How to use Replaced in a sentence

replaced
  • Lisa replaced the receiver.

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  • The old stove had been replaced with a large fireplace.

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  • When Natasha left the room Pierre's confusion and awkwardness immediately vanished and were replaced by eager excitement.

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  • All big industries are replaced by better ones.

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  • She replaced the hat to protect her searing scalp.

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  • I felt he was ready to quit and panic replaced my frustration.

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  • The energies of the things in the house were replaced by new energies coming from the ground.

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  • She removed the ear piece and replaced it.

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  • He can be replaced - you can't.

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  • He replaced his weapons and washed his face, feeling very much like this was to be his last day alive.

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  • The leader of the bad guys on earth died and was replaced.

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  • She replaced her weapon and crossed to him, unwilling to show fear.

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  • He brushed stray hairs from her face and replaced his hand on her stomach.

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  • The life died from Two's eyes, and he replaced his hood.

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  • Her calm acceptance faded, replaced by turmoil.

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  • Gabriel replaced the hourglass after several unsuccessful attempts to shake it.

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  • She replaced the legging and perched delicately on the loveseat beside Katie.

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  • He picked her up and replaced her in the trunk, and then locked it.

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  • Jared asked, the confidence in his voice replaced by unease.

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  • All his loquacity was suddenly arrested and replaced by a naive and silent feeling of admiration.

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  • The former slackness which had shown itself even in his eyes was now replaced by an energetic readiness for action and resistance.

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  • The smile was replaced by a surge of color as he jerked the barn door open.

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  • Their innocence replaced with guilt.

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  • It replaced an old wooden one that burned.

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  • A comfortable bed replaced the cot utilized in Peabody and absolute darkness proved more conducive to sleep than the leaked light that often snuck into our old quarters.

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  • Cold fury replaced the regret, and he knew he'd do anything to keep her from danger.

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  • The teenage whininess was gone, replaced by confidence.

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  • Familiar coldness and silence washed over her before the quiet was replaced by the storm's furious bellow.

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  • When the guardsman rose, the arrogance was gone from his face, replaced by anger.

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  • She froze, the warmth of the magic leaving her as fear replaced it.

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  • The sunny glow she was known for was gone, replaced by a sultriness rendered dangerous by the fangs resting on her lower lip.

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  • All conscience effort to think fled and was replaced by a new instinct, the primal need to feed.

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  • The intimate moment was gone, replaced by the tension that always filled the space between them.

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  • He was armed but hadn't yet replaced the trench coat she cost him soon after they met.

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  • Darkyn replaced his shirt.

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  • He wiped his prints and replaced it, wondering if Joseph or Ginger Dawkins was responsible for the gunshot at the mine.

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  • Matters of warrants and probable cause escaped his wife's rationale, replaced by her conscience, which stood firmly in charge.

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  • Alex replaced the receiver and leaned forward in his chair, rubbing his face as if to remove the conversation.

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  • Daniela observed her for a moment then replaced the cup with a glass filled with the alcohol.

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  • Her body ceased shaking, and her confusion faded, replaced by the hum of the bond between them.

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  • Gabe waited a few minutes for the assassin being replaced to appear.

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  • He said nothing, even as the last finger of light faded from the horizon and starlight replaced the sun.

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  • She slid the Oracle's book carefully into a satchel and replaced it inside the altar before placing the hourglass in front of him.

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  • He finished at long last and replaced all his things in his satchel.

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  • The pinch was less today, and the pain gone instantly, replaced by heat and warmth.

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  • She popped one water cube but replaced the sugary cube with some hesitation.

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  • She replaced the sweater and began hunting in earnest.

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  • She removed the translator and replaced it, satisfied at the faint hum indicating it was working once more.

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  • He replaced his sword and strode toward her.

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  • When nothing else happened, she retrieved the dagger and replaced it.

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  • She replaced her translator as he approached.

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  • The winter season precluded the front porch rocking chair conferences of last summer and since the past autumn the group's confabs had been replaced with side-of-the-bed meetings in the Deans' quarters.

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  • When Elisabeth opened the door and he laid eyes on her, all conflicted thoughts were replaced with raw emotion.

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  • It had been replaced with profound.

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  • Venom replaced saliva and his jaw began to ache.

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  • Confusion replaced Jackson's horror.

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  • Alex replaced the pot on the burner and resumed his place at the table.

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  • Did they know winter would soon be replaced by spring?

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  • Gone was the desire, replaced with genuine concern.

