How to use Representation in a sentence
The right to representation is spreading around the world.
His preaching to the birds is a favourite representation of St Francis in art.
On Dec. 18 they went so far as to demand national representation of their own at the peace negotiations with Bolshevist Russia at Brest Litovsk.
Graphical representation shows that there are two solutions, and that an equation X2= 9a2 may be taken to be satisfied not only by X=3a but also by X= -3a.
Complex numbers are conveniently treated in connexion not only with the theory of equations but also with analytical trigonometry, which suggests the graphic representation of a+b,l - by a line of length (a 2 +b 2)i drawn in a direction different from that of the line along which real numbers are represented.Advertisement
In 1832 Wendover lost its right of separate representation.
It comprises one-third of the representation in the House of Representatives, and perhaps a still larger proportion in the Senate.
The narratives of miracles are woven into the very texture of this representation.
Y is represented by the length of the ordinate NP, so that the representation is cardinal; but this ordinate really corresponds to the point N, so that the representation of X is ordinal.
Another political problem has been that of representation.Advertisement
In the graphic method of representation the sign - may be taken as denoting a reversal of direction, so that, if + 3 represents a length of 3 units measured in one direction,-3 represents a length of 3 units measured in the other direction.
The word appears in English in the 18th century, and was first applied to the correct representation, in literature and art, of the manners, dress, furniture and general surroundings of the scene represented.
Yet in England the representation of the nude in art meets with no reproach, though considered improper by the Japanese.
In 1909 the proportional representation system was adopted for the election of town councillors.
The prerogative is in modern times exercised by delegation, the Crown acting upon the representation of the secretary of state for the home department in Great Britain, or of the lord lieutenant in Ireland.Advertisement
Representation in the lower house of the legislature was apportioned according to population, but only on condition that no city or town should ever elect more than one-sixth of the total number of members.
The cause of poetry is man's instinct of representation and his love of representations caused by the pleasure of learning.
Parliamentary representation began in 1295 and continued until the Reform Act of 1870.
It is now generally admitted that the representation of Arthur as world conqueror, Welt-Kaiser, is due to the influence of the Charlemagne cycle.
Diagrammatic Representation of the Uterine Cavity opened up from in front.Advertisement
In 1834, in the Tennessee constitutional convention he endeavoured to limit the influence of the slaveholders by basing representation in the state legislature on the white population alone.
Thus the Psalms were necessarily viewed as prophetic; and meantime, in accordance with the common Hebrew representation of ideal things as existing in heaven, the true king remains hidden with God.
Long before this its most famous article of export, the silphium plant, a representation of which was the chief coin-type of Cyrene, had come to an end.
He also fought for the representation by population of the two provinces in parliament, the Act of Union (1841) having granted an equal number of representatives to each.
Representation was granted to the peasants; the two chambers were empowered to initiate legislation; ministers were made responsible for all acts of government; a civil list was given to the king in return for the surrender of the crown lands; and, in short, the new constitution was similar to that of Great Britain.Advertisement
Their share in bringing about the final settlement, which provided for equal representation in one house and proportional representation in the other, was so important that the settlement itself has come to be called the "Connecticut Compromise."
This dramatic representation of the sufferings of Christ is not a survival of a medieval mystery or miracleplay, but took its rise from a vow made by the inhabitants in 1633, with the hope of staying a plague then raging.
The town has never had parliamentary representation.
In 1890 a change in the organization separated the command of the fleet from the office of secretary of state, who was responsible for the representation of the admiralty in the Reichstag, and the emperor was brought into more direct connection with the navy.
In the elections of 1907, indeed, the Social Democratic party, owing to the unparalleled exertion of the government, had a set-back, its representation in parliament sinking to 43; but at the International Socialist Congress, which met at Stuttgart on the 18th of August, Herr Bebel was able to point oui that, in spite of its defeat at the polls, the Socialist cause had actually gained strength in the country, their total poll having increased from 3,010,771.Advertisement
The formation of this substance readily follows from Kekule's formula, while considerable difficulties are met with when one attempts an explanation based on Ladenburg's representation.
The ceilings have the representation of beams and rafters cut in the rock.
Its result, had it passed, would have been to strengthen the representation of the Magyar and German elements, to reduce that of the Slovaks, and almost to destroy that of the Rumans and other non-Magyar races whose educational status was low.
The Monument (1677), Fish Street Hill, City, erected from the designs of Wren in commemoration of the great fire of 1666, is a Doric column surmounted by a gilt representation of a flaming urn.
No representation of the city earlier than the middle of the 16th century has been discovered, although it seems more than probable that some plans must have been produced at an earlier period.'Advertisement
Tamworth sent two members to parliament from 1562 to 1885, when its representation was merged in that of the county.
The theory of conformal representation shows that the motion is given by (b-a'.u -a) +?
Fareham returned two members to the parliament of 1306, but two years later it petitioned against representation on the ground of expense.
He was arrested on the 23rd of September at Ville d'Avray, near Paris, and taken before the Revolutionary Tribunal, where he was accused of having conspired for the restoration of the monarchy, and of having insulted national representation by resigning his position in the legislature.
The famous Teatro Olimpico was begun by him, but only finished after his death; it is a remarkable attempt to construct a theatre in the ancient style, and the stage, with the representation of streets ascending at the back, is curious.Advertisement
In 1632 the residents of Watertown protested against being compelled to pay a tax for the erection of a stockade fort at Cambridge; this was the first protest in America against taxation without representation and led to the establishment of representative government in the colony.
In particular, when disagreement seemed inevitable on the question of representation, he, with Roger Sherman, proposed what is known as the "Connecticut Compromise," by which the Federal legislature was made to consist of two houses, the upper having equal representation from each state, the lower being chosen on the basis of population.
The charter of 1663 and the franchise law of 1724 established substantial equality of representation among the towns, and restricted the suffrage to freeholders.
Dorr (1805-1854), a young lawyer of Providence, began a systematic campaign for an extension of the suffrage, a reapportionment of representation and the establishment of an independent judiciary.
The representation of the university had been pronounced by Canning to be the most coveted prize of public life, and Gladstone himself confessed that he " desired it with an almost passionate fondness."Advertisement
They appear to be connected with Semitic sun-worship, and are assigned by Bent to the same period as the temple at Baalbek, though some antiquarians would place them much earlier; the representation of a castle in a single stone seems to bear some relation to the idea worked out in the monolith churches of Lalibela described byRaffray.
