6 requires immediate intervention, usually in the form of oxygen and respiratory assistance or in the form of suctioning if breathing has been obstructed by mucus.
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  • Many of these children have breathing difficulties, and respiratory infections are common.
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  • Respiratory problems and sleep apnea are common.
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  • It serves as a passageway for air to flow from the outside environment into the lower respiratory tract and lungs.
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  • One Japanese study of children brought to the emergency room for removal of foreign bodies from the respiratory and digestive tracts found that the nose was the most common location (39.4% of patients) of these objects.
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  • Some of the other adverse effects are chest tightness; wheezing; nasal stuffiness; dry mouth, nose, and throat; sore throat; respiratory depression; sneezing; and a burning sensation in the nose.
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  • Porphyrin-An organic compound found in living things that founds the foundation structure for hemoglobin, chlorophyll, and other respiratory pigments.
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  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a virus that can cause severe lower respiratory infections in children younger than two years of age and milder upper respiratory infections in older children and adults.
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  • The symptoms include wheezing, difficulty breathing, and sometimes respiratory failure.
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  • In young children, the virus causes a serious lower respiratory infection in the lungs.
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  • In older children and healthy adults, it causes a mild upper respiratory infection often mistaken for the common cold.
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  • Respiratory syncytial virus is spread through close contact with an infected person.
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  • Scientists had, as of 2004, not understood why RSV viruses attack the lower respiratory system in infants and the upper respiratory system in adults.
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  • Opportunistic bacterial infections that take advantage of a weakened respiratory system may cause ear, sinus, and throat infections or pneumonia.
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  • People do not gain permanent immunity to respiratory syncytial virus and can be infected many times.
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  • Respiratory syncytial virus infection is so common that prevention is impossible.
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  • Frequent hand washing, especially after contact with respiratory secretions, and the correct disposal of used tissues help keep the disease from spreading.
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  • Major nerves of the body can become paralyzed for six to 14 days, causing double vision, difficulty swallowing and speaking, respiratory failure, and other problems.
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  • Persons with minor fever-producing illnesses, such as an upper respiratory infection, should not get the vaccine until the illness has subsided.
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  • Conjunctivitis may be caused by a viral infection, such as a cold; acute respiratory infection; or other disease such as measles, herpes simplex, or herpes zoster.
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  • Adenovirus-A type of virus that can cause upper respiratory tract infections.
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  • Coxsackie virus-A type of enterovirus that may produce a variety of illnesses, including upper respiratory infections, myocarditis, and pericarditis.
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  • If urushiol enters the respiratory tract, which typically happens when the plant is burned and the smoke is breathed in, it can be life threatening.
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  • Laboratory tests used to evaluate a person for narcolepsy include an overnight polysomnogram (a test in which sleep is monitored with electrocardiography, a video camera, and respiratory parameters).
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  • While air goes into the larynx and the respiratory system, food and liquid are directed into the tube leading to the stomach, the esophagus.
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  • Although investigators are still not sure whether the immediate cause of SIDS deaths is due to respiratory failure or cardiac arrest, patterns of infant sleep, breathing, and arousal are a major focus of research in the early 2000s.
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  • Many SIDS deaths occur in babies who have recently had colds (a possible reason that SIDS is most prevalent in winter, the time when upper respiratory infections are most frequent).
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  • Perforated eardrum occurs commonly in people of all ages; it is especially common in early childhood when children are exposed regularly to colds and upper respiratory infections in their contact with other children.
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  • Infection usually stems from an upper respiratory infection in which swelling (edema) in the eustachian tube causes fluid and mucous to gather behind the eardrum.
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  • If a child with a cold or upper respiratory infection cries constantly or complains of pain in the ear, it is wise to have the ears checked by a physician.
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  • The nose and throat may also be cultured to see if the same organism is responsible for an upper respiratory infection.
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  • Treatment of a perforated eardrum is aimed at relieving pain or pressure behind the eardrum, treating any infection of the ear itself or of the upper respiratory tract, and restoring hearing.
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  • It may help to be especially watchful for symptoms of colds, sinus infections, and upper respiratory symptoms that may lead to ear infection.
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  • Other symptoms include drooling, increase in blood pressure (hypertension), irregular heart beat, inability to open the mouth, high fever, kidney failure, and respiratory failure.
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  • Expectorants are drugs that loosen and clear mucus and phlegm from the respiratory tract.
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  • There are two drugs that are routinely used to clear mucus from the respiratory tract: guaifenesin and acetylcysteine.
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  • Respiratory system-The organs that are involved in breathing: the nose, the throat, the larynx, the trachea, the bronchi and the lungs.
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  • Ribavirin (Rebetol, Virazol), used for treatment of hospitalized infants and young children with severe lower respiratory tract infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), but its value is controversial.
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  • Azithromycin and clarithromycin both reach the lungs and respiratory tract better than does erythromycin.
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  • These two drugs may be preferred for respiratory tract infections.
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  • Frequently, OI type II is lethal at or shortly after birth, often as a result of respiratory problems.