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  • Alex replaced the last desk drawer and closed the box of personal items on his desk.

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  • She dragged the unconscious commander to the floor and replaced him in the seat before the energy terminal, assessing the damage done.

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  • Surprise was replaced by anger and concern as he vaulted to his feet, intent on ensuring his men were safe.

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  • He replaced his weapons and pulled on new boots, pausing when the net beeped, indicating someone was trying to contact him.

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  • Imaging of the mountain flashed off and was replaced by a screen full of colors and letters Brady didn't understand.

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  • He gave the coordinates to Dan and replaced the micro in his pocket.

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  • Maybe the man she thought was her Guardian really was dead, replaced by Brady, the man he truly was.

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  • He replaced his weapons around his body.

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  • The beating of the rotators died, replaced by creaking and scraping of metal.

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  • Lana replaced the micro, looking anew at the green cars and their silent occupants.

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  • Slowly, she replaced the micro.

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  • Because Darkyn replaced Gabe and someone else with shapeshifting demons.

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  • He replaced her before Gabriel.

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  • Darkyn did something.  He replaced Gabe and Ully and Hannah with demons.

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  • Magic shot through him, burning like fire.  Kris gasped.  Another blast, and he fell to the ground.  His body roiled with the demon magic, convulsing until the blow faded.  He felt himself hauled up by his neck and thrust onto the ground again.  His vision blurry, Kris could only see Hannah's beautiful blond hair.  Sorrow replaced anger, and he reached out, touching the soft wheat curls.

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  • The convent members who managed the Sanctuary had replaced the wall Rhyn knocked down with a row of brown tents that matched their dresses.  Rhyn eased between two of them, aware of Kiki's fading pulse.  He set his brother down on the ground and looked around wildly, hoping they hadn't sent Katie's Ancient Healer, Lankha, home to the underworld.

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  • He replaced the necklace around his neck and strode back to the fortress, his new home for eternity.

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  • He replaced me in Scranton when I got this promotion here to the head office.

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  • Dean replaced the picture.

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  • When Dean replaced the phone and glanced up, the tall figure of Jonathan Winston was standing next to his desk, smiling down and, as usual, impeccably dressed.

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  • It was a sweet instrumental sound, recorded long before the popular velvet voice replaced Cole's beautiful jazz.

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  • The fury was replaced by an overwhelming sadness.

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  • A soft breeze lifted the perspiration from their hair and replaced it with the scent of honeysuckle.

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  • Carmen replaced the receiver and walked back to the table.

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  • The roof on the old house had been replaced, but the house stood empty and forlorn.

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  • As she replaced the lid, the fire alarm went off.

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  • She replaced the receiver without waiting for his reply.

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  • Alex replaced the receiver and retraced his steps to the lobby.

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  • Even the old chicken coop was empty, replaced by the new one Alex had built out back.

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  • Finally she replaced the receiver.

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  • He replaced the receiver and turned back to her.

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  • She replaced her knife in its sheath and looked around for more bodies.

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  • Duty replaced his fascination with the mortal world.

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  • Jenn shivered involuntarily as a cool breeze replaced his body heat.

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  • As if a switch inside her was flipped, her tense movements disappeared, replaced by the graceful, supple movements of a cat.

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  • All signs of the palace were swept away, replaced by neat lines of apple trees that ran all the way to the beach beyond.

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  • Jenn tucked her knife and gun away and replaced the necklace around her neck with clumsy hands.

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  • With jerky movements, she finished dressing and replaced her weapons.

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  • At once, the cold and dark was replaced by soft light and heat.

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  • His surprise wore off, replaced by cold rage that rose from deep within him.

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  • Sprawled on the ground, Jenn stared at the pillar of roaring magic that replaced the obelisk, as if a cork had been loosened from the core of the immortal world.

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  • The hot midday sun was reminiscent of the immortal world, but the screaming was gone, replaced by silence.

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  • He replaced a stack of breeches into the trunk he pulled them from, only for a small book to fall out.

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  • She pondered the idea numbly until it was replaced with the vision from her dream, the one where Taran killed her.

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  • He set the book down, picked it up, then replaced it.

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  • I killed my cousin when he tried to act against my daughter so long ago and replaced him with a man I trust with all I have.

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  • The vision of her dropping beneath his arrows replaced it, and he clenched his jaw.

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  • The agony was gone, replaced by sudden strength and energy.

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  • And you replaced that.

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  • The phone could have been replaced and she could have swallowed her pride.

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  • She replaced the lid and looked at him.

