I was trying to research the buyer.
Sensing my reaction she added, It's sort of what I do in my job; research things.
How is your research going?
The pulpit of St Mary's was no longer closed to him, but the success of Balliol in the schools gave rise to jealousy in other colleges, and old prejudices did not suddenly give way; while a new movement in favour of " the endowment of research " ran counter to his immediate purposes.
No one said it, but internet research indicated that a coma which lasted more than two weeks might become permanent.
Well, she wants to do a little research to see if she can find an explanation.
I'm sure the museum will be grateful and help us in our research all they can.
No one had a suggestion for the next step, but Fred was determined to continue to research the ownership of the severed digit.
Fred O'Connor seemed a tad put out that he'd been absent from the final confrontation in the Lucky Pup Mine until Dean reminded him that without his Internet connection and library research, Martha's bones would still be without identity.
She would claim to be a research scientist.
I am not saying the research scientist loses out to the florist in Akron, Ohio.
My wife and I promised we'd research the matter for her.
The university being disorganized, Grynaeus pursued his studies, and in 1531 visited England for research in libraries.
I'll leave that research up to Fred.
Thousands of people research diseases because they individually want to cure them.
I did some tests and then asked Ginny for some research help.
I can probably get close with a few years of research, but not in two months.
Research conducted during quiet nights such as this only bolstered her opinion that the only organization that might have the capabilities still couldn't have done this.
Even Fred O'Connor was taking the day off from his historical research to watch the festivities.
To us, their descendants, who are not historians and are not carried away by the process of research and can therefore regard the event with unclouded common sense, an incalculable number of causes present themselves.
She eagerly informed the pair how she planned to attend tomorrow's ice festival activities, in search of first hand research for what was sure to be a winning chapter.
Nor is she getting any research help from me!
She'd done research on the drugs; they were antipsychotics, anti-anxiety pills and a bunch of other fun drugs.
It's kinda cool, except that Toby isn't old enough to research everything yet.
How's the rest of your research coming?
I think he's trying to do his research before Claire gets there.
" National, " the Danish " Ingolf " expedition, and the minor expeditions of the " Michael Sars," " Jackal," " Research," &c., and since 1902 it has been periodically examined by the International Council for the Study of the Sea.
I wisely followed with my careful research of recent births in this community until I found mother LeBlanc, lately arrived from a city near Lynn, Massachusetts!
Whatever the case, research and contemplation had not dampened the desire for more children – their children.
And I've got some research to do down at the library.
It surprised me to find he'd carted more of his research to California than I'd expected.
Considerations of this latter kind will naturally present themselves in the two great departments of cosmology and psychology, or they may be delegated to an independent research under the name of religious philosophy.
In 1914 his preeminence had become so evident that a special position was created for him in Berlin, where he was elected a member of the Royal Academy of Sciences and given a sufficient stipend to enable him to devote all his time to research without any restrictions or duties whatsoever.
He wrote several other works of the same nature which exhibit scholarly research and lucid arrangement.
The three were north of sixty and involved with Fred's research activities.
As a research tool, this 11th edition is unparalleled - even today.
Another worker in this department of research was C. A.
And I need to be top-alert today, with all the research stuff I have to do before them Boston ladies get here.
We're out of luck asking Fred for any research help, too.
Not only has scientific study advanced at the university of Buenos Aires, but scientific research is promoting the development of the country; examples are the geographical explorations of the Andean frontier, and especially of the Patagonian Andes, by Francisco P. Moreno.
Thousands of people research alternative energy because a breakthrough will change the world and make fortunes.
On the research team of the eminent virologist Dr. Thomas Francis, who was working on a flu vaccine, was a young physician named Jonas Salk.
The Internet will greatly speed the research and, hopefully, the safety of GM foods.
"I can hardly wait to start our research on Aunt Annie!" she exclaimed as she sat at the table.
Betsy is great at research and Martha works with Howie, assembles the tips and can deliver them.
Doing research, mostly on-line with my computer and the library for a while, but it's closed until Monday.
Freeman and Charles Elton discovered by historical research that a breach of the conditions of the professorship had occurred, and Christ Church raised the endowment from Loo a year to £50o.
This Cooperative Wheat Research Production Program, in which Borlaug took part, aimed to boost Mexican wheat production.
That would take some research by Fred and his stalwarts, if Dean could figure a way to distance that investigation from Fred's court-dictated jury duty restrictions.
With the exception of deceased Dawkins, Senior owning the property where the skeleton was discovered, Fred should be on safe ground limiting his research to the identity of the elusive bones.
The enormous number of dated documents has induced some scholars to attempt a statistical research into the observance of the 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th and 19th days of the months as Sabbaths.
Betsy's clandestine research about Julie, such as it was, was shared only with me.
I knew from my in depth research, the number and location of all payphones bearing the area code and first two numbers dear Brenda provided me.
Mention may be made here of a class of epidermal organ, the hydaihodea, the wide distribution and variety of which have been revealed by recent research.
Meanwhile, in the Farther East so rapid has been the progress of geographical research since the first beginnings of investigation into the route connexion between Burma and China in 1874 (when the brave Augustus Margary lost his life), that a gradually increasing tide of exploration, setting from east to west and back again, has culminated in a flood of inquiring experts intent on economic and commercial development in China, essaying to unlock those doors to trade which are hereafter to be propped open for the benefit of humanity.
In still more western fields of research much additional light has been thrown since 1875 on the physiography of the great deserts and oases of Arabia.
The results of these skilfully conducted observations were published in a memoir on The Uranian and Neptunian Systems. 3 From this research it appears that the orbits of all four satellites of Uranus are sensibly circular, and although no special search was made, he concludes that none of Sir William Herschel's supposed outer satellites can have any real existence.
To the work carried on by the Imperial Cancer Research Fund in England, and to investigators in other countries, are due the present day scientific efforts made to systematize investigation and clear away many of the hypothetical speculations that have gathered round this most difficult subject.
Many of the hypotheses of the past put forward - to explain cancer must be discarded, in view of the facts brought to light by the comparative and experimental research of recent times.
Simple and uncritical in his modes of thought, and apparently devoid of any striking originality, he collected in his numerous and elaborate treatises the results of such research in theology, philosophy, science and history as was in his time possible in Syria.
Those traditions or doctrines which were most uncongenial to the modern world were placed in strong relief; and the disparagement of the individual intellect was extended to the disparagement of scientific research itself " (Wilfrid Ward, Life of W.
Once again she visited the library, this time to research the symptoms of pregnancy.
For other sources see articles "Bohmische-Bruder" and "Zinzendorf" in Hauck's Realencyklopaedie; and for latest results of historical research, Zeitschrift fur Briidergeschichte (half-yearly).
It is owing to these leading orographical features - divined by Carl Ritter, but only recently ascertained and established as fact by geographical research - that so many of the great Rivers.
(2 vols., Toulouse, 1900), embodies the results of long research.
2 See the articles on Psychical Research; Magic; Conjuring; Automatism; Divination; Crystal Gazing; Hypnotism; Apparitions; Hallucinations; Hauntings, &C.
8 Recently the Society of Psychical Research has.
For an account of these see Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, vii.
See Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, vi.
See Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, iv.
Myers in two papers published in the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research.
See also his "Notes of Seances with D.D.Home," Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, vi.
6 Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, ix.
- Dec., 1908), and Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, xxiii.
Flournoy, Des Indes a la Planete Mars (Geneva, 1900; there is an English translation published in London); Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, passim.
1868), devoted himself to solar research, and became chief assistant in the Solar Physics Observatory, South Kensington.
In the following year he made his first acquaintance with the literature of Spain under the influence of his friend and biographer, Ticknor; and, while its attractiveness proved greater than he had at the outset anticipated, the comparative novelty of the subject as a field for research served as an additional stimulus.
History had always been a favourite study with him, and Mably's Observations sur l'histoire appears to have had considerable influence in determining him to the choice of some special period for historic research.
He could only use the eye which remained to him for brief and intermittent periods, and as travelling affected his sight prejudicially he could not anticipate any personal research amongst unpublished records and historic scenes.
Moreover, the authorities on whom he relied have had to be corrected since in many points of detail in the light of later archaeological research.
