The right to representation is spreading around the world.
This class of representation ceases when the number of squares exceeds eight.
His preaching to the birds is a favourite representation of St Francis in art.
From 1585 two members were regularly returned; the number was reduced to one in 1867, and in 1885 the representation was merged in that of the county.
It comprises one-third of the representation in the House of Representatives, and perhaps a still larger proportion in the Senate.
And on its pages I saw a beautiful representation of a maiden in transparent garments and with a transparent body, flying up to the clouds.
Mr. Jefferson's, beautiful, pathetic representation quite carried me away with delight.
The modern Persians call this place Nakshi Rustam (" the picture of Rustam ") from the Sassanian reliefs beneath the opening, which they take to be a representation of the mythical hero Rustam.
When the state constitution of 1776 was adopted the counties were so nearly equal in population that they were given equal representation in the General Assembly, but the equality in population disappeared in the general westward movement, and in 1790 the West began to urge a new division of the state into representative districts according to population and taxation.
time, in violation of the October manifesto, the electoral law was altered, so as to secure a representation at once more Russian and more conservative.
He was elected member for the city of Dublin in 1761, his colleague in the representation being the recorder, Henry Grattan's father.
The Mowbray match had already brought to the Howards the representation of an elder line of the Fitzalan earls, who sat in the seats of their ancestors, the Aubignys and Warennes, great earls near akin to their sovereigns.
And I seemed to know that this maiden was nothing else than a representation of the Song of Songs.
Many of the bikers knew one another and there were groups traveling together, but there was equal representation of couples and solo bikers.
The ratio of representation fixed by the original constitution was i to 30,000 of the free population, and the number of the members of the first House was 65.
The constitution was accepted by Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania by popular acclamation, but in New South Wales very great opposition was shown, the main points of objection being the financial provisions, equal representation in the Senate, and the difficulty in the way of the larger states securing an amendment of the constitution in the event of a conflict with the smaller states.
The same term is applied to the acts passed by the state legislatures for correcting and redistributing the representation of the counties.
France undertook, the maintenance of order in the Regency, and assumed the representation of Tunisia in all dealings with other countries.
In 1820 Webster took an important part in the convention called to revise the constitution of Massachusetts, his arguments in favour of removing the religious test, in favour of retaining property representation in the Senate, and in favour of increasing the independence of the judiciary, being especially notable.
These views of Duhm, in which a severe distinction is thus drawn between the representation of Yahweh's servant in the servant-passages, and that which meets us in the rest of the Deutero-Isaiah, have been challenged by a succession of critics.'
iv.), gives a probable representation of Demeter (or her priestess) from the stone of a vault in a Crimean grave.
The latter is characteristic of the mitre in the modern Roman Catholic Church, the tradition of the local Roman Church having always excluded the representation of figures on ecclesiastical vestments.
A constituent congress, in which each province had equal representation, was duly gress had (May 1, 1853) appointed Urquiza president of the confederation, and he established the seat of government at Parana.
Released in 1652 on the representation of the Spanish ambassador that O'Neill was a Spanish subject, he repaired to Spain, whence he wrote to Charles II.
Soon after Mill supported in Fraser's, still with the same object, Hare's scheme for the representation of minorities.
In the light of contemporary monuments, archaeological evidence, the progress of scientific knowledge and the recognized methods of modern historical criticism, the representation of the origin of mankind and of the history of the Jews in the Old Testament can no longer be implicitly accepted.
Like many Oriental works it is a compilation, as may be illustrated from a comparison of Chronicles with Samuel - Kings, and the representation of the past in the light of the present (as exemplified in Chronicles) is a frequently recurring phenomenon.
From 1832 to 1885 Kendal sent one member to parliament, but since the last date its representation has been merged in that of the southern division of the county.
The electorate gave its approval to the revision by a vote of 26,771 to 21,606, and with this the agitation over representation ceased.
Petitions continued to flow in to the emperor's cabinet, praying for a national representation, from the zemstvos, from the nobles and from the professional classes, and their moral was enforced by general agitation, by partial strikes, and by outrages which culminated at Moscow in the murder of the Grand-duke Sergius (February 4th, 1 9 05).
In 240, the year after the end of the first Punic War, he produced at the ludi Romani a translation of a Greek play (it is uncertain whether a comedy or tragedy or both), and this representation marks the beginning of Roman literature (Livy vii.
The president of the senate, Juan Cuestas, in accordance with the constitution, assumed the duties of president of the republic. He arranged that hostilities should cease on the conditions that representation of the Blancos was allowed in Congress for certain districts where their votes were known to predominate; that a certain number of the jefes politicos should be nominated from the Blancos; that free pardon be extended to all who had taken part in the revolt; that a sufficient sum in money be advanced to allow the settlement of the expenses contracted by the insurgents; and that the electoral law be reformed on a basis allowing the people to take part freely in e1ctions.
Large steps were made towards the union of the two kingdoms by the representation of Scotland in the parliament at Westminster; free trade between the two countries was established, the administration of justice greatly improved, vassalage and heritable jurisdictions abolished, and security and good order maintained by the council of nine appointed by the Protector.
In the college itself the voting - secret and by ballot throughout - is by majority; and since this majority consists, under the actual system, of very conservative elements (the landowners and urban delegates having 8ths of the votes), the progressive elements - however much they might preponderate in the country - would have no chance of representation at all save for the curious provision that one member at least in each government must be chosen from each of the five classes represented in the college.
histories of any value are necessarily compromises between the biblical traditions and the results of recent investigation, and those studies which appear to depart most widely from the biblical or canonical representation often do greater t justice to the evidence as a whole than the slighter or more conservative and apologetic reconstructions.
The effect of this was that in January 1835 the legislature passed a bill for submitting the question legally to all the voters of the state, although this bill itself limited the proposed convention's power relating to representation by providing that it should so amend the constitution that senators be chosen by districts according to public taxes, and that commoners be apportioned by districts according to Federal representation, i.e.
From 1555 to 1867 the town returned two members to parliament, but in the latter year the number was reduced to one, and in 1885 the representation was merged in that of the West Riding.
We can hardly any longer hesitate to recognize in this vast building, with its winding corridors and subterranean ducts, the Labyrinth of later tradition; and as a matter of fact a maze pattern recalling the conventional representation of the Labyrinth in Greek art actually formed the decoration of one of the corridors of the palace.
In 1823 the West called an extra-legal convention to meet at Raleigh, and delegates from 24 of the 28 western counties responded, but those from the far West, in which there were practically no slaves, wished free white population to be made the basis of representation, while those from the Middle West demanded the adoption of the basis for the national House of Representatives and the convention made only a divided appeal to the people.
Browning, " Development."] It is noteworthy that Josephus, who has his own representation of the post-exilic age, allows two years and four months for the work (Ant.
For the same reason the city found itself compelled at first to connive at their illegal representation on 'Change, and then to violate its own rules by permitting them to act as brokers without previously taking up the freedom.
In 1832 Wendover lost its right of separate representation.
The censors, being elected on a general ticket, were always more progressive than the convention, which was chosen on the principle of equal township representation.
This compromise was refused by the parliament, which proceeded on the 10th to press through its last stages the "bill for a new representation."
gave it a charter which amounted to a new constitution, and from this charter begins the regular parliamentary representation.
The only speech made by him during his three years in parliament that was listened to with impatience was, curiously enough, his speech in favour of counteracting democracy by providing for the representation of minorities.
The reform of land tenure in Ireland, the representation of women, the reduction of the national debt, the reform of London government, the abrogation of the Declaration of Paris, were among the topics on which he spoke with marked effect.
It is a panegyric; but history has not refused to accept it as a genuine representation of the character of the great king, in spirit, if not in every detail.
38) gives a faithful representation of the great mobility of the various parts of the body.
His first contributions to mathematical physics were two papers published in 1873 in the Transactions of the Connecticut Academy on "Graphical Methods in the Thermodynamics of Fluids," and "Method of Geometrical Representation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Substances by means of Surfaces."
In the Mandaean representation the sky is an ocean of water, pure and clear, but of more than adamantine solidity, upon which the stars and planets sail.
Of such Arthropods the living Symphyla - of which the delicate little Scutigerella is a fairly well-known example - give us some representation.
On two occasions, however, there was found in addition, what may be taken for a representation of the first series, a little " noyau " situated between the coracoids - forming the only instance of all three series being present in the same bird.
The ratio of representation in the Senate is obtained by dividing the total population of the state by thirty-five, the ratio in the House by dividing the population by one hundred.
The membership in each house, however, is slightly above these figures, owing to a system of fractional representation and to the constitutional amendment of 1903 which allows each county at least one representative in the House of Representatives.