The intolerable meanness advocated for the sake of the paltriest gains, the entire ignoring of any pursuit in life except money-getting, and the representation of the whole duty of man as consisting first in the attainment of a competent fortune, and next, when that fortune has been attained, in spending not more than half of it, are certainly repulsive enough.
The latter received mythical representation in that most interesting god (but originally rather culture-hero) Maui, who, in NewZealand practically supplants Tangaloa, and becomes the god of the air and of the heaven, the creator and the causer of the flood.2 Speculation opened the usual deep problem; whence came the gods?
The conventional representation of the progress of a snake, in which its undulating body is figured as resting by a series of lower bends on the ground whilst the alternate bends are FIG.
The graphical representation of the properties of alloys can be extended so as to record all the changes, thermal and chemical, which the alloy undergoes after, as well as before, solidification, including the formation and breaking up of solid solutions and compounds.Advertisement
The primary question related to the basis of representation upon which they should be restored to their full rank in the political system.
Blaine, on the other hand, contended that representation should be based on population instead of voters, as being fairer to the North, where the ratio of voters varied widely, and he insisted that it should be safeguarded by security for impartial suffrage.
In 1909 the proportional representation system was adopted in the election of town councillors.
Although in prose, they were regarded as poems; in any case they were not intended for stage representation.
The significance of relation (I) is best appreciated by considering the graphic representation of quantities of heat and energy on a work-diagram.
This method of representation is applicable to certain kinds of problems, and has been developed by Macfarlane Gray and other writers in its application to the steam engine.
Separate representation ceased in 1885.
Marlborough returned two members to parliament until 1867 when the number was reduced to one, and in 1885 the representation was merged in that of the county.
At the same time the new acquaintance with Greek art introduces the making of cult statues, in which the identified Greek type is usually adopted without change, with such curious results as the representation of the Penates under the form of the Dioscuri.
The one may regard it as a mere image, picture or representation of the higher being, void in itself of value or power.
As James Otis's vigour and influence declined, Adams took a more and more prominent place in the revolutionary councils; and, contrary to the opinion of Otis and Benjamin Franklin, he declared that colonial representation in parliament was out of the question and advised against any form of compromise.
According to the constitution of 1831 the unit of representation in the legislature was the county; inasmuch as the population of New Castle county has exceeded after 1870 that of both Kent and Sussex, the inequality became a cause of discontent.
This is partly eradicated by the new constitution of 1897, which reapportioned representation according to electoral districts, so that New Castle has seven senators and fifteen representatives, while each of the other counties has seven senators and ten representatives.
Despite this apparent abandonment of their cause by the national organization, the Regulars continued their opposition, the state being wholly without representation in the Senate from the expiration of Senator Kenney's term in 1901 until 1903, when a compromise was effected whereby two Republicans, one of each faction, were chosen, one condition being that Addicks should not be the candidate of the Union Republicans.
In the course, of investigating this special problem great improvements were made in the methods of observing in the deep sea, and also in the representation and discussion of the data obtained, and a powerful stimulus was given to the study of oceanography in all the countries of Europe.
The older amphorae were oval-shaped, such as the vases filled with oil for prizes at the Panathenaic festival, having on one side a figure of Athena, on the other a representation of the contest; the latter were tall and slender, with voluted handles.
In 1793 he supported Grey's motion for a return to the old constitutional system of representation, and so earned the title to be regarded as one of the earliest promoters of the cause of parliamentary reform; and he was one of the founders of the "Society of the Friends of the People."
The central region is a transition ground where these floras find representation generally in deteriorated and dwarfed species.
The imposition of these taxes was bitterly resented in the colonies, where it quickly crystallized public opinion round the principle of " No taxation without representation."
Aberystwyth was a contributory parliamentary borough until 1885, when its representation was merged in that of the county.
A settlement or " plantation " was sometimes incorporated first as a " district " and later as a town, the difference being that the latter had the right of corporate representation in the general court, while the former had no such right.
Parliamentary representation began in 1298, and the town continued to return two members until 1832.
The most noteworthy pieces are a crater richly ornamented with arabesques and figures of children, a platter with a representation of Minerva, another with one of the boy Hercules and another with one of Cybele.
Were their share of representation alone to be governed by this rule, they would have an interest in exaggerating their inhabitants.
Mensuration, then, is mainly concerned with quadratureformulae and cubature formulae, and, to a not very clearly defined extent, with the methods of obtaining such formulae; a quadrature-formula being a formula for calculating the numerical representation of an area, and a cubature-formula being a formula for calculating the numerical representation of a volume, in terms, in each case, of the numerical representations of particular data which determine the area or the volume.
Naturally, however, as the areas represented increased, the more indirect and partial became the representation possible.
Since 1846 both senators and assemblymen have been elected by single districts, and ever since the state government was established they have been apportioned according to population, but the present constitution limits the representation of New York City in the Senate by declaring that no county shall have more than one-third of all the senators nor any two adjoining counties more than one-half of them.
The colonists too, taught by the sickening delay and the ruinous cost of the war to revert to conciliatory methods, had by this time granted the natives special representation in parliament.
The Puget Sound Basin and the neighbouring slopes of the Cascade and Olympic Mountains are noted for their forests, consisting mainly of giant Douglas fir or Oregon pine (Pseudotsuga Douglasii), but containing also some cedar, spruce and hemlock, a smaller representation of a few other species and a dense undergrowth.
We may obtain an excellent representation of the motion of the layers of air in a train of sound waves by means of a device due to Crova and known as " Crova's disk."
Its publication was followed by that of the tradegy Eufemio da Messina, but the representation of the latter was forbidden.
The postal and telegraph systems were also placed under the control of Prussia, and the representation of the Saxon crown at foreign courts was merged in that of the Confederation.
This law had in effect secured the misrepresentation of the mass of the people in the diet, the representation of the country population at the expense of that of the towns, of the interests of agriculture as opposed to those of industry.
In 1907 the government announced their intention of modifying the electoral system in Saxony by the adding of representation for certain professions to that of the three classes of the electorate.
The one in the council chamber upstairs dates from 1527 and gives an allegorical representation of the Virtues and the Vices.
The other, three-quarters of a century later, contains an heraldic representation of the noble families of the town.
The most important of his numerous works are the Wissenschaftslehre, oder Versuch einer neuen Darstellung der Logik, advocating a scientific method in the study of logic (4 vols., Sulzbach, 1837); the Lehrbuch der Religionswissenschaft (4 vols., Sulzbach, 1834), a philosophic representation of all the dogmas of Roman Catholic theology; and Athanasia, oder Gri nde fiir die Unsterblichkeit der Seele (2nd ed., Mainz, 1838).