Ockley's book on the Saracens " first opened his eyes " to the striking career of Mahomet and his hordes; and with his characteristic ardour of literary research, after exhausting all that could be learned in English of the Arabs and Persians, the Tatars and Turks, he forthwith plunged into the French of D'Herbelot, and the Latin of Pocock's version of Abulfaragius, sometimes understanding them, but oftener only guessing their meaning.
But apart from the inevitable advances made in the course of a century during which historical research entered upon a new phase, the reader of Gibbon must be warned against one capital defect.
The main points in the general conclusions of these chapters have been borne out by subsequent research.
From the time of Hippocrates onwards the malarial or periodical fevers have engaged the attention of innumerable observers, who have suggested various theories of causation, and have sometimes anticipated - vaguely, indeed, but with surprising accuracy - the results of modern research; but the true nature of the disease remained in doubt until the closing years of the 19th century.
Now the early Christian centuries were anything but a period of scientific research.
As the principle was abandoned even by its authors, it is now only of historical importance, although for many years it exerted considerable influence on thermochemical research.
3 Scientific biblical historical study, nevertheless, is still in a relatively backward condition; and although the labours of scholars since Ewald constitute a distinct epoch, the trend of research points to the recognition of the fact that the purely subjective literary material requires a more historical treatment in the light of our increasing knowledge of external and internal conditions in the old Oriental world.
On these and on other grounds besides, it has long been felt that south Palestine, with its north Arabian connexions, is of real importance in biblical research, and for many years efforts have been made to determine the true significance of the evidence.
External research constantly justifies the cautious attitude which has its logical basis in the internal conflicting character of the written traditions or in their divergence from ascertained facts; at the same time it has clearly shown that the internal study of the Old Testament has its limits.
Moses, Jethro), &c., like the intimate relationship between Israel and surrounding lands, havea significance in the light of recent research.
Research is seriously complicated by the growing stores of material, which unfortunately are often utilized without attention to the principles of the various departments of knowledge or aspects of study.
The preliminary preparation for research of any value becomes yearly more exacting.
While the history of the great area between the Nile and the Tigris irresistibly emphasizes the insignificance of Palestine, this land's achievements for humanity grow the more remarkable as research tells more of its environment.
If, as seems probable, the continued methodical investigation, which is demanded by the advance of modern knowledge, becomes more drastic in its results, it will recognize ever more clearly that there were certain unique influences in the history of Palestine which cannot be explained by purely historical research.
After doing some research work at Simancas in Spain, he became professor of history at the university of Dorpat in 1867; and was then in turn professor at Konigsberg, Bonn and Leipzig.
By his writings, as much as by his explorations, Rockhill has made his name great in the annals of Asiatic research.
The first great result of recent geogra phical research has been to modify pre-existing ideas of results vestigate the orography of the vast central region represented by in.
A few words of explanation concerning Pasteur's first research are necessary to give the key to all his future work.
It simply consisted iri the application, to the elucidation of these complex problems, of the exact methods of chemical and physical research.
But his powers of patient research and of quick and exact observation were about to be put to a severe test.
Schelle, Turgot (Paris, 1909); and Marquis de Segur, Au Couchant de la monarchie (Paris, 1910), contain much that is based on recent research.
Among the other writers previous to the Revolution mention must be made of John Ray the botanist and of John Evelyn, both men of great talent and research, whose works are still in high estimation.
But the modern conception of society or the state owes more to biology than philosophy, and actual research has destroyed more frequently than it has justified the assumptions of the older philosophical school.
There would probably have been no controversy at all on this subject but for the fact that economics was elaborated into systematic form, and made the basis of practical measures of the greatest importance, long before the remarkable development in the 19th century of historical research, experimental science and biology.
There is another very important instrument of investigation which can be used in our own time, but cannot be employed in historical research.
The fact that Adam Smith, with the meagre materials of the 18th century at his disposal, saw his way to important generalizations which later research has established on a firm basis, may enhance greatly the reputation of Adam Smith, but does not strengthen the generalizations.
His historical research was exemplified in his De antiquitate ecclesiae, and his editions of Asser, Matthew Paris, Walsingham, and the compiler known as Matthew of Westminster; his liturgical skill was shown in his version of the psalter and in the occasional prayers and thanksgivings which he was called upon to compose; and he left a priceless collection of manuscripts to his college at Cambridge.
Recent research has, however, explained how it came about that a son born on the earlier date received the name Nabulione (Napoleon).
Prehistoric research had now begun to extend beyond the Greek mainland.
If we are to accept and profit by Dorpfeld's nomenclature, we must be satisfied that, in their later historic habitats, both Lycians and Carians showed unmistakable signs of having formerly possessed the civilizations attributed to them in prehistoric times - signs which research has hitherto wholly failed to find.
Escherich (1901), after a new of these twenty-one divisions are so different from the others that research on the embryology of the muscid Diptera, claims that the they can scarcely be considered true segments.
Again, the arrangement followed in the Pterylographie was of course based on pterylographical considerations, and we have its author's own word for it that he was persuaded that the limitation of natural groups could only be attained by the most assiduous research into the species of which they are composed from every point of view.
Jeffrey Bell, with an appendix by Garrod containing a summary of the latter's own continuation of the same line of research.
1 Indeed, the study of this memoir, limited though it be in scope, could not fail to convince any one that it proceeded from the mind of one who taught with the authority derived directly from original knowledge, and not from association with the scribes - a conviction that has become strengthened as, in a series of successive memoirs, the stores of more than twenty years' silent observation and unremitting research were unfolded, and, more than that, the hidden forces of the science of morphology were gradually brought to bear upon almost each subject that came under discussion.
The evocation of spirits, especially in the form of necromancy, is an important branch of the demonology of many peoples; and the peculiarities of trance mediumship, which seem sufficiently established by modern research, go far to explain the vogue of this art.
Bacon, accordingly, withdrew from the scholastic routine and devoted himself to languages and experimental research.
As an instance of his method, Bacon gives an investigation into the nature and cause of the rainbow, which is really a very fine specimen of inductive research.
Careful research has shown that very little can with accuracy be ascribed to him.
He had already acquired a considerable reputation in physiological research.
When nominalism was revived in the 14th century by the English Franciscan, William of Occam, it gave evidence of a new tendency in thought, a distrust of abstractions and an impulse towards direct observation and inductive research, a tendency which had its fulfilment in the scientific movement of the Renaissance.
Graber turned their attention to the detailed investigation of some one species or to special points in the structure of some particular organs, using for the elucidation of their subject the ever-improving microscopical methods of research.
Yet judged by modern standards he had an inadequate conception of the meaning of ordered research.
BEATRICE CENCI (1577-1599), a Roman woman, famous for her tragic story; poetic fancy has woven a halo of romance about her, which modern historic research has to a large extent destroyed.
Wherever Poggio went he carried on the same industry of research.
Instruments of this type are called Electrodynamometers, and have been employed both as laboratory research instruments and for technical purposes.
None of the numerous publications which we owe to Buchon can be described as thoroughly scholarly; but they have been of great service to history, and those concerning the East have in especial the value of original research.
His account, drawn up from notes taken in the main from personal observation, possesses an especial importance for topographical research, owing to his method of describing each object in the order in which he saw it during the course of his walks.
A period of British activity in research followed in the 18th century.
Leake (Topography of Athens and the Demi, 2nd ed., 1841) brought the descriptive literature to an end and inaugurated the period of modern scientific research, in which German archaeologists have played a distinguished part.
Athens has thus become a centre of learning, a meeting-place for scholars and a basis for research in every part of the Greek world.
While modern research has added considerably to our knowledge of prehistoric Athens, a still greater light has been thrown on the architecture and topography of the city in the earlier historic or " archaic " era, the subsequent age of Athenian greatness, and the period of decadence which set in with the Macedonian conquest; the first extends from the dawn of history to 480-479 B.C., when the city was destroyed by the Persians; the second, or classical, age closes in 322 B.C., when Athens lost its political independence after the Lamian War; the third, or Hellenistic, in 146 B.C., when the state fell under Roman protection.
Little was known of the buildings on the Acropolis in the pre-Persian period before the great excavations of 1885-1888, which rank among the most surprising achievements of modern research.