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  • It is suggested that thumb sucking, overuse of pacifiers, bottle feeding, and recurrent upper respiratory illnesses cause tongue thrusting.
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  • Frequent upper respiratory illnesses often stuff the nose, forcing these children to breathe through their mouths.
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  • They should treat allergies and respiratory illnesses immediately to keep the nose open and breathing free.
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  • Prolonged symptoms may indicate that the child has other upper respiratory infections, most commonly in the ears or sinuses.
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  • Asphyxia neonatorum is respiratory failure in the newborn, a condition caused by the inadequate intake of oxygen before, during, or just after birth.
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  • Temperature, pulse and respiratory rate, color, and activity are recorded, and blood glucose levels checked for at least four hours.
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  • Apgar score-The results of an evaluation of a newborn's physical status, including heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, response to stimulation, and color of skin.
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  • Respiratory failure-Inability to rid the body of CO2 or establish an adequate blood oxygen level.
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  • The most common emergency treatment involves injection of epinephrine (adrenaline) to stop the release of histamines and relax the muscles of the respiratory tract.
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  • It helps to regulate digestive, respiratory, and circulatory systems.
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  • Congenital myotonic dystrophy is marked by severe weakness, poor sucking and swallowing responses, respiratory difficulty, delayed motor development, and mental retardation.
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  • It is sometimes found in breast tissue, the mouth, and the genital, urinary, and upper respiratory tracts.
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  • Acute otitis media can result from a respiratory infection such as a cold that causes an inflammation that blocks a eustachian tube.
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  • Hyper-IgM syndrome appears during the first year of life when the child develops recurrent infections of the respiratory tract that do not respond to standard antibiotic treatment, along with chronic diarrhea.
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  • A number of other conditions also make newborns susceptible, including respiratory distress syndrome, congenital heart problems, and episodes of apnea (cessation of breathing).
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  • Young men with DMD often live into their twenties and beyond, provided they have mechanical ventilation assistance and good respiratory hygiene.
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  • Respiratory weakness also occurs and may lead to the need for mechanical ventilation.
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  • Some people with LGMD develop respiratory weakness that requires use of a ventilator.
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  • Treatment of muscular dystrophy is mainly directed at preventing the complications of weakness, including decreased mobility and dexterity, contractures, scoliosis, heart defects, and respiratory insufficiency.
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  • Surgery is recommended at a much lower degree of curvature for DMD than for scoliosis due to other conditions, since the decline in respiratory function in DMD makes surgery at a later time dangerous.
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  • Respiratory infections become an increasing problem as their breathing becomes weaker, and these infections are usually the cause of death.
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  • The respiratory involvement of BMD and LGMD similarly require careful and prompt treatment.
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  • Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is found in respiratory secretions and is directed toward invasion of the body by parasites and in allergic reactions such as hay fever, atopic dermatitis, and allergic asthma.
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  • Symptoms are frequent and so are persistent infections, particularly of the respiratory system.
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  • Pulmonary function tests help a doctor to diagnose respiratory diseases and disorders such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and emphysema, and mechanical injury by measuring the degree of lung impairment.
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  • Chlamydiae are found in parts of the body with a mucosal membrane, which are the eye, the respiratory tract, and the genitourinary tract.
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  • After birth, physical symptoms of respiratory distress, cyanosis, and chest asymmetry can indicate the presence of a diaphragmatic hernia.
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  • First and foremost, the infant's respiratory distress must be addressed.
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  • Respiratory distress represents 20 percent of all admissions of children to hospitals, and pneumonia is the underlying cause of most of these admissions.
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  • To understand pneumonia, it is important to understand the basic anatomic features of the respiratory system.
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  • The human respiratory system begins at the nose and mouth, where air is breathed in (inspired) and out (expired).
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  • The larynx flows into the trachea, which is the broadest part of the respiratory tract.
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  • The main function of the respiratory system is to help distribute oxygen, the most important energy source for the body's cells.
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  • Oxygen enters the body as inspired air and travels through the respiratory system to the alveoli.
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  • The healthy human lung is sterile, with no normally resident bacteria or viruses, unlike the upper respiratory system and parts of the gastrointestinal system, where bacteria dwell even in a healthy state.
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  • Multiple safeguards along the path of the respiratory system are designed to keep invading organisms from causing infection.
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  • Sneezing and coughing, both provoked by the presence of irritants within the respiratory system, help to clear such irritants from the respiratory tract.
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  • Mucus produced through the respiratory system also serves to trap dust and infectious organisms.
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  • Tiny hair like projections (cilia) from cells lining the respiratory tract beat constantly to move debris trapped by mucus upwards and out of the respiratory tract.
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  • Finally, cells lining the respiratory tract produce several types of immune substances that protect against various organisms.
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  • Other cells (macrophages) along the respiratory tract surround and kill invading organisms.
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  • Viruses cause the majority of pneumonias in young children, especially respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza and influenza viruses, and adenovirus.
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  • If pneumonia is present, a rapid rate of respiration may be noted; tachypnea is defined as a respiratory rate over 50 respirations per minute in infants younger than one year.
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