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  • She replaced the receiver and headed for the door.

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  • Just like that, his anger was gone, replaced by sorrow.

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  • You replaced his mother; it's how he views you.

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  • His shock wore off, replaced by anger.

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  • Ready to hunt down his second dinner for the night, Xander pulled off his sweater and replaced it with a t-shirt.

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  • The scent of pine trees disappeared, replaced by the overpowering smell of cleaning solution.

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  • The assistant left, and Xander replaced him.

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  • Xander replaced the phone, trying to put the bigger picture together of what was going on.

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  • It has been noticed at Woburn Abbey that the antlers are shed and replaced twice a year.

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  • The atomic theory has been of priceless value to chemists, but it has more than once happened in the history of science that a hypothesis, after having been useful in the discovery Present and the co-ordination of knowledge, has been aban- position doned and replaced by one more in harmony with later of the discoveries.

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  • By the action of phosphorus pentachloride, the hydroxyl group is replaced by chlorine.

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  • In 1251 William de Ferrers obtained from the crown a charter for a weekly market and a yearly fair, but gradually this annual fair was replaced by four others chiefly for horses and cattle.

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  • These three adjustments having been made, the prisms P3 and P4 are removed and replaced by another prism in which the silvering is arranged as in fig.

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  • It had to be replaced by new concordats concluded with Wurttemberg in 1857 and the grand-duchy of Baden in 1859; but these conventions, not having been ratified by those countries, never came into force.

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  • The numerous concordats concluded towards the middle of the 19th century with several of the South American republics either have not come into force or have been denounced and replaced by a more or less pacific modus vivendi.

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  • As to long-haired cats, there appear originally to have been two closely-allied strains, the Angora and the Persian, of which the former has been altogether replaced in western Europe by the latter.

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  • The redaction of the whole work is due to Alexandre de Bernai, who replaced the original assonance by rhyme.

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  • The difference of a minor third, or, as we shall see later, a whole tone, had replaced the earlier fourth.

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  • The infinitive is not found; as in Greek, Rumanian and Bulgarian, it is replaced by the subjunctive with a particle.

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  • In 1582 Valladolid replaced Patzcuara as the capital of Michoacan.

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  • A wooden mosque was erected near the site of the Temple, which was replaced by the Mosque of Aksa, built by the amir Abdalmalik (Abd el Malek), who also constructed the Dome of the Rock, known as the Mosque of Omar, in 688.

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  • The earliest inhabitants of Lauenburg were a Slav tribe, the Polabes, who were gradually replaced by colonists from Saxony.

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  • When heated with concentrated hydrochloric acid the amino group is replaced by the hydroxyl group and the phenolic eurhodols are produced.

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  • The faces of the cube are striated parallel to one diagonal, and alternate corners are sometimes replaced by faces of a tetrahedron.

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  • The two first of these three are handsome suspension bridges; the third, an iron structure, replaced a wooden bridge of many arches which was closed in 1881, after standing a little over a century.

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  • In May 1793 he was temporarily replaced as commander of the National Guard in Paris, so that he might take command of a force which he had organized to operate in La Vendee.

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  • There is no doubt that under average conditions of atmospheric density, the .005 should be replaced by 003, for many independent authorities using different methods have found values very close to this last figure.

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  • The earliest recorded count of Dammartin was a certain Hugh, who made himself master of the town in the 10th century; but his dynasty was replaced by another family in the 11th century.

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  • In some species (Ascaris decipiens) the giant cell is replaced by an irregular mass of protoplasm containing a number of small nuclei.

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  • Geologically considered, the country may be divided into three regions - a central, and the largest, comprising the whole width of the Aravalli system, formed of very old sub-metamorphic and gneissic rocks; an eastern region, with sharply defined boundary, along which the most ancient formations are abruptly replaced by the great basin of the Vindhyan strata, or are overlaid by the still more extensive spread of the Deccan trap, forming the plateau of Malwa; and a western region, of very ill-defined margin, in which, besides some rocks of undetermined age, it is more or less known or suspected that Tertiary and Secondary strata stretch across from Sind, beneath the sands of the desert, towards the flanks of the Aravallis.

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  • Each of the subscribers controls a signal at A, and when either or both of the telephones are replaced, the action is indicated by the lamps there.

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  • Old types of vessels have been sold or demolished, and replaced by newer types.

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  • In France, where the Uon of Government of National Defence had replaced the Rome.