Owing to the numbers and activity of its institutions, both native and foreign, for the prosecution of research and the encouragement of classical studies, Athens has become Scientific once more an international seat of learning.
He emphasized that the practical training should include (1) the qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures, (2) the preparation of substances according to established methods, (3) original research - a course which has been generally adopted.
Since their day many chemists have entered the lists, new and powerful methods of research have been devised, and several new elements definitely characterized.
The extraordinary patience requisite to a successful termination of such an analysis can only be adequately realized by actual research; an idea may be obtained from Crookes's Select Methods in Analysis.
The clarification and spirit of research so clearly emphasized by Robert Boyle in the middle of the 17th century is reflected in the classification of substances expounded by Nicolas Lemery, in 1675, in his Cours de chymie.
Still, till the last Berzelius remained faithful to his original theory; experiment, which he had hitherto held to be the only sure method of research, he discarded, and in its place he substituted pure speculation, which greatly injured the radical theory.
Further research iri this direction was made by D.
Benson, Report on Prospects of Research in Alexandria (Egypt Expl.Fund Archaeological Report, 1894-1895); Bulletin de la Societe Archiologique d'Alexandrie(1898 foll.); O.
His life in London was varied by frequent visits to Italy, where he occupied himself more in literary and antiquarian research than with art.
Gayarre, coming down to the war, based on deep and scholarly research, and greatly altered in successive editions.
For the discovery of mines, special permits of research, on which there is a fee of £T5 to £T 15, are necessary; full details of the requisite formalities are given in the law.
The research of a mine in no way impairs the rights of ownership of the land in which the mine is located.
Perles' essays are rich in suggestiveness, and have been the starting-point of much fruitful research.
It was his great good fortune to find abundant unused material for his Life of Hume, and to be the first to introduce the principles of historical research into the history of Scotland.
The International Research Council formed just after the war constituted a section for Physical Oceanography, which held its first meeting in Paris in 1921.
On the whole, oceanographical research was being taken up most actively in Europe, but much important work was also begun in America, for instance the fine hydrographical research in the Pacific by the Scripps Institute of the university of California.
Since Faraday's time his laws have been confirmed by modern research, and in favourable cases have been shown to hold good with an accuracy of at least one part in a thousand.
The principal object of this more recent research has been the determination of the quantitative amount of chemical change associated with the passage for a given time of a current of strength known in electromagnetic units.
The measurements of freezing points of solutions at the extreme dilution necessary to secure complete ionization is a matter of great difficulty, and has been overcome only in a research initiated by E.
The vestment was a monument of careful and painstaking research, profusely illustrated.
As a rule the cells are minute, and this has especially stood in the way of embryological research.
Little light has been thrown on the affinities of the Brachiopoda by recent research, though speculation has not been wanting.
The results of Omars research werea revised edition of the Zif or astronomical tables, and the introduction of the Tarikh-i-Malikshahi or JalalI, that is, the so-called Jalalian or SeljUk era, which commences in A.H.
They are the chief instruments of research, and have themselves much benefited by being so employed.
Weak health, however, caused him from early days to devote himself to research, mainly on church history in the later middle ages, and his literary reputation rests on the important books he produced on this subject.
The difficulties in the way of solving it are very great, and up to the present time the best authorities are not agreed as to the result, the effect of half a century of research having been merely to reduce the uncertainty within continually narrower limits.
Wills 1 has made successful use of it in a research on the effects of temperature, a matter of great industrial importance.
The influence of temperature varying between wide limits has formed the subject of a research by K.
An exhaustive research into the effects of heating on the magnetic properties of iron has been carried out by D.
Terada in a research remarkable for its completeness and the ingenuity of the experimental methods employed.
The fundamental method of research which Riemann employed has just been alluded to; the results will be best indicated in his own words: "The methods in use hitherto for treating functions of a complex variable always started from an expression for the function as its definition, whereby its value was given for every value of the argument; by our investigation it has been shown that, in consequence of the general character of a function of a complex variable, in a definition of this sort one part of the determining conditions is a consequence of the rest, and the extent of the determining conditions has been reduced to what is necessary to effect the determination.
On the 6th of November 1766, Lagrange was installed in his new position, with a salary of 6000 francs, ample leisure for scientific research, and royal favour sufficient to secure him respect without exciting envy.
Stannius, in that remarkable monument of accurate and extensive research, the Handbuch der Zootomie (2nd ed., 1856).
The In- stituto Historico e Geographico Brazileiro, though devoted chiefly to historical research, has rendered noteworthy service in its encouragement of geographical exploration and by its publication of various scientific memoirs.
Until 1904 archaeological research in Laconia was carried on only sporadically.
A charming style, a vivid fancy, exhaustive research, were not to be expected from a hard-worked barrister; but he must certainly be held responsible for the frequent plagiarisms, the still more frequent inaccuracies of detail, the colossal vanity which obtrudes on almost every page,'the hasty insinuations against the memory of the great departed who were to him as giants, and the petty sneers which he condescends to print against his own contemporaries, with whom he was living from day to day on terms of apparently sincere friendship.
Dodd's Jefferson Davis (Philadelphia, 1907), which embodies the results of recent historical research.
It is a spirit which distrusts abstractions, which makes for direct observation, for inductive research.
But he made little way, and failed to obtain a vacant physicianship at St George's hospital; the result was that he abandoned medicine and took to original research.
This book, which comes down to the year 1526 and the extinction of Czech independence,'was founded on laborious research in the local archives of Bohemia and in the libraries of the chief cities of Europe, and remains the standard authority.
Recent historical research has ascertained that the country was densely peopled in the 15th century.
The Uralian travels of Anthony Reguly (1843-1845), and the philological labours of Paul Hunfalvy and Joseph Budenz, may be said to have established it, and no doubt has been thrown on it by recent research, though most authorities regard the Magyars as of mixed origin physically and combining Turkish with Finno-Ugric elements.
During the earlier part of its existence the Hungarian academy devoted itself mainly to the scientific development of the language and philological research.
(1853-1857), the result of thirty years' labour and research.
For philological and ethnographical research into the origin and growth of the language none excels Paul Hunfalvy.
It is a popular and compendious reproduction of the Ada Sanctorum, exhibiting great industry and research, and is in all respects the best work of its kind in English literature.
Historical research and literary criticism flourished under Racki, the first president of the Academy, and his pupils: while Strassmayer did much to revive the Glagolitic, or ancient Slavonic liturgy, and to win for it the favour of Pope Leo XIII.
It is this introduction of the consideration of cell-structure and cell-development which, subsequently to the establishment of Darwinism, has most profoundly modified the views of systematists, and led in conjunction with the genealogical doctrine to the greatest activity in research - an activity which culminated in the work (1873-1882) of F.
In the first place, the continued study of human population has thrown additional light on some of the questions involved, whilst the progress of microscopical research has given us a clear foundation as to the structural facts connected with the origin of the egg-cell and sperm-cell and the process of fertilization.
The suggestion requires further experimental testing, for which the case of the parthenogenetic production of a portion of the offspring, in such insects as the bee, offers a valuable opportunity for research.
Specialists may here and there improve on a statement or a theory, but it will always remain a great authority, a monument of patient and exhaustive research of intellectual power, and f ripe and disciplined judgment.
Modern research seems to show that living protoplasm, wherever it exists, is subject to certain laws and manifests itself by certain phenomena, and that there is no hard and fast line between what prevails in the two kingdoms. So it is with the diseased conditions to which it is a prey: there is a wonderful community of design, if the term may be used in such a sense, between the diseases of animals and plants, which becomes singularly striking and instructive the more they are inquired into.
In spite of all the valuable research work that has been done within the last few years, the essential cause of new growths still remains unknown.
It is notable that an important instrument of research, the speculum, which has been reinvented in modern times, was used by Soranus; and specimens of still earlier date, showing great mechanical perfection, have been found among the ruins of Pompeii.
Galen was as devoted to anatomical and, so far as then understood, physiological research as to practical medicine.
Unfortunately it was neither this nor his zeal for research that chiefly won him followers, but the completeness of his theoretical explanations, which fell in with the mental habits of succeeding centuries, and were such as have flattered the intellectual indolence of all ages.
Morbid anatomy now became a recognized branch of medical research, and the movement was started which has lasted till our own day.