A constitutional amendment pro viding for minority representation in the House of Representatives was rejected in 1889 by a large popular vote.
In 1799 the islands were given representation in the Bahamas Assembly, and they remained part of that colony until 1848, when on the petition of the inhabitants they were made a separate colony under the supervision of the governor of Jamaica.
By the act of 1885 the county returned eight members in eight divisions, and the representation of Canterbury, Maidstone and Rochester was reduced to one member each.
In 1866 he expressed himself favourable to the making of household suffrage the basis of representation, an expression of opinion which probably influenced the Reform Bill of the following year - in the discussions on which Palmer took a prominent part, and especially in opposition to the so-called "fancy franchises" originally proposed by its authors.
Probably the most ancient zodiacal representation in existence is a fragment of a Chaldaean planisphere in the British Museum, once inscribed with the names of the twelve months and their governing signs.
The Redistribution Act 1885 reduced the representation to one member.
The legislature or Grand Conseil (now composed of loo members) is elected (in the proportion of 1 member for every l000 inhabitants or fraction over 500) for 3 years by a direct popular vote, subject (since 1892) to the principles of proportional representation, while the executive or conseil d'etat (7 members) is elected (no proportional representation) by a popular vote for 3 years.
In 1891 they introduced the "Initiative" into the cantonal constitution, and in 1892 the principle of proportional representation so far as regards the grand conseil, while Th.
His next publications also were on economic or political subjects, Rationale of Political Representation (1835), and Money and its Vicissitudes (1837), now practically forgotton; about the same time also appeared some of his pamphlets, Discussion of Parliamentary Reform, Right of Primogeniture Examined, Defence of Joint-Stock Banks.
The epic, which remained in manuscript till 1850, is a genuine representation of Polish life; no picture so faithful appeared till the Pan Tadeusz of Mickiewicz.
It is said that no representation of any parrot appears in Egyptian art, nor does any reference to a bird of the kind occur in the Bible, whence it has been concluded that neither painters nor writers had any knowledge of it.
Among the mosaics is a colossal representation of the Virgin, 15 ft.
A special study was made of the nebula of Orion, and the resulting large drawing gives an extremely good representation of this complicated object.
In 1908 the General Assembly passed a law providing for annual direct primary elections (outside of Baltimore; and making the Baltimore special primary law applicable to state as well as city officials), but, as regards state officers, making only a slight improvement upon previous conditions inasmuch as the county or district is the unit and the vote of county or district merely " instructs " delegates to the party's state nominating convention, representation in which is not strictly in proportion to population, the rural counties having an advantage over Baltimore; no nomination petition is required.
The system of representation that, with the rapid growth of population in the north-east sections, especially in the city of Baltimore, placed the government in the hands of a decreasing minority also began to be attacked about this time; but the fear of that minority which represented the tobacco-raising and slave-holding counties of south Maryland, with respect to the attitude of the majority toward slavery prevented any changes until 1837, when the opposition awakened by the enthusiasm over internal improvements effected the adoption of amendments which provided for the election of the governor and senators by a direct vote of the people, a slight increase in the representation of the city of Baltimore and the larger counties, and a slight decrease in that of the smaller counties.
The result was the new constitution of 1851, which fully established representation in the counties on the basis of population and further increased that of Baltimore.
The literary differences are, moreover, often accompanied by differences of treatment, or representation of the history, which, where they exist, confirm independently the conclusions of the literary analysis.
Somewhat later than " J," another writer, commonly referred to as " E," from his preference for the name Elohim (" God ") rather than " Jehovah," living apparently in the northern kingdom, wrote down the traditions of the past as they were current in northern Israel, in a style resembling generally that of " J," but not quite as bright and vivid, and marked by small differences of expression and representation.
There is much in his representation of the past which cannot be historical.
Of these, it may be mentioned, there is a vast number, owing in some cases to divergence of spelling in the representation of native names, in others to European discoverers naming islands (sometimes twice or thrice successively) of which the native names subsequently came into use also.
He especially devoted himself to investigations of the radiation of heat from the sun and its absorption by the earth's atmosphere, and to that end devised various delicate methods and instruments, including his electric compensation pyrheliometer, invented in 1893, and apparatus for obtaining a photographic representation of the infra-red spectrum (1895).
Hultsch is more general, and appears to give a more equal representation of all sides than do other authors.
The king of this district was Coxcoxtli, whose name has gained an undeserved reputation even in Europe as " Coxcox, the Mexican Noah," from a scene in the native picture-writing where his name appears together with the figure of a man floating in a dug-out tree, which has been mistaken even by Humboldt for a representation of the Mexican deluge-myth.
A new Congress, having resolved itself into a constituent assembly, followed up this Centralist policy (Dec. 30, 1836) by framing a new constitution, the Siete Leyes or Seven Laws, which converted the states into departments, ruled by governors appointed by the central authority, and considerably reduced popular representation.
The Senate is composed of 24 members, one from each senatorial district, and these districts are formed so as to be approximately equal with respect to the amount of direct taxes paid in each; representation in this body is therefore apportioned on the basis of property.
In the House of Representatives, which has the large membership of 390, representation is on the basis of population, but is so arranged as to favour the rural districts; thus every town or ward of a city having 600 inhabitants is allowed one representative, but, although for every additional representative 1200 additional inhabitants are required, any town having less than 600 inhabitants is allowed a representative for such proportionate part of the time the legislature is in session as the number of its inhabitants bears to 600.
A noteworthy incident of the Concord affair, and characteristic of the attitude which the provincials had maintained and continued to maintain for another year, was the official representation to the king by the Massachusetts people that the regulars were the first to fire upon them, and that they returned the fire and fought through the day in strict defence of their rights and homes as Englishmen.
By the Representation of the People Act of 1867 the representation was reduced to one member, and by the Redistribution Act of 1885 it was disfranchised.
By a statute of 1535 Brecon was made the county town of the new shire of Brecknock, and was granted the right of electing one burgess to represent it in parliament, a right which it retained till it was merged in the county representation in 1885.
In colonies which have parliamentary representation the crown cannot give to a metropolitan bishop jurisdiction or coercive legal authority over suffragan bishops or over any other person.
Similarly, the idea of God is a symbolical representation of the voice of conscience guiding from within.
The middle section of the Appalachians, rather arbitrarily limited by the Hudson and the James rivers, may be described first because it contains the best representation of the three longitudinal belts of which the mountain system as a whole is The Middle composed.
In the Great Plains and farther west the Silurian has little known representation.