Howe, and for association with Laura Bridgman and Helen Keller; the Massachusetts school for idiotic and feebleminded children (1839); and the Massachusetts charitable eye and ear infirmary (1824), all receive financial aid from the commonwealth, which has representation in their management.
have in their Latin representation gu- for Germanic w-, guisa corresponding to English wise and reborrowed indirectly as guise.
The importance of the original spinners' representation on the association is shown by the fact that they worked over 14,000,000 spindles: in December 1905 the spindles represented by members had risen to nearly 20,000,000.
Their representation of the moral character, the religious consciousness, the teaching of Jesus, inspires confidence.
The narratives of miracles are woven into the very texture of this representation.
It has never enjoyed independent parliamentary representation.
The sacred barks of the divinities preserved in the sanctuary of Karnak were then conveyed in procession by water to Luxor and back again; a representation of the festal scenes is given on the walls of the great colonnade.
The representation of plays was perhaps transferred to this spot from the early Orchestra in the Agora at the beginning of the 5th century B.C.; it afterwards superseded the Pnyx as the meeting-place of the Ecclesia.
The Revolution of 1868 in Spain promised such salutary changes for the Antilles as the introduction of political parties, the restoration of representation in the Spanish Cortes, and the enfranchisement of the slaves; but the imprudent "Insurrection of Lares," and other outbreaks of 1867-68, delayed these anticipated reforms. The reactionaries feared separation from the mother country.
We may here notice the important chemical symbolism or notation introduced by Berzelius, which greatly contributed to the definite and convenient representation of chemical composition and the tracing of chemical reactions.
Another consequence of the doctrine of valency was that it permitted the graphic representation of the molecule.
The formation of this substance readily follows from Kekule's formula, while considerable difficulties are met with when one attempts an explanation based on Ladenburg's representation.
The centric hypothesis has been applied to these rings by Bamberger and others; but as in the previous rings considered, the ordinary (3) (4) (5) representation with double and single linkages generally represents the syntheses, decompositions, &c.; exceptions, however, are known where it is necessary to assume an oscillation of the double linkage.
It is thus seen that the ordinary plane representation of the structure of compounds possesses a higher significance than could have been suggested prior to crystallographical researches.
A scandalous riot was inaugurated by the members of the Parisian Jockey Club, who interrupted the performance with howls and dog-whistles; and after the third representation the opera was withdrawn.
In remembrance of these victims of popular wrath Jalal-uddin founded the order of the Maulawi (in Turkish Mevlevi) dervishes, famous for their piety as well as for their peculiar garb of mourning, their music and their mystic dance (sama), which is the outward representation of the circling movement of the spheres, and the inward symbol of the circling movement of the soul caused by the vibrations of a Sufi's fervent love to God.
Osiris and Isis are closely connected with Syria and the Lebanon in legend; the Ded or sacred pillar of Osiris is doubtless really a representation of a great cedar with its horizontally outspreading branches; 8 another of the sacred Egyptian trees is obviously a cypress; corn and wine are traditionally associated with Osiris, and it is probable that corn and wine were first domesticated in Syria, and came thence with the gods Osiris and Re (the sun god of Heliopolis) into the Delta.
Budge, who believes it to be a representation of the vertebrae of Osiris, which would be a holy relic); (9) Ilethitische Studien, I., II., Berlin, (1916-9); (10) Contenau, Trente Tablettes Cappadociennes (1919); S.
MAP, a representation, on a plane and a reduced scale, of part or the whole of the earth's surface.
Channel, and intended to introduce similar contours or isohypses (40s, height) for a representation of the land.
It is claimed for this method that it affords a means of giving a graphic representation of Alpine districts where other methods of shading fail.
If contoured maps are available it is easy to build up a strata-relief, which facilitates the completion of the relief so that it shall be a fair representation of nature, which the strata-relief cannot claim to be.
He became the leader and spokesman of the democratic party in the Connexion which claimed for the laity the free election of class-leaders and stewards, and equal representation with ministers at Conference.
14 gives a representation of the winged Harpies.
His doctrine was rooted in the old Iranian - or Aryan - folk-religion, of which we can only form an approximate representation by comparison with the religion of the Veda.
For the great mass of the people Zoroaster's doctrine was too abstract and spiritualistic. The vulgar fancy requires sensuous, plastic deities, which admit of visible representation; and so the old gods received honour again and new gods won acceptance.
The mode of representation is always conventional, the treatment of the subject no less than its choice being dictated by an authority to which the artist was compelled to bow.
The ceilings have the representation of beams and rafters cut in the rock.
In their totality and unity the ten Sephiroth are not only denominated the World of Sephiroth, or the World of Emanations, but, owing to the above representation, are called the primordial or archetypal man (_7rpwrOyovos) and the heavenly man.
As for the representation accorded Cuba in the Spanish Cortes, as a rule about a quarter of her deputies were Cuban-born, and the choice of only a few autonomists was allowed by those who controlled the elections.
Congress neglected to pass certain laws which were required by the constitution, and which, as regards municipal autonomy, independence of the judiciary, and congressional representation of minority parties, were intended to make impossible the abuses of centralized government that had characterized Spanish administration.
Under the general heading "Geometry" occur the subheadings "Foundations," with the topics principles of geometry, non-Euclidean geometries, hyperspace, methods of analytical geometry; "Elementary Geometry," with the topics planimetry, stereometry, trigonometry, descriptive geometry; "Geometry of Conics and Quadrics," with the implied topics; "Algebraic Curves and Surfaces of Degree higher than the Second," with the implied topics; "Transformations and General Methods for Algebraic Configurations," with the topics collineation, duality, transformations, correspondence, groups of points on algebraic curves and surfaces, genus of curves and surfaces, enumerative geometry, connexes, complexes, congruences, higher elements in space, algebraic configurations in hyperspace; "Infinitesimal Geometry: applications of Differential and Integral Calculus to Geometry," with the topics kinematic geometry, curvature, rectification and quadrature, special transcendental curves and surfaces; "Differential Geometry: applications of Differential Equations to Geometry," with the topics curves on surfaces, minimal surfaces, surfaces determined by differential properties, conformal and other representation of surfaces on others, deformation of surfaces, orthogonal and isothermic surfaces.
He was not only the oldest native dramatist, but the first author of an epic poem (Bellum Punicum) - which, by combining the representation of actual contemporary history with a mythical background, may be said to have created the Roman type of epic poetry.
These last already appear in miniatures of the 9th century; from the II th onwards they predominated; and in the 13th century they ousted all other forms. Originally plain, the crook was from the lath century onwards often made in the form of a snake (5), which in richer staves encircled the Lamb of God or the representation of a figure.
having all the rights of a township save corporate representation in the legislature) and in 1776 as a "town" (township).
Denmark, however, only finally renounced her claims by the treaty of Gottorp in 1768, and in 1770 Hamburg was admitted for the first time to a representation in the diet of the empire.
He took it to London and submitted it to Garrick for representation at Drury Lane, but it was rejected as unsuitable for the stage.
It was produced on the 14th of December 1756 with overwhelming success, in spite of the opposition of the presbytery, who summoned Alexander Carlyle to answer for having attended its representation.
In 1769 his tragedy of The Fatal Discovery had a run of nine nights; Alonzo also (1773) had fair success in the representation; but his last tragedy, Alfred (1778), was so coolly received that he gave up writing for the stage.
Guldberg and P.Waage, which is universally accepted as an accurate representation of the facts.
Their representation in the states general was exactly equal to that of the Dutch, though their population was in the proportion of seven to five.
The god of Atha was a form of Horus (Apollo) as the sun-god; his most characteristic representation is as the disk of the sun with outspread wings, so often seen over the doors of shrines, at the top of stelae, &c. In the temple, where he is often figured as a falconheaded man, he is associated with Hathor of Dendera and the child Harsemteus.
b., we obtain by comparison with the middle series the symbolical representation of all symmetric functions in brackets () appertaining to the quantities p i, P2, P3,ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ To obtain particular theorems the quantities a l, a 2, a 3, ...a, n are auxiliaries which are at our entire disposal.
A separation is the symbolic representation of a product of monomial symmetric functions.
It is thus possible to study simultaneously all the theories which depend upon operations of the group. Symbolic Representation of Symmetric Functions.-Denote the s 8 s elementar symmetric function a s by al a 2 a3 ...at pleasure; then, Y y si,, si,...
1 1 Hence it becomes necessary to have more than one set of umbrae, so that we may have more than one symbolical representation of the same real coefficients.
-2 _ ab 2an-2bn-2Crz z x () x x x, Each term on the right-hand side may be shown by permutation of a, b, c to be the symbolical representation of the same covariant; they are equivalent symbolic products, and we may accordingly write 2(ac) (bc)ai -1 bi -1 cx 2 =(ab)2a:-2b:-2c:, a relation which shows that the form on the left is the product of the two covariants n (ab) ay 2 by 2 and cZ.
