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researches

researches Sentence Examples

  • The following is the general idea derived from these researches.

  • Thenard stated that yeast was the cause of fermentation, and held it to be of an animal nature, since it contained nitrogen and yielded ammonia on distillation, nor was it conclusively proved that the yeast cell was the originator of fermentation until the researches of C. Cagniard de la Tour, T.

  • Pasteur's important researches mark an epoch in the technical aspect of fermentation.

  • In delicate researches two divisions of the scale should always be read, not merely for increased accuracy but to obtain the corrections for " run " from the observations themselves.

  • New friends gathered round him who took a keen interest in his researches.

  • Attempts have been made, principally founded on some remarks of Huygens, to show that Descartes had learned the principles of refraction from the manuscript of a treatise by Willebrord Snell, but the facts are uncertain; and, so far as Descartes founds his optics on any one, it is probably on the researches of Kepler.

  • Borelli (1608-1679) as its most notable name, entered in a way on the mechanical study of anatomy suggested by Descartes, but was probably much more dependent upon the positive researches of Galileo.

  • In 1859 he began, in concert with Sir William Thomson (afterwards Lord Kelvin), to work on problems respecting the making and use of cables, and the importance of his researches on the resistance of gutta-percha was at once recognized.

  • Ainsworth, Researches in Assyria (1838); R.

  • Smith, Early History of India (1904), and the references there given to the researches of Sir T.

  • Baumgarten did good service in severing aesthetics from the other philosophic disciplines, and in marking out a definite object for its researches.

  • Tozer, Researches in the Highlands of Turkey (London, 1869); F.

  • According to the researches of R.

  • von Rosen, Archaeological' Researches on the Frontier of Argentina and Bolivia 1901-1902 (Stockholm, 1904); Arturo B.

  • As early as 1866, tannic acid, gallic acid, wood spirit, acetic acid, essential oil and eucalyptol were produced from various species of eucalyptus, and researches made by Australian chemists, notably by Messrs.

  • Researches go to show that Baiame has his counterpart in other tribes, the myth varying greatly in detail.

  • These local researches, and the more comprehensive attempts of Leichhardt and Mitchell to solve the chief problems of.

  • The main results of these researches, which occupied him from 1854 to 1864, are contained in his Report on the Theory of Numbers, which appeared in the British Association volumes from 1859 to 1865.

  • During the last few years of his life Boole was constantly engaged in extending his researches with the object of producing a second edition of his Differential Equations much more complete than the first edition; and part of his last vacation was spent in the libraries of the Royal Society and the British Museum.

  • During the three years he held this position he carried out researches on the contact of elastic solids, hardness, evaporation and the electric discharge in gases, the last earning him the special commendation of Helmholtz.

  • There he continued his researches on the discharge of electricity in rarefied gases, only just missing the discovery of the X-rays described by W.

  • It is true that the killing of the god plays a prominent part in primitive cults, as has been shown more particularly through the valuable researches of J.

  • The researches of Liebig (1823), Liebig and Gay-Lussac (1824), and of Liebig again in 1838 showed the acid to be isomeric with cyanic acid, and probably (Hcno) 2, since it gave mixed and acid salts.

  • It has been sometimes misspelt "Tapacolo," as by C. Darwin, who gave (Journal of Researches, chap. xii.) a brief but entertaining account of the habits of this bird and its relative, Hylactes megapodius, called by the Chilenos "El Turco."

  • The results of these researches are published in the Sitz.

  • Even the prologues, which later researches have shown to be in the main by the hand of Plautus himself, though certain passages were clearly added at a later date, e.g.

  • Bell, " Telephone Researches," in Journ.

  • On the other hand, the Bactrian species, which is employed throughout a large tract of central Asia in the domesticated condition, appears, according to recent researches, to exist in the wild state in some of the central Asian deserts.

  • The ethnography of ancient Italy is a very complicated and difficult subject, and notwithstanding the researches of modern scholars is still involved in some obscurity.

  • His researches went back to very early times; Pliny (Nat.

  • GayLussac, and the two carried out many researches together.

  • His researches on sebacic acid (1802) and on bile (1807), and his discovery of peroxide of hydrogen (1818) also deserve mention.

  • This was not only in itself an important contribution to plant anatomy, but served as the starting-point of a series of researches by Van Tieghem and his pupils, which has considerably advanced our knowledge of the details of histology, and also culminated in the foundation of the doctrine of the stele (Van Tieghem and Douliot, Sur la polystlie, Ann.

  • The early histological researches of botanists led them to the recognition of the vegetable cell, and the leading writers in the middle of the ~9th century pointed out the probable identity of Von Mohls protopiarm with the sarcode of zoologists.

  • It was not till De Bary (1866) made known the true nature of parasitic Fungi, based on his researches between 1853-1863, that the vast domain of epidemic diseases of plants was opened up to fruitful investigation, and such modern treatises as those of Frank (1880 and L895), Sorauer (1886), Kirchner (1890), were gradually made possible.

  • This is equally true of the phenomena of apogamy and apospory in the light of recent researches into the effects of external conditions on reproduction.