Triassic SystemThis system has but limited representation in the eastern part of the United States, being known only east of the Appalachian Mountains in an area which was land throughout most of the Palaeozoic era, hut which was deformed when the eastern mountains were developed at the close of the Palaeozoic. In the troughs formed in its surface during this time of deformation, sediments of great thickness accumulated during the Triassic period.
The Dominion government makes in turn to one of the chief local agricultural exhibition societies a grant of $50,000 for the purposes of the national representation of agriculture and live-stock.
Each province has a lieutenant-governor and a single legislative chamber, with a representation of four members in the Senate and five in the House of Commons of the Dominion parliament.
Finally in 1885 its representation was merged in that of the county.
But this method of representation is a very imperfect one; we may easily impose on ourselves and others by strained and ambiguous renderings.
Shute in his History of the Aristotelian Writings (p. 176), " that we have even got throughout a treatise in the exact words of Aristotle, though we may be pretty clear that we have a fair representation of his thought.
These now took the place of the old heterogeneous areas, governed by their respective sovereigns without reference to any idea of nationality or of national representation.
The mechanical idea, named the parallelogram of velocities, permits a ready and easy graphical representation of these facts.
The fact that the addition of the term introduced by Ritz not only gives a more satisfactory representation of each series, but verifies the above relationship with a much closer degree of approximation, proves that Ritz's equation forms a marked step in the right direction.
If we wish to be more general, while still adhering to Deslandres' law as a correct representation of the frequencies when s is small, we may write n - A (s+ 1 1) 2 - - a Po+Pi(s + c) -F +pr(s+ c)r' where s as before represents the integer numbers and the other quantities involved are constants.
The male representation of the family, being extinct in the royal lines, is claimed by the earls of Galloway and also by the Stewarts of Castlemilk, but the claims of both are more than doubtful.
These incidents led to a representation on the part of the native sovereign to the" governments of Great Britain, France and the United States, and the independence of the islands (recognized by the United States in 1842) was recognized in 1844 by France and Great Britain.
In his later work, La Nouvelle monadologie (1899), he maintains that each monad is a simple substance, endowed with representation, which is consciousness in form, phenomenon in matter as represented.
Lyme returned two members to parliament from 1295 to 1832 when the representation was reduced to one.
This is made clear above all by the representation of a plough drawn by two oxen in one of the very ancient rock-carvings at Tegneby in Bohuslan.
Caesar, moreover, says that the clans or kindreds to whom the lands were allotted changed their abodes also from year to year - a statement which gives a certain amount of colour to Strabo's description of the Germani as quasi-nomadic. Yet there is good reason for believing that this representation of early Teutonic life was by no means universally true.
The time was not ripe for such a scheme, but in 1861 the principle of direct representation was introduced into the committees of review.
Kepler (1571-1630) was led by his study of the planetary motions to reject this method of statement as inadequate, and it is in fact incapable of giving a complete representation of the motions in question.
Minority representation is.
The three commissioners and the three auditors in each county are chosen by the same limited vote process as the supreme-court judges, thus allowing a representation to the minority party.
It increased the number of senators and representatives, created the office of lieutenant-governor, substituted biennial for annual sessions of the legislature, introduced minority representation in the choice of the higher judiciary and of the county commissioners and auditors and provided (as had an amendment adopted in 1850) for the election of all judges by popular vote.
In 2 B.C. Augustus, at the dedication of the temple of Mars Ultor, exhibited a naumachia between Athenians and Persians, in a basin probably in the horti Caesaris, where subsequently Titus gave a representation of a sea-fight between Corinth and Corcyra.
Ancillon had convinced himself that the rigid class distinctions of the Prussian system were the philosophically ideal basis of the state, and that representation "by estates" was the only sound constitutional principle; his last and indeed only act of importance as minister was his collaboration with Metternich in the Vienna Final Act of the 12th of June 1834, the object of which was to rivet this system upon Germany for ever.
This work, containing nothing original, but giving a clear representation of Wolff's philosophy, met with great success, and the author was appointed to the office of preacher at the castle of Tubingen and of reader in the school of theology.
A statue of this god has been found near Gaza; it much resembles the Greek representation of Zeus.
The badge is a green enamel cross with gold clasps in the angles; in the central medallion an enamelled representation of the ruined castle of Zdhringen.
The badge is a red rayed cross with gold rays in the angles, in the centre a representation of the pillars of Hercules; the cross is attached to the yellow and white ribbon by a green laurel wreath.
The league's relation to outlying dependencies is obscure; many of these were probably mere protectorates or "allied states" and secured no representation.
He introduced from the joint committee what became, with changed clause as to the basis of representation, the Fourteenth Amendment, and also the Reconstruction Act of the 6th of February 1867.
In connexion with this controversy Lessing wrote his brilliant little treatise, Wie die Alten den Tod gebildet (1769), contrasting the medieval representation of death as a skeleton with the Greek conception of death as the twin-brother of sleep.
In the Greek Church also the Good Friday fast is excessively strict; as in the Roman Church, the Passion history is read and the cross adored; towards evening a dramatic representation of the entombment takes place, amid open demonstrations of contempt for Judas and the Jews.
The lower part of the altar is composed of Italian marble, with a representation of Christ's sufferings in the garden of Gethsemane; and the organ is considered the finest in Copenhagen.
As the middle ages advanced the procession became more and more popular and increasingly a dramatic representation of the triumphal progress of Christ, the bishop riding on an ass or horse, as in the East.
But it is to be recollected that, according to Hume, an idea is actually a representation or individual picture, not a notion or even a schema, and that he never claims to be able to extract the predicate of a geometrical judgment by analysis of the subject.
The final change in the system of parliamentary elections was made in 1899-1900, when proportional representation was introduced.
Proportional representation aims at the protection of minorities, and its working out is a little intricate, or at all events difficult to describe.
In 1902 there were 1,146,482 voters with 2,007,704 votes, the principles of multiple votes, with, however, a maximum of four votes and proportional representation, being in force for communal as for legislative elections.
Though the population of Belgium was 3,400,000 and that of Holland only a little more than 2,000,000 the two countries had equal representation in the second chamber of the states-general.
The election of 1894 had given the Liberals a much smaller number of seats than they ought to have had according to the number of votes they polled, and a cry arose for the establishment of proportional representation.
The new cabinet at once (August 1899) introduced a bill giving complete proportional representation in parliamentary elections to all the arrondissements.
Although the evidence is not decisive, it seems probable that lions did exist in Greece at the time of Herodotus; and it is quite possible that the representation of a lion-chase incised on a Mycenean dagger may have been taken from life.