In art, the most famous representation was a marble group of Niobe and her children, taken by Sosius to Rome and set up in the temple of Apollo Sosianus (Pliny, Nat.
Melcombe Regis first returned two members to parliament in 1307, and Weymouth in 1319, four members being returned by the united boroughs until 1832, when the representation was reduced to two and ceased in 1885.
Sci., 1901.) the only two invertebrates which had impressed the minds of early men sufficiently to be raised to the dignity of astronomical representation.
The subject he had chosen for his Habilitationsschrift was the "Representation of a Function by Means of a Trigonometrical Series," a subject which Dirichlet had made his own by a now well-known series of researches.
The chamber of deputies contains 212 members, the membership being distributed among the states on a basis of one for each 70,000 of population, but with a minimum representation of four for each state.
In a temperate and learned speech, based on Fox's declaration against constitution-mongering, he supported both the enfranchising and the disfranchising clauses, and easily disposed of the cries of "corporation robbery," "nabob representation," "opening for young men of talent," &c. The following year (1832) found Campbell solicitor-general, a knight and member for Dudley, which he represented till 1834.
Among its recommendations was the direct political representation of natives in the colonial legislatures on the New Zealand model, and the imposition of direct taxation upon natives, which should not be less than £1 a year payable by every adult male.
Immediately before the elections, however, Deak succeeded in reuniting all the Liberals on the common platform of " The Ten Points ": (1) Responsible ministries, (2) Popular representation, (3) The incorporation of Transylvania, (4) Right of public meeting, (6) Absolute religious liberty, (7) Universal equality before the law, (8) Universal taxation, (9) The abolition of the Aviticum, an obsolete and anomalous land-tenure, (io) The abolition of serfdom, with compensation to the landlords.
Its result, had it passed, would have been to strengthen the representation of the Magyar and German elements, to reduce that of the Slovaks, and almost to destroy that of the Rumans and other non-Magyar races whose educational status was low.
1 On the other hand, according to the Neue Freie Presse, it would have increased the number of electors from some million odd to 2,600,000, and the number of votes to 4,000,000; incidentally it would have largely increased the working-class representation.
A rosz szomszed (The Bad Neighbour), by Charles Vadnay (1878), is a felicitous representation of the power of love.
The problem of finding the sum of r terms is aided by graphic representation, which shows that the terms may be taken in pairs, working from the outside to the middle; the two cases of an odd number of terms and an even number of terms may be treated separately at first, and then combined by the ordinary method, viz.
While mensuration is concerned with the representation of geometrical magnitudes by numbers, graphics is concerned with the representation of numerical quantities by geometrical figures, and particularly by lengths.
The ordinary method of representation is as follows.
For graphical representation we select units of length L and M, not necessarily identical.
This, however, applies mainly to the representation of values of Y.
Y is represented by the length of the ordinate NP, so that the representation is cardinal; but this ordinate really corresponds to the point N, so that the representation of X is ordinal.
Graphic representation thus rests on the principle that equal numerical quantities may be represented by equal lengths, and that a quantity mA may be represented by a length mL, where A and L are the respective units; and the science of graphics rests on the converse property that the quantity represented by pL is pA, i.e.
Graphical representation shows that there are two solutions, and that an equation X2= 9a2 may be taken to be satisfied not only by X=3a but also by X= -3a.
In the graphic method of representation the sign - may be taken as denoting a reversal of direction, so that, if + 3 represents a length of 3 units measured in one direction,-3 represents a length of 3 units measured in the other direction.
Complex numbers are conveniently treated in connexion not only with the theory of equations but also with analytical trigonometry, which suggests the graphic representation of a+b,l - by a line of length (a 2 +b 2)i drawn in a direction different from that of the line along which real numbers are represented.
On Dec. 18 they went so far as to demand national representation of their own at the peace negotiations with Bolshevist Russia at Brest Litovsk.
The Czech and Yugoslav spokesmen in the Reichsrat insisted upon separate representation at the peace negotiations, and the absolute right to decide their own future State allegiance (Oct.
His homologous structures are now spoken of as " homogenetic " structures, the idea of community of representation in an archetype giving place to community of derivation from a single representative structure present in a common ancestor.
The same method of representation is applicable to spherical waves, issuing from a point, if the radius of curvature be large; for, although there is variation of phase along the length of the infinitesimal strip, the whole effect depends practically upon that of the central parts where the phase is sensibly constant.'
Among the first is to be noted a terra-cotta relief from Melos in the British Museum, where also, on a vase of black ware, is what seems to be a representation of his escape from Stheneboea.
The ode was followed by a solemn service in St Mark's, in which Zarlino's music formed a prominent feature, and the festival concluded with the representation of a dramatic piece entitled Orfeo composed by Zarlino.
In these his language is vigorous and dignified; he states the results of his labour and thought with freshness and lucidity; tells numberless stories in a most delightful manner, and exhibits a wonderful talent for the representation of personal character; the many portraits of historic persons of all orders which he draws in these prefaces are as brilliant in execution as they are exact and convincing.
The word appears in English in the 18th century, and was first applied to the correct representation, in literature and art, of the manners, dress, furniture and general surroundings of the scene represented.
Yet in England the representation of the nude in art meets with no reproach, though considered improper by the Japanese.
2 A typical example is afforded by the solitary representation of a Moabite (Perrot and Chipiez, Phoen.
In 1909 the proportional representation system was adopted for the election of town councillors.
The Monument (1677), Fish Street Hill, City, erected from the designs of Wren in commemoration of the great fire of 1666, is a Doric column surmounted by a gilt representation of a flaming urn.
No representation of the city earlier than the middle of the 16th century has been discovered, although it seems more than probable that some plans must have been produced at an earlier period.'
Tamworth sent two members to parliament from 1562 to 1885, when its representation was merged in that of the county.
The theory of conformal representation shows that the motion is given by (b-a'.u -a) +?
- n)= l b - au - ' (8) a - a u - b (9) dS2 I A I (b-a.b-a') dw m du = 21/(U - b)- ‘ 1 (u-a.0-a')' du -, r u' Io) the formulas by which the conformal representation is obtained.
Fareham returned two members to the parliament of 1306, but two years later it petitioned against representation on the ground of expense.
He was arrested on the 23rd of September at Ville d'Avray, near Paris, and taken before the Revolutionary Tribunal, where he was accused of having conspired for the restoration of the monarchy, and of having insulted national representation by resigning his position in the legislature.
Armstrong's article Chemistry in the 10th edition of this Encyclopaedia; the representation differs from the projection of Meyer and Jacobsen.
The famous Teatro Olimpico was begun by him, but only finished after his death; it is a remarkable attempt to construct a theatre in the ancient style, and the stage, with the representation of streets ascending at the back, is curious.
The prerogative is in modern times exercised by delegation, the Crown acting upon the representation of the secretary of state for the home department in Great Britain, or of the lord lieutenant in Ireland.
In 1632 the residents of Watertown protested against being compelled to pay a tax for the erection of a stockade fort at Cambridge; this was the first protest in America against taxation without representation and led to the establishment of representative government in the colony.
In particular, when disagreement seemed inevitable on the question of representation, he, with Roger Sherman, proposed what is known as the "Connecticut Compromise," by which the Federal legislature was made to consist of two houses, the upper having equal representation from each state, the lower being chosen on the basis of population.
The charter of 1663 and the franchise law of 1724 established substantial equality of representation among the towns, and restricted the suffrage to freeholders.
Dorr (1805-1854), a young lawyer of Providence, began a systematic campaign for an extension of the suffrage, a reapportionment of representation and the establishment of an independent judiciary.
Representation in the lower house of the legislature was apportioned according to population, but only on condition that no city or town should ever elect more than one-sixth of the total number of members.
His frank claim to " do what he liked with his own " in the representation of: Newark has given him a place in political history.
The representation of the university had been pronounced by Canning to be the most coveted prize of public life, and Gladstone himself confessed that he " desired it with an almost passionate fondness."
They appear to be connected with Semitic sun-worship, and are assigned by Bent to the same period as the temple at Baalbek, though some antiquarians would place them much earlier; the representation of a castle in a single stone seems to bear some relation to the idea worked out in the monolith churches of Lalibela described byRaffray.
a Bayona (Honest representation of the causes which inspired the journey of King Ferdinand VII.
The intolerable meanness advocated for the sake of the paltriest gains, the entire ignoring of any pursuit in life except money-getting, and the representation of the whole duty of man as consisting first in the attainment of a competent fortune, and next, when that fortune has been attained, in spending not more than half of it, are certainly repulsive enough.