  • +h,r, 1)s~,~s-s Diatoms and Desmids, according to recent researches, the thickenings on the outer walls of the cells are due to the passage of protoplasm from the interior of the cell to the outside, through pores which are found perforating the wall on all sides.

  • It was at one time thought that the centrosomes played an important part in the fertilization of plants, but recent researches seem to indicate that this is not so.

  • The researches of the last twenty years have shown that the structure of the nucleus and the phenomena of nuclear division in these lower forms conforms in all essential details to those in the higher plants.

  • Beyerinck was led to take up the decided position just mentioned by his researches into the conditions determining the formation of plant-galls as the result of injury by insects.

  • Actual or projected routes for telegraph cables across the deep sea have also been sounded with extreme accuracy in many cases; but beyond these lines of sounding the vast spaces of the ocean remain unplumbed save for the rare researches of scientific expeditions, such as those of the " Challenger," the " Valdivia," the " Albatross " and the " Scotia."

  • His spare time was devoted to the prosecution of studies in philology and history, more particularly to the study of Thucydides, and of the new light which had been cast upon Roman history and upon historical method in general by the researches of Niebuhr.

  • Ainsworth, Researches in Assyria and Babylonia (1838), and Personal Narrative of the Euphrates Expedition (1888); A.

  • He became first a postmaster near Lyons, and in 1841 was appointed, through the influence of some of his friends who had risen to posts of power, member of a scientific commission on Algeria, which led him to engage in researches concerning North Africa and colonization in general.

  • In 1831 the Copley medal of the Royal Society was awarded to him for these researches.

  • One of the most remarkable of Airy's researches was his determination of the mean density of the earth.

  • The character of molten sulphur has been mainly elucidated by the researches of A.

  • In recent years classifications in part agreeing with the older schemes but largely original, in accord with researches on the comparative anatomy of the insects, have been put forward.

  • Still, craniological researches show that, notwithstanding this fact, the Slav type has been maintained with remarkable persistency: Slav skulls ten and thirteen centuries old exhibit the same anthropological features as those which characterize the Sla y s of our own day.

  • This question has given rise to an enormous amount of discussion among learned men, and some of the disputants have not yet laid down their arms; but for impartial outsiders who have carefully studied the evidence there can be little doubt that 1 See Researches into the State of Fisheries in Russia (9 vols.), edited by Minister of Finance (1896, Russian); Kusnetzow's Fischerei and Thiererbeutung in den Gewassern Russlands (1898).

  • sqq.); Nikolai Ivanovich Kostomarov (1817-1885), professor of history at Kiev and St Petersburg, whose monographs and researches are collected in his Sobranye sochinenye (collected works, 21 vols., St Petersburg, 1903-6); V.

  • 1871; republished with other papers by Crookes, under the title of Researches on the Phenomena of Spiritualism (1874-1876).

  • To judge by the osteological remains which the researches of geologists have brought to light, there was perhaps scarcely a county in England or Wales in which, at one time or another, wolves did not abound, while in Scotland and Ireland they must have been still more numerous.

  • Fraunhofer is especially known for the researches, published in the Denkschriften der Miinchener Akademie for 1814-1815, by which he laid the foundation of solar and stellar chemistry.

  • He was ignorant of another fact of great importance (which has only in recent years been fully appreciated through the researches of F.

  • It was during his imprisonment here that, "prive de toute espece de livres et de secours, surtout distrait par les malheurs de ma patrie et les miens propres," as he himself puts it, he began his researches on projective geometry which led to his great treatise on that subject.

  • Researches, ed.

  • The splendid researches of S.

  • One of Maxwell's last great contributions to science was the editing (with copious original notes) of the Electrical Researches of the Hon.

  • Henry Cavendish, from which it appeared that Cavendish, already famous by many other researches (such as the mean density of the earth, the composition of water, &c.), must be looked on as, in his day, a man of Maxwell's own stamp as a theorist and an experimenter of the very first rank.

  • In the south of the Sinaitic peninsula, remains have been found of an elaborate half-Egyptian, half-Semitic cultus (Petrie, Researches in Sinai, xiii.), and not only does Edom possess some reputation for " wisdom," but, where this district is concerned, the old Arabian religion (whose historical connexion with Palestine is still imperfectly known) claims some attention.

  • Museum at Budapest, where he became distinguished for his archaeological researches.

  • At once she became a valuable co-operator with him both in his professional duties and in the astronomical researches to which he had already begun to devote all his spare time.

  • Pashley (Travels in Crete, 2 vols., London, 1837) and Captain Spratt (Travels and Researches in Crete, 2 vols., London, 1865).

  • of his works) and Hoeck (Kreta, 3 vols., Göttingen, 1823-1829), but the latter work was published before the researches which have thrown so much light on the topography and antiquities of the island.

  • - Pashley, Travels in Crete (2 vols., Cambridge and London, 1837); Spratt, Travels and Researches in Crete (2 vols., London, 1867); Raulin, Description physique del' ile de Crete (3 vols.

  • and gathered into small spherical heaps forming a spongy mass, which - according to the researches of A.

  • - That ants possess highly developed senses and the power of communicating with one another has long been known to students of their habits; the researches of P. Huber and Sir J.