On the night of the first representation, which was warmly received, Picard, the manager, threw himself into the arms of his elated friend, exclaiming, "You have saved us!
To avoid dryness and prolixity he condensed quotations, and occasionally employed the Thucydidean method of abridgment or representation in place of fact catalogues.
The borough returned two members to the parliament of 1295 and to other parliaments, until by the Representation Act 1867 it lost one representative, and by the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 separate representation.
A characteristic, though rude, painting, found on the walls of one of the houses gives a representation of this event.
He was, according to the `story (told by Jacqueline herself), restored to favour owing to the good acting and graceful appearance of his daughter Jacqueline in a representation of Scudery's Amour tyrannique before Richelieu.
The main feature of all his measures was the novel and extended use of representation and election for all the purposes of government.
About a year after the representation of Irene, he began to publish a series of short essays on morals, manners and literature.
A member for Fowey and Looe was summoned to a council at Westminster in 1340, but from that date until 1571, when it was entrusted with the privilege of returning two members, it had no parliamentary representation.
The equality of representation, granted at the union, at first unfair to Lower Canada, became still more unfair to Upper Canada, as her population first equalled and then surpassed that of her sister province.
The districts were so arranged as to give the towns a very large representation in proportion to their populafions.
The greatest gainers by the redistribution were the Ruthenes, whose representation was trebled, though it is still far from being proportioned to their numbers.
The Reform Bill was carried with a clause for minority representation, and in the autumn of 1868 Bright, with two Liberal colleagues, was again returned for Birmingham.
The Southern states had greatly enlarged representation in Congress on account of their slaves, and the national government was constitutionally bound to assist in the capture of fugitive slaves, and to suppress every attempt on their part to gain their freedom by force.
Parliamentary representation was conferred upon East Looe in 1571 and upon West Looe in 1553.
The coinage may, of course, give a somewhat one-sided representation of the Parthian kingdom, being specially designed for the commercial class, in which the population of the Greek cities was, we may guess, predominant.
When the stand on which w rests is shaken, a multiplied representation of this movement takes place at h, and any small body resting on that point, as for example a small screw s standing on its head, may be caused to topple over.
The close relation of the two deities appears in a frequent community of altars and sacrifices, and also in the iepos yapos, a dramatic representation of their sacred marriage.
Michaelis says, it renders the race type with astounding keenness, and shows an excellent power of observation in the exact representation of the eyes.
The incidents of this episode were a favorite subject in the sculptures of his temples, where their representation was accompanied by a poetical version of the affair and other explanatory inscriptions.
In the following year Drente at length obtained the privilege, which it had long sought, of being reckoned as an eighth province with representation in the states-general.
The remaining S4 members of the Landsthing are returned for eight years according to a method of proportionate representation by a body of deputy electors.
In this manner a representation is secured for fairly large minorities, and what is considered a fair share of influence on public affairs given to those who contribute the most to the needs of the state.
In 1880 he was under-secretary of state for the home department, in 1881 for the colonies, and in 1882 secretary to the treasury; but he was always a stubborn fighter for principle, and upon finding that the government's Reform Bill in 1884 contained no recognition of the scheme for proportional representation, to which he was deeply committed, he resigned office.
The First Plagues of Egypt.-In this section the analysis again reveals three main sources, which are clearly marked off from one another both by their linguistic features and by their difference of representation.
The language, style and contents of this section point unmistakably to the hand of P; and it is now generally admitted that these chapters form part of an ideal representation of the post-exilic ritual system, which has been transferred to the Mosaic age.
In February 1819 Hobhouse was the Radical candidate at a by-election for the representation of the city of Westminster, but he failed to secure election.
He was an influential member of the constitutional convention of 1787, advocating the counting of all slaves as a basis of representation and opposing the abolition of the slavetrade.
He worked hard also for Proportional Representation.
A synoptical representation of the present state of knowledge would be expressed by a network rather than by a tree.
This twofold representation finds a parallel in the narratives of Samuel, whose history and the conditions reflected therein are analogous to the life and times of Elisha.
These two magnificent folios, though first published in London between 1842 and 1845, give the best pictorial representation of the Alhambra.
This edition, although it was a great undertaking and a work of considerable merit, was a very imperfect representation of the original code.
The simplest ideational image, which has been described as the primary memory-image, is "the peculiarly vivid and definite ideal representation of an object which we can maintain or recall by a suitable effort of attention immediately after perceiving it" (Stout).
In Art the term is used for a representation or likeness of an animate or inanimate object, particularly of the figure of a person in sculpture or painting.
The most general application of the word is to such a representation when used as an object of religious worship or adoration, or as a decorative or architectural ornament in places of religious worship. The worship of images, or idolatry, from the point of view of comparative religion, is treated in the article Image-Worship, and the history of the attitude of the Christian church, outside the post-Reformation church of England, towards the use of images as objects of worship and religion in the article Iconoclasts.
With Cromwell's help he secured parliamentary support, and its usefulness led him to extend parliamentary representation to Wales and Calais, to defend the privileges of Parliament, and to yield rather than forfeit its confidence.
Representation was extended to Wales, Cheshire, Berwick and Calais; and parliamentary authority was enhanced, largely that it might deal with the church, until men began to complain of this new parliamentary infallibility.
In the parliament of Great Britain its representation was fixed at sixteen peers elected in Holyrood Palace by the peers of Scotland at each new parliament in the House of Lords, and at forty-five members in the House of Commons, the counties returning thirty and the burghs fifteen.
By the Reform Act of 1832 the number of Scottish representatives in the Commons was raised to fifty-three, the counties under a slightly altered arrangement returning thirty members as before, and the burghs, reinforced by the erection of various towns into parliamentary burghs, twenty-three; the second Reform Act (1867) increased the number to sixty, the universities obtaining representation by two members, while two additional members were assigned to the counties and three to the burghs; by the Redistribution of Seats Act in 1885 an addition of seven members was made to the representation of the counties and five to that of the burghs, the total representation being raised to seventy-two.
The Virginia plan was opposed by the smaller states, Connecticut, New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland, which demanded equal representation in the legislature.
The term of senators is four years, that of representatives two years; and in the election of representatives since 1870 there has been a provision for "minority" representation, under which by cumulative voting each voter may cast as many votes for one candidate as there are representatives to be chosen, or he may distribute his votes (giving three votes to one candidate, or 12 votes each to two candidates, or one vote each to three candidates), the candidate or candidates receiving the highest number of votes being elected.
Was it not a greater thing to ennoble them than to destroy their artistic representation ?