The latter received mythical representation in that most interesting god (but originally rather culture-hero) Maui, who, in NewZealand practically supplants Tangaloa, and becomes the god of the air and of the heaven, the creator and the causer of the flood.2 Speculation opened the usual deep problem; whence came the gods?
The conventional representation of the progress of a snake, in which its undulating body is figured as resting by a series of lower bends on the ground whilst the alternate bends are FIG.
raised above it, is an impossible attitude, nor do snakes ever climb trees in spiral fashion, the classical artistic mode of representation.
The graphical representation of the properties of alloys can be extended so as to record all the changes, thermal and chemical, which the alloy undergoes after, as well as before, solidification, including the formation and breaking up of solid solutions and compounds.
It is most sincere in its representation, least artificial in diction, most penetrating in its satire, most just in its criticism of art and style.
Period of Popular Representation, 1905-14.
The primary question related to the basis of representation upon which they should be restored to their full rank in the political system.
Blaine, on the other hand, contended that representation should be based on population instead of voters, as being fairer to the North, where the ratio of voters varied widely, and he insisted that it should be safeguarded by security for impartial suffrage.
In 1909 the proportional representation system was adopted in the election of town councillors.
Although in prose, they were regarded as poems; in any case they were not intended for stage representation.
The significance of relation (I) is best appreciated by considering the graphic representation of quantities of heat and energy on a work-diagram.
This method of representation is applicable to certain kinds of problems, and has been developed by Macfarlane Gray and other writers in its application to the steam engine.
Separate representation ceased in 1885.
Marlborough returned two members to parliament until 1867 when the number was reduced to one, and in 1885 the representation was merged in that of the county.
But the numen has no form of sensuous representation, nor does he need a house to dwell in: statue and temple are alien to the spirit of Roman religion.
At the same time the new acquaintance with Greek art introduces the making of cult statues, in which the identified Greek type is usually adopted without change, with such curious results as the representation of the Penates under the form of the Dioscuri.
The one may regard it as a mere image, picture or representation of the higher being, void in itself of value or power.
As James Otis's vigour and influence declined, Adams took a more and more prominent place in the revolutionary councils; and, contrary to the opinion of Otis and Benjamin Franklin, he declared that colonial representation in parliament was out of the question and advised against any form of compromise.
Representation in the legislature is according to districts, members of the lower house being chosen for two, and members of the upper house for four years.
Previously, however, in August 1680, the duke of York had leased this territory for ro,000 years to William Penn, to whom he conveyed it by a deed of feoffment in August 1682; but differences in race and religion, economic rivalry between New Castle and the Pennsylvania towns, and petty political quarrels over representation and office holding, similar to those in the other American colonies, were so intense that Penn in 1691 appointed a special deputy governor for the " lower counties."
Another political problem has been that of representation.
According to the constitution of 1831 the unit of representation in the legislature was the county; inasmuch as the population of New Castle county has exceeded after 1870 that of both Kent and Sussex, the inequality became a cause of discontent.
This is partly eradicated by the new constitution of 1897, which reapportioned representation according to electoral districts, so that New Castle has seven senators and fifteen representatives, while each of the other counties has seven senators and ten representatives.
Despite this apparent abandonment of their cause by the national organization, the Regulars continued their opposition, the state being wholly without representation in the Senate from the expiration of Senator Kenney's term in 1901 until 1903, when a compromise was effected whereby two Republicans, one of each faction, were chosen, one condition being that Addicks should not be the candidate of the Union Republicans.
p. 639) mentions such a heliometer which had been in his possession from the year 1753, and of which he gives a representation on Plate XXVIII., fig.
In the course, of investigating this special problem great improvements were made in the methods of observing in the deep sea, and also in the representation and discussion of the data obtained, and a powerful stimulus was given to the study of oceanography in all the countries of Europe.
The older amphorae were oval-shaped, such as the vases filled with oil for prizes at the Panathenaic festival, having on one side a figure of Athena, on the other a representation of the contest; the latter were tall and slender, with voluted handles.
In 1793 he supported Grey's motion for a return to the old constitutional system of representation, and so earned the title to be regarded as one of the earliest promoters of the cause of parliamentary reform; and he was one of the founders of the "Society of the Friends of the People."
The central region is a transition ground where these floras find representation generally in deteriorated and dwarfed species.
The imposition of these taxes was bitterly resented in the colonies, where it quickly crystallized public opinion round the principle of " No taxation without representation."
Aberystwyth was a contributory parliamentary borough until 1885, when its representation was merged in that of the county.
A settlement or " plantation " was sometimes incorporated first as a " district " and later as a town, the difference being that the latter had the right of corporate representation in the general court, while the former had no such right.
Haynes, Representation and Suffrage in Massachusetts, 1620 - 1691, in Johns Hopkins University, Studies in History,.
Parliamentary representation began in 1298, and the town continued to return two members until 1832.
The most noteworthy pieces are a crater richly ornamented with arabesques and figures of children, a platter with a representation of Minerva, another with one of the boy Hercules and another with one of Cybele.
Walker, himself a prominent member of the party whose contention he states: "The reservation by the states of all rights not granted to the general government makes it fairly a matter of question whether purely statistical inquiries, other than for the single purpose of apportioning representation, could be initiated by any other authority than that of the states themselves.
Were their share of representation alone to be governed by this rule, they would have an interest in exaggerating their inhabitants.
mensura, a measure), the science of measurement; or, in a more limited sense, the science of numerical representation of geometrical magnitudes.
it is representation in terms of a unit.
Mensuration, then, is mainly concerned with quadratureformulae and cubature formulae, and, to a not very clearly defined extent, with the methods of obtaining such formulae; a quadrature-formula being a formula for calculating the numerical representation of an area, and a cubature-formula being a formula for calculating the numerical representation of a volume, in terms, in each case, of the numerical representations of particular data which determine the area or the volume.
there was a true " representation of the whole Christian name " (Tert, De Jejun.
Naturally, however, as the areas represented increased, the more indirect and partial became the representation possible.
Since 1846 both senators and assemblymen have been elected by single districts, and ever since the state government was established they have been apportioned according to population, but the present constitution limits the representation of New York City in the Senate by declaring that no county shall have more than one-third of all the senators nor any two adjoining counties more than one-half of them.
The colonists too, taught by the sickening delay and the ruinous cost of the war to revert to conciliatory methods, had by this time granted the natives special representation in parliament.
James of Compostella in Spain; the " vernicle," a representation of the miraculous head of Christ; the vera icon, true image, on St Veronica's handkerchief, at Rome, or of the Abgar portrait at Genoa, of " a vernicle hadde he sowed on his cappe " (Cant.
26, 27); the sign which follows is but the pictorial representation of this abiding truth.
The Puget Sound Basin and the neighbouring slopes of the Cascade and Olympic Mountains are noted for their forests, consisting mainly of giant Douglas fir or Oregon pine (Pseudotsuga Douglasii), but containing also some cedar, spruce and hemlock, a smaller representation of a few other species and a dense undergrowth.
We may obtain an excellent representation of the motion of the layers of air in a train of sound waves by means of a device due to Crova and known as " Crova's disk."
Its publication was followed by that of the tradegy Eufemio da Messina, but the representation of the latter was forbidden.
The postal and telegraph systems were also placed under the control of Prussia, and the representation of the Saxon crown at foreign courts was merged in that of the Confederation.
This law had in effect secured the misrepresentation of the mass of the people in the diet, the representation of the country population at the expense of that of the towns, of the interests of agriculture as opposed to those of industry.
In 1907 the government announced their intention of modifying the electoral system in Saxony by the adding of representation for certain professions to that of the three classes of the electorate.
The one in the council chamber upstairs dates from 1527 and gives an allegorical representation of the Virtues and the Vices.
The other, three-quarters of a century later, contains an heraldic representation of the noble families of the town.
The most important of his numerous works are the Wissenschaftslehre, oder Versuch einer neuen Darstellung der Logik, advocating a scientific method in the study of logic (4 vols., Sulzbach, 1837); the Lehrbuch der Religionswissenschaft (4 vols., Sulzbach, 1834), a philosophic representation of all the dogmas of Roman Catholic theology; and Athanasia, oder Gri nde fiir die Unsterblichkeit der Seele (2nd ed., Mainz, 1838).
A constitutional amendment pro viding for minority representation in the House of Representatives was rejected in 1889 by a large popular vote.
In 1799 the islands were given representation in the Bahamas Assembly, and they remained part of that colony until 1848, when on the petition of the inhabitants they were made a separate colony under the supervision of the governor of Jamaica.
In 1290 Kent returned two members to parliament for the county, and in 1295 Canterbury, Rochester and Tunbridge were also represented; Tunbridge however made no returns after this date: In 1552 Maidstone acquired representation, and in 1572 Queenborough.
