Republican Sentence Examples
He was a devoted member of the Republican party, but not a politician in the strict sense.
Having failed to secure a re-election to the Senate in '887, Harrison was nominated by the Republican party for the presidency in 1888, and defeated Grover Cleveland, the candidate of the Democratic party, receiving 233 electoral votes to Cleveland's 168.
The time had now come (1880) when the Republican party must nominate a candidate for the presidency.
Blaine was made a senator from Maine, the leadership of the House of Representatives passed to Garfield, and he became the Republican candidate for speaker.
In Congress he joined the radical wing of the Republican party, advocated the confiscation of Confederate property, approved and defended the Wade-Davis manifesto denouncing the tameness of Lincoln, and was soon recognized as a hard worker and ready speaker.Advertisement
At the Republican convention held in Chicago, in June, Mr Taft was nominated on the first ballot, receiving 702 out of 980 votes cast.
Unlike the ordinary Russian principalities, it had a republican rather than a monarchical form of government.
Since the 9th of Thermidor, the republican instinct has grown weaker every day.
Tompkins in state, and a National Republican in national politics, after 1828 became allied with the Anti-Masonic party, attending the national conventions of 1830 and 1831, and as a member of the organization he served four years (1830-1834) in the state Senate.
In 1854-1855, when it became evident that the Whig party in the North was moribund, Seward helped to lead its scattered remnants into the Republican fold.Advertisement
But the adventurers death in 1328 saved the stronghold of republican institutions, and Florence breathed freely for a while again.
In the republican chamber elected after the 16th of May, he became minister of public instruction (December 1877), and proposed var i ous republican laws, notably on compulsory primary education.
Victory was with the Democrats in 1848 and 1852, but since the organization of the Republican party in 1854 the state has uniformly given to the Republican presidential candidates its electoral votes.
Now that you're going to make a little money on those gold coins, added to what you took in on that Flotsam Electronics stock last June, maybe you should consider seeing the light and turning Republican.
The state has always been Democratic in national politics, except in the presidential elections of 1840 (Whig) and 1872 (Republican).Advertisement
He was chairman of the Republican national executive campaign committee in 1888, and was a member of the United States Senate in1887-1899and again in 1901-1904.
The word "monarchy" has, however, outlived this original meaning, and is now used, when used at all, somewhat loosely of states ruled over by hereditary sovereigns, as distinct from republics with elected presidents; or for the "monarchical principle," as opposed to the republican, involved in this distinction.
In politics Higginson was successively a Republican, an Independent and a Democrat.
Wheelock appealed to the legislature in the following year, when it was strongly Republican, and that body responded by passing acts which virtually repealed the charter received from George III., created a state university, placed Wheelock at its head, and transferred to it the property of the college.
He had resided at Rome as a hostage, and afterwards for his pleasure at Athens, and had brought to his kingdom an admiration for republican institutions and an enthusiasm for Hellenic culture - or, at any rate, for its externals.Advertisement
In general, however, his views at that time were republican; he belonged to the club of Friends of the Constitution at Valence, spoke there with much acceptance, and was appointed librarian to the club.
Told off to serve in the army of Nice, he was detained by a special order of the commissioners of the Convention, Saliceti and Gasparin, who, hearing of the severe wound sustained by Dommartin, the commander of the artillery of the republican forces before Toulon, ordered Bonaparte to take his place.
Bonaparte's action in the years1800-1802showed that he feared the old republican party far more than the royalists.
This was much; for Moreau, though indolent and incapable in political affairs, was still immensely popular in the army (always more republican than the civilians) and might conceivably head a republican movement against the autocrat.
Meanwhile Napoleon was triumphing over the last of the republican generals.Advertisement
Napcleon was now able by degrees to dispense with all republican forms (the last to go was the Republican Calendar, which ceased on the 1st of January 1806), and the scene at the coronation in Notre Dame on the 2nd of December 1804 was frankly imperial in splendour and in the egotism which led Napoleon to wave aside the pope, Pius VII., at the supreme moment and crown himself.
The author was a moderate republican, and was cashiered and thrown into prison; but the counter-revolution set him at liberty.
In 1848 a revolution broke out and a provisional republican government under Daniele Manin maintained itself for a brief space.
A military and republican rising hastened Sagasta's fall, and he was not readmitted into the councils of Alphonso XII.
Catulus was the last princeps senates of republican times; he held the office of censor also, but soon resigned, being unable to agree with his colleague Licinius Crassus.
Among the newspapers of New Haven are the Morning Journal and Courier (1832, Republican), whose weekly edition, the Connecticut Herald and Weekly Journal, was established as the New Haven Journal in 1766; the Palladium (Republican; daily, 1840; weekly, 1828); the Evening Register (Independent; daily, 1840; weekly, 1812); and the Union (1873), a Democratic evening paper.
In 1914 he defeated Foraker in the Republican primaries as candidate for the U.S. Senate, and was elected with a majority of 10o,000 for the term of 1915-21; but his friendship with Foraker remained unabated.
In 1916 he was delegate-atlarge from Ohio to the Republican National Convention, of which he was chosen permanent chairman.
In the Senate he was regarded as a " safe " man, who could be relied upon to support orthodox Republican policies.
At the Republican National Convention in 1920 he was not at first among the prominent candidates for president.
The promise frequently made by Republican campaign leaders that Mr. Harding would surround himself with advisers of capacity and experience, seemed to be fulfilled by his choice of Cabinet members.
Various elements in the Republican party, nevertheless, had stoutly opposed their appointment, so that the President's choice showed that he was prepared to exert his independence of party managers and to insist upon administrative efficiency.
Hays to be Postmaster-General was in the nature of payment of a political debt to the man who had been the successful manager of the Republican campaign, it was early justified by his efficient administration of the postal service.
He displayed his political tact in the choice of the American delegation, which was led by Secretary Hughes and included, besides Elihu Root, two members of the Senate, Lodge and Underwood, the Republican and Democratic leaders respectively.
A factional strife in the dominant party, the Republican, now began; fifteen delegates withdrew from the convention; the others framed a constitution, and then resolved themselves into a political convention.
The factional strife in the Republican party continued, a number of efforts being made to impeach Governor Harrison Reed (1813-1899).
The Canvassing Board, which published the election returns, cast out some votes, did not wait for the returns from Dade county, and declared the Republican ticket elected.
By a similar process the board's decision in favour of the election of Republican presidential electors was nullified, and the Democratic electors were declared the successful candidates; but the electoral commission, appointed by Congress, reversed this decision.