  • above sea, and modern researches tend to prove that in the central portions of the Gobi (about Lop Nor) it may be actually below sea-level.

  • The exact information obtained by Minor, ?1'cc. the researches of English surveyors in Palestine and beyond Jordan, or by the efforts of explorers in the regions that lie between the Mediterranean and the Caspian, have so far led rather to the elucidation of history than to fresh commercial enterprise or the possible increase of material wealth.

  • Further matter of interest in connexion with the Oxus basin was elucidated by the researches of L.

  • Burma In this field the researches of travellers already menand Chin a.

  • It is only of recent years that the writings of Schopenhauer and the researches of many distinguished orientalists have awakened some interest in Asiatic philosophy.

  • Here he continued to prosecute his scientific researches and his multifarious studies with unabated diligence.

  • Berthelot, and many other chemists, from whose researches it results that glycerin is a trihydric alcohol indicated by the formula C 3 H 5 (OH) 3j the natural fats and oils, and the glycerides generally, being substances of the nature of compound esters formed from glycerin by the replacement of the hydrogen of the OH groups by the radicals of certain acids, called for that reason "fatty acids."

  • Next he sought to prepare the inactive form of the acid by artificial means; and after great and long-continued labour he succeeded, and was led to the commencement of his classical researches on fermentation, by the observation that when the inactive acid was placed in contact with a special form of mould (Penicillium glaucum) the right-handed acid alone was destroyed, the left-handed variety remained unchanged.

  • The controversy on this question was waged with spirit on both sides; but in the end Pasteur came off victorious, and in a series of the most delicate and most intricate experimental researches he proved that when the atmospheric germs are absolutely excluded no changes take place.

  • Empiricism, hitherto the only guide, if indeed a guide at all, was replaced by exact scientific knowledge; the connexion of each phenomenon with a controllable cause was established, and rule-of-thumb and quackery banished for ever by the free gift to the world of the results of his researches.

  • A much more valuable practical result of Brewster's optical researches was the improvement of the British lighthouse system.

  • The older authorities asserted that these numbered as many as 150, or even Soo; the more recent researches of Baron P. V.

  • Ellis, Polynesian Researches, 1834, iv.

  • There he made the acquaintance of Thomas Andrews, whom he joined in researches on the density of ozone and the action of the electric discharge on oxygen and other gases, and by whom he was introduced to Sir W.

  • Two years later researches on "Charcoal Vacua" with J.

  • There is in existence a vast store of accumulated knowledge, and few, if any, departments of economics have been left quite unilluminated by the researches of former generations.

  • According to the classical researches of A.

  • the insunken space that represents the amniotic cavity into comThe recent researches of R.

  • Carriere's researches (1897) on the make its appearance simultaneously throughout the whole length of embryology of the mason bee (Chalicodoma) agree entirely with the the plate; the anterior parts are segmented before the posterior.

  • The classical researches of J.

  • Sharp, is unlikely to be superseded by the result of any researches into minute imaginal structure.

  • Sharp's proposed association of the parasitic wingless insects in a group Anapterygota cannot, however, be defended as natural; and recent researches into the structure of these forms enables us to associate them confidently with related winged orders.

  • of birds, and he seems to have been the first to institute a direct comparison of their skeleton with that of man; but in this respect he only anticipated by a few years the more precise researches of Volcher Coiter, a Frisian, who in 1573 and 1575 published at Nuremberg two treatises, in one of which the internal structure of birds in general is very creditably described, while in the other the osteology and myology of certain forms is given in considerable detail, and illustrated by carefully drawn figures.

  • His attempt at classification was certainly better than that of Linnaeus; and it is rather curious that the researches of the latest ornithologists point to results in some degree comparable with Brisson's systematic arrangement, for they refuse to keep the birds-of-prey at the head of the Class A y es, and they require the establishment of a much larger number of " Orders " than for a long while was thought advisable.

  • But in 1681 Gerard Blasius had brought out at Amsterdam an Anatome Animalium, containing the results of all the dissections of animals that he could find; and the second part of this book, treating of Volatilia, makes a respectable show of more than one hundred and twenty closely-printed quarto pages, though nearly two-thirds is devoted to a treatise De Ovo et Pullo, containing among other things a reprint of Harvey's researches, and the scientific rank of the whole book may be inferred from bats being still classed with birds.

  • Two years later Nitzsch, who was indefatigable in his endeavour to discover the natural families of birds and had been pursuing a series of researches into their vascular system, published the result, at Halle in Saxony, in his Observationes de avium arteria carotide communi, in which is included a classification drawn up in accordance with the variation of structure which that important vessel presented in the several groups that he had opportunities of examining.

  • The points at issue between Cuvier and Etienne Geoffroy St-Hilaire before mentioned naturally attracted the attention of L'Herminier, who in 1836 presented to the French Academy the results of his researches into the mode Isidore of growth of that bone which in the adult bird he had already studied to such good purpose.