He did not originate this line of research, for it had been pursued, if not originated, by Haller, and cultivated systematically by Tommasini, an Italian "contra-stimulist"; but he carried it out with much elaboration.
Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec (1781-1826) was the inventor of this most important perhaps of all methods of medical research.
His immense contributions to anatomy and pathology cannot be estimated here, but his services in stimulating research and training investigators belong to the history of general medicine.
The combination of clinical and anatomical research led, as in the hands of the great French physicians, to important discoveries by English investigators.
Haser: "Schdnlein has the incontestable merit of having been the first to establish in Germany the exact method of the French and the English, and to impregnate this method with the vivifying spirit of German research."
Thus it was, partly because the habit of acceptance of authority, waning but far from extirpated, dictated to the clinical observer what he should see; partly because the eye of the clinical observer lacked that special training which the habit and influence of experimental verification alone can give, that physicians, even acute and practised physicians, failed to see many and many a symptomatic series which went through its evolutions conspicuously enough, and needed for its appreciation no unknown aids or methods of research, nor any further advances of pathology.
If the striking conceptions of Paul Ehrlich and Emil Fischer continue to prove as fertile in inspiring and directing research as at present they seem to be, another wide sphere of.
Now the cellular pathology of the blood, investigated by the aid of modern staining methods, is as important as that of the solid organs; no clinical investigator - indeed, apart from research, no practitioner at this day - can dispense with examination of the blood for purposes of diagnosis; its coagulability and the kinds and the variations of the cells it contains being evidence of many def i nitely morbid states of the body.
and museum of morbid anatomy, and was fusing these gains in the laboratory so as to claim for itself, as a special branch of science by virtue of peculiar concepts, its due place and provision - provision in the establishment of chairs and of special laboratories for its chemical and biological subdivisions - clinical medicine, by the formal provision of disciplinary classes, was illustrating the truth of the experience that teaching and research must go hand-in-hand, the one reinforcing the other: that no teacher can be efficient unless he be engaged in research also; nay, that for the most part even the investigator needs the encouragement of disciples.
Chemical, physiological and pathological research is exploring the secret of these more refined kinds of "anchorage" of molecules.
It is in the structure of the brain itself that modern research has attained the most remarkable success.
By these means also, in the hands of Hughlings-Jackson, and more conclusively by experimental research initiated by G.
Perhaps no advance in medicine has done so much as the study of tuberculosis to educate the public in the methods and value of research in medical subjects, for the results, and even the methods, of such labours have been brought home not only to patients and their friends, but also to the farmer, the dairyman, the butcher, the public carrier, and, indeed, to every home in the land.
It is interesting to find that, with all this activity in the present reformed methods of research and verification are not confined to the work of the passing day; in the brilliant achievements of modern research and reconstruction the maxim that "Truth is the daughter of Time" has not been forgotten.
He prepared a new edition of the monk Theophilus's celebrated treatise, Diversarum artium schedula, and for several years devoted his Saturday mornings to laboratory research with the chemist Aline Girard at the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, the results of which were utilized by Marcellin Berthelot in the first volume (1894) of his Chimie au moyen dge.
Dr Hopkinson presented a rare combination of practical with theoretical ability, and his achievements in pure scientific research are not less intrinsically notable than the skill with which he applied their results to the solution of concrete engineering problems. His original work is contained in more than sixty papers, all written with a complete mastery both of style and of subject-matter.
The Royal Institution, Albemarle Street, was founded in 1799, maintains a library and laboratories and promotes research in connexion with the experimental sciences.
It presented in an attractive style what were then the latest results of scholarly research, but was criticized as wanting in erudition.
In this section an attempt is made to indicate briefly the causes which have led to so great a diversity of opinion, and to describe in outline the principles underlying the chief schemes of chronology that have been suggested; a short account will then be given of the latest discoveries in this branch of research, and of the manner in which they affect the problems at issue.
But recent research has discredited this theory both in England and on the continent.
In this domain his first research was on the fulminates of mercury and silver, and his study of these bodies led him to the discovery of the isomerism of cyanic and fulminic acids, for the composition of fulminic acid as found by him was the same as that of cyanic acid, as found by F.
In France itself he trained at the Ecole des Chartes and the College de France a band of disciples who continued the traditions of exact research that he established.
a view to botanical research, but the next advance in geographical knowledge in south Arabia was due to the French officers, M.
Rendel Harris, Sidelights on New Testament Research, Lect.
His Geschichte des Volkes Israel, the result of thirty years' labour, was epoch-making in that branch of research.
Godin, a member of the French commission for measuring an arc of the meridian near Quito, became professor of mathematics at San Marcos in 1750; and the botanical expeditions sent out from Spain gave further zest to scientific research.
But the most valuable and important historical work by a modern Peruvian is General Mendiburu's (1805-1885) Diccionario historico-biografico del Peru, a monument of patient and conscientious research, combined with critical discernment of a high order.
It is interesting to note this early employment of the camera obscura in the field of astronomical research, in which its latest achievements have been of such pre-eminent value.
Myers in Proc. Soc. Psychical Research, ix.
This mental attitude, combined with a certain lack of initiative and the weakness of his health, probably prevented him from doing full justice to his splendid powers of experimental research.
CeramicsAll research proves that up to the 12th century of the Christian era the ceramic ware produced in Japan was of a very rude character.
His views as to the physiological functions of the spinal cord are also in agreement with recent research, and he anticipated many of the pre-eminent offices of the ductless glands which students of the present time are only beginning to discover.
But a profound change was' coming over him, which led him to leave the domain of physical research for that of psychical and spiritual inquiry.
Though disappointed with the Crimea as a place of residence, Pallas continued to live there, devoted to constant research, especially in botany, till the death of his second wife in 1810, when he removed to Berlin, where he died on the 8th of September 1811.
C. Roberts-Austen's six Reports (1891 to 2904) to the Alloys Research Committee of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, London, the last report being concluded by William Gowland; the Cantor Lectures on Alloys delivered at the Society of Arts and the Contribution a l'etude des alliages (2902), published by the Societe d'encouragement pour l'industrie nationale under the direction of the Commission des alliages (2896-2900), should be consulted.
He entered holy orders and ultimately attained the rank of abbe; but his tastes all lay in the direction of experimental research, especially on the subject of electricity.
Mariana's Historiae, though in many parts uncritical, is justly esteemed for its research, accuracy, sagacity and style.
1 Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, v.
PAUL GERVAIS (1816-1879), French palaeontologist, was born on the 26th of September 1816 at Paris, where he obtained the diplomas of doctor of science and of medicine, and in 1835 he began palaeontological research as assistant in the laboratory of comparative anatomy at the Museum of Natural History.
Still more did he encourage the habit of inquiry and research, more valuable than his.
Whether his conclusion is justified or not, it helps to show how strongly the trend of contemporary research is setting against the theory of Kattenbusch that the Roman Creed when adopted at Antioch became the parent of all Eastern forms. It does not, however, militate against the possibility that the Roman Creed was carried from Rome to Asia Minor and to Palestine in the 2nd century.
His earliest research work was undertaken in Rutherford's laboratory in Manchester, whither he went as lecturer in physics after leaving Oxford.
After two years he resigned his lectureship in order to devote more time to research work, and was elected John Harling fellow.
C.) Modern Results of Archaeological Research.
Among works on Chronology, the following, which are arranged in the order of their publication, have an historical interest, as leading up to the epoch of modern research: 1583.
It displays considerable research and sagacity, and even when dealing with contemporary events gives a favourable impression, upon the whole, of the author's candour and truth.
it will gladly accept all that research and discovery can yield for the better understanding of the conditions under which the book was written."
When research in oceanography began, the conditions of the sea were of necessity observed only from the coast and from islands, the information derived from mariners as to the condition of parts of the sea far from land being for the most part mere anecdotes bearing on the marvellous or the frightful.
A substitute for this originality was found at Alexandria in learned research, extended and multifarious knowledge.
The spirit of all their productions is the same, that of learned research.
Modern research has proved that such reactions are not occasioned by water acting as H 2 0, but really by its ions (hydrions and hydroxidions), for the velocity is proportional (in accordance with the law of chemical mass action) to the concentration of these ions.