By the act of 1885 the county returned eight members in eight divisions, and the representation of Canterbury, Maidstone and Rochester was reduced to one member each.
In 1866 he expressed himself favourable to the making of household suffrage the basis of representation, an expression of opinion which probably influenced the Reform Bill of the following year - in the discussions on which Palmer took a prominent part, and especially in opposition to the so-called "fancy franchises" originally proposed by its authors.
3 No representation of the seventh sign has yet been discovered on any Euphratean monument; but it is noticeable that the eighth is frequently doubled,4 and it is difficult to avoid seeing in the pair of zodiacal scorpions carved on Assyrian cylinders the prototype of the Greek scorpion and claws.
The representation thus handed down (in the verses of Aratus) has been thought to tally best with the state of the sky about 2000 B.C.; 12 and the mention of a polestar, for which Eudoxus was rebuked by Hipparchus, seems, as W.
Probably the most ancient zodiacal representation in existence is a fragment of a Chaldaean planisphere in the British Museum, once inscribed with the names of the twelve months and their governing signs.
The Redistribution Act 1885 reduced the representation to one member.
was a useful protest against the idea that the king was a mere:sanguinary profligate, but his representation of him as the self-denying minister of his people's will is erroneous, and is founded on the false theory that the preambles of the acts of Henry's parliaments represented the opinions of the educated laymen of England.
The legislature or Grand Conseil (now composed of loo members) is elected (in the proportion of 1 member for every l000 inhabitants or fraction over 500) for 3 years by a direct popular vote, subject (since 1892) to the principles of proportional representation, while the executive or conseil d'etat (7 members) is elected (no proportional representation) by a popular vote for 3 years.
In 1891 they introduced the "Initiative" into the cantonal constitution, and in 1892 the principle of proportional representation so far as regards the grand conseil, while Th.
6 1918, in which all the Czech deputies of the Austrian Reichsrat and of the Diets of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia unanimously demanded full independence and representation at the future conference which should conclude peace in Europe.
His next publications also were on economic or political subjects, Rationale of Political Representation (1835), and Money and its Vicissitudes (1837), now practically forgotton; about the same time also appeared some of his pamphlets, Discussion of Parliamentary Reform, Right of Primogeniture Examined, Defence of Joint-Stock Banks.
In 1854 he turned his attention to solar physics, and for the purpose of obtaining a daily photographic representation of the state of the solar surface he devised the photo-heliograph, described in his report to the British Association, "On Celestial Photography in England" (1859), and in his Bakerian Lecture (Phil.
The epic, which remained in manuscript till 1850, is a genuine representation of Polish life; no picture so faithful appeared till the Pan Tadeusz of Mickiewicz.
It is said that no representation of any parrot appears in Egyptian art, nor does any reference to a bird of the kind occur in the Bible, whence it has been concluded that neither painters nor writers had any knowledge of it.
Among the mosaics is a colossal representation of the Virgin, 15 ft.
A special study was made of the nebula of Orion, and the resulting large drawing gives an extremely good representation of this complicated object.
In 1908 the General Assembly passed a law providing for annual direct primary elections (outside of Baltimore; and making the Baltimore special primary law applicable to state as well as city officials), but, as regards state officers, making only a slight improvement upon previous conditions inasmuch as the county or district is the unit and the vote of county or district merely " instructs " delegates to the party's state nominating convention, representation in which is not strictly in proportion to population, the rural counties having an advantage over Baltimore; no nomination petition is required.
The system of representation that, with the rapid growth of population in the north-east sections, especially in the city of Baltimore, placed the government in the hands of a decreasing minority also began to be attacked about this time; but the fear of that minority which represented the tobacco-raising and slave-holding counties of south Maryland, with respect to the attitude of the majority toward slavery prevented any changes until 1837, when the opposition awakened by the enthusiasm over internal improvements effected the adoption of amendments which provided for the election of the governor and senators by a direct vote of the people, a slight increase in the representation of the city of Baltimore and the larger counties, and a slight decrease in that of the smaller counties.
The result was the new constitution of 1851, which fully established representation in the counties on the basis of population and further increased that of Baltimore.
The literary differences are, moreover, often accompanied by differences of treatment, or representation of the history, which, where they exist, confirm independently the conclusions of the literary analysis.
Somewhat later than " J," another writer, commonly referred to as " E," from his preference for the name Elohim (" God ") rather than " Jehovah," living apparently in the northern kingdom, wrote down the traditions of the past as they were current in northern Israel, in a style resembling generally that of " J," but not quite as bright and vivid, and marked by small differences of expression and representation.
There is much in his representation of the past which cannot be historical.
Of these, it may be mentioned, there is a vast number, owing in some cases to divergence of spelling in the representation of native names, in others to European discoverers naming islands (sometimes twice or thrice successively) of which the native names subsequently came into use also.
He especially devoted himself to investigations of the radiation of heat from the sun and its absorption by the earth's atmosphere, and to that end devised various delicate methods and instruments, including his electric compensation pyrheliometer, invented in 1893, and apparatus for obtaining a photographic representation of the infra-red spectrum (1895).
Hultsch is more general, and appears to give a more equal representation of all sides than do other authors.
The king of this district was Coxcoxtli, whose name has gained an undeserved reputation even in Europe as " Coxcox, the Mexican Noah," from a scene in the native picture-writing where his name appears together with the figure of a man floating in a dug-out tree, which has been mistaken even by Humboldt for a representation of the Mexican deluge-myth.
A new Congress, having resolved itself into a constituent assembly, followed up this Centralist policy (Dec. 30, 1836) by framing a new constitution, the Siete Leyes or Seven Laws, which converted the states into departments, ruled by governors appointed by the central authority, and considerably reduced popular representation.
The Senate is composed of 24 members, one from each senatorial district, and these districts are formed so as to be approximately equal with respect to the amount of direct taxes paid in each; representation in this body is therefore apportioned on the basis of property.
In the House of Representatives, which has the large membership of 390, representation is on the basis of population, but is so arranged as to favour the rural districts; thus every town or ward of a city having 600 inhabitants is allowed one representative, but, although for every additional representative 1200 additional inhabitants are required, any town having less than 600 inhabitants is allowed a representative for such proportionate part of the time the legislature is in session as the number of its inhabitants bears to 600.
A noteworthy incident of the Concord affair, and characteristic of the attitude which the provincials had maintained and continued to maintain for another year, was the official representation to the king by the Massachusetts people that the regulars were the first to fire upon them, and that they returned the fire and fought through the day in strict defence of their rights and homes as Englishmen.
By the Representation of the People Act of 1867 the representation was reduced to one member, and by the Redistribution Act of 1885 it was disfranchised.
By a statute of 1535 Brecon was made the county town of the new shire of Brecknock, and was granted the right of electing one burgess to represent it in parliament, a right which it retained till it was merged in the county representation in 1885.
In colonies which have parliamentary representation the crown cannot give to a metropolitan bishop jurisdiction or coercive legal authority over suffragan bishops or over any other person.
Similarly, the idea of God is a symbolical representation of the voice of conscience guiding from within.
The middle section of the Appalachians, rather arbitrarily limited by the Hudson and the James rivers, may be described first because it contains the best representation of the three longitudinal belts of which the mountain system as a whole is The Middle composed.
In the Great Plains and farther west the Silurian has little known representation.
Triassic SystemThis system has but limited representation in the eastern part of the United States, being known only east of the Appalachian Mountains in an area which was land throughout most of the Palaeozoic era, hut which was deformed when the eastern mountains were developed at the close of the Palaeozoic. In the troughs formed in its surface during this time of deformation, sediments of great thickness accumulated during the Triassic period.
distribution, except that marine beds have little representation on the land.
In the third group women greatly preponderate in the occupation of stenographers and type-writers; and in those of book-keepers and accountants, clerks and copyists, packers and shippers, saleswomen (which is the largest class), and telegraph and telephone operators they have a large representation (13 to 34 ~ A great Variation exists in the proportion of the sexes employed in different manufacturing industries.
The Dominion government makes in turn to one of the chief local agricultural exhibition societies a grant of $50,000 for the purposes of the national representation of agriculture and live-stock.
Each province has a lieutenant-governor and a single legislative chamber, with a representation of four members in the Senate and five in the House of Commons of the Dominion parliament.
Finally in 1885 its representation was merged in that of the county.
But this method of representation is a very imperfect one; we may easily impose on ourselves and others by strained and ambiguous renderings.
Shute in his History of the Aristotelian Writings (p. 176), " that we have even got throughout a treatise in the exact words of Aristotle, though we may be pretty clear that we have a fair representation of his thought.
The cause of poetry is man's instinct of representation and his love of representations caused by the pleasure of learning.