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  • The long-promised abolition of the grist tax was not explicitly mentioned, opposition to the railway redemption contracts was transformed into approval, and the vaunted reduction of taxation replaced by lip-service to the Conservative deity of financial equilibrium.

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  • Depretis recalled Nigra from Paris and replaced him by General Cialdini, whose ardent plea for Italian intervention in favor of France in 1870, and whose comradeship with Marshal Macmahon in 1859, would, it was supposed, render him persona gratissima to the French government.

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  • In the colony itself General Baldissera, who had replaced General Saletta, delayed the movement against Mangash desired by Menelek.

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  • Ceratella stands in much the same relation to the Stylasteridae that Hydractinia does to the Milleporidae, in both cases the chitinous perisarc being replaced by the solid coenosteum to which the hydrocorallines owe the second half of their name.

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  • The planula develops, on the whole, in a similar manner, but the ectodermal invagination arises, not at the pole of the planula, but on the side of its broader portion, and gives rise, not to a pneumatophore, but to a nectocalyx, the primary swimming bell or protocodon (" Fallschirm ") which is later thrown off and replaced by secondary swimming bells, metacodons, budded from the coenosarc.

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  • As a bundle is traced towards its blind termination in the mesophyll the peridesmic stereom first disappears, the sieve-tubes of the phloem are replaced by narrow elongated parenchyma cells, which soon die out, and the bundle ends with a strand of tracheids covered by the phloeotermic sheath.

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  • The passage of the maximum turgidity round the stem may vary in rapidity in different places, causing the circle to be replaced by an ellipse.

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  • The principal symptom may show itself in general pallor, including all cases where the normal healthy green hue is replaced by a sickly yellowish hue indicating that the chlorophyll apparatus is deficient.

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  • It has not yet been suggested that they should be replaced by organographical terms; were this accomplished, descriptive botany would become impossible.

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  • It was replaced by the Glossopteris flora which is assumed to have originated in a vast continental area (Gondwana land), of which remnants remain in South America, South Africa and Australia.

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  • Both were in turn replaced by the Lower Mesozoic flora, which again is thought to have had its birth in the hypothetical Gondwana land, and in which Gymnosperms played the leading part formerly taken by vascular Cryptogams. The abundance of Cycadean plants is one of its most striking features.

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  • Screw pines are replaced by the nearly allied Cyclanthaceae.

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  • This is the most northern representative of the Rutaceous Diosmeae, which are replaced in Australia by the Boronieae.

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  • The hydrogen of the hydroxyl group in phenol can be replaced by metals, by alkyl groups and by acid radicals.

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  • The meta-nitrocompound, which is precipitated last, is then reduced, and the amino group so formed is replaced by the hydroxyl group by means of the Sandmeyer reaction.

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  • In 1905 he replaced the duc d'Audiffret-Pasquier as senator for the department of Marne, and in May 1906 became minister of foreign affairs in the Sarrien cabinet.

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  • The corporation was replaced by two constables chosen annually in the court leet of the manor until 1894, when an urban district council was appointed.

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  • To him are ascribed also the original Parthenon on the Acropolis, afterwards burned by the Persians, and replaced by the Parthenon of Pericles.

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  • In these circumstances, the traditional authority of the grand-prince, never very great, rapidly declined, and the complicated law of succession, never scrupulously respected, was gradually replaced by " the good old rule, the simple plan, that he should take who has the power, and he should keep who can."

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  • For this unfriendly act he was deposed and replaced by Biren, who had previously been duke of Courland (1737-40) and had since been an exile in Siberia and Yarosla y.

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  • The liberty of the press not unfrequently degenerated into licence, and sane liberalism was often replaced by socialistic dreaming.

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  • In these circumstances sanguine enthusiasm naturally gave way to despondency, and the reforming zeal of the government was replaced by tendencies of a decidedly reactionary kind.

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  • They were accordingly replaced in great measure by the old autocratic methods of administration, and much of the administrative corruption which had been cured, or at least repressed, by the reform enthusiasm again flourished luxuriantly.

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  • Neo-Slav dreams were now replaced by a passionate desire to consolidate the Russian empire on a purely Russian basis.

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  • The fishbellied rails, however, were found to break near the chairs, and from 1834 they began to be replaced with parallel rails weighing 50 lb to the yard.

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  • In many instances old level crossings have been replaced by over-bridges with long sloping approaches; in this way considerable expenditure has been involved, justified, however, by the removal of a danger to the public and of interruptions to the traffic on both the roads and the railways.