  • Its line to some extent may be partly made out - very clearly, for the matter of that, so far as its details have been published in the series of papers to which reference has been given - and some traces of its features are probably preserved in his Catalogue of the specimens of birds in the museum of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, which, after several years of severe labour, made its appearance at Calcutta in 1849; but, from the time of his arrival in India, the onerous duties imposed upon Blyth, together with the want of sufficient books of reference, seem to have hindered him from seriously continuing his former researches, which, interrupted as they were, and born out of due time, had no appreciable effect on the views of systematisers generally.

  • It seems that this was issued as much with the object of inviting assistance from others in view of future labours, since the materials at his disposal were comparatively scanty, as with that of making known the results to which his researches had already led him.

  • claims a few words, though its scope is rather to show differences than affinities; but treatment of that kind is undoubtedly useful at times in indicating that alliances generally admitted are unnatural; and this is the case here, for, following Calvier's method, the author's researches prove the artificial character of some of its associations.

  • This very remarkable treatise forms the groundwork of almost all later or recent researches in the comparative anatomy and consequent arrangement of the Passeres, and, though it is certainly not free from inperfections, many of them, it must be said, arise from want of material, notwithstanding that its author had command of a much more abundant supply than was at the disposal of Nitzsch.

  • What remains to add is that the extraordinary celebrity of its author actually procured for the first portion of his researches notice in England (Ann.

  • The same year which saw the promulgation of the crude scheme just described, as well as the publication of the final researches of Muller, witnessed also another attempt at the classification of birds, much more limited indeed in scope, but, so far as it went, regarded by most ornithologists of the time as almost final in its operation.

  • him from making known to the world the rest of his researches in regard to the other bones of the skeleton till he reached the head, and in the memoir cited he treats of the sternum of only a portion of his first " Order."

  • It was also within the scope of his plan to have continued on a more extended scale the researches on ossification begun by L'Herminier, and thus M.

  • Owen's researches of its ornithic affinity saw that it must belong to a type of birds wholly unknown before, and one that in any future for the arrangement of the class must have a special rank reserved for it.2 It behoves us next to mention the " Outlines of a Systematic Review of the Class of Birds," communicated by W.

  • Here we must mention the intimate connexion between classification and geographical distribution as revealed by the palaeontological researches of Alphonse Milne-Edwards, whose magnificent Oiseaux Fossiles de la France a.

  • Unfortunately none of these, however, can be compared for singularity with Archaeopteryx or with some American fossil forms next to be noticed, for their particular It is true that from the time of Buffon, though he scorned any regular classification, geographical distribution had been occasionally held to have something to do with systematic arrangement; but the way in which the two were related was never clearly put forth, though people who could read between the lines might have guessed the secret from Darwin's Journal of Researches, as well as from his introduction to the Zoology of the " Beagle" Voyage.

  • During1826-1828he was in England, and in the last-named year he published Researches in South Africa, containing his views on the native question.

  • He also devoted considerable attention to the German languages, and his researches in this direction attracted the favourable notice of Leibnitz.

  • v.) - he and his followers have laid the science generally under a deep obligation by their researches.

  • He also began his researches into "different kinds of airs," getting a plentiful supply of "fixed air" from a brewery next door to his house.

  • Before it was completed he had already begun the researches on which was based the second of his masterpieces, his Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Reformation (Berlin, 1839-47), a necessary pendant to his book on the popes, and the most popular of his works in his own country.

  • The researches of Professor Dozy, of Leiden, have amply confirmed this opinion.

  • Previous to Chevreul's researches on the fats (1811-1823) it was believed that soap consisted simply of a binary compound of fat and alkali.

  • These discoveries of Geoffroy and Scheele formed the basis of Chevreul's researches by which he established the constitution of oils and the true nature of soap. In the article Oils it is pointed out that all fatty oils and fats are mixtures of glycerides, that is, of bodies related to the alcohol glycerin C 3H5(OH)3 i and some fatty acid such as palmitic acid (C 16 H 31 0 2)H.

  • His researches extended to almost every branch of physical science, but his most important work was of an optical character.

  • His studies of the eruptive rocks of Corsica, Santorin and elsewhere; his researches on the artificial reproduction of eruptive rocks, and his treatise on the optical characters of felspars deserve special mention; but he was perhaps best known for the joint work which he carried on with his friend Michel Levy.

  • The site, which had been accurately determined by Leake, was explored by Strack in 1862, and the researches subsequently undertaken by the Greek Archaeological Society were concluded in 1879.

  • Important researches at Epidaurus, Eleusis, Mycenae, Amyclae and Rhamnus may be numbered among its principal undertakings, in addition to the complete exploration of the Acropolis and a series of investigations in Athens and Attica.

  • The German Archaeological Institute, founded in 1874, has carried out excavations at Thebes, Lesbos, Paros, Athens and elsewhere; it has also been associated in the great researches at Olympia, Pergamum and Troy, and in many other important undertakings.

  • The British School, founded in 1886, has been unable, owing to insufficient endowment, to work on similar lines with the French and German institutions; it has, however, carried out extensive excavations at Megalopolis and in Melos, as well as researches at Abae, in Athens (presumed site of the Cynosarges), in Cyprus, at Naucratis and at Sparta.

  • In addition to researches at Sicyon, Plataea, Eretria and elsewhere, it has undertaken two works of capital importance - the excavation of the Argive Heraeum and of ancient Corinth.