Comedy is representation of men inferior in being ludicrous: epic is like tragedy a representation of superior men, but by means of narrative and unlimited in time: tragedy is a representation of an action superior and complete, in a day if possible, by means of action, and accomplishing by pity and fear the purgation of such passions (Poetics, 1449 b 24).
Parliamentary representation began in 1295 and continued until the Reform Act of 1870.
It is now generally admitted that the representation of Arthur as world conqueror, Welt-Kaiser, is due to the influence of the Charlemagne cycle.
Diagrammatic Representation of the Uterine Cavity opened up from in front.
In 1834, in the Tennessee constitutional convention he endeavoured to limit the influence of the slaveholders by basing representation in the state legislature on the white population alone.
Thus the Psalms were necessarily viewed as prophetic; and meantime, in accordance with the common Hebrew representation of ideal things as existing in heaven, the true king remains hidden with God.
Long before this its most famous article of export, the silphium plant, a representation of which was the chief coin-type of Cyrene, had come to an end.
He also fought for the representation by population of the two provinces in parliament, the Act of Union (1841) having granted an equal number of representatives to each.
Representation was granted to the peasants; the two chambers were empowered to initiate legislation; ministers were made responsible for all acts of government; a civil list was given to the king in return for the surrender of the crown lands; and, in short, the new constitution was similar to that of Great Britain.
Their share in bringing about the final settlement, which provided for equal representation in one house and proportional representation in the other, was so important that the settlement itself has come to be called the "Connecticut Compromise."
This dramatic representation of the sufferings of Christ is not a survival of a medieval mystery or miracleplay, but took its rise from a vow made by the inhabitants in 1633, with the hope of staying a plague then raging.
These now took the place of the old heterogeneous areas, governed by their respective sovereigns without reference to any idea of nationality or of national representation.
The mechanical idea, named the parallelogram of velocities, permits a ready and easy graphical representation of these facts.
The fact that the addition of the term introduced by Ritz not only gives a more satisfactory representation of each series, but verifies the above relationship with a much closer degree of approximation, proves that Ritz's equation forms a marked step in the right direction.
If we wish to be more general, while still adhering to Deslandres' law as a correct representation of the frequencies when s is small, we may write n - A (s+ 1 1) 2 - - a Po+Pi(s + c) -F +pr(s+ c)r' where s as before represents the integer numbers and the other quantities involved are constants.
The town has never had parliamentary representation.
The male representation of the family, being extinct in the royal lines, is claimed by the earls of Galloway and also by the Stewarts of Castlemilk, but the claims of both are more than doubtful.
These incidents led to a representation on the part of the native sovereign to the" governments of Great Britain, France and the United States, and the independence of the islands (recognized by the United States in 1842) was recognized in 1844 by France and Great Britain.
In his later work, La Nouvelle monadologie (1899), he maintains that each monad is a simple substance, endowed with representation, which is consciousness in form, phenomenon in matter as represented.
Lyme returned two members to parliament from 1295 to 1832 when the representation was reduced to one.
This is made clear above all by the representation of a plough drawn by two oxen in one of the very ancient rock-carvings at Tegneby in Bohuslan.
The principle of representation for the unofficial classes, i.e.
Caesar, moreover, says that the clans or kindreds to whom the lands were allotted changed their abodes also from year to year - a statement which gives a certain amount of colour to Strabo's description of the Germani as quasi-nomadic. Yet there is good reason for believing that this representation of early Teutonic life was by no means universally true.
The time was not ripe for such a scheme, but in 1861 the principle of direct representation was introduced into the committees of review.
Kepler (1571-1630) was led by his study of the planetary motions to reject this method of statement as inadequate, and it is in fact incapable of giving a complete representation of the motions in question.
Minority representation is.
1 The constitution of 1873 made provision for minority representation as follows: " Whenever two judges of the supreme court are At present supreme court judges serve for twenty-one years and are ineligible for re-election.
The three commissioners and the three auditors in each county are chosen by the same limited vote process as the supreme-court judges, thus allowing a representation to the minority party.
It increased the number of senators and representatives, created the office of lieutenant-governor, substituted biennial for annual sessions of the legislature, introduced minority representation in the choice of the higher judiciary and of the county commissioners and auditors and provided (as had an amendment adopted in 1850) for the election of all judges by popular vote.
In 2 B.C. Augustus, at the dedication of the temple of Mars Ultor, exhibited a naumachia between Athenians and Persians, in a basin probably in the horti Caesaris, where subsequently Titus gave a representation of a sea-fight between Corinth and Corcyra.
Ancillon had convinced himself that the rigid class distinctions of the Prussian system were the philosophically ideal basis of the state, and that representation "by estates" was the only sound constitutional principle; his last and indeed only act of importance as minister was his collaboration with Metternich in the Vienna Final Act of the 12th of June 1834, the object of which was to rivet this system upon Germany for ever.
This work, containing nothing original, but giving a clear representation of Wolff's philosophy, met with great success, and the author was appointed to the office of preacher at the castle of Tubingen and of reader in the school of theology.
A statue of this god has been found near Gaza; it much resembles the Greek representation of Zeus.
The badge is a green enamel cross with gold clasps in the angles; in the central medallion an enamelled representation of the ruined castle of Zdhringen.
The badge is a red rayed cross with gold rays in the angles, in the centre a representation of the pillars of Hercules; the cross is attached to the yellow and white ribbon by a green laurel wreath.
The league's relation to outlying dependencies is obscure; many of these were probably mere protectorates or "allied states" and secured no representation.
nGt only a representation of the chain of the Alps, but even a subsidiary fold in front in the position of the Jura Mountains may be obtained.
He introduced from the joint committee what became, with changed clause as to the basis of representation, the Fourteenth Amendment, and also the Reconstruction Act of the 6th of February 1867.
In connexion with this controversy Lessing wrote his brilliant little treatise, Wie die Alten den Tod gebildet (1769), contrasting the medieval representation of death as a skeleton with the Greek conception of death as the twin-brother of sleep.
Bell, and of Laokoon, Dramatic Notes and the Representation of Death by the Ancients, by E.
In the Greek Church also the Good Friday fast is excessively strict; as in the Roman Church, the Passion history is read and the cross adored; towards evening a dramatic representation of the entombment takes place, amid open demonstrations of contempt for Judas and the Jews.
The lower part of the altar is composed of Italian marble, with a representation of Christ's sufferings in the garden of Gethsemane; and the organ is considered the finest in Copenhagen.
As the middle ages advanced the procession became more and more popular and increasingly a dramatic representation of the triumphal progress of Christ, the bishop riding on an ass or horse, as in the East.
But it is to be recollected that, according to Hume, an idea is actually a representation or individual picture, not a notion or even a schema, and that he never claims to be able to extract the predicate of a geometrical judgment by analysis of the subject.
For a representation of a Moabite warrior (-god ?), see G.
The final change in the system of parliamentary elections was made in 1899-1900, when proportional representation was introduced.
Proportional representation aims at the protection of minorities, and its working out is a little intricate, or at all events difficult to describe.
The following has been accepted as a clear definition of what proportional representation is:- " Each electoral district has the number of its members apportioned in accordance with the total strength of each party or political programme in that district.
In 1902 there were 1,146,482 voters with 2,007,704 votes, the principles of multiple votes, with, however, a maximum of four votes and proportional representation, being in force for communal as for legislative elections.
Though the population of Belgium was 3,400,000 and that of Holland only a little more than 2,000,000 the two countries had equal representation in the second chamber of the states-general.
The election of 1894 had given the Liberals a much smaller number of seats than they ought to have had according to the number of votes they polled, and a cry arose for the establishment of proportional representation.
The new cabinet at once (August 1899) introduced a bill giving complete proportional representation in parliamentary elections to all the arrondissements.
Although the evidence is not decisive, it seems probable that lions did exist in Greece at the time of Herodotus; and it is quite possible that the representation of a lion-chase incised on a Mycenean dagger may have been taken from life.
On the night of the first representation, which was warmly received, Picard, the manager, threw himself into the arms of his elated friend, exclaiming, "You have saved us!
To avoid dryness and prolixity he condensed quotations, and occasionally employed the Thucydidean method of abridgment or representation in place of fact catalogues.
The borough returned two members to the parliament of 1295 and to other parliaments, until by the Representation Act 1867 it lost one representative, and by the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 separate representation.
divergence may alter either a, The branch, with the leaves abruptly or gradually, and the numbered in order; b, a magnified phyllotaxis thus becomes very representation of the branch, complicated.
a, The branch with the leaves numbered in their order, n being the node and m the internode; b is a magnified representation of the branch, showing the points of insertion of the leaves and their spiral arrangement, which is expressed by the fraction or one turn of the spiral for two internodes.
and his son in 1471, so complete was the extinction of their line that its representation vested in the heirs of the two daughters of John of Gaunt by the heiress of Lancaster, viz.