That picture must inevitably be an incomplete representation of Him; it will need to be supplemented by other pictures which other writers have drawn.
Yet the writer who in a few pages presents us with so remarkable a representation shows no consciousness at all of artistic treatment.
On his own representation at Weimar, he was in February 1805 made a professor extraordinarius, and in July 1806 drew his first and only stipend - Too thalers.
The first treats of space, time, matter, movement; and in the solar system we have the representation of the idea in its general and abstract material form.
In the second or classical form of art the idea of humanity finds an adequate sensuous representation.
A religious epic, DieGeheimnisse, and a tragedy Elpenor, did not, it is true, advance much further than plans; but in 1777, under the influence of the theatrical experiments at the Weimar court, Goethe conceived and in great measure wrote a novel of the theatre, which was to have borne the title Wilhelm Meisters theatralische Sendung; and in 1779 himself took part in a representation before the court at Ettersburg, of his drama I phigenie auf Tauris.
The Redistribution Act 1885 reduced the representation to one.
Both books represent the same general trend of political events, even where the " canonical " representation is most open to criticism.
The only ex-officio additional member is the lieutenant-governor of the province in which the legislative council may happen to meet; nominated members number 35, of whom not more than 28 may be officials; while 25 are elected, directly or indirectly, with special representation for Mahommedans and landholders.
They provided (inter alia) for a non-official majority in all of the provincial councils, but not in that of the governor-general; for an elaborate system of election of members by organized constituencies; for nomination where direct election is not appropriate; and for the separate representation of Mahommedans and other special interests.
Miall saw that if the programme of Nonconformity was to be carried through it must have more effective representation in Parliament.
In the latter year the representation was reduced to one, and was merged in that of the county in 1868.
But, whilst recognizing the existence of local drifts and systems, and admitting the possibility of relative motion between the nearer and more distant, or other classes of stars, it is;only recently that astronomers have seriously doubted the correctness of the hypothesis of random distribution of stellar motions as at least a rough representation of the truth.
To complete our N, representation of the universe, it is therefore necessary ay.
Prince Oscar of Sweden was one of the earliest adherents of cellular imprisonment, and at his urgent representation penitentiary reform was warmly espoused in 1841.
Only after sensation has ceased does an idea, or representation of what is not presented, become necessary as a substitute for a sensation and as a condition not of the first judgment that there is, but of a second judgment that there was, something sensible.
To remember, we must have a present idea; but we must also have a belief that the thing, of which the idea is a representation, was (or was not) determined; and this belief is the memorial judgment.
We are clearly in the field of the diagrams of the text-books, and much of the phraseology is based upon an original graphic representation in extension.
Berkeley, though at length the notions of spirits, acts and relations 6 give him pause, prefers the formula which Hume expresses in the phrase that " some ideas are particular in their nature but general in their representation," 7 and the afterhistory of " abstraction " is a discussion of the conditions under which one idea " stands for " a group. Not from those for whom general ideas mean schematic concepts, not imageable.
It is, however, of the sorts constituted by the representation which his abstraction makes possible that definition is given, either by enumeration of the simple ideas combined in the significance of the sortal name, or " to save the labour of enumerating," and " for quickness and despatch sake," by giving the next wider general name and the proximate difference.
Khmer decoration, profuse but harmonious, consists chiefly in the representation of gods, men and animals, which are displayed on every flat surface.
But he did not attack the question of the representation of products or quotients of directed lines.
Under the Mexican Federal constitution of 1824 Upper California, first alone (it was made distinct province in 1804) and then with Lower California, received representation in the Mexican congress.
The term "a Calvary" is applied to a sculptured representation of the Crucifixion, either inside a church, or adjoining one in the open air.
The kings therefore extended special privileges (fueros) to the inhabitants, and they were even at an early date admitted to representation in the Cortes (parliament).
But most remarkable is the representation of Latin F by FH.
Either two sounds are confused under one symbol, or these records represent a dialect which, like Hebrew and Assyrian, shows sh, z, and c, where the ordinary Aramaic representation is t, d, and t, the Arabic tic, dh, and th.
The people of the District have no voice in its government, have no representation in Congress and do not vote for the president of the United States.
In this year he stood for the representation of Konigsberg in the National Assembly at Frankfort-on-Main, and on his election was immediately appointed secretary, and in the course of the same year became successively its vice-president and president.
This first West, made up of the older small farmers, of the Scottish settlers, of the Germans from the Palatinate and the Scottish-Irish, far outnumbering the people of the old counties, demanded the creation of new counties and proportionate representation in the Burgesses.
The legislature would be all-powerful, and yet representation was so distributed that about one-third of the voters living in the tide-water region would return nearly two-thirds of the members of the legislature.
The result was failure, for the democracy of small farmers which would have taxed slavery out of existence was denied proportionate representation.
In 1850 a third Convention undertook to amend the Constitution, and now that the West yielded its bitter hostility to slavery, representation was so arranged that the more populous section was enabled to control the House while the East still held the Senate; the election of judges was confided to the people; and the suffrage was broadened.
For instance, in the case 01 a beam in equilibrium under any given loads and the reactionf at the supports, we get a graphical representation of the distributior of bending moment over the beam.
In our ideal representation of natural phenomena this is allowed for by endowing each material particle with a suitable mass or inertiacoefficient m.
To obtain the complete solution of (II) we must of course superpose the free vibration (6) with its arbitrary constants in order to obtain a complete representation of the most general motion consequent on arbitrary initial conditions.
Tait that a similar representation of the type (30) is obtained if we replace the circle by an equiangular spiral described, with a constant angular velocity about the pole, in the direction of diminishing radius vector.
The question was first discussed by Euler (1750); the geometrical representation to be given is due to Poinsot (1851).
Method 2.The second method is based upon the vector representation of velocity, and may be illustrated by applying it to the four-bar chain.
In the later Saiva mythology this theory finds its artistic representation in Siva's androgynous form of Ardha-narisa, or "halfwoman-lord," typifying the union of the male and female energies; the male half in this form of the deity occupying the right-hand, and the female the left-hand side.
Naturally, therefore, he did not participate in debate; and he seems to have spoken but once, and then to favour an amendment reducing from 40,000 to 30,000 the minimum population required as a basis of representation in the House.
It was probably to this relation that the burgesses owed the privilege of parliamentary representation, conferred by Edward VI.
Whilst in every other European country except England, the ancient popular representation by estates was about to disappear altogether, in Sweden under Gustavus Adolphus it grew into an integral portion of the constitution.