The constitution of 1787 was then before the public, and Gallatin, with his dislike of strong government still upon him, threw himself into opposition and became one of the founders of the Anti-Federalist, or, as it was afterwards called, the Republican party.
At this period Athens was altogether overshadowed in material strength by the great Hellenistic monarchies and even by the new republican leagues of Greece; but she could still on occasion display great energy and patriotism.
He gave his support to the Republican party in 1856 and to the Lincoln administration throughout the Civil War.
His programme included the collective ownership of the means of production and the international association of labour, but when in June 1899 he entered Waldeck-Rousseau's cabinet of "republican defence" as minister of commerce he limited himself to practical reforms, devoting his attention to the improvement of the mercantile marine, to the development of trade, of technical education, of the postal system, and to the amelioration of the conditions of labour.
In the elections of 1828 the new party proved unexpectedly strong, and after this year it practically superseded the National Republican party in New York.
Under the short-lived republican government in Spain Porto Rico was in1870-1874a province with a provincial deputation, and in 1873 slavery was abolished.
Louis Globe-Democrat (a Republican paper), and discontinued.
Returned to the Convention in September 1792 he developed moderate, even reactionary views, becoming one of the fiercest opponents of the Mountain, though he never wavered in his support of republican principles.
With James Madison and Thomas Jefferson, Mason carried through the Virginia legislature measures disestablishing the Episcopal Church and protecting all forms of worship. In politics he was a radical republican, who believed that local government should be kept strong and central government weak; his democratic theories had much influence in Virginia and other southern and western states.
The Rutland Herald, one of the oldest newspapers in Vermont still published, was established as a Federalist weekly in 1794--a daily edition first appeared in 1861, and is now Republican.
When the empire was overthrown in 1889 and Minas Geraes was reorganized as a republican state, it was decided to remove the capital to a more favourable site and Bello Horizonte was chosen, but Ouro Preto remained the capital until 1898, when the new town (also called Cidade de Minas) became the seat of government.
Wood Mowing and Reaping Machine Co., which dates from 1866, the business having been started in 1852 by Walter Abbott Wood (1815-1892), who was a Republican representative in Congress in 1879-1883.
In politics an active Republican, he was chairman of the Republican state committee in 1887 and 1888, and contributed much to the success of the Harrison ticket in New York in the latter year.
He was treasurer of the Republican national committee from 1892 to 1904, and was secretary of the interior in President McKinley's cabinet from 1897 to 1899.
This has been called the first national victory of the Republican party.
Having rejoined the Republican party in 1876, he was United States marshal for Massachusetts from 187 9 until 1888, when for the ninth time he was elected to Congress.
Without resorting to this exaggeration, Mommsen can speak with perfect truth of the " enormous space occupied by the burial vaults of Christian Rome, not surpassed even by the cloacae or sewers of Republican Rome," but the data are too vague to warrant any attempt to define their dimensions.
The rivalry of these two state governments, clashes of arms, the recognition by the Federal authorities of the radical Republican government (Pinchback and Kellogg, successively governors) followed.
One historic clash in New Orleans (on the 14th of September 1874) between the " White League " (" White Man's Party") and the Republican police is commemorated by a monument, and the day is regarded by Louisianans as a sort of state independenceday.
Packard, claimed the election, and with a Republican legislature for a time occupied the State House.
Since 1 9 00 a white Republican Party has made some headway in Louisiana politics, but in national and state elections the state has been uninterruptedly and overwhelmingly Democratic since 1877.
Robertson, Democratic Republican (resigned).
Thibodaux, Democratic Republican (acting).
Johnson, Democratic Republican Pierre Derbigny, Democratic Republican (died in office) .
Pinchback, Republican (acting) John McEnery, 5 Democrat-Liberal Republican William P. Kellogg, Radical Republican..
The principal newspapers of the city are the Plain Dealer (1841, independent), the Press (1878, independent), the Leader (1847, Republican), and the News (1889, Republican).
Greenland, like Iceland, had a republican organization up to the years 1247 to 1261, when the Greenlanders were induced to swear allegiance to the king of Norway.
In July 1857 a convention chosen to form a state constitution was found on assembling to be so evenly divided between the Republican and Democratic parties that organization was impossible, and the members proceeded to their work in two separate bodies.
Democrat (died in office)1905-1909 John Albert Johnson Republican 1909Adolph Olson Eberhart Bibliography.
The constitutional conventions of 1845 and 1875, and the state convention which issued the call for the National Liberal Republican convention at Cincinnati in 1872, met here, and so for some of its sessions did the state convention of 1861-1863.
He allied himself with the Republican party on its organization, but his inborn dislike for political manoeuvring prevented his ever becoming prominent in its councils.
He was chairman of the Republican State Committee (1892, 1896), candidate for the U.S. Senate (1894, 1900), member of the Republican National Committee (1896, 1900), and a delegate to the Republican National Convention on four occasions.
From 1891 to 1895 he represented the First Congressional District of Nebraska, normally Republican, in the national House of Representatives, and received the unusual honour of being placed on the important Committee on Ways and Means during his first term.
The Democratic party was even more radically divided on the question of monetary policy than the Republican; and President Cleveland, by securing the repeal of the silver purchase clause in the Sherman Act by Republican votes, had alienated a great majority of his party.
In the election, however, he was defeated by William McKinley, the Republican candidate, receiving 176 electoral votes to 271.
The free-silver theory was now dead, and while the main question was that of the attitude to be taken towards the Trusts it was much confused by personal issues, Mr Roosevelt himself intervening strongly in favour of the Republican nominee, Mr Taft.
It was stormed by the Romans in 293 B.C., and though it suffered from the wars of the Republican period, it seems to have risen to renewed prosperity under the empire.
The statements in ancient authorities as to the changes in the number of the equites during the regal period are very confusing; but it is regarded as certain that Servius Tullius found six centuries in existence, to which he added twelve, making,' eighteen in all, a number which remained unchanged throughout the republican ' period.
At the beginning of the republican period, senators were included in the equestrian centuries.
The only definite information as to the amount of fortune necessary refers to later republican and early imperial times, when it is known to have been 400;000 sesterces (about L3500 to £4000).
The national government is forbidden to interfere in the peculiar affairs of the states except to repel foreign invasion, to maintain a republican form of government, to re-establish order at the request of a state, or to enforce federal laws and sentences.
Another conspiracy to establish a republican government was promptly smothered in Bahia, and the outbreak in Pernambuco was put down after a republic had been formed there for ninety days.