  • The principal interest of the following centuries lies in the researches of successive travellers, who may be said to have rediscovered the city, and in the fate of its ancient monuments, several of which were still in fair preservation at the beginning of this period.

  • v., is an invaluable digest of recent researches); H.

  • His earlier work was mainly concerned with organic chemistry, and he published researches on picoline and its derivatives in 1876-78 and on quinine and its decomposition products in 1878-79.

  • Notwithstanding the false idea which prompted the researches of the alchemists, many advances were made in descriptive chemistry, the metals and their salts receiving much attention, and several of our important acids being discovered.

  • 1610), chefly famous for his Opera Omnia Medicochymica (1595); Jean Baptiste van Helmont (1577-1644), celebrated for his researches on gases; F.

  • The second half of the 17th century witnessed remarkable transitions and developments in all branches of natural science,and the facts accumulated by preceding generations during their generally unordered researches were re placed by a co-ordination of experiment and deduction.

  • Lavoisier adequately recognized and acknowledged how much he owed to the researches of others; to himself is due the co-ordination of these researches, and the welding of his results into a doctrine to which the phlogistic theory ultimately succumbed.

  • This attitude was due to his adherence to the " dualistic theory" of the structure of substances, which he deduced from electrochemical researches.

  • A second inconsistency was presented when he was compelled by the researches of Dumas to admit Avogadro's hypothesis; but here he would only accept it for the elementary gases, and denied it for other substances.

  • The researches of L.

  • In 1904 a new departure was made in issuing Annual Reports, containing resumes of the most important researches of the year.

  • del Rio; subsequent elaborate researches by Sir Henry Roscoe showed many inaccuracies in the conclusions of earlier workers (for instance, the substance considered to be the pure element was in reality an oxide) and provided science with an admirable account of this element and its compounds.

  • Subsequent researches by Sainte Claire Deville and L.

  • Thus the researches of Carey Lea, E.

  • Every year is attended by fresh " discoveries " in this prolific source of elementary substances, but the paucity of materials and the predilections of the investigators militate in some measure against a just valuation being accorded to such researches.

  • Dumas repudiated the accusation, affirming that he held exactly contrary views to Laurent; but only to admit their correctness in 1839, when, from his own researches and those of Laurent, Malaguti and Regnault, he formulated his type theory.

  • At the same time, however, the conception of radicals could not be entirely displaced, for the researches of Liebig and Welder, and those made subsequently by Bunsen, demonstrated beyond all doubt the advantages which would accrue from their correct recognition.

  • The brilliant researches of Frankland on the organo-metallic compounds, and his consequent doctrine of saturation capacity or valency of elements and radicals, relieved Kolbe's views of all obscurity.

  • Zincke; and his researches have led to the discovery of many chlorinated oxidation products which admit of decomposition into cyclic compounds containing fewer carbon atoms than characterize the benzene ring, and in turn yielding openchain or aliphatic compounds.

  • von Baeyer's researches (commenced in 1886) on the reduced phthalic acids.

  • Further researches by Baeyer, and upon various nitrogenous ring systems by E.

  • The researches of H.

  • Recent researches have shown that the law originally proposed by Kopp - " That the specific volume of a liquid compound (molecular volume) at its boiling-point is equal to the sum of the specific volumes of its constituents (atomic volumes), and that every element has a definite atomic value in its compounds " - is by no means exact, for isomers have different specific volumes, and the volume for an increment of CH 2 in different homologous series is by no means constant; for example, the difference among the esters of the fatty acids is about 57, whereas for the aliphatic aldehydes it is 49.

  • This has received confirmation by the researches of W.

  • The researches of Julius Thomsen and others have shown that in many cases definite conclusions regarding constitution can be drawn from quantitative measurements of the heats of combustion; and in this article a summary of the chief results will be given.

  • Mention may be made of the phenomenon of halochromism, the name given to the power of colourless or faintly-coloured substances of combining with acids to form highly-coloured substances without the necessary production of a chromophoric group. The researches of Adolf von Baeyer and Villiger, Kehrmann, Kauffmann and others, show that this property is possessed by very many and varied substances.

  • Researches in synthetical organic chemistry have shown that this property of fluorescenceis common to an immense number of substances, and theories have been proposed whose purpose is to connect the property with constitution.

  • Kryst., 1894), in his researches on the tetragonal potassium and ammonium dihydrogen phosphates and arsenates, found that the replacement of potassium by ammonium was attended by an increase of about six units in the molecular volume, and of phosphorus by arsenic by about 4.6 units.

  • It is thus seen that the ordinary plane representation of the structure of compounds possesses a higher significance than could have been suggested prior to crystallographical researches.

  • He travelled a great deal in Europe, Egypt, Palestine, Russia, Algeria and America, and between 1853 and 1863 was largely occupied with researches into the history and methods of marine propulsion.

  • The unfinished state of his Chronique at the time of his death, coupled with political considerations, may possibly account for the fact that it remained unprinted during the century that followed his death, and his historical work was only disinterred from the libraries of Arras, Paris and Brussels by the painstaking researches of M.