A characteristic, though rude, painting, found on the walls of one of the houses gives a representation of this event.
15r), that he wrote this third part of his system before he had been able to set down any finished representation of the fundamental doctrines which it presupposed.
He was, according to the `story (told by Jacqueline herself), restored to favour owing to the good acting and graceful appearance of his daughter Jacqueline in a representation of Scudery's Amour tyrannique before Richelieu.
The main feature of all his measures was the novel and extended use of representation and election for all the purposes of government.
About a year after the representation of Irene, he began to publish a series of short essays on morals, manners and literature.
In the elections of 1898 they still returned nine members to the Reichstag, but in those of I903 their representation had sunk to six, and in 1907 it had practically dii~appeared.
In 1890 a change in the organization separated the command of the fleet from the office of secretary of state, who was responsible for the representation of the admiralty in the Reichstag, and the emperor was brought into more direct connection with the navy.
In the elections of 1907, indeed, the Social Democratic party, owing to the unparalleled exertion of the government, had a set-back, its representation in parliament sinking to 43; but at the International Socialist Congress, which met at Stuttgart on the 18th of August, Herr Bebel was able to point oui that, in spite of its defeat at the polls, the Socialist cause had actually gained strength in the country, their total poll having increased from 3,010,771.
A member for Fowey and Looe was summoned to a council at Westminster in 1340, but from that date until 1571, when it was entrusted with the privilege of returning two members, it had no parliamentary representation.
The equality of representation, granted at the union, at first unfair to Lower Canada, became still more unfair to Upper Canada, as her population first equalled and then surpassed that of her sister province.
These are: (1) foreign affairs, including diplomatic and consular representation abroad; (2) the army, including the navy, but excluding the annual voting of recruits, and the special army of each state; (3) finance in so far as it concerns joint expenditure.
The districts were so arranged as to give the towns a very large representation in proportion to their populafions.
The greatest gainers by the redistribution were the Ruthenes, whose representation was trebled, though it is still far from being proportioned to their numbers.
The Reform Bill was carried with a clause for minority representation, and in the autumn of 1868 Bright, with two Liberal colleagues, was again returned for Birmingham.
The Southern states had greatly enlarged representation in Congress on account of their slaves, and the national government was constitutionally bound to assist in the capture of fugitive slaves, and to suppress every attempt on their part to gain their freedom by force.
Parliamentary representation was conferred upon East Looe in 1571 and upon West Looe in 1553.
The coinage may, of course, give a somewhat one-sided representation of the Parthian kingdom, being specially designed for the commercial class, in which the population of the Greek cities was, we may guess, predominant.
When the stand on which w rests is shaken, a multiplied representation of this movement takes place at h, and any small body resting on that point, as for example a small screw s standing on its head, may be caused to topple over.
The close relation of the two deities appears in a frequent community of altars and sacrifices, and also in the iepos yapos, a dramatic representation of their sacred marriage.
Michaelis says, it renders the race type with astounding keenness, and shows an excellent power of observation in the exact representation of the eyes.
The incidents of this episode were a favorite subject in the sculptures of his temples, where their representation was accompanied by a poetical version of the affair and other explanatory inscriptions.
The situz~tion now became critically serious: for the third time ships were sent to Alexandria, and on the 25th of May 1882 the consulsgeneral of the two powers made a strong representation to Mahmud Sami which produced the resignation of the Egyptian ministry, and a demand, to which the khedive yielded, by the military party for the reinstatement of Arabi.
In the following year Drente at length obtained the privilege, which it had long sought, of being reckoned as an eighth province with representation in the states-general.
The remaining S4 members of the Landsthing are returned for eight years according to a method of proportionate representation by a body of deputy electors.
In this manner a representation is secured for fairly large minorities, and what is considered a fair share of influence on public affairs given to those who contribute the most to the needs of the state.
In 1880 he was under-secretary of state for the home department, in 1881 for the colonies, and in 1882 secretary to the treasury; but he was always a stubborn fighter for principle, and upon finding that the government's Reform Bill in 1884 contained no recognition of the scheme for proportional representation, to which he was deeply committed, he resigned office.
The First Plagues of Egypt.-In this section the analysis again reveals three main sources, which are clearly marked off from one another both by their linguistic features and by their difference of representation.
The language, style and contents of this section point unmistakably to the hand of P; and it is now generally admitted that these chapters form part of an ideal representation of the post-exilic ritual system, which has been transferred to the Mosaic age.
representation, Moses, on the seventh day after the conclusion of the covenant, was summoned to the top of the mountain, and there received instructions with regard to (a) the furniture of the sanctuary, viz.
In February 1819 Hobhouse was the Radical candidate at a by-election for the representation of the city of Westminster, but he failed to secure election.
He was an influential member of the constitutional convention of 1787, advocating the counting of all slaves as a basis of representation and opposing the abolition of the slavetrade.
He worked hard also for Proportional Representation.
A synoptical representation of the present state of knowledge would be expressed by a network rather than by a tree.
This twofold representation finds a parallel in the narratives of Samuel, whose history and the conditions reflected therein are analogous to the life and times of Elisha.
These two magnificent folios, though first published in London between 1842 and 1845, give the best pictorial representation of the Alhambra.
This edition, although it was a great undertaking and a work of considerable merit, was a very imperfect representation of the original code.
imago, perhaps from the same root as imitari, copy, imitate), in general, a copy, representation, exact counterpart of something else.
The simplest ideational image, which has been described as the primary memory-image, is "the peculiarly vivid and definite ideal representation of an object which we can maintain or recall by a suitable effort of attention immediately after perceiving it" (Stout).
In Art the term is used for a representation or likeness of an animate or inanimate object, particularly of the figure of a person in sculpture or painting.
The most general application of the word is to such a representation when used as an object of religious worship or adoration, or as a decorative or architectural ornament in places of religious worship. The worship of images, or idolatry, from the point of view of comparative religion, is treated in the article Image-Worship, and the history of the attitude of the Christian church, outside the post-Reformation church of England, towards the use of images as objects of worship and religion in the article Iconoclasts.
With Cromwell's help he secured parliamentary support, and its usefulness led him to extend parliamentary representation to Wales and Calais, to defend the privileges of Parliament, and to yield rather than forfeit its confidence.
Representation was extended to Wales, Cheshire, Berwick and Calais; and parliamentary authority was enhanced, largely that it might deal with the church, until men began to complain of this new parliamentary infallibility.
In the parliament of Great Britain its representation was fixed at sixteen peers elected in Holyrood Palace by the peers of Scotland at each new parliament in the House of Lords, and at forty-five members in the House of Commons, the counties returning thirty and the burghs fifteen.
By the Reform Act of 1832 the number of Scottish representatives in the Commons was raised to fifty-three, the counties under a slightly altered arrangement returning thirty members as before, and the burghs, reinforced by the erection of various towns into parliamentary burghs, twenty-three; the second Reform Act (1867) increased the number to sixty, the universities obtaining representation by two members, while two additional members were assigned to the counties and three to the burghs; by the Redistribution of Seats Act in 1885 an addition of seven members was made to the representation of the counties and five to that of the burghs, the total representation being raised to seventy-two.
There were two ways by which things might become taboo: (I) by contact with anything belonging to the god, as his visible representation or his priest.
The Virginia plan was opposed by the smaller states, Connecticut, New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland, which demanded equal representation in the legislature.
The term of senators is four years, that of representatives two years; and in the election of representatives since 1870 there has been a provision for "minority" representation, under which by cumulative voting each voter may cast as many votes for one candidate as there are representatives to be chosen, or he may distribute his votes (giving three votes to one candidate, or 12 votes each to two candidates, or one vote each to three candidates), the candidate or candidates receiving the highest number of votes being elected.
Garnett, " The Representation of certain Examination Results," Journ.
Was it not a greater thing to ennoble them than to destroy their artistic representation ?
That picture must inevitably be an incomplete representation of Him; it will need to be supplemented by other pictures which other writers have drawn.
Yet the writer who in a few pages presents us with so remarkable a representation shows no consciousness at all of artistic treatment.
On his own representation at Weimar, he was in February 1805 made a professor extraordinarius, and in July 1806 drew his first and only stipend - Too thalers.
The first treats of space, time, matter, movement; and in the solar system we have the representation of the idea in its general and abstract material form.
In the second or classical form of art the idea of humanity finds an adequate sensuous representation.
A religious epic, DieGeheimnisse, and a tragedy Elpenor, did not, it is true, advance much further than plans; but in 1777, under the influence of the theatrical experiments at the Weimar court, Goethe conceived and in great measure wrote a novel of the theatre, which was to have borne the title Wilhelm Meisters theatralische Sendung; and in 1779 himself took part in a representation before the court at Ettersburg, of his drama I phigenie auf Tauris.