Still the progress of the republican spirit in Brazil caused Dom Joao to send to Portugal for bodies of picked troops, which were stationed throughout the provincial capitals.
Republican movements now began to spread, to suppress which the authorities made use of the Portuguese remaining in the country; and the disposition of the emperor to consider these as his firmest supporters much influenced the course of his government and his future destiny.
Virtually, this was a republican government like that of the United States, for no difference existed in the mode of election of the regent from that of a president.
The experiment of republican government had proved so discreditable, and had so wearied the country of cabals, that men hitherto known for their sympathy with democratic principles became more monarchical than the regent himself; and under this influence a movement to give the regency into the hands of the princess Donna Januaria, now in her 18th year, was set on foot.
Begun about 1880, this propaganda took deep root in the educated classes, creating a desire for change and culminating in the military conspiracy of November 1889, by which monarchy was replaced by a republican form of government.
A provisional government was then formed and a proclamation issued to the effect that the country would henceforth be known as the United States of Brazil, and that in due time a republican constitution would be framed.
The republican government offered to compensate him for the property he had held in Brazil as emperor, but this proposal was declined.
At the same time he practically told the Senate that the South would secede in the event of the election of a radical Republican to the presidency; and on the 10th of January 1861, not long after the election of Lincoln, he argued before that body the constitutional right of secession and declared that the treatment of the South had become such that it could no longer remain in the Union without being degraded.
It was clearly understood that the Boers would aim to establish a republican government over the whole of South Africa, and that the terms of peace simply meant greater bloodshed at no distant date.
The ardour of his republican principles gave place, after the 18th Brumaire, to devotion towards the first consul, a sentiment promptly rewarded with the post of minister of the interior.
At first a Whig, he joined the Republican party at its formation, and was a Republican representative in Congress from 1859 to 1863.
In this opposition he was joined by his brother, Frederick Augustus Conkling (1816-1891), at that time also a Republican member of Congress.
In the Republican national convention of 1876 Conkling sought nomination for the presidency, and after the disputed election of this year he took a prominent part in devising and securing the passage of a bill creating an electoral commission.
Blaine, a fellow Republican senator, was especially marked.
Later it became the province of Nueva Estremadura under the Spanish regime, and in 1824, under the new republican organization, it became the state of Coahuila and included Texas and Nuevo Leon.
If at this stage of their existence the real ambition of the Transvaal Boers was to found a strong and compact republican state, their conduct in opposing a scheme of union with the Orange Free State was foolish to a degree.
Had the fusion of the two little republics which Pretorius sought to bring about, and from which apparently the Free State was not averse, actually been accomplished in 1860, it is more than probable that a republican state on liberal lines, with some prospect of permanence and stability, might have been formed.
The death of their commandantgeneral, Piet Joubert, on the 28th of March, seemed to mark a change in the fortunes of the Republican army.
Under republican rule these Indians - who were mainly small shopkeepers, but included some professional men of high standing - had suffered many restrictions, and their cause had been Position of espoused by the British government.
In the re- establishment of the field comets and in other directions a return was made to the republican forms of administration, and on the education question an agreement satisfactory to both the British and Dutch-speaking communities was reached.
North of the cemetery is the prison, a building which replaces a notoriously insanitary gaol used during the republican regime.
On the 15th of June 1859 he returned to Italy after publishing a letter repudiating the aggrandizement of Piedmont, and proclaiming himself a republican and a partisan of national unity.
Giry took a keen interest in politics, joining the republican party and writing numerous articles in the republican newspapers, mainly on historical subjects.
He served in the lower house of the state legislature in 1826-1828, and from December 1838 until March 1859 was a member of the national House of Representatives, first as a Whig, then as a Free-soiler, and finally as a Republican.
The Evening Journal, founded in 1830 as an anti-Masonic organ, and for thirty-five years edited by Thurlow Weed, was equally influential as an organ of the Whig and later of the Republican party.
It was now intended to re-establish the government on the basis of the old republican institutions, but it was found that sixty years of Medici rule had reduced them to mere shadows, and the condition of the government, largely controlled by a balia of 20 accoppiatori and frequently disturbed by the summoning of the parlamento, was utterly chaotic. Consequently men talked of nothing save of changing the constitution, but unfortunately there was no longer an upper class accustomed to public affairs, while the lower class was thoroughly demoralized.
Wrathful at the failure of his protest and at the continuance of the republican government, Prynne attacked his adversaries fiercely in print.
This theory is corroborated by the fact that during the reigns of the Tarquin kings Rome appears as the mistress of a district including part of Etruria, several cities in Latium, and the whole of Campania, whereas our earliest picture of republican Rome is that of a small state in the midst of enemies.
Elected republican deputy for Paris in 1869, he protested against the declaration of war with Germany, and on the 6th of September 1870 was appointed prefect of the Seine by the government of national defence.
From1872-1873he was sent by Thiers as minister to Athens, but returned to the chamber as deputy for the Vosges, and became one of the leaders of the republican party.
Following the republican programme he proposed to destroy the influence of the clergy in the university.
He still remained an influential member of the moderate republican party, and directed the opposition to General Boulanger.
From 1858 to 1863 he was in the lower house of Congress, where he was noted for his strong opposition to the principles and policies of the growing Republican party, his belief that the South had been grievously wronged by the North, his leadership of the Peace Democrats or Copperheads, who were opposed to the prosecution of the war, and his bitter attacks upon the Lincoln administration, which, he said, was destroying the Constitution and would end by destroying civil liberty in the North.
This bill was passed by the Democratic House on the 21st of July, and was then so amended by a Republican Senate as to be unacceptable to the house.
Leaving the Democratic party on the Kansas-Nebraska issue, he assisted in the formation of the Republican party in Connecticut, and was its candidate for governor in 1856; he was a delegate to the Republican national conventions of 1856 and 1860.
In the summer of the next year he took an active part in the formal organization of the Republican party in the state, and at the opening of Congress in December began a long career of public service.
In 1859 he was the Republican candidate for Speaker of the House, but was obliged, after a contest that lasted two months, to withdraw, largely because of the recommendation he had inadvertently given to an anti-slavery book, The Impending Crisis of the South (1857), by Hinton Rowan Helper (1829-1909).
In 1880 and 1888 he aspired actively to the Republican nomination for the presidency, but failed to obtain the requisite support in the Convention.
With ardent anti-slavery principles, he entered political life as a "Young Whig" opposed to the Mexican War; he became an active Free-Soiler in 1848, and in 1854 took part in the organization in Massachusetts of the new Republican party.