  • For his researches in this department he was in 1903 awarded a Nobel prize jointly with Pierre Curie.

  • The objects found in these researches are in the museum, the most notable being a great basalt bull, probably once an object of cult in the Serapeum.

  • He carried this tendency to mysticism into his physical researches, and was led by it to take a deep interest in the phenomena of animal magnetism.

  • His more elaborate History of the Revolution, for which he had made great researches and collections, was not published till after his death.

  • Starting with the firmest belief in the old traditional view, his own researches by degrees opened his eyes to the truth, now universally recognized, that the catacombs were exclusively the work of the Christians, and were constructed for the interment of the dead.

  • No researches are permitted in boroughs and villages or in forests, pasturages, &c., if it be considered that they would interfere with public convenience.

  • Since the researches of Schrenk it may be regarded as settled that in historical times the Samoyedes were inhabitants of the so-called Ugria in the northern Urals, while Radlov considers that the numberless graves containing remains of the Bronze Period which are scattered throughout W.

  • According to the researches of Lubbock and of E.

  • In 1883-1886 Bateson showed by his embryological researches that the Enteropneusta exhibit chordate (vertebrate) affinities in respect of the coelomic, skeletal and nervous systems as well as in regard to the respiratory system, and, further, that the gill-slits are formed upon a plan similar to that of the gillslits of Amphioxus, being subdivided by tongue-bars which depend from the dorsal borders of the slits.

  • The general trend of these researches lies in the study of the decomposition or " breaking down " products of the albumin molecules; once these are accurately determined, the synthesis of an albumin is but a matter of time.

  • xviii.(1837-1859); Hamilton, Researches in A.

  • The first exact quantitative study of electrolytic phenomena was made about 1830 by Michael Faraday (Experimental Researches, 1833).

  • - Michael Faraday, Experimental Researches in Electricity (London, 1844 and 1855); W.

  • The exact chemical nature of caoutchouc is, however, not determined, and recent researches point to the view that its molecular structure may even be somewhat different from that of the terpenes.

  • Thence he was led to his famous researches on the phenomena produced by the discharge of electricity through highly exhausted tubes (sometimes known as "Crookes' tubes" in consequence), and to the development of his theory of "radiant matter" or matter in a "fourth state," which led up to the modern electronic theory.

  • In addition to many other researches besides those here mentioned, he wrote or edited various books on chemistry and chemical technology, including Select Methods of Chemical Analysis, which went through a number of editions; and he also gave a certain amount of time to the investigation of psychic phenomena, endeavouring to effect some measure of correlation between them and ordinary physical laws.

  • Kovalevsky's researches (Izv.

  • In 1856 researches were carried on upon the spot by Viollet-le-Duc, and measures for the preservation of the ruins were subsequently undertaken.

  • From 1827 to 1833 he was occupied mainly with chemical researches, which resulted in the discovery of the first of the platino-ammonium compounds ("Magnus's green salt" is Pt11 2j 2NH 3), of sulphovinic, ethionic and isethionic acids and their salts, and, in conjunction with C. F.

  • But his researches in physical optics constitute his chief title-deed to immortality.

  • In 1842 Karsten discovered that lead could be desilverized by means of zinc. His invention, however, only took practical form in1850-1852through the researches of Parkes, who showed how the zinc-silver-lead alloy formed could be worked and the desilverized lead freed from the zinc it had taken up. In the Parkes process only 5% of the original lead need be cupelled.

  • Hipler, and others, but their efforts were overshadowed by Dr Leopold Prowe's exhaustive Nicolaus Coppernicus (Berlin, 1883-1884), embodying the outcome of researches indefatigably prosecuted for over thirty years.

  • Roman Africa has been the subject of innumerable historical and archaeological researches, especially since the conquest of Algeria and Tunisia by the French.

  • Chateaubriand visited and described the ruins; the Dane Falbe, the Englishman Nathan Davis, Beule, P. de Sainte-Marie and others also have carried out researches; for more than twenty years Pere Delattre has explored the ruins of Carthage (q.v.) with extraordinary success.

  • This result was soon apparently confirmed by several other researches founded both on theory and observation, and so strong did the evidence appear to be that the value 8.95" was used in the Nautical Almanac from 1870 to 1881.

  • Accepting the definitive result of the researches of E.

  • Later researches have however thrown much new light upon a class of phenomena which cannot fail to have an important bearing upon the complete theory of 1 The same phenomenon is exhibited in a less marked degree when soft iron is magnetized in stronger fields (Ewing, Phil.

  • In the light of future researches further development may reasonably be expected.

  • Wiedemann, whose researches are described in his Elektricitdt, iii.

  • These observations have been verified and extended by Knott, whose researches have brought to light a large number of additional facts, all of which are in perfect harmony with Maxwell's explanation of the twist.

  • Recent researches have shown that other imporant changes in its properties occur at the same critical temperature.

  • Ann., 1899, 68, 325 and 1899, 69, 236), whose researches have filled up many previously existing gaps.

  • Among other researches relating to atomic and molecular magnetism are those of 0.

  • Michael Faraday's researches were begun in 1831 and continued for more than twenty years.