In any attempt to determine the relative importance of Protestant and Catholic countries in promoting modern progress it must not be forgotten that religion is naturally conservative, and that its avowed business has never been to forward scientific research or political reform.
The Boston public library, exceeded in size in the United States by the library of Congress at Washington - and probably first, because of the large number of duplicates in the library of Congress - and the largest free municipal library in the world; the library of Harvard, extremely well chosen and valuable for research; the collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society (1791); the Boston Athenaeum (1807); the State Library (1826); the New England Historic Genealogical Society (1845); the Congregational Library; the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1780); and the Boston Society of Natural History (1830), all in Boston, leave it easily unrivalled, unless by Washington, as the best research centre of the country.
Armstrong resigned his position in 1863, and for seventeen years the government adhered to the older method of loading, in spite of the improvements which experiment and research at Elswick and elsewhere had during that period produced in the mechanism and performance of heavy guns.
- A valuable endowment of research in specimens, literature and pictures, deposited in libraries, museums and galleries since 1880, will keep ethnologists and archaeologists employed for many years to come.
societies and institutions which are devoted to anthropological research.
He did a lot of research so he is not confused by the enigma of the pain that comes with the disease.
Annales Moslemici, 5 vols., Copenhagen, 1789-91), he collected a veritable treasure of sound and original research; he knew the Byzantine writers as thoroughly as the Arabic authors, and was alike at home in modern works of travel in all languages and in ancient and medieval authorities.
Though Abulfeda as a late epitomator did not afford a startingpoint for methodical study of the sources, Reiske's edition with his version and notes certainly laid the foundation for research in Arabic history.
At first he occupied himself with ordinary routine work, but being far from satisfied with the scope which this afforded, he seized eagerly upon the opportunity for novel research, offered by Kirchhoff's discoveries in spectrum analysis.
It consists, that is to say, in a range of bright lines, the agreement of which with the negative pole bands of nitrogen, together with details of interest connected with its mode of production, was ascertained by a continuance of the research.
He was himself a diligent investigator and experimenter, and he did much to encourage original research among his pupils, one of whom was Dr Joseph Black.
He soon made his influence felt there - new and more extensive laboratories were built, and for the first time in England a period of research became a necessary part of the academic course in chemistry for an honours degree.
In England, however, people cared for none of these things, and were blind to the commercial potentialities of scientific research.
His first research, carried out in Liebig's laboratory at Giessen, was on coal-tar, and his investigation of the organic bases in coal-gas naphtha established the nature of aniline.
According to the ordinary laws of research, the book, being written at a time long posterior to the events it records, can have only a secondary value, although that is no reason why here and there valuable material should not have been preserved.
That science must be left free to determine the aims of her investigation, to select and apply her own methods, and to publish the results of her researches without restraint, is a postulate which Ultramontanism either cannot understand or treats with indifference, for it regards as strange and incredible the fundamental law governing all scientific research - that there is for it no higher aim than the discovery of the truth.
He founded two gold medals for the encouragement of scientific research, one in the award of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and the other in that of the Scottish Society of Arts.
He was made an honorary member of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain in 1886 and received the Hanbury medal for original research in chemistry in 1889.
In that year he was demobilized and retired into academic life, being elected to a research fellowship at All Souls College, Oxford.
In common with his works generally, it is distinguished by exhaustiveness of treatment and research, critical ability, a remarkable degree of accuracy, and a certain insight into the past which he gained from his practical experience of men and institutions.
It is suggested, then, in the light of modern psychical research, that Mephistopheles, though (as the Faust-books record) invisible to any one else, was visible enough to Faust himself and to Wagner, the famulus who shared his somnambulistic experiences.
This opened up a new field of research, and led the way in the study of Cryptogamic reproduction, which has since been much advanced by the labours of numerous botanical inquiries.
C. Williamson, by his study of the structure of the plants of the coalmeasures, opened up a new line of research which has been followed by Bertrand Renault, D.
Hull published accounts of an exact and extensive research, in which the principle had been fully and precisely confirmed as regards both transparent and opaque bodies.
Hofmann, in whose own research laboratory he was in the course of a year or two promoted to be an assistant.
His benefactions in the shape of buildings and endowments for education and research are too numerous for detailed enumeration, and are noted in this work under the headings of the various localities.
Louis Blanc possessed a picturesque and vivid style, and considerable power of research; but the fervour with which he expressed his convictions, while placing him in the first rank of orators, tended to turn his historical writings into political pamphlets.
His chief title to fame, however, is his pioneering work in the application of the art of photography to astronomical research.
Scholars desiring to explore for themselves the sources of Polish history from the nth century to the 18th have immense fields of research lying open before them in the Acta historica res gestas Poloniae illustrantia (1878, &c.), the Scriptores rerum polonicarum (1872, &c.), and the Historical Dissertations (Pol., 1874, &c.), all three collections published, under the most careful editorship, by the University of Cracow.
of Lemberg, the capital of Galicia, and has left us a very valuable history which has merits of style and shows considerable research.
The value of this book is great both on account of the research it displays and its philosophical and unprejudiced style.
From that time he gave up his life to study and scientific research, and soon took a prominent place in the band of inquirers, known as the "Invisible College," who devoted themselves to the cultivation of the "new philosophy."
In addition to the menagerie, there is an infirmary and operating room, an anatomical and pathological laboratory, and the Society holds scientific meetings and publishes stately volumes containing the results of zoological research.
The above explanation of the special degradation of the Nethinim, though they were connected with the Temple service, seems to be the only way of explaining the Talmudic reference to their tabooed position, and is an interesting example of the light that can be reflected on Biblical research by the Talmud.
Though handicapped in his later years by delicate health, his intellectual grasp and wide knowledge and research gradually made him famous as a jurist and historian.
These lines of research have been described in the preceding section on the apparatus criticus.
At the same time, however little of Rendel Harris's results may ultimately be accepted by the textual critics of the future, his work will always remain historically of the first importance as having done more than anything else to stimulate thought and open new lines of research in textual criticism in the last decade of the 19th century.
The Old Syriac, if we take the Sinaitic MS. as the purest form, compared in the same way, has a similar double series of interpolations and omissions, but neither the omissions nor the interpolations are the same in the Old Latin as in the Old Syriac. Such a line of research suggests that instead of being able, as WH thought, to set the Western against the Neutral text (the Alexandrian being merely a development of the latter), we must consider the problem as the comparison of at least three texts, a Western (geographically), an Eastern and the Neutral.
Denham, and several important voyages for scientific research were made in the second half of the 19th century, including one from Austria under Captain Wiillerstorf Urbair (1858), and one from Italy in the vessel "Magenta" (1865-1868), which was accompanied by the scientist Dr Enrico Giglioli.
Independently of its value as being compiled from original documents, it bears evidence of great research, and has been of essential benefit to later writers.
Yet in spite of his business cares he found time for an extraordinary amount of original research, and every year he published two or three papers, most of which contained some discovery or observation of importance.
Research was at once his occupation and his relaxation, and his natural endowments were cultivated by unceasing practice and unwearied attention.
The history and literature of Catalonia have been closely studied, and in many cases the results of research are published in the Catalan language.
Scientific research is not, of course, bound by official standards.
For the care of these national standards the Standards Department was developed, under the direction of a Royal Commission -- See: Report Standards Commission, 1870 -- (of which the late Henry Williams Chisholm was a leading member), to conduct all comparisons and other operations with reference to weights and measures in aid of scientific research or otherwise, which it may be the duty of the state to undertake.
So far this later research appears to confirm the opinion of BÃ¶ckh (2) that fundamental units of measure were at one time derived from weights and capacities.
His work was destroyed,' but the copious extracts which we find in Lactantius, Augustine, Jerome, Macarius Magnus and others show how profoundly he had studied the Christian writings, and how great ' was his talent for real historical research.
The history of this science, like that of all physical sciences, covers two parallel lines of development which have acted and reacted upon each other - namely, progress in exploration, research and discovery, and progress in philosophic interpretation.
Huxley questioned the time value of fossils, but recent research has tended to show that identity of species and of mutations is, on the whole, a guide to synchroneity, though the general range of vertebrate and invertebrate life as well as of plant life is generally necessary for the establishment of approximate synchronism.