In 1860 he was chairman of the Massachusetts delegation to the Republican national convention at Chicago, which nominated Lincoln for the presidency; and from 1861 to January 1866, throughout the trying period of the Civil War, he was governor of Massachusetts, becoming known as one of the ablest, most patriotic and most energetic of the remarkable group of "war governors" in the North.
The event showed that while their defeat in 1868 had taught them despondency, it had not taught them wisdom; it was still in their power to make a gallant fight by nominating a person for whom Republican reformers could vote.
In spite of these great services, popular dissatisfaction with the Republican party rapidly increased during the years 1874-1876.
Presi- the beginning of 1868, hoped to make him their can 1868y' didate in the election of that year; but the effect of the controversy with President Johnson was to bring Grant forward as the candidate of the Republican party.
A faction among the managers of the Republican party attempted to secure his nomination for a third term as president, and in the convention at Chicago in June 1880 he received a vote exceeding 300 during 36 consecutive ballots.
Halaesa is the only place in Sicily where an inscription dedicated to a Roman governor of the republican period (perhaps in 93 B.C.) has come to light.
He suffered imprisonment rather than serve in the national guard; his position was that though he would not take arms against the new monarchy of July, yet being a republican he would take no oath to defend it.
The Republican machine finds it easy with the support of the millionaire summer colony at Newport and the street railway corporations to corrupt the French-Canadians and a portion of the native element in the rural towns and maintain absolute control of the state government.
In presidential campaigns the state has been Federalist, 1792-1800; Democratic Republican, 1804; Federalist, 1808-1812; Democratic Republican, 1816-1820; Adams (Republican), 1824-1828; National Republican, 1832; Democratic, 1836; Whig, 1840-1848; Democratic, 1852; and Republican since 1856.
Paul Mumford (acting), Democratic Republican Henry Smith, „ „ „ Isaac Wilbour, James Fenner, Democratic Republican.
Arthur Fenner became a Democratic Republican about 1800.
The great importance of the Knights of the Golden Circle and its successors was due to its opposition to the war policy of the Republican administration.
The disorders, fomented by republican agitators, none the less continued; and the efforts of the government to suppress them with the aid of federal troops led to an armed insurrection.
It was at a convention held at Jackson on the 6th of July 1854 that the Republican party was first organized and so named by a representative state body.
The county and the city were named in honour of Edward Dickinson Baker (1811-1861), a political leader, orator and soldier, who was born in London, England, was taken to the United States in 1815, was a representative in Congress from Illinois in 1845-1846and 1849-1851, served in the Mexican War as a colonel (1846-1847), became a prominent lawyer in California and later in Oregon, was a Republican member of the United States Senate in 1860-1861 and was killed at Ball's Bluff, Virginia, on the 21st of October in r 861, while serving as a colonel in the Federal army.
In 1861 he was a delegate to the peace congress at Washington, and in 1866 was appointed by the governor of New Jersey, as a Republican, to fill a vacancy in the United States senate.
Like Varro, he survived Cicero by some years, but the tone and spirit in which his works are written assign him to the republican era.
He also became chairman of the Republican state committee in 1859, and for more than twenty years personally directed every campaign of his party.
By the majority of Republicans, at least, he was considered to have cleared himself completely, and in the Republican national convention he missed by only twenty-eight votes the nomination for president, being finally beaten by a combination of the supporters of all the other candidates.
The Republican national 1 This attack led to a dramatic scene in the House, in which Blaine fervidly asseverated his denial.
He served from 1852 to 1856 in the Missouri legislature as a Free Soil Democrat, in 1856 joined the Republican party, and in1857-1859and1861-1862was a member of Congress, where he proved an able debater.
In 1866 like his father and brother he opposed the Congressional reconstruction policy, and on that issue left the Republican party.
At the time of his third election he was the only Democrat to be returned to state office, even the lieutenant-governor being Republican, and two-thirds of the congressional districts went Republican.
On the outbreak of the French Revolution he sided with the royalists and was eventually brought into conflict with the French republic. The army being demoralized and the treasury empty, the kingdom The fell an easy prey to the republican forces.
The original seceders in Virginia and North Carolina bore for a time the name "Republican Methodists," and then called themselves simply "Christians," a designation which with the pronunciation "Christ-yans" is still of ten applied to them.
In 1845 he established the St Joseph Valley Register, which he published for eighteen years and made an influential Whig and later Republican journal.
At the close of the Civil War he was a leading member of the radical wing of the Republican party, advocating the disfranchisement of all who had been prominent in the service of the Confederacy, and declaring that "loyalty must govern what loyalty has preserved."
He accepted, however, the Republican nomination as vice-president on a ticket headed by General Grant, and was elected; but he failed in 1872 to secure renomination.
Towards the close of the rule of the knights in Malta feudal institutions had been shaken to their foundations, but the transition to republican rule was too sudden and extreme for the people to accept it.
Capponi resigned, and Leopold reluctantly agreed to a MontanelliGuerrazzi ministry, which in its turn had to fight against the extreme republican party.
His eloquence made him the most prominent member of the Cercles Catholiques d'Ouvriers, and his attacks on Republican social policy at last evoked a prohibition from the minister of war.
But as a faithful Catholic he obeyed the encyclical of 1892, and declared his readiness to rally to a Republican government, provided that it respected religion.
Being, however, required to resume his power, and retain it until the independence of the country had been completely established, he reorganized his troops, and set out from Angostura, in order to cross the Cordilleras, effect a junction with General Santander, who commanded the republican force in New Granada, and bring their united forces into action against the common enemy.
Owing, however, to the intrigues of the republican factions in Peru he was forced to withdraw to Truxillo, leaving the capital to the mercy of the Spaniards under Canterac, by whom it was immediately occupied.
Bolivar had, no doubt, regained the personal confidence of the officers and soldiers of the third division; but the republican party, with Santander at their head, continued to regard with undisguised apprehension his ascendancy over the army, suspecting him of a desire to imitate the career of Napoleon.
He "very violently" opposed the oath abjuring the house of Stuart, now sought to be imposed by the republican faction on the parliament, and absented himself from the House for ten days, to avoid, it was said, any responsibility for the bill.
In early life he became attached to republican principles, which he never abandoned, although he avoided offending Augustus by too open an expression of them.
All the old republican formalities were most punctiliously observed - even those attendant on the emperor's election to the consulate, so far as they did not involve a restoration of the old order of voting at the comitia.
That end is the analysis of the conception of the state, studied under two main types, republican and monarchical.