The latter chamber instead passed a bill for manhood suffrage at elections for the Second Chamber, on the condition that the elections for both chambers should take place on the basis of proportional representation.
By this act proportional representation was established for both chambers, together with universal manhood suffrage at elections for the Second Chamber, a reduction of the qualifications for eligibility for the First Chamber and a reduction of the electoral term of this chamber from nine to six years, and finally payment of members of the First Chamber, who hitherto had not received any such emolument.
The national expenditures are chiefly for the interest and amortization charges on the public debt, official salaries, military expenses in connexion with the army and navy, public works (including railway construction, port improvements, water and sewage works), the administration of the state railways, telegraph lines and post office, church subsidies, public instruction and foreign representation.
In Scotland and Ireland the arrangement of the representation was left to the protector and the council.
The well-known monstrous representation of her, as a figure with many breasts, swathed below the waist in grave-clothes, was probably of late and alien origin.
In general the ceremonial use of lights in the Roman Catholic Church is conceived as a dramatic representation in fire of the life.
The administrator is assisted by an executive committee of four persons elected from among its own members, or otherwise, by the provincial council on the proportional representation principle.
The fundamental points which the delegates had to settle concerned (a) the basis of parliamentary representation, (b) the status of the natives with respect to the franchise, (c) the position of the Dutch language, (d) the form of government.
Points (a) and (b) both concerned the franchise, but each had its separate issue (a) raising the question of representation as it concerned the white population only.
To this the Progressive party would not agree, and they gained support from Botha, Smuts and other prominent Dutch delegates for their contention that " equal rights " could only be secured by making the basis of representation the number of voters as distinct from the number of European inhabitants of any given area.
As finally settled, the number of European male adults was chosen as the basis of representation.
The draft act, with its " one vote one value " principle, its three-membered constituencies and its scheme for proportional representation, threatened Dutch supremacy in the rural districts, and aroused the opposition of Hofmeyr, who secured the passage of amendments through the Cape parliament which destroyed the principle of equal rights.
Through the firmness of the Transvaal delegates, supported by the Progressives, the principle of equal rights was retained; the concession made to the Cape was the abandonment of proportional representation, while one-membered constituencies were substituted for three-membered constituencies.
The earliest representation of the plant is to be found in Gerard's Herbal, published in 1597.
The Reform Acts of 1832 and 1867 reformed the representation in several particulars.
It had a flourishing school of painting in the 4th century, of which the most famous representation was Aristides, who excelled in pathetic subjects.
Thus the manners and personages of the age of Domitian often supply the material of satiric representation, and are spoken of as if they belonged to the actual life of the present,' while allusions even in the earliest show that, as a finished literary composition, it belongs to the age of Trajan.
It shows certainly no diminution of vigour either in its representation or its invective.
The difference between Tacitus and Juvenal in power of representation is that the prose historian is more of an imaginative poet, the satirist more of a realist and a grotesque humorist.
Juvenal can paint great historical pictures in all their detail - as in the famous representation of the fall of Sejanus; he can describe a character elaborately or hit it off with a single stroke.
Cromwell stayed in the town in May 1648, and July 1649, on his way to Pembroke and Ireland respectively, and later showed it exceptional favour by giving it a liberal charter and parliamentary representation.
In 1658 the protector by another charter granted the town independent representation in parliament.
To obtain the support of the wider classes of the population, they determined in 1847 to propose at their session of the following year that the towns should have a more extensive representation at the diet, that the control of the estates over the finances of the country should be made more stringent, and that the Bohemian language should be introduced into all the higher schools of the country.
Mention should be made of Alois Jirdsek, also a distinguished dramatic author; Jacob Arbes, whose Romanetta have great merit; and Vaclav Hladik, whose Evzen Voldan is a very striking representation of the life of modern Prague.
The celebration of the Eucharist is an elaborate symbolical representation of the Passion.
But his documents also gave only very imperfect indications of the occasions of many of the utterances; and the result of his method of procedure has been to give us an exceedingly effective representation of the teaching of Jesus.
In the Eumenides of Aeschylus" the Erinyes are reproached in that by aiding Clytemnestra, who slew her husband, " they are dishonouring and bringing to naught the pledges of Zeus and Hera, the marriage-goddess "; and these were the divinities to whom sacrifice was offered before the wedding," and it may be that some kind of mimetic representation of the " Holy Marriage," the IEpos ydpos, of Zeus and Hera formed a part of the Attic nuptial ceremonies.'
Chapter seals may bear the patron saint, or a representation, more or less conventional, of the cathedral; monastic seals may have figures of the Virgin Mary, or other patron saint, or of the founder, or of abbot or abbess; or the conventual building.
The arrangement of senatorial representation is very unequal; and the densely populated counties are under-represented.
In the latter body, on the 15th of June, one of the New Jersey delegates, William Paterson (1745-1806), presented what was called the " New Jersey plan " of union, representing the wishes of the smaller states, which objected to representation in a national Congress being based on wealth or on population.
The New Jersey plan left its impress in the provision of the Constitution (approved in the Convention on the 7th of July) for equal representation in the national Senate.
The state's own constitution, which had been adopted in 1776 and amended in 1777, retained, like other state constitutions framed during the War of Independence, many features of colonial government ill-adapted to a state increasingly democratic. The basis of representation, each county electing three members to the assembly and one member to the legislative council, soon became antiquated.
The election of the governor was taken from the legislature and given to the people; the powers of government were distributed among legislative, executive and judicial departments; representation in the assembly was based on population; and the property qualification for membership in the legislature and for the suffrage was abolished.
The principle adopted in distributing the representation is that of equal electoral districts, modified in practice by a preference given to the distant and rural constituencies at the cost of the metropolitan electorates.
In 1840 the press was free in every part of Australia, trial by jury had been introduced, and every colony possessed a legislature, although in none of them except New South Wales had the principle of representation been introduced, and in that colony only to a very limited extent.
The ancient division, however, besides being maintained in general speech and usage, forms the basis on which the system of distribution of parliamentary representation now in force was constructed.
The introduction of Pauline features, however, into the representation of Simon Magus is merely incidental.
The patriarch receives confirmation from Rome, and the political representation of the Maronites at Constantinople is in the hands of the vicar apostolic. Rome has incorporated most of the Maronite saints in her calendar, while refusing (despite their apologists) to canonize either of the reputed eponymous founders of Maronism.
Leonardo's "Last Supper," for all its injuries, became from the first, and has ever since remained, for all Christendom the typical representation of the scene.
It received parliamentary representation in 1867, and became a municipal borough in 1886.