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  • It has been held that animal sacrifice is the primitive form and that the decay of totemism or lack of domestic animals has brought about the substitution of a human victim; but it has also been urged that in many cases animal victims are treated like human beings and must consequently have replaced them, that human beings are smeared with the blood of sacrifice, and must therefore have themselves been sacrificed before a milder regime allowed an animal to replace them.

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  • All these have greatly declined in numbers, being profitably replaced by sheep. Land-birds are few in kind, and are mostly strays from South America.

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  • Excluding some varieties of domestic dogs, wolves are the largest members of the genus, and have a wide geographical range, extending over nearly the whole of Europe and Asia, and North America from Greenland to Mexico, but are not found in South America or Africa, where they are replaced by other members of the family.

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  • On the other hand, criticism has given a deeper meaning to the Old Testament history, and has brought into relief the central truths which really are vital; it may be said to have replaced a divine account of man by man's account of the divine.

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  • It is replaced by Chronicles, which, confining itself to Judaean history from a later standpoint (after the Persian age), includes new characteristic traditions wherein some recollection of more recent events may be recognized.

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  • Public order is maintained by a force of gendarmerie (xcopoc19vXaKii) organized and at first commanded by Italian officers, who were replaced by Greek officers in December 1906.

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  • The tithe had been replaced by an export tax on exported agricultural produce levied at the custom-houses, and the smaller peasant proprietors and shepherds of the mountainous districts were practically exempt from any contribution to the state.

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  • In 1840 Crete was again taken from Mehemet Ali, and replaced under the dominion of the Turks, but fortunately Mustafa still retained his governorship until he left for Constantinople to become grand vizier in 1852.

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  • The town was formerly surrounded by massive ancient walls, but these have now been for the most part replaced by boulevards; many of its streets are narrow and irregular.

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  • Both in Europe and in Asia small feudal or aristocratic states tended to consolidate themselves into monarchies, but whereas in Europe from the early days of Rome onwards royalty has often been driven out and replaced temporarily or permanently by popular government, this change seems not to occur in Asia, where revolution means only a change of dynasty.

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  • Laurent, to protect himself from the consequences of the substitution, replaced the wooden figure by a deaf mute, who was presently exchanged for the scrofulous child of the death certificate.

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  • The Saxon fort of Alaric was replaced by a Norman castle built by William de Mohun, first lord of Dunster, who founded the priory of St George.

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  • These in their turn migrated to other settlements and were replaced, about the end of the 5th century of our era, by Slavonic tribes, the Wilzi and the Pomerani.

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  • If the genital funnels are not wholly or partly formed out of the nephridial funnels they have replaced them.

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  • Here also the genital funnels have either replaced or been formed out of nephridial funnels.

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  • Here again the nephridial funnel seems to have been converted into or certainly replaced by a secondarily developed funnel.

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  • It is not quite certain whether these are to be regarded as the remnant of an earlier excretory system, replaced among the Oligochaeta by the subsequently developed paired structures, or whether these "head kidneys" are the first pair of nephridia precociously developed.

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  • The author, Ulrich von Zatzikhoven, tells us that he translated his poem from a French (welsches) book in the possession of Hugo de Morville, one of the English hostages, who, in 1194, replaced Richard Coeur de Lion in the prison of Leopold of Austria.

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  • Some other glycerides isolated from natural sources are analogous in composition to tristearin, but with this difference, that the three radicals which replace hydrogen in glycerin are not all identical; thus kephalin, myelin and lecithin are glycerides in which two hydrogens are replaced by fatty acid radicals, and the third by a complex phosphoric acid derivative.

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  • This was replaced by several castles in succession, of which one - Castle Dounie - was taken by Cromwell and burned by the duke of Cumberland in 1746, the conflagration being witnessed from a neighbouring hill by Simon, Lord Lovat, before his capture on Loch Morar.

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  • Empiricism, hitherto the only guide, if indeed a guide at all, was replaced by exact scientific knowledge; the connexion of each phenomenon with a controllable cause was established, and rule-of-thumb and quackery banished for ever by the free gift to the world of the results of his researches.

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  • The remains of castles are few; the ancient Bolsover Castle is replaced by a castellated mansion of the 17th century; of the Norman Peak Castle near Castleton little is left; of Codnor Castle in the Erewash valley there are picturesque ruins of the 13th century.

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  • If the village is replaced by a large area, inhabited by millions, with modern facilities of communication, it is a matter of observation and experience that for the purposes of general reasoning the idiosyncrasies of individuals may be neglected.