In 1884 he was elected governor of Michigan on the Republican ticket, serving from 1885 to 1887.
Meanwhile the two Republican factions continued to oppose one another, and both sent delegates to the national party convention in 1896, the " regular " delegation being seated.
His splendid war record and his personal popularity caused his name to be considered as a candidate for the Presidency as early as 1868, and in 1880 he was nominated for that office by the Democrats; but he was defeated by his Republican opponent, General Garfield, though by the small popular plurality of seven thousand votes.
After the republican Government seemed fairly established, and the reign of law and order was being restored, he returned; but, possibly on account of his advanced age, did not appear during 1921 to be taking any further part in political intrigue or agitation.
As the Federal Constitution contained no provision for settling a dispute of this kind the two houses of Congress agreed to the appointment of an extra-constitutional body, the "Electoral Commission" (q.v.) which decided all the contests in favour of the Republican candidates.
A convention, assembled in the town of Washington on the ist of March, adopted a declaration of independence on the 2nd and a republican constitution on the 17th.
During the period in which the question of admission was under consideration, the Whigs opposed the measure, while the Democrats carried it through and remained in power until 1854; but ever since 1857 the state has been preponderantly Republican in all national campaigns; and with but two exceptions, in 1889 and 1891, when liquor and railroad legislation were the leading issues, has elected a Republican state administration.
With him in France were his grandsons, William Temple Franklin, William Franklin's natural son, who acted as private secretary to his grandfather, and Benjamin Franklin Bache (1769-1798), Sarah's son, whom he sent to Geneva to be educated, for whom he later asked public office of Washington, and who became editor of the Aurora, one of the leading journals in the Republican attacks on Washington.
He suppressed the Republican risings with as much severity as he did the military pronunciamientos of Generals Concha and Diego de Leon.
From 1790 to 1795 he was the private secretary of his uncle, George Clinton, governor of New York and a leader of the Republican party.
From 1801 to 1802 and from 1806 to 1807 he was a member of the Council of Appointment, and realizing the power this body possessed through its influence over the selection of a vast number of state, county and municipal officers, he secured in 1801, while his uncle was governor, the removal of a number of Federalist office-holders, in order to strengthen the Republican organization by new appointments.
Although Prince and Princess Carignano adhered to the French Republican regime, they soon fell under suspicion and were summoned to Paris.
He was a Republican representative in Congress in 1879-1881, United States minister to France in 1881-1885, vice-president of the United States during the presidency of Benjamin Harrison in 1889-1893, and in1895-1896was governor of New York, signing as such the "Greater New York" bill and the liquor-tax measure kliown as the "Raines law."
In 1896 he was a candidate for the presidential nomination in the Republican national convention.
In 1848 he proclaimed himself a Republican; but after the establishment of the Second Empire he changed his views, and in 1865 was returned to the chamber as the official candidate for his native place.
On the 24th of November, however, he was elected to a seat in the senate, where he continued his vigorous polemic against the progressive attempts of the republican government to secularize the educational system of France until his death in 1894.
First, for many years the Free-Soilers gained strength; then in 1855 in an extraordinary party upheaval the Know-Nothings quite broke up Democratic, Free-Soil and Whig organizations; the FreeSoilers however captured the Know-Nothing organization and directed it to their own ends; and by their junction with the anti-slavery Whigs there was formed the Republican party.
Since the close of the war Massachusetts has remained gener ally steadfast in adherence to the principles of the Republican party, and has continued to develop its resources.
And though in recent years Spanish America has seemingly settled down, and republican institutions have followed upon long periods of continual revolution, yet over the American continent as a whole there is an overwhelming predominance, material and intellectual, of the communities of English speech and politically of English origin.
In 1869 Cleveland was nominated by the Democratic party for the office of sheriff, and, despite the fact that Erie county was normally Republican by a decisive majority, was elected.
The city government had been characterized by extravagance and maladministration, and a revolt of the independent voters at the polls overcame the usual Republican majority and Cleveland was elected.
In this year, however, the generally disorganized state of the Republican party seemed to give the Democrats an unusual opportunity.
The Republican party was still further weakened by the defection of a large body of independents, known as " Mugwumps."
In 1890 Congress, now controlled by the Republican party, passed the McKinley Bill, by which the revenues of the government were reduced by more than $60,000,000 annually, chiefly through a repeal of the sugar duties.
The president had undertaken to coerce his own party to do something against its will, and it was only by the aid of the Republican minority that the passage of the repealing bill was at last made possible (October 30th).
They had a special annual festival, called Compitalia, to which public games were added some time during the republican period.
He also arranged the programme of the principal republican festivals.
In early manhood he left the Democratic party, became a Republican, and as such was elected mayor of Utica in 1884.
He was a delegate to the National Republican Convention in 1892; chairman of the Republican State Convention in 1895, 1900, and 1908; and chairman of the Republican National Committee in 1906.
At the Republican National Convention of 1908 he was nominated vicepresident on the first ballot and was elected on the ticket with William Howard Taft.
An instrument for superintending this coordination in the social and economic aspects was ready to hand in the Economic Council of the German Reich, set up by the new Republican constitution of 1919.
Arrested and imprisoned on the 2nd of December 1851, he remained in private life until November 1869, when he was elected as a Republican deputy by Paris.
Carnot was a stern and sincere republican, and voted for the execution of the king.
He did not seek employment in the field in the aggressive wars of Napoleon, remaining a sincere republican, but in 1814, when France itself was once more in danger, Carnot at once offered his services.
It was already frequented, especially by the rich, at the end of the republican period; and in Strabo's day it was as large as Puteoli.
He supported the revolutionary cause in Lorraine, and fought at Valmy (1792) and Wissembourg (1793) in the republican army.
In politics he allied himself with the Republican party on its organization, being a frequent speaker in presidential campaigns, beginning with that of 1856.
He never held political office, although he was a candidate for the Republican senatorial nomination against Senator Thomas C. Platt in 1897.
The Republican leaders straightway quarrelled among themselves, thus starting the long series of factional strifes which have characterized the party politics of New York state; the bitterness of the factions and the irresponsible council of appointment are also responsible for the firm establishment early in the Republican regime of the " spoils system."
In 1854 the newly organized Republican party, formed largely from the remnants of the Whig party and including most of the Free Soil Democrats, with the aid of the temperance issue elected Myron Holley Clark (1806-1892) governor.
Republicans carried the state for Fremont for president, and a succession of Republican governors held office until 1862 when the discouragement in the North with respect to the Civil War brought a reaction which elected Seymour governor.