In the following year it was resolved that the basis of representation should be neither personal (as in the Anglican Church Congress) nor denominational, but territorial.
Devizes returned two members to parliament from 1295, until deprived of one member by the Representation of the People Act of 1867, and of the other by the Redistribution Act of 1885.
With regard to parliamentary representation, the first original writ which has been discovered was issued in 1290 when two members were returned for the county.
The fine facade built by that king was formerly adorned with a statue of King George, who was represented as holding a sword pointing upward to a representation of the chalice, the emblem of the Hussite Church.
At the head of the army she rode clothed in a coat of mail, armed with an ancient sword, said to be that with which Charles Martel had vanquished the Saracens, the hiding-place of which, under the altar of the parish church of the village of Ste Catherine de Fierbois, the " voices " had revealed to her; she carried a white standard of her own design embroidered with lilies, and having on the one side the image of God seated on the clouds and holding the world in His hand, and on the other a representation of the Annunciation.
Immediately upon this in most printed editions, though older in representation, follows the play which (therein agreeing rather with the author than with his critics) we should rank as his greatest triumph, Rodogune.
The first task of the new government was to introduce (on the 4th of March) an Additional Representation Bill, to rectify - in part - the disparity in electoral power of the rural and urban districts.
The buildings erected by Abdur Rahman were pretentious, but unmarked by any originality in design and hardly worthy representation of the beauty and dignity of Mahommedan architecture.
Provisions were made as to lay representation in the diocesan synods.
Poole returned two members to parliament in 1362 and 1368, and regularly from 1452 to 1867, when the representation was reduced, ceasing in 1885.
Shaftesbury returned two members to parliament from '2 9 4 to 1832, when the representation was reduced to one, and it was lost in 1885.
But as regards the representation of a curve by an equation, the case is very different.
We have thus a means of geometrical representation for the portions, as well imaginary as real, of any real or imaginary curve.
He went further than they did, in holding, like Lord Camden, the doctrine that taxation went with representation, and that therefore parliament had no right to tax the unrepresented colonists.
His defence of Catholic relief - and it had been the conviction of a lifetime - was very properly founded on propositions which were true of Ireland, and were true neither of France nor of the quality of parliamentary representation in England.
A direct tax for the wooden "pallysadoe" about Cambridge led the township of Watertown in 1632 to make the first protest in America against taxation without representation.
The epic reciting his wonderful deed in despatching the monster Tiamat and in establishing law and Order in the world in the place of chaos was recited in his temple at Babylon known as E-Saggila, "the lofty house," and there are some reasons for believing that the recital was accompanied by a dramatical representation of the epic.
It was not represented in parliament until after the passing of the Reform Bill (1832), under which it returned two members until in 1885 the representation was increased to three.
When Nunez in 1885 disregarded the constitution of 1863, which made the component states severally sovereign, he was strongly opposed by the people of Panama, who had no actual representation in the convention which made the constitution of 1886, an instrument allowing Panama (which it made a department and not a state) no local government.
These views were enforced by a startling yet strictly accurate representation of the state of things in the factory districts at that time.
Leucophryne (or Leucophrys), whose worship was brought by emigrants from Magnesia in Thessaly to Magnesia on the Maeander, was a nature goddess, and her representation on coins exactly resembles that of the Ephesian Artemis.
In the inscription on his tomb, prepared by himself, Locke refers to his books as a true representation of what he was.
The former theory recurs elsewhere in Jewish tradition, and may be associated with the representation in Ezra-Nehemiah which connects him with the law.
The latter class of members as well as those for Stuttgart are elected on the principle of proportional representation.
The borough sent two members to parliament in 1295, and so continued to do until the Redistribution of Seats Act of 1885, when the representation was merged in that of the county.
One of the objects of the association was to some extent obtained by their organization of the Prussian Church when Dr Falk was cultus minister, on the basis of parochial and synodal representation, which came into full operation in 1879.
We may conclude the ancient history of the lunar theory by saying that the only real progress from Hipparchus to Newton consisted in the more exact determination of the mean motions of the moon, its perigee and its line of nodes, and in the discovery of three inequalities, the representation of which required geometrical constructions increasing in complexity with every step.
It is curious to find the representation of various animals in relief on the lintels of these buildings.
In 1812, on account of failing health, he exchanged the representation of Yorkshire for that of a constituency which would make less demands on his time, and was returned for Bramber, Sussex.
At one corner of the picturesque square in front of it is a Roman sarcophagus with a representation of the hunt of Meleager, with an inscription in honour of the fair Galiana, to win whom, it is said, a Roman noble laid siege to Viterbo in 1135.
Thus every person becomes a specific and original representation of the universe and a compendium of humanity, a microcosmos in which the world is immediately reflected.
Parliamentary Representation.-The Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 entirely altered the parliamentary representation of Ireland.
In 1786 they were forced to consent to the removal of the seat of government to Columbia (final removal, 1790) and in 1808 to a reapportionment of the representation, based partly on wealth and partly on numbers.
The address (which is extremely important for its representation of the religious conditions) is made the occasion for a solemn covenant whereby the people agree to cleave to Yahweh alone.
Parliamentary representation by two members began in the reign of Edward I., but lapsed, until the corporation charter of 1573, from which date it continued until the Reform Act of 1867.
With a vertex much more distant the desired effect would be impaired, and with one nearer neither of the poles would be seen, whilst the exaggeration of China would have been too gross for a professed representation of the hemisphere.
Voting by head, and the double representation of the third estate (tiers lat); this was the great revolution; voting by order meant the continued domination of privilege, and the lesser revolution.
The federalist insurrection, to avenge the violation of national representation, responded to the Parisian insurrection.
Stamford discontinued representation for some 150 years after the reign of Edward II.; Grantham was enfranchised in 1463 and Boston in 1552.
Since a beam of common light can be resolved into plane polarized streams and these on recomposition give a stream with properties indistinguishable from those of common light, whatever their relative retardation may be, it is natural to assume that an analytical representation of common light can be obtained in which no longitudinal vector occurs.
Cirencester became a parliamentary borough in 1572, returning two members, but was deprived of representation in 1885.
The third estate secured representation in the Cortes of Leon (1188), and then in Castile and the Common Cortes.
The great cities in Castile and Leon succeeded finally in reducing the right of representation to a privilege of eighteen among them, with the good will of the king, who found it easier to coerce or bribe the procurators of eighteen towns than the representatives of a hundred and fifty.
The House of Deputies, composed of 456 members, was elected by the limited franchise system in Spain and by an even more restricted franchise in the colonies, five-sixths of the colonists being deprived of representation.