Thus Huxley, with true prophetic instinct, found that the sum of primitive characters of all the higher placental mammals points to a stem form of a generalized insectivore type, a prophecy which has been fully confirmed by the latest research.
- Underlying Biological Principles As They Appear To The Palaeontologist It follows from the above brief summary that palaeontology affords a distinct and highly suggestive field of purely biological research; that is, of the causes of evolution underlying the observable modes which we have been describing.
We have shown that the direct observation of the origin of new characters in palaeontology brings them within that domain of natural law and order to which the evolution of the physical universe conforms. The nature of this law, which, upon the whole, appears to be purposive or teleological in its operations, is altogether a mystery which may or may not be illumined by future research.
The characteristics of Lelewel as an historian are great research and power to draw inferences from his facts; his style is too often careless, and his narrative is not picturesque, but his expressions are frequently terse and incisive.
Indeed, the honour has been claimed for him of being one of the founders of the modern school of historical research.
He was not improbably moved by considerations of foreign policy to publish his Russes et Prussiens, guerre de Sept Ans (1895), a popular work, though based on solid research.
Other alleged discoveries, such as' the construction of early Roman history out of still earlier ballads, have not been equally fortunate; but if every positive conclusion of Niebuhr's had been refuted, his claim to be considered the first who dealt with the ancient history of Rome in a scientific spirit would remain unimpaired, and the new principles introduced by him into historical research would lose nothing of their importance.
Of late years considerable progress has taken place in our knowledge of these organisms, research upon them having been stimulated by the realization of their extreme importance in medical parasitology.
In view, however, of the great interest excited by Schaudinn's work on avian parasites, as well as on account of the far-reaching importance of his conclusions to the study of the Haematozoa, a brief summary of his celebrated research is necessary.
However this may be, the research of subsequent workers - e.g.
Research, Boston (1903), 10,10, p. 472, pls.
Sensory Automatism is the term given by students of psychical research to a centrally initiated hallucination.
Phenomena of this kind play a large part in primitive ceremonies of divination and in our own day furnish much of the material of Psychical Research.
Robertson has recently devoted considerable research in the Spanish archives and elsewhere to Miranda, his monograph on F.
He worked slowly when in his study, and willingly lingered over research.
His life was spent as a practising physician in London, but he also occupied himself with chemical research.
Four years later he was admitted a solicitor, and in course of time he acquired an extensive practice, but his taste and inclination ultimately led him to devote almost the whole of his time to literary research, and especially the elucidation of the history of the university of Cambridge.
The dramatist must have heard of Timur in other quarters, equally reliable it may be with those available in the present stage of Oriental research.
Solovyov's Modern Priestess of Isis, translated by Walter Leaf (1895), in Arthur Lillie's Madame Blavatsk y and Her Theosophy (1895), and in the report made to the Society for Psychical Research by the Cambridge graduate despatched to investigate her doings in India.
Much Scholarship And Research Have Been Devoted To Local And Special Historical Subjects, A Notable Example Of Which Is Arthur; Doughty'S Exhaustive Work On The Siege Of Quebec. J.
On the death of his uncle in 1823 Wheatstone and his brother succeeded to the business; but he never seems to have taken a very active part in it, and he virtually retired after six years, devoting himself to experimental research, at first chiefly with regard to sound.
In acoustics his principal work was a research on the transmission of sound through solids, the explanation of Chladni's figures of vibrating solids, various investigations of the principles of acoustics and the mechanism of hearing, and the invention of new musical instruments, e.g.
In 1899 he retired from the Indian medical service, and devoted himself to research and teaching, joining the Liverpool school of tropical medicine as lecturer, and subsequently becoming professor of tropical medicine at Liverpool University.
Nothing has discredited emendation as a means of improving texts more than the want of method, common care and research, which those addicted to it show.
But after all this original research he got no further.
Numerous parallels exist between the Arthurian and early Irish heroic cycles, notably the Fenian or Ossianic. This Fenian cycle is very closely connected with the Tuatha de Danaan, the Celtic deities of vegetation and increase; recent research has shown that two notable features of the Arthurian story, the Round Table and the Grail, can be most reasonably accounted for as survivals of this Nature worship, and were probably parts of the legend from the first.
Professor Rhys' Studies in the Arthurian Legend are largely based on Welsh material, and may be consulted for details, though the conclusions drawn are not in harmony with recent research.
Recent research, however, points to these cords of the rete testis et ovarii as being derived from the coelomic epithelium instead of from the mesonephros.
It is often described as formed of three lobes two lateral and a median or posterior, but careful sections and recent research throw doubt on the existence of the last.
It is a work of ability and research; and, though Cardinal Wiseman's claim for its author that he was "the only impartial historian of our country" may be disregarded, the book remains interesting as representing the view taken of certain events in English history by a devout, but able and learned, Roman Catholic in the earlier part of the 19th century.
He prosecuted his school work with characteristic vigour, and succeeded in combining with his school duties an enormous amount both of theological research and of literary activity.
Although the information which has been brought to bear upon Egyptian life and customs substantiates the general accuracy of the local colouring in some of the biblical narratives, the latter contain several inherent improbabilities, and whatever future research may yield, no definite trace of Egyptian influence has so far been found in Israelite institutions.
Thus, whatever evidence may be supplied by archaeological research, the problem of the Exodus must always be studied in the light of the biblical narratives.
From this period Bent devoted himself particularly to archaeological research.
In Lower Egypt practically all the mummies have perished; but in Upper Egypt, as they were put out of reach of the inundation, the cemeteries, in spite of rifling and burning, yield immense numbers of preserved bodies and skeletons; attention has from time to time been directed to the scientific examination of these in order to ascertain race, cause of death, traces of accident or disease, and the surgical or medical processes which they had undergone during life, &c. This department of research has been greatly developed by Dr Elliott Smith in Cairo.
As thus purified by successive advances of embryological research, the Mollusca were reduced to the Cuvierian classes of Cephalopoda, Pteropoda, Gastropoda and Acephala.
Michaelis's Introduction to the New Testament, with notes of his own, in which he may be said to have introduced German methods of research into English biblical scholarship. His History of the Politics of Great Britain and France (1799) brought him much notice and a pension from William Pitt.
While the work gives evidence throughout of wide and welldirected research, he preferred to write it in the form of a student's manual; but it was a manual so original that it gained him admission to the Institute in 1881.
When James Bradley and Samuel Molyneux entered this sphere of astronomical research in 1725, there consequently prevailed much uncertainty as to whether stellar parallaxes had been observed or not; and it was with the intention of definitely answering this question that these astronomers erected a large telescope at the house of the latter at Kew.
His views on the function of grammar were summarized in a paper on The Spiritual Rights of Minute Research delivered at Bryn Mawr on the 16th of June 1895.
The most convenient unit is that adopted by the International Union of Solar Research and is called an Angstrom (A); and is equal to i 08 cms. A.
- The general recognition of spectrum analysis as a method of physical and chemical research occurred simultaneously with the theoretical foundation of the connexion between radiation and absorption.
Cotton and silk culture have been experimented with on the islands; and the work of the Hawaiian Agricultural Experiment Station is of great value, in introducing new crops, in improving old, in studying soils and fertilizers and in entomological research.
EGYPT: Exploration and Research.
Philological rather than theological in character, it marked an epochal change from the old homiletic commentary, and though more recent research, patristic and papyral, has largely changed the method of New Testament exegesis, Alford's work is still a quarry where the student can dig with a good deal of profit.
Struthious birds, was placed beyond cavil, and the author called upon all interested in zoology to aid in further research as to this singular form.
That Huc was suspected unjustly was amply proved by later research.
(4) The naturally resulting paralysis of intelligence and scientific research, which the Church either proscribed or only sullenly tolerated.
This first success of Faraday in electro-magnetic research became the occasion of the most painful, though unfounded, imputations against his honour.
In 1841 he found that he required rest, and it was not till 1845 that he entered on his second great period of research, in which he discovered the effect of magnetism on polarized light, and the phenomena of diamagnetism.
He developed a great research laboratory of experimental physics, attracting numerous workers from many countries and colonies; advances were made in the investigation of the conduction of electricity through gases, in the determination of the charge and mass of the electron and in the development of analysis by means of positive rays.