The Republican legislature had in 1867 appointed a committee to investigate the management of the canal system, but the abuses were allowed to continue until in 1875 Governor Tilden disclosed many frauds of the " Canal Ring," and punished the guilty.
In 1880 it was cast for Garfield, the Republican nominee.
Cleveland likewise carried the state in 1892, but in 1888 Benjamin Harrison, the Republican candidate, the factional quarrels being settled, carried the state.
Hostility to free silver and " Bryanism " in the large financial and industrial centres put the state strongly in the Republican column in the elections of 1896, 1900, 1904 and 1908.
He was a director in numerous corporations, and was a conservative Republican, opposing the League of Nations.
Noske, notwithstanding the genuineness of his Republican and Social Democratic opinions, enjoyed con siderable popularity in the new army and with the reactionary friends of law and order, as a man of decided character, great energy and resourcefulness in times of crisis.
Gradually the dispute pervaded all classes of society, and the religious questions became entangled with political issues; the partisans of the house of Orange espoused the cause of the stricter Calvinism, whereas the bourgeois oligarchy of republican tendencies, led by Oldenbarnevelt and Hugo Grotius, stood for Arminianism.
In politics the state has been Republican in national elections, except in 1896, when it was carried by a fusion of Democrats and Populists.
The attendance at government schools reached in 1908 a total of nearly 20,000, as against 8000 in 1898, the highest attendance recorded under republican government.
In December 1836 the emigrants beyond the Orange drew up in general assembly an elementary republican form of government.
The justness of Sir Harry Smith's measures and his popularity among the Boers gained for his policy considerable support, but the republican party, at whose head was Andries Pretorius, did not submit without a struggle.
In 1851 Moshesh joined the republican party in the Sovereignty in an invitation to Pretorius to recross the Vaal.
A convention recognizing the independence of the country was signed at Bloemfontein on the 23rd of February by Sir George Clerk and the republican committee, and on the r 1 th of March the Boer government assumed office and the republican flag was hoisted.
Greeley's political activity, first as a Whig, and then as one of the founders of the Republican party, was incessant; but he held few offices.
In the National Republican Convention in 1860, not being sent by the Republicans of his own state on account of his opposition to William Seward as a candidate, he was made a delegate for Oregon.
In 1867 he was a delegate-at-large to the convention for the revision of the state constitution, and in 1869 and 1870 he was the Republican candidate for controller of the state and member of Congress respectively, but in each case was defeated.
He was dissatisfied with General Grant's administration, and became its sharp critic. The discontent which he did much to develop ended in the organization of the Liberal Republican party, which held its National Convention at Cincinnati in 1872, and nominated Greeley for the presidency.
In most of the territorial or state elections the Democrats, or the Democrats and Populists united, have been triumphant, a Republican governor having been elected only in 1892; but the contests have often been ardent and bitter.
Each legislature elected two senators to the United States Senate, which, having a Republican majority, seated the Republicans.
Determining to enter active politics, he gave up his legal studies without qualifying for the bar, and in 1881 was elected to the New York legislature as a regular Republican, although in opposition to the "boss" of the assembly district for which he was a candidate.
After Mr Blaine's nomination, however, he supported him in the campaign as the chosen candidate of the party, in spite of the fact that an important wing of the Republican party "bolted" the nomination and espoused the candidacy of Grover Cleveland, who was elected president.
Mr Roosevelt, however, received a larger proportion of the total vote cast than any mayoralty candidate of the Republican party had previously received in New York City.
When his regiment was mustered out of service in September 1898, Mr Roosevelt was nominated by the Republican party for the governorship of New York State and was elected in November by a substantial plurality.
In 1900, although he wished to serve another term as governor in order to complete and establish certain policies within the state, he was nominated for the vice-presidency of the United States on the ticket with President McKinley by the Republican National Convention in Philadelphia in spite of his protest.
It was his frankly expressed wish to be nominated and elected president in 1904, and he was nominated unanimously by the Republican National Convention at Chicago, and was elected in November of that year by the largest popular majority ever given to any candidate in any presidential election.
He therefore allied himself with the Republican party, to which by tradition, by family association, and by political principles he was naturally drawn.
When in 1881 he decided to join the Republican Association of his assembly district in New York City, members of his family were shocked.
In resigning his office in the following year he was actuated as much by these considerations as by the scruples he put forward in serving longer under Napoleon, when the latter, in violation of strict republican principles, became consul for life.
The hotels include the Pfister on the east side and the Plankinton, the Republican and the Schlitz on the west side.
In politics, on the other hand, Rousseau was a sincere and, as far as in him lay, a convinced republican.
Distillers and revenue officers in St Louis, Milwaukee, Cincinnati and other cities were implicated, and the illicit gains - which in St Louis alone probably amounted to more than $2,500,000 in the six years 1870-1876 - were divided between the distillers and the revenue officers, who levied assessments on distillers ostensibly for a Republican campaign fund to be used in furthering Grant's re-election.
He was a prominent candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in 1876.
He declared himself an out-and-out republican and voted even with the socialists.
This crime greatly excited the republican press, which demanded his trial.
After the revolution of 1848 he was elected as a republican deputy; but was obliged to withdraw after the coup d'etat of Louis Napoleon.
In the Legislative Assembly these represented a compact body of opinion which, though not as yet definitely republican, was considerably more advanced than the moderate royalism of the majority of the Parisian deputies.
The eldest son, ELfONORE Louis Godefroi Cavaignac (1801-1845), was, like his father, a republican of the intransigeant type.
When he returned to France in 1841 he worked on the staff of La Reforme, and carried on an energetic republican propaganda.
In the session of 1860-61, immediately preceding the outbreak of the conflict, the Morrill Tariff Act was passed by the Republican party, then in control because the defection of Southern members of Congress had already begun.
This transformation met with much opposition, not less in the Republican party than in the Democratic party.
While the feeling in the Republican party had been from the outset in favour of protection, so high a range of duties met with much opposition.
Dawes as United States Senator from Massachusetts in 1893; and in 1899 and in 1905 was re-elected to the Senate, where he became one of the most prominent of the Republican leaders, and an influential supporter of President Roosevelt.
In the National Republican Convention of 1896 his influence did much to secure the adoption of the gold standard "plank" of the party's platform.
He was the permanent chairman of the National Republican Convention of 1900, and of that of 1908.
The by-form Clodius, in its origin a mere orthographical variant, was regularly used for certain Claudii in late republican times, but otherwise the two forms were used indifferently.