  • Throughout his researches Faraday paid special regard to the medium as the true seat of magnetic action, being to a large extent guided by his pregnant conception of " lines of force," or of induction, which he considered to be " closed curves passing in one part of the course through, the magnet to which they belong, and in the other part through space," always tending to shorten themselves, and repelling one another when they were side by side (Exp. Res.

  • Ewing's Experimental Researches of 1885; throughout the whole of his work special attention was directed to that curious lagging action to which the author applied the now familiar term " hysteresis."

  • Faraday, Experimental Researches in Electricity, 3 vols.

  • Induction in Iron and other Metals (3rd ed., London, 2900); Thomson, Recent Researches in Electricity and Magnetism (Oxford, 2893); Elements of Mathematical Theory of Electricity and Magnetism 3rd ed., Cambridge, 1904); H.

  • The position of the Arachnida in the great sub-phylum Arthropoda, according to recent anatomical and embryological researches, is explained in the article Arthropoda.

  • (From a drawing by Pocock.) the true limitations of the cerebrum, whilst embryological researches have done as much for Scorpio.

  • Lindstrom, G., " Researches on the Visual Organs of the Trilobites," K.

  • Nine memoirs, entitled "Electro-Physiological Researches," were published in the Philosophical Transactions, 1845-1860.

  • The time between his promotion to the doctorate and his habilitation as Privatdozent was occupied by researches undertaken for his Habilitationsschrift, by "Naturphilosophie," and by experimental work.

  • The subject he had chosen for his Habilitationsschrift was the "Representation of a Function by Means of a Trigonometrical Series," a subject which Dirichlet had made his own by a now well-known series of researches.

  • Few as were the years of work allotted to him, and few as are the printed pages covered by the record of his researches, his name is, and will remain, a household word among mathematicians.

  • It was eagerly welcomed by the Berlin mathematician, who had the generosity to withhold from publication his own further researches on the subject, until his youthful correspondent should have had time to complete and opportunity to claim the invention.

  • Finally, of the grand series of researches by which the stability of the solar system was ascertained, the glory must be almost equally divided between Lagrange and Laplace.

  • It deserves to be recorded as one of the numerous coincidences of discovery that Laplace, on being made acquainted by Lagrange with his new method, produced analogous expressions, to which his independent researches had led him.

  • It has not indeed proved practically available; but his system of calculating cometary perturbations by means of "mechanical quadratures" has formed the startingpoint of all subsequent researches on the subject.

  • He made researches on volcanic phenomena, especially on the gaseous emanations.

  • His most important researches had Paris as their subject.

  • Towards the close of 1828 he felt the approach of a fatal malady - a tumour in the brain - and devoted his last days to a careful revisal of his unpublished researches and industrial processes, dictating several papers on these subjects, which were afterwards published in the Philosophical Transactions.

  • In geological circles Wollaston is famous for the medal which bears his name, and which (together with a donation fund) is annually awarded by the council of the Geological Society of London, being the result of the interest on {l000 bequeathed by Wollaston for "promoting researches concerning the mineral structure of the earth."

  • Researches (Washington, 1866); Ney Elias, in Journal R.G.S.

  • 4to, Paris, 1799) contains methods for calculating the movements of translation and rotation of the heavenly bodies, for determining their figures, and resolving tidal problems; the second, especially dedicated to the improvement of tables, exhibits in the third and fourth volumes (1802 and 1805) the application of these formulae; while a fifth volume, published in three instalments, 1823-1825, comprises the results of Laplace's latest researches, together with a valuable history of progress in each separate branch of his subject.

  • These researches derive additional importance from having introduced two powerful engines of analysis for the treatment of physical problems, Laplace's coefficients and the potential function.

  • This minuter study had two origins, one in the researches of the medical anatomists, such as Fabricius (1537-1619), Severinus (1580-1656), Harvey (1578-1657), and Tyson (1649-1708), the other in the careful work of the entomologists and first microscopists, such as Malpighi (1628-1694), Swammerdam (1637-1680), and Hook (1635-1702).

  • Cuvier (1769-1832) is that he started a new view as to the relationship of animals, which he may be said in a large measure to have demon strated as true by his own anatomical researches.

  • Huxley (1825-1895), all of whom individually contributed very greatly by their special discoveries and researches to the increase of exact knowledge.

  • These remarkable researches of Fraunhofer, carried out in the years 1817-1823, are republished in his Collected Writings (Munich, 1888).

  • Angstrom in his celebrated researches upon wave-lengths.

  • Fresnel commenced his researches with an examination of the fringes, external and internal, which accompany the shadow of a narrow opaque strip, such as a wire.

  • The researches of de Rossi, however (Rom.

  • From 1816 he published various papers in the Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal, which formed the basis of his Pathological and Practical Researches on Diseases of the Brain and Spinal Cord, and of his Researches on the Diseases of the Intestinal Canal, Liver and other Viscera of the Abdomen, both published in 1828.

  • In physical chemistry he carried out many researches on the nature and process of solution, investigating in particular the thermal effects produced by the dilution of saline solutions, the variation of the specific heat of saline solutions with temperature and concentration, and the phenomena of liquid diffusion.