During the World War he presided over several research committees and he assisted various Government departments in an advisory capacity.
These works provoked no little criticism on account of the challenge they threw down to the high-church party, but the research and fairness displayed were admitted on all hands.
Tyndall's own summary of the course of research on the subject was as follows: The idea of semi-fluid motion belongs entirely to Rendu; the proof of the quicker central flow belongs in part to Rendu, but almost wholly to Agassiz and Forbes; the proof of the retardation of the bed belongs to Forbes alone; while the discovery of the locus of the point of maximum motion belongs, I suppose, to me.
research, but also for original philosophic debate.
This scholarly linguist, equipped with modern methods of scientific research, did not confine himself to the classical period like Csoma, but extended his ' The Capuchin friars who were settled in Lhasa for a quarter of a century from 1719 studied the language; two of them, Francisco Orazio della Penna, well known from his accurate description of Tibet, and Cassian di Macerata sent home materials which were utilized by the Augustine friar Aug.
A good deal of new research on the grammar is to be found in Grierson's Linguistic Survey of India, part III., 1908.
(9th ed.) on Egypt, Hieroglyphics and Numismatics, and considerable portions have been retained in the present edition, even though later research has been active in his sphere of work; he also wrote for Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, and published several volumes dealing with his special subjects.
Podmore, Studies in Psychical Research (1897); Proceedings American Society for Psychical Research (1889, Report on Phantasms and Presentiments); Annales des sciences psychiques (Jan.
Kirby (1815) founded an order Dermaptera for the earwigs, which had formed part of de Geer's Dermaptera, accepting Olivier's term Orthoptera for the rest of the assemblage, and as modern research has shown that the earwigs undoubtedly deserve original separation from the cockroaches, grasshoppers, crickets, &c., this terminology will probably become established.
The entire problem is not without its difficulties still, after all the research lavished upon it, but the probabilities seem to converge upon the conclusion that Paul was never released from his imprisonment, and consequently that he never revisited the East.
Recent research has failed to add anything of importance to what has been said on this point by Buffon (O y seaux, ii.
Most of the recent research on Pliny has been concentrated on the investigation of his authorities, especially those which he followed in his chapters on the history of art - the only ancient account of that subject which has survived.
de Lagarde, not to mention later scholars who have utilized the valuable results of Assyriological research.
pp. 217-224) added some of the results of later research, and Renouf in his Hibbert Lectures explains the origin of the myth.
But a younger member of the household, Willie Douglas, aged eighteen, whose devotion was afterwards remembered and his safety cared for by Mary at a time of utmost risk and perplexity to herself, succeeded on the 2nd of May in assisting her to escape by a 1 It is to be observed that the above conclusion as to the authenticity of the Casket Letters is the same as that arrived at upon different grounds by the most recent research on the subject.
At Tixall she was detained till her papers at Chartley had undergone thorough research.
Dodwell's works on ecclesiastical polity are more numerous and of much less value than those on chronology, his judgment being far inferior to his power of research.
At the end of 17 51 he was in Wittenberg again, where he spent about a year engaged in unremitting study and research.
As for the qualities necessary to secure success as a writer on history, he felt that he possessed them in a high degree; and, though neither his ideal of an historian nor his equipment for the task of historical research would now appear adequate, in both he was much in advance of his time.
For the encouragement of research and literary style the government awards periodical prizes which are very keenly contested.
Belgian literary activity extends also to historical research.
Among his works is the Book of Settlements, " a work of thorough and painstaking research unequalled in medieval literature" (Fiske).
Teleology, in this narrower sense, as the study of the adaptation of organic structures to the service of the organisms in which they occur, was completely revolutionized by Darwinism and the research founded on it.
As Britain was then at war with France, only the northern countries of Europe were quite open to his research at that time; but during the brief Peace of Amiens Malthus continued his investigations in France and Switzerland.
Owing to the completeness of the recorded data, and the great experimental skill with which the research was conducted, the results are probably among the most valuable hitherto available.
His principal works are his edition of the Sachsenspiegel (in 3 vols., 1827, 3rd ed., 1861, containing also some other important sources of Saxon or Low German law), which is still unsurpassed in accuracy and sagacity of research, and his book on Die Hausand Hofmarken (1870), in which he has given a history of the use of trade-marks among all the Teutonic nations of Europe, and which is full of important elucidations of the history of law and also contains valuable contributions to the history of art and civilization.
233-296), fulminated in 1661 against Boyle and other friends of Wallis who, as he fancied, under the influence of that malevolent spirit, were now in London, after the Restoration, forming themselves into a society (incorporated as the Royal Society in 1662) for experimental research, to the exclusion of himself personally, and in direct contravention of the method of physical inquiry enjoined in the De corpore.
59 255 I 844 1709 divided into three 57 263 I 384 1578 classes, philosophical, 31 625 320 1382 historical and physical, ___________ and especially famous for its historical research; (2) the Society of Sciences (Geselischaft der Wissenschaften) in GÃ¶ttingen, founded in 1742; (3) that of Erfurt, founded 1758; (4) Grlitz (1779) and (5) the Royal Saxon Society of Sciences (Konigliche sdchsische Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften), founded in Leipzig in 1846.
In this field of scientific research the Germans were the pioneers, and in it they are still pre-eminent, with Ranke as their most famous name and the Monumenta Germaniae historica as their greatest production.
He never married, and led a life of self-denial, entirely devoted to antiquarian research.
It has, of course, long been superseded as a result of the research indicated above.
That Sicily and Africa were once joined we know only from modern scientific research; that Sicily and Italy were once joined is handed down in legend.
1850), became well known as professor of Assyriology in Berlin, and the author of many books of great research and learning, especially on oriental philology.
Scientific research might prosper, just as poetry withered, under the patronage of kings, and such research had now a vast amount of new material at its disposal and could profit by the old Babylonian and Egyptian traditions.
is subdivided into:(A) Exploration and Research; (B) The Country in Ancient Times; (C) Religion; (D) Language and Writing; (E) Art and Archaeology; (F) Chronology.
Exploration and Research.Owing to its early development of a high civilization with written records, its wealth, and its preservative climate, Egypt is the country which most amply repays archaeological research.
Hunt; and the separate Research Account founded by Professor W.
Since Flinders Petrie began, the general level of research has gradually risen, and, while much is shamefully bad and destructive, there is a certain proportion that fully realizes the requirements of scientific archaeology.
If the journals of accounts, the letters and business documents, had come down to us en masse, they would no doubt have yielded to research the history and life of Egypt day by day; but those that now represent a thousand years of the Old Kingdom and Middle Kingdom together would not half fill an ordinary muniment chest.
The annual Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Explbration Fund contain summaries of the work done each year in the several departments of research.
For antiquities in museums there is the sumptuous Catalogue general des anhiquitis gyptiennes du muse de Caire; for excavations the Memoirs of the Egypt Exploration Fund, of the Research Account, of the British School of Archaeology, of the Liverpool School of Archaeology, of the Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft, of the I-Iearst Egyptian Expedition, of the Theodore M.
While the youth of Egyptological research is in part responsible for this, the reason lies still more in the nature of the religion itself and the character of the testimony bearing upon it.
iv., 1824), he published a brief account of Egyptian research, with five plates containing the rudiments of an Egyptian vocabulary.
The complex original work and various alterations of it need thorough study, but it is now closed and research is forbidden.
He further founded a hospital for clinical research on a scale formerly unknown.
He edited the Nuovo giornale dei letterati d'Italia (1773-1790), and left materials for a work of great research entitled Dizionario topografico-storico degli stati estensi (2 vols.
Of later works, based on modern research, may be mentioned R.
The Vita Justiniani of Ludewig or Ludwig (Halle, 1731), a work of patient research, is frequently referred to by Gibbon in his important chapters relating to the reign of Justinian, in the Decline and Fall (see Bury's edition, 1900).
He was one of the founders of the study of " Psychical Research," and his other writings on anthropology include The Book of Dreams and Ghosts (1897), Magic and Religion (1901) and The Secret of the Totem (1905).
In later life, he gave up speculative thought and turned to scientific research, especially in mathematics, physics and astronomy.
The results of future research on the cytology of the group will be awaited with interest.