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  • Taking advantage of an outbreak at Genoa, he overthrew that ancient oligarchy, replaced it by a form of government modelled on that of France (June 6th); and subsequently it adopted the name of the Ligurian Republic.

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  • The elective councils for the department and for the arrondissement (a new area which replaced the "districts" of the year 1795) continued to exist, but they sat only for a fortnight in the year and had to deal mainly with the assessment of taxes for their respective areas.

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  • It was performed by Fesch, now a cardinal; but Napoleon could afterwards urge the claim that all the legal formalities had not bten complied with; and the motive for the marriage may probably be found in the refusal of the pope to appear at the coronation unless the former civil contract was replaced by the religious rite.

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  • The Aegean remains have become astonishingly uniform over the whole area; the local ceramic developments have almost ceased and been replaced by ware of one general type both of fabric and decoration.

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  • The constitution of Wareham underwent a change during the years 1326-1338, when the governing body of the bailiffs and commonalty were replaced by the mayor and bailiffs.

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  • The true oryx of classical writers was probably the East and North-east African beisa-oryx (Oryx beisa), which is replaced in South Africa by the gemsbuck (oryx gazella).

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  • It contains 1300 great pearls, 400 garnets, 90 amethysts, 300 sapphires, 300 emeralds, 15 rubies, 75 balas rubies, 4 topazes, 2 cameos; the gems, except where they have been replaced, are cut en cabochon.

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  • In 1479 a fire consumed the earlier buildings along the Rio, and these were replaced (1480-1550) by the present Renaissance structure.

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  • In a few other cases, for example at San Giorgio Maggiore, the fallen campanili were restored; but for the most part they were not replaced.

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  • The familiar, who is sometimes replaced by the devil, commonly figured in witchcraft trials; and a statute of James I.

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  • Less specialized in their functions are many of the figures of modern folklore, some of whom have perhaps replaced some ancient goddess, e.g.

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  • The bridge of chief artistic merit is the Cambridge Bridge (1908), which replaced the old West Boston Bridge, and is one feature of improvements long projected for the beautifying of the Charles river basin.

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  • There was a public municipal library in Boston before 1674 - probably in 1653; but it was burned in 1747 and was apparently never replaced.

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  • At the same time questions of trade, of local politics, finally of colonial autonomy, of imperial policy, had gradually, but already long since, replaced theology in leading interest.

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  • In later wells the conductor has been replaced with an 8-in.

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  • These at first consisted of an ordinary truck on which were placed two wooden tub-like tanks, each holding about 2000 gallons; they were replaced in 1871 by the modern type of tank-car, constructed with a horizontal cylindrical tank of boiler plate.

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  • This in itself was a serious matter; according to the assizes, the barons maintained, the king must either personally reside in the kingdom, or, in the event of his absence, be replaced by a regency.

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  • This last occurrence ended his title of second consul; it was replaced by that of arch-chancellor of the Empire.

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  • There are several bridges over the river, the old wooden bridge having been replaced in 1905 by one built of stone.

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  • The peace policy had failed, and nothing else replaced it.

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  • At the moment of marching out to meet the enemy, Johnston was relieved of his command and was replaced by Gen.

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  • They were removed from the list of judices by Caesar, but replaced by Augustus.

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  • An acid (q.v.) is a compound of hydrogen, which element can be replaced by metals, the hydrogen being liberated, giving substances named salts.

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  • A base may be regarded as water in which part of the hydrogen is replaced by a metal, or by a radical which behaves as a metal.

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  • An acid salt is one in which the whole amount of hydrogen has not been replaced by metal; a normal salt is one in which all the hydrogen has been replaced; and a basic salt is one in which part of the acid of the normal salt has been replaced by oxygen.

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  • Generally if any group be replaced by another group, then the second group enters the nucleus in the position occupied by the displaced group; this means that if we can definitely orientate three di-derivatives of benzene, then any other compound, which can be obtained from or converted into one of our typical derivatives, may be definitely orientated.

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  • Similarly a CH group may be replaced by a nitrogen atom with the production of compounds of similar stability; thus benzene gives pyridine, naphthalene gives quinoline and isoquinoline; anthracene gives acridine and a and 3 anthrapyridines.

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  • Similarly, two or more methine groups may be replaced by the same number of nitrogen atoms with the formation of rings of considerable stability.

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  • After having previously roasted the tube and copper oxide, and reduced the copper spiral a, the weighed calcium chloride tube and potash bulbs are put in position, the boat containing the substance is inserted (in the case of a difficultly combustible substance it is desirable to mix it with cupric oxide or lead chromate), the copper spiral (d) replaced, and the air and oxygen supply connected up. The apparatus is then tested for leaks.