Jean Dupuy, leader of the Left Republican group which refused to accept the decisions of the Radical Socialist congress at Pau in Oct.
The Vendean peasant refused to join the republican army, not for want of fighting qualities or ardour, but because the army of the old regime was recruited from bad characters and broken men, and the peasant, ignorant of the great change that had followed the Revolution, thought that the barrack-room was no place for a good Christian.
Giving rein to their ancient antipathy, the revolted peasantry attacked the towns, which were liberal in ideas and republican in sympathies.
The influence of the priests kept up the fanaticism of the peasants, and a great manifestation of religious feeling took place on Easter eve, but the republican soldiers taken prisoners were often maltreated and even tortured.
These first successes of the Vendeans coincided with grave republican reverses on the frontier - war with England, Holland and Spain, the defeat of Neerwinden and the defection of Dumouriez.
The Convention also sent representatives on mission into Vendee to effect the purging of the municipalities, the reorganization of the national guards in the republican towns, and the active prosecution of the revolutionary propaganda.
The dissensions of the republican leaders and the demoralizing tactics of the Vendeans resulted in republican defeats at Chantonnay, Torfou, Coron, St Lambert, Montaigu and St Fulgent.
This paper was very influential in shaping public opinion in the years preceding the War of Independence; after the war it was successively Federalist, Whig and Republican.
In 1885 he was elected to the chamber as an Opportunist Republican.
Brisson had at last remitted the case to the judgment of the court of cassation, he formed a cabinet of Republican concentration.
From 1820 to 1860, however, the Whigs were in general a trifle the stronger; and from 1866 to 1895 the Democrats were triumphant; in 1895 a Republican governor was elected; in 1896 Maryland gave McKinley 3 2, 23 2 votes more than it gave Bryan; and in 1904 seven Democratic electors and one Republican were chosen; and in 1908 five Democratic and three Republican.
Taylor, Republican, was inaugurated governor on the 12th of December, but the legislative committee on contests decided in favour of the Democrats.
Freycinet's cabinet, he erased the name of the duc d'Aumale from the army list, as part of the republican campaign against the Orleanist and Bonapartist princes.
Returning to Italy, he quelled a mutiny of the legions (including the faithful Tenth) in Campania, and crossed to Africa, where a republican army of fourteen legions under Scipio was cut to pieces at Thapsus (6th of April 46 B.C.).
Here most of the republican leaders were killed and Cato committed suicide.
For this there were republican precedents.
That Caesar held the imperium which he enjoyed as dictator to be distinct in kind from that of the republican magistrates he indicated by placing the term imperator at the head of his titles.'
Possibly it is from this reform that we may date the antithesis of Federals and Centralists, which is so conspicuous in the history of republican Mexico.
A conflict now arose between the republican majority and Iturbide, which was settled by a military pronunciamiento in his favour, and the Congress elected him emperor.
Directly the French troops had passed, Republican bands sprang up, and the non-combatant Mexicans, to save themselves, could only profess neutrality.
There were unsuccessful insurrections also in 1869 (clerical) and 1870 (republican), but an amnesty, passed on the 13th of October 1870, helped to restore peace; trouble again arose, however, at the 1871 election, at which the candidates were Juarez, Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada and Diaz.
Under the republic he took up the position of conservative republican, which he ever afterwards maintained, and he never took office.
Both his talents and his temper made him utterly indisposed to maintain the attitude supposed to be incumbent on a republican president; and his tongue was never a carefully governed one.
In 1896 he was a delegate to the Republican National Convention.
He resigned the governorship in 1905 on being elected to the U.S. Senate, and was reelected for two succeeding terms. He was an unsuccessful candidate for the presidential nomination at the Republican National Convention in 1908.
Although the states-general issued an edict tolerating both parties and forbidding further dispute, the conflict continued, and the Remonstrants were assailed both by personal enemies and by the political weapons of Maurice of Orange, who executed and imprisoned their leaders for holding republican views.
He started on the r 5th of July; and went north along the Missouri and the Osage into the present state of Kansas and probably to the Republican river in the south of the present Nebraska, where on the 29th of September he held a grand council of the Pawnees.
This view is confirmed by all that we know about the towns to which the name was applied in republican times.
Under the influence of Aurelio Saffi he became a Republican, and was arrested as a Mazzinian conspirator in 1874.
In 1876 he abandoned the Republican party, although still adhering to Democratic ideals.
He made a reputation as a parliamentary debater, but lost favour with his constituents who were largely Republican, and only held his seat with the help of Livio Quartaroli, mayor of Forli, and Saffi; when they died his position became untenable and he was not reelected.
In 1848 he left the Whig party and became one of the chief leaders of the Free Soil party, serving as presiding officer of that party's national convention in 1852, acting as chairman of the Free Soil national committee and editing from 1848 to 1851 the Boston Republican, which he made the chief Free Soil organ.
For a short time (1855) he identified himself with the American or Know Nothing party, and afterwards acted with the Republican party.
His policy followed extreme lines in the sense of furthering the Workmen's and Soldiers' Councils system, while at the same time he manifested a Bavarian particularism of his own in his efforts to maintain his conceptions of republican government in conjunction with the Councils in Bavaria as against the centralizing tendencies of the Berlin policy.
There are three daily newspapers, the Post-Standard (Standard, 1829; Post, 1894; consolidated, 1899, Republican), Journal (1839; daily since 1844, Republican, and Evening Herald (1877), Independent).
In 1860 he became a member of the executive council of Massachusetts, and from 1863 to 1873 was a republican member of the national House of Representatives.
When the revolution of 1848 broke out he took an active part as one of the leaders of the republican party in his native city, both as popular orator and as editor of one of the local papers.
In 1849 he took part in the republican rising in the Palatinate and Baden; on the restoration of order he was condemned to death, but he had escaped to Switzerland.
In politics he was at first an anti-slavery Whig and then from the time of its organization in 1854 until his death was a member of the Republican party.
In 1873 he removed from Cincinnati to Fremont, his intention being to withdraw from public life; but in 1875 the Republican party in Ohio once more selected him as its candidate for the governorship. He accepted the nomination with great reluctance.
Tilden, by his reputation as a statesman and a reformer of uncommon ability, drew many Republican votes.
An excited controversy having arisen about the result of the balloting in the states of South Carolina, Florida, Oregon and Louisiana, the two parties in Congress in order to allay a crisis dangerous to public peace agreed to pass an act referring all contested election returns to an extraordinary commission, called the "Electoral Commission" (q.v.), which decided each contest by eight against seven votes in favour of the Republican candidates.