William was a pioneer in astronomical research and perhaps owes his most lasting fame to his discoveries in this branch of study.
From associates like these Di.irer could imbibe the spirit of Renaissance culture and research; but the external aspects and artistic traditions which surrounded him were purely Gothic, and he had to work out for himself the style and formlanguage fit to express what was in him.
The "Melancolia," numbered "1" as though intended to be the first of a series, with its brooding winged genius sitting dejectedly amidst a litter of scientific instruments and symbols, is hard to interpret in detail, but impossible not to recognize in general terms as an embodiment of the spirit of intellectual research (the student's "temperament" was supposed to be one with the melancholic), resting sadly from its labours in a mood of lassitude and defeat.
Among engravings of the same time are three Madonnas, the apostles Thomas and Paul, a bagpiper and two peasants dancing, and three or four experiments in etching on plates of iron and zinc. In wood-engraving his energies were almost entirely given to bearing a part - which modern research has proved to have been not nearly so large as was traditionally supposed - in the great decorative schemes commanded by the Emperor Max in his own honour, and devised and carried out by a whole corps of men of letters and artists: namely, the Triumphal Gate ..and the Triumphal March or Procession.
Leaving the university without a degree, he published in 1576 a work of antiquarian research, translated from the German, entitled The Post of the World, describing the great cities of Europe; and soon afterwards he moved to Antwerp, where he resumed the name of Verstegen, and set up in business as a printer and engraver.
Under Jefferson's plan only two degrees were granted: "Graduate," to any student who had completed the course of any one school; and "Doctor" to a graduate in more than one school who had shown powers of research.
As a research tool, this 11th edition is unparallelled - even today.
Carlyle had spared no pains in research.
On his return he held official posts successively at Antwerp, Strassburg and Paris, and devoted himself to optical research.
Atwood's published works, exclusive of papers contributed to the Philosophical Transactions, for one of which he obtained the Copley medal, are as follows: - Analysis of a Course of Lectures on the Principles of Natural Philosophy (Cambridge, 1784); Treatise on the Rectilinear Motion and Rotation of Bodies (Cambridge, 1784), which gives some interesting experiments, by means of which mechanical truths can be ocularly exhibited and demonstrated, and describes the machine, since called by Atwood's name, for verifying experimentally the laws of simple acceleration of motion; Review of the Statutes and Ordinances of Assize which have been established in England from the 4th year of King John, 1202, to the 37th of his present Majesty (London, 1801), a work of some historical research; Dissertation on the Construction and Properties of Arches (London, 1801), with supplement, pt.
The administration of the fund was handed over to a body of trustees, who devote the annual income (L100,000) partly to the payment of students' fees and partly to buildings, apparatus, professorships and research.
It ends, however, with the Union of the crowns in 1603, and though it is based on thorough research in MSS., many documents now available, such as the despatches of Spanish ambassadors to England, were not accessible to the learned author.
Scott's Tales of a Grandfather is, of course, full of interest, but is inevitably somewhat behind the mark of later years of research.
Returning to France, he devoted himself for some years to archaeological research.
Twenty years later he supplemented this book by an interesting collection of Documents relatifs a l'histoire de l'industrie et du commerce en France (2 vols., 1898-1900), and in 1897 he published L'Economie sociale de la France sous Henri IV, a volume containing the results of very minute research.
His university lectures, though perhaps lacking in inspiration, were full of original research and learning.
His chief historical writings - The United Kingdom: a Political History (1899), and The United States: an Outline of Political History (1893) - though based on thorough familiarity with their subject, make no claim to original research, but are remarkable examples of terse and brilliant narrative.
degree, may be given for research, although the number of students proceeding to a degree in this way is at present relatively small.
(At Oxford and Cambridge many fellowships are now awarded on the results of examination; it is sometimes stated, in defence of this system, that young men cannot be expected to carry out research in classics or philosophy.) On the other hand, the defenders of examinations reply that (xiii.) examinations are necessary in order to test the efficiency of schools to which grants of public money are given (this argument has become somewhat out of date owing to the recent substitution of " inspection " for examination as a test of the efficiency of schools; a combination of inspection and examination is also sometimes used); (xiv.) they serve as a necessary incentive to steady and concentrated work 1 (the reply made to this is that the incentive is a bad one, and that with efficient teachers it is unnecessary); (xv.) they show both student and teacher where they have failed (unnecessary for efficient teachers); (xvi.) though possibly harmful to the highest class of men, they are good for the mass (reply: no system which damages the highest class of men is tolerable); (xvii.) they are indispensable as an impartial means of selecting men for the civil service; (xviii.) in a difficult examination like the first class civil service examination the qualities of quickness of comprehension, industry, concentration, power of rapidly passing 1 The Oxford commissioners of 1852 reported that " the examinations have become the chief instruments not only for testing the proficiency of the students but also for stimulating and directing the studies of the place " (Report, p. 61).
On the other hand, many of his ideas have passed into the common literary stock, and have been more precisely elaborated by later writers on sociology and history; and though his own work is now somewhat neglected, its influence was immensely valuable in provoking further research and speculation.
The charges of superficial analogies, so freely urged against the " Natur-philosophie " by critics who forget the impulse it gave to physical research by the identification of forces then believed to be radically distinct, do not particularly affect,Hegel.
The rest of his life he devoted to historical research, ultimately selecting as his special subject the Italian libraries up to the year 150o.
Goethe's grandsons have been so repeatedly accused of having dis p layed a dog-in-the-manger temper in closing the Goethehaus to the public and the Goethe archives to research, that the charge has almost universally come to be regarded as proven.
At Woolwich he remained until 1870, and although he was not a great success as an elementary teacher, that period of his life was very rich in mathematical work, which included remarkable advances in the theory of the partition of numbers and further contributions to that of invariants, together with an important research which yielded a proof, hitherto lacking, of Newton's rule for the discovery of imaginary roots for algebraical equations up to and including the fifth degree.
Recent research in bringing to light considerable portions of long-forgotten ages is revolutionizing those impressions which were based upon the Old Testament - the sacred writings of a small fraction of this.
Driver, Modern Research as illustrating the Bible (London, 1909), pp. 60 sqq., 90.
The fact remains that when accepted tradition conflicts with more reliable evidence it stands upon a level by itself; 8 and it is certain that a compilation based upon the knowledge which modern research - whether in the exact sciences or in history - has gained would have neither meaning for nor influence upon the people whom it was desired to instruct.
In the first the general political history will be set forth; in the second a sketch will be given of the cult of the " holy places "; the third will contain some particulars regarding the history of modern colonization by foreigners, which, while it has not affected the political status of the country, has produced very considerable modifications in its population and life; and the fourth will consist of a brief notice of the progress of exploration and scientific research whereby our knowledge of the past and the present of the land has been systematized.
Driver, Modern Research as illustrating the Bible (1909); P. Thomsen, Paldstina u.
Much light has been thrown on facts which have long been known in a practical way, by the labours of the Alloys Research Committee of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers (England).
EGYPT, section Exploration and Research.
From an early age he engaged in original research with great success.
In the following years Thorbecke undertook a journey of research and study in Germany, staying at most of her famous universities, and making the acquaintance of his best-known contemporaries in the fatherland.
pp. 1-146), and to this exhaustive bibliography the reader is referred for further research.
European research has clearly proved that the text in the Vedas adduced to authorize the immolation of widows was a wilful mistranslation.
Grierson, Bihar Peasant Life (Calcutta, 1885; this is a most valuable work of learning and research; in division 2, subdivision 3, chapter 1, on clothes, will be found names and descriptions of every article of clothing used in south, central and eastern India); H.
He carried on his great research on the expansion of gases in the laboratory at Sevres, but all the results of his latest work were destroyed during the Franco-German War, in which also his son Henri (noticed above) was killed.
Fraunhofer, Dorpat, 1825), and was an enormous advance upon all previous telescopes for micrometric research.
(I) Telescopes of Moderate Size for Micrometric Research Only.
The ably the most perfect yet proposed for modern astrophysical research.
The remaining fifty-three years of his life were spent in London, and were devoted to geographical research chiefly among the materials in the East India House.
No polar expedition had been fitted out with greater care for the purpose of scientific research in meteorology, geology, glaciology and biology.