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  • Having replaced the oxygen in the absorption vessels by air, they are disconnected and weighed, after having cooled down to the temperature of the room.

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  • He suggests that the term " quinone " theory be abandoned, and replaced by the Umlagerungs theory, since this term implies some intermolecular rearrangement, and does not connote simply benzenoid compounds as does " quinonoid."

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  • Hence S may be replaced by (Mv) 3.

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  • To reduce these figures to a common standard, so that the volumes shall contain equal numbers of molecules, the notion of molecular volumes is introduced, the arbitrary values of the crystallographic axes (a, b, c) being replaced by the topic parameters' (x, ?i, w), which are such that, combined with the axial angles, they enclose volumes which contain equal numbers of molecules.

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  • If, on the other hand, the sulphur system be replaced by a corresponding selenium system, an element of higher atomic weight, it would be expected that a slight increase would be observed in the vertical parameter, and a greater increase recorded equally in the horizontal parameters.

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  • It has to some extent the character of a secondary amine; the hydrogen of the imino group can be replaced by potassium.

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  • The chlorine atom in this compound is replaced by the cyano-group, which is then reduced to the CH 2 NH 2.

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  • Salicylic acid is now never given internally, being replaced by its sodium salt, which is much cheaper, more soluble and less irritating to mucous membranes.

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  • These strains seem to be now extinct, having been replaced by foxhounds, a large variety of which is employed in stag-hunting.

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  • The 17th-century spire was removed in 1707, and replaced by a square tower, which was rebuilt in 1797; the chancel was rebuilt in 1869.

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  • The buffalo is replaced by the mountain buffaloes, of which a few survive.

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  • As soon as the march of conquest had reached its natural limit, slavery began to be modified; and when the empire was divided into the several states which had grown up under it, and the system of defence characteristic of the middle ages was substituted for the aggressive system of antiquity, slavery gradually disappeared, and was replaced by serfdom.

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  • Whilst the fathers agree with the Stoics of the 2nd century in representing slavery as an indifferent circumstance in the eye of religion and morality, the contempt for the class which the Stoics too often exhibited is in them replaced by a genuine sympathy.

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  • The Spanish slave code, promulgated in 1789, is admitted on all hands to have been very humane in its character; and, in consequence of this, after Trinidad had become an English possession, the anti-slavery party resisted - and success fully - the attempt of the planters (1811) to have the Spanish law in that island replaced by the British.

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  • It had been found by experience that the charta Augusta was, from its fineness and porous nature, ill suited for literary use; it was accordingly reserved for correspondence only, and for other purposes was replaced by the new paper.

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  • Spanish law and Spanish tongue replaced the French officially, but the colony remained essentially French.

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  • The old Illyrian population was rapidly absorbed or expelled, its Latin institutions being replaced by the autonomous tribal divisions, or Zupanates, of the Slays.

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  • Now and then it has been dealt with piecemeal, when some particular class of creditors has become too pressing, but it is more than probable that the piece got rid of has been more or less rapidly replaced by fresh liabilities occasioned by budgetary deficits, or by the mere accumulation of interest on debts allowed to run on.

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  • Series B, C and D (series A having already been completely redeemed by the action of the sinking fund) were replaced by the creation of new 4% bonds to a nominal amount of £T32,738,772, with a sinking fund of 0.45% per annum, bearing identical rights and privileges, and ranking immediately after, the priority bonds.

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  • In the last twelve years of the 19th century the altilik currency was almost entirely withdrawn, and replaced by fractional mejidie; a large proportion of the beshlik has also been withdrawn, but the metallik has not been touched.

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  • At that time a number of principalities had replaced the Seljukian state.

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  • Bayezid consented; later on John Palaeologus offered an equivalent sum and, since he engaged to furnish an auxiliary force of 12,000 men into the bargain, Bayezid replaced him on the throne.

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  • For a few months Mustafa was replaced on the throne; when he abdicated in L, favour of his nephew Murad IV.

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  • Russia and England hereupon used threatening language, and Turkey replaced the hospodars.

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  • Jerome was replaced by Davout, and the army resumed its march, this time in the hope of surrounding and overwhelming Barclay, whilst Davout dealt with Bagration.

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  • The ancient church of St Edward the Confessor was replaced in 1850 by a structure in Decorated style.