The Redistribution Act 1885 reduced the representation to one.
Both books represent the same general trend of political events, even where the " canonical " representation is most open to criticism.
The only ex-officio additional member is the lieutenant-governor of the province in which the legislative council may happen to meet; nominated members number 35, of whom not more than 28 may be officials; while 25 are elected, directly or indirectly, with special representation for Mahommedans and landholders.
They provided (inter alia) for a non-official majority in all of the provincial councils, but not in that of the governor-general; for an elaborate system of election of members by organized constituencies; for nomination where direct election is not appropriate; and for the separate representation of Mahommedans and other special interests.
Miall saw that if the programme of Nonconformity was to be carried through it must have more effective representation in Parliament.
In the latter year the representation was reduced to one, and was merged in that of the county in 1868.
But, whilst recognizing the existence of local drifts and systems, and admitting the possibility of relative motion between the nearer and more distant, or other classes of stars, it is;only recently that astronomers have seriously doubted the correctness of the hypothesis of random distribution of stellar motions as at least a rough representation of the truth.
To complete our N, representation of the universe, it is therefore necessary ay.
Prince Oscar of Sweden was one of the earliest adherents of cellular imprisonment, and at his urgent representation penitentiary reform was warmly espoused in 1841.
Among the features of the plan which were not embodied in the constitution were the following: proportionate representation in the Senate and the election of its members by the lower house "out of a proper number of persons nominated by the individual legislatures"; the vesting in the national Congress of power to negative state acts; and the establishment of a council of revision (the executive and a convenient number of national judges) with veto power over all laws passed by the national Congress.
Only after sensation has ceased does an idea, or representation of what is not presented, become necessary as a substitute for a sensation and as a condition not of the first judgment that there is, but of a second judgment that there was, something sensible.
To remember, we must have a present idea; but we must also have a belief that the thing, of which the idea is a representation, was (or was not) determined; and this belief is the memorial judgment.
We are clearly in the field of the diagrams of the text-books, and much of the phraseology is based upon an original graphic representation in extension.
Berkeley, though at length the notions of spirits, acts and relations 6 give him pause, prefers the formula which Hume expresses in the phrase that " some ideas are particular in their nature but general in their representation," 7 and the afterhistory of " abstraction " is a discussion of the conditions under which one idea " stands for " a group. Not from those for whom general ideas mean schematic concepts, not imageable.
It is, however, of the sorts constituted by the representation which his abstraction makes possible that definition is given, either by enumeration of the simple ideas combined in the significance of the sortal name, or " to save the labour of enumerating," and " for quickness and despatch sake," by giving the next wider general name and the proximate difference.
Khmer decoration, profuse but harmonious, consists chiefly in the representation of gods, men and animals, which are displayed on every flat surface.
But he did not attack the question of the representation of products or quotients of directed lines.
Servois says, with reference to the general representation of a directed line in space: " L'analogie semblerait exiger que le trineme filt de la forme p cos a+q cos a+r cos y; a, 1 3, y etant les angles d'une droite avec trois axes rectangulaires; et qu'on eut (p cos a+ g cos /3+ r cos y)(p' cos a+ q cos /3 + r cos y) =cos 2 a+cos 2) 3+cos 2 y = 1.
in 1448, when it also received the privilege of returning members to parliament, but in 1885 it ceased to have separate representation.
Under the Mexican Federal constitution of 1824 Upper California, first alone (it was made distinct province in 1804) and then with Lower California, received representation in the Mexican congress.
The term "a Calvary" is applied to a sculptured representation of the Crucifixion, either inside a church, or adjoining one in the open air.
The kings therefore extended special privileges (fueros) to the inhabitants, and they were even at an early date admitted to representation in the Cortes (parliament).
8 a characteristic elements of federation, namely that they were free sovereign states combining for a particular purpose with an elaborate system of representation (see Amphictyony).
It is not clear that Greek took over ï¿½ with this value, for in one Theran inscription e a are found combined as equivalent to T - H, while the regular representation of ï¿½ and x f and K or 9 (koppa) 8 respectively.
But most remarkable is the representation of Latin F by FH.
Either two sounds are confused under one symbol, or these records represent a dialect which, like Hebrew and Assyrian, shows sh, z, and c, where the ordinary Aramaic representation is t, d, and t, the Arabic tic, dh, and th.
The people of the District have no voice in its government, have no representation in Congress and do not vote for the president of the United States.
In this year he stood for the representation of Konigsberg in the National Assembly at Frankfort-on-Main, and on his election was immediately appointed secretary, and in the course of the same year became successively its vice-president and president.
This first West, made up of the older small farmers, of the Scottish settlers, of the Germans from the Palatinate and the Scottish-Irish, far outnumbering the people of the old counties, demanded the creation of new counties and proportionate representation in the Burgesses.
Although Henry, Lee and Jefferson exercised great power, they were unable to secure a Constitution which embodied the demands of their party: universal suffrage, proportional representation and religious freedom.
The legislature would be all-powerful, and yet representation was so distributed that about one-third of the voters living in the tide-water region would return nearly two-thirds of the members of the legislature.
The result was failure, for the democracy of small farmers which would have taxed slavery out of existence was denied proportionate representation.
In 1850 a third Convention undertook to amend the Constitution, and now that the West yielded its bitter hostility to slavery, representation was so arranged that the more populous section was enabled to control the House while the East still held the Senate; the election of judges was confided to the people; and the suffrage was broadened.
For instance, in the case 01 a beam in equilibrium under any given loads and the reactionf at the supports, we get a graphical representation of the distributior of bending moment over the beam.
In our ideal representation of natural phenomena this is allowed for by endowing each material particle with a suitable mass or inertiacoefficient m.
marion (as in the case of the pendulum), this solution can only be accepted as a representation of the initial stages of the forced oscillation.
To obtain the complete solution of (II) we must of course superpose the free vibration (6) with its arbitrary constants in order to obtain a complete representation of the most general motion consequent on arbitrary initial conditions.
Tait that a similar representation of the type (30) is obtained if we replace the circle by an equiangular spiral described, with a constant angular velocity about the pole, in the direction of diminishing radius vector.
The question was first discussed by Euler (1750); the geometrical representation to be given is due to Poinsot (1851).
Method 2.The second method is based upon the vector representation of velocity, and may be illustrated by applying it to the four-bar chain.
In the later Saiva mythology this theory finds its artistic representation in Siva's androgynous form of Ardha-narisa, or "halfwoman-lord," typifying the union of the male and female energies; the male half in this form of the deity occupying the right-hand, and the female the left-hand side.
Naturally, therefore, he did not participate in debate; and he seems to have spoken but once, and then to favour an amendment reducing from 40,000 to 30,000 the minimum population required as a basis of representation in the House.
ACORUS CALAMUS, sweet-sedge or sweet-flag, a plant of the natural order Araceae, which shares with the Cuckoo Pint (Arum) the representation in Britain of that order of Monocotyledons.
A scheme of " proportional representation," the votes being counted in accordance with the system invented by G.
At the Trade Union Congress in 1887 he attacked the secretary, Mr. Broadbent, for supporting capitalist candidates at elections,: thus starting the campaign for Independent Labour representation which he brought into prominence in 1888 by contesting Mid-Lanark as an Independent Labour candidate.
It was probably to this relation that the burgesses owed the privilege of parliamentary representation, conferred by Edward VI.
3 See Representation and Parliament.
Whilst in every other European country except England, the ancient popular representation by estates was about to disappear altogether, in Sweden under Gustavus Adolphus it grew into an integral portion of the constitution.
The latter chamber instead passed a bill for manhood suffrage at elections for the Second Chamber, on the condition that the elections for both chambers should take place on the basis of proportional representation.
By this act proportional representation was established for both chambers, together with universal manhood suffrage at elections for the Second Chamber, a reduction of the qualifications for eligibility for the First Chamber and a reduction of the electoral term of this chamber from nine to six years, and finally payment of members of the First Chamber, who hitherto had not received any such emolument.
The national expenditures are chiefly for the interest and amortization charges on the public debt, official salaries, military expenses in connexion with the army and navy, public works (including railway construction, port improvements, water and sewage works), the administration of the state railways, telegraph lines and post office, church subsidies, public instruction and foreign representation.
It increases rapidly with the aperture, and is more important with medium apertures than the secondary spectrum of par-axial rays; consequently, spherical aberration must be eliminated for two colours, and if this be impossible, then it must be eliminated for those particular wave-lengths which are most effectual for the instrument in question (a graphical representation of this error is given in M.
p. 353, containing a fine representation (pl.