An end was thus made of the "carpet-bag governments" conducted by Republican politicians from the North, some of which were very corrupt, and had been upheld mainly by the Federal forces.
This policy found much favour with the people generally, but displeased many of the Republican politicians, because it loosened the hold of the Republican party upon the Southern States.
Sharpe, the surveyor of the customs. While these measures were of limited scope and effect, they served greatly to facilitate the more extensive reform of the civil service which subsequently took place, though at the same time they alienated a powerful faction of the Republican party in New York under the leadership of Roscoe Conkling.
In the presidential election of 1880 the Republican party carried the day after an unusually quiet canvass, a result largely due to popular contentment with the then existing state of public affairs.
The native white people united, formed a Conservative party and elected a governor and a majority of the lower house of the legislature in 1870; but, as the new administration was largely a failure, in 1872 there was a reaction in favour of the Radicals, a local term applied to the Republican party, and affairs went from bad to worse.
With his aid, and that of Congressional requirements that all members of the legislature must take the Test Oath and none be excluded on account of colour, a Republican majority was secured for both houses, and the Fifteenth Amendment was ratified.
The explanation lies in the fact that there were comparatively few " carpet-baggers " or adventurers in the state, and that a large number of conservative citizens, under the leadership of ex-Governor Brown, supported the Reconstruction policy of Congress and joined the Republican party.
At first he professed to rule only with the advice of a council formed of the nobles, but when his power became established he dispensed with this show of republican government, and then gave himself the appearance of a legitimate title by protecting an impostor who professed to be the caliph Hisham II.
He was elected republican deputy for the department of Tarn in 1885.
But, whether because he drew a distinction between the treason of individuals and of states, or was influenced by Seward, or simply, once in responsible position, separated Republican party politics from the question of constitutional interpretation, at least he speedily showed that he would be influenced by no acrimony, and adopted the lenient reconstruction policy of Lincoln.
There have been since that time some trifling outbreaks on the part of agitators allied with the extreme republican element, but at no time was the security of the government in danger.
From 1847 until 1851 he was a state district judge, and from 1851 until 1869 was a member of the United States Senate, first as an anti-slavery Whig and later as a Republican.
In 1860, not being quite ready to ally himself wholly with the Republican party, he declined to be a candidate for the Republican nomination for the vice-presidency, and supported the Bell and Everett ticket.
Finally, after President Lincoln's election, he became a Republican, and as such was re-elected in 1862 to the national House of Representatives, in which he at once became one of the most radical and aggressive members, his views commanding especial attention owing to his being one of the few representatives from a slave state.
At Ripon started one of the disconnected movements that resulted in the founding of the Republican party.
A year later he followed up his first success with a second republican tragedy, Lucrece.
At the end of the Republican period it became a resort of wealthy Romans, and the Julian and Claudian emperors frequently visited it; both Caligula and Nero were born there.
He was active as a Republican in state and national politics; was chairman of the Committee on Resolutions of the New York State Republican Conventions from 1874 to 1880 (excepting 1877), and was president of the convention of 1879; and was a delegate to several National Republican Conventions, drafting much of the Republican platforms of 1876 and 1896.
His greatest success, however, was gained in the Eternal City itself; for he contrived, after many vicissitudes, to induce the Romans to annul their republican constitution and acknowledge the papal supremacy, even in municipal matters.
During republican agitation at Rome the French general Duphot was killed, a French army advanced on the city, and carried the aged pontiff a prisoner of war to Valence in Dauphine, where he died on the 29th of August 1799.
Until driven from Rome by the republican agitation of 1848 he was a popular idol, open to liberal political views.
The policy which made Louis Napoleon dictator forced him into mortal conflict with the republican parties; and - the price of the parliamentary support of the Catholic majority was high.
Church republican France thereupon destroyed the Roman republic. Napoleon lost 1200 in dead and wounded, actually secured not a single reform on which he had insisted, and drew upon himself the fateful obligation to mount perpetual guard over the Vatican.
The duke's share in the coalition against France made his service incompatible with Constant's political opinions, which were already definitely republican, and, on the dissolution of his marriage in 1794, he resigned his post.
Constant, who had met Madame de Stael at Lausanne in 1794, followed her in the next year to Paris, where he rapidly became a personage in the moderate republican circle which met in her salon; and by 1796 he had established with her intimate relations, which, in spite of many storms, endured for ten years.
As in all the other months of the Republican Calendar, each of the days of Thermidor was, in accordance with the suggestion of Fabre d'Eglantine, consecrated to some useful object.
The growth of the protectionist movement and the development of anti-slavery sentiment, however, drew it in the opposite direction, and it voted the Whig national ticket in 1840 and in 1848, and the Republican ticket for Lincoln in 1860.
Pattison (1850-1904), a Democrat, was elected governor in 1883 and again in 1891, but he was handicapped by Republican legislatures.
A Republican in politics, and a firm believer in the doctrines of strict construction and state sovereignty which Thomas Jefferson had been principally instrumental in formulating, he opposed consistently the demand for internal improvements and increased tariff duties, and declined to follow Henry Clay in the proposed recognition of the independence of the Spanish colonies in South America and in the Missouri Compromise legislation.
He was a Democratic representative in Congress from Illinois in 1875-1877 and again in 1879-1881; was first assistant postmaster-general in 1885-1889, and was severely criticized for his wholesale removal of Republican postmasters.
He was chairman of the commission which drafted the charter for Greater New York, and in 1897 was defeated as Republican candidate for mayor of the city.
The administration of the city became famous after 1897 when Samuel Milton Jones (1846-1904), a manufacturer of oil machinery, was elected mayor by the Republican party; he was re-elected on a non-partisan ticket in 1899, 1901 and 1903, and introduced business methods into the city government.
Among the enterprising and shrewd Catalans, who look upon their rulers as reactionary, and reserve all their sympathies for the Provencal neighbours whom they so nearly resemble in race, language and temperament, French influence and republican ideals spread rapidly; taking the form partly of powerful labour and socialist organizations, partly of less reputable bodies, revolutionary and even anarchist.
The republican Order of Columbus, founded in 1890, was abolished in 1891.
He was active as a campaign speaker for the Republican ticket in 1856, and in 1860 was elected to the State House of Representatives as a Republican in a strong Democratic district.
Gresham was a candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in 1884 and 1888, in the latter year leading for some time in the balloting.
Gradually, however, he grew out of sympathy with the Republican leaders and policy, and in 1892 advocated the election of the Democratic candidate, Grover Cleveland, for the presidency.