  • The researches of M.

  • It is largely to researches on the bone marrow that we owe our present knowledge of the origin and the classification of the different cellular elements of the blood, both erythrocytes or red corpuscles, and the series of granular leucocytes or white corpuscles.

  • Hft.); Nowak, " Experimental Researches on Amyloidosis," Arch.

  • His mathematical researches were also concerned with the theory of equations, but the question as to his priority on several points has been keenly discussed.

  • Though none of Aristotle's writings are strictly medical, he has by his researches in anatomy and physiology contributed greatly to the progress of medicine.

  • He was especially noted for his profound researches in anatomy (see i.

  • His own researches in special branches of physiology were important, but do not strictly belong to our present subject.

  • But it has by recent researches been clearly established that the celebrated Schola salernitana was a purely secular institution.

  • James Keill (1673-1719) applied Newtonian and mechanical principles to the explanation of bodily functions with still greater accuracy and completeness; but his researches have more importance for physiology than for practical medicine.

  • Among the first of these were Antonio Maria Valsalva (1666-1723), still better known as an anatomist; Giovanni Maria Lancisi (1654-1720), also an anatomist, the author of a classical work on the diseases of the heart and aneurisms; and Ippolito Francisco Albertini (1662-1738), whose researches on the same class of diseases were no less important.

  • A physician of Plymouth, John Huxham (1694-1768), made researches on epidemic fevers, in the spirit of Sydenham and Hippocrates, which are of the highest importance.

  • The reform of medicine in France must be dated from the great intellectual awakening caused by the Revolution, but more definitely starts with the researches in anatomy and physiology of Marie Francois Xavier Bichat (1771-1802).

  • In the case of Laennec himself this qualification takes nothing from his fame, for he studied so minutely the relations of post-mortem appearances to symptoms during life that, had he not discovered auscultation, his researches in morbid anatomy would have made him famous.

  • The pathologico-anatomical method was also followed with great zeal and success by Gaspard Laurent Bayle (1774-1816), whose researches on tubercle, and the changes of the lungs and other organs in consumption, are the foundation of most that has been done since his time.

  • Louis, by his researches on pulmonary consumption and typhoid fever, had the chief merit of refuting the doctrines of Broussais.

  • The English school of medicine was also profoundly stirred by the teachings of the two brothers William and John Hunter, especially the latter - who must therefore be briefly mentioned, though their own researches were chiefly concerned with subjects lying a little outside the limits of this sketch.

  • Willan, by following the natural-history method of Sydenham, at once put the study on a sound basis; and his work has been the starting-point of the most important modern researches.

  • James Hope (1801-1841) and Peter Mere Latham (1789-1875) further developed this subject, and the former was also known for his researches in morbid anatomy.

  • And it is not alien from the present point of view to turn for a moment to the light thrown on the cardio-arterial pulse and the measurement of its motions by the more intimate researches into the phenomena of the circulation by many observers, among whom in the 19th century James Hope, E.

  • In the tropics, as well as in Europe, such methods and such researches threw new light upon the causes and paths of the terrible infections of these climates.

  • In France, in the wards of the Hotel Dieu, Guillaume Benjamin Duchenne (1806-1875), in association with Trousseau and in his private clinic, pursued his memorable clinical and therapeutical researches into the diseases of the nervous system; and Jean M.

  • In 1861 an alleged "centre" of speech was detected, by a combination of clinical and pathological researches, by Paul Broca (1824-1880).

  • The results of these experimental researches by many inquirers into the constitution of the brain have transformed our conceptions of cerebral physiology, and thrown a flood of light on the diseases of the brain.

  • Hunter's researches on the severer anaemias are doing much to elucidate these subtle maladies.

  • The preliminary work on the Carolingian diplomas involved such lengthy and costly researches that the Academie des Inscriptions et BellesLettres took over the expenses after Giry's death.

  • In the midst of these multifarious labours Giry found time for extensive archaeological researches, and made a special study of the medieval treatises dealing with the technical processes employed in the arts and industries.

  • Moreover, his association with glass manufacture led him to study the refractive indices of different kinds of glass; he further undertook abstruse researches on electrostatic capacity, the phenomena of the residual charge, and other problems arising out of Clerk Maxwell's electro-magnetic theory.

  • Stukeley's industrious researches into the history of Roman London cannot be said to have any particular value, although at one time they enjoyed considerable vogue.

  • Brandis to accompany him on a journey to Greece for the prosecution of archaeological researches.

  • His leisure was dedicated to geological researches in the papal states.

  • Breislak also published an essay on the physical condition of the seven hills of Rome, which he regarded as the remains of a local volcano, - an opinion shown to be erroneous by the later researches of G.

  • In modern thermometry instruments of extreme accuracy are required, and researches have been made, especially in Germany and France, to ascertain the causes of variability in mercurial thermometers, and how such variability is to be removed or reduced.

  • Schuermans in his researches discovered that during the 15th and 16th centuries many glass-workers left Altare and settled in France, - the Saroldi migrated to Poitou, the Ferri to Provence, the Massari to Lorraine and the Bormioli to Normandy.

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