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  • The great sessions for the county were during their whole existence from 1542 to 1830 held at Cardiff, but the assizes (which replaced them) have since then been held at Swansea and Cardiff alternately, as also are the quarter sessions for Glamorgan.

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  • An important nucleo-proteid is haemoglobulin or haemoglobin, the colouring matter of the red blood corpuscles of vertebrates; a related substance, haemocyanin, in which the iron of haemoglobin is replaced by copper, occurs in the blood of cephalopods and crayfish.

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  • The Romans took it from the Celts, and replaced their fort by a regular Roman castrum, placing in it a strong garrison.

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  • In Africa it seems probable that the production of rubber from vines is likely to be entirely superseded in process of time, and replaced by the plantations of trees which are already being established in those districts in which careful experiment has determined the kind of rubber tree best adapted to the locality.

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  • Care must be taken not to expose goods in the plating-bath to too high a current density, else they may be "burnt"; they must never be exposed one at a time to the full anode surface, with the current flowing in an empty bath, but either one piece at a time should be replaced, or some of the anodes should be transferred temporarily to the place of the cathodes, in order to distribute the current over a sufficient cathode-area.

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  • Roscoelite is a mica in which the aluminium is largely replaced by vanadium (V203, 30%); it occurs as brownish-green scaly aggregates, intimately associated with gold in California, Colorado and Western Australia.

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  • Clarke (1889-1893) supposes them to be substitution derivatives of normal aluminium orthosilicate A14(S104)3, in which part of the aluminium is replaced by alkalis, magnesium, iron and the univalent groups (MgF), (A1F2),(AlO), (MgOH); an excess of silica is explained by the isomorphous replacement of H 4 SiO 4 by the acid H4S130s.

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  • If we have a symbolic product, which contains the symbol a only in determinant factors such as (ab), we may write x 2, -x 1 for a 1, a 2, and thus obtain a product in which (ab) is replaced by b x, (ac) by c x and so on.

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  • In the more recent form of the hearth process the blocks of cast iron forming the sides and back of the Scottish furnace are now generally replaced in the United States by water-cooled shells (waterjackets) of cast iron.

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  • The original Pattinson process has been in many cases replaced by the LuceRozan process (1870), which does away with arduous labour and attains a more satisfactory crystallization.

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  • This can be more easily shown if the compass is replaced by a magnetized knitting needle, supported horizontally by a thread.

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  • But the union did not last long; shortly afterwards the majority ranged themselves on the side of Julius Caesar, who did away with the tribuni aerarii as judices, and replaced them by equites.

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  • They were subsequently replaced by the protectores Augusti.

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  • In specialized forms these pulmonary sacs are wholly or partly replaced by tracheal tubes.

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  • The posterior pulmonary sacs (except in Hypochilus) replaced by tracheal tubes; the anterior and posterior pairs replaced by tracheal tubes in the Caponiidae.

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  • In the spring of 1811, the duc de Bassano replaced Champagny, duc de Cadore, as minister of Foreign Affairs.

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  • But in November 1813 Napoleon replaced him by Caulaincourt, duc de Vicence, who was thought to be more devoted to the cause of peace and personally grateful to the emperor Alexander I.

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  • The old outworks have been partly demolished and replaced by modern forts, while suburbs have grown up round the inner walls and bastions.

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  • In 1834 a reform which was well received consisted in the alteration of the regency, from that of three members elected by the legislative chambers, to one regent chosen by the whole of the electors in the same manner as the deputies; and the councils of the provinces were replaced by legislative provincial assemblies.

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  • Begun about 1880, this propaganda took deep root in the educated classes, creating a desire for change and culminating in the military conspiracy of November 1889, by which monarchy was replaced by a republican form of government.

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  • It lies at the foot of Birnam Hill (1324 ft.), once covered with a royal forest that has been partly replaced by plantations.

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  • Beyond this is an irregular group of buildings, which were replaced at a later date by additions more in accordance with a royal residence.

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  • At the close of the 16th century these were replaced by races with mounted buffaloes, and since 1650 by (ridden) horses.

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  • The twelve who replaced the council of nine (as these had previously replaced the council of the nobles) consisted - both as individuals and as a party - of ignorant, incapable, turbulent men, who could neither rule the state with firmness nor confer prosperity on the republic. They speedily broke with the nobles, for whose manoeuvres they had at first been useful tools, and then split into two factions, one siding with the Tolomei, the other, the more restless and violent, with the Salimbeni and the noveschi (partisans of the nine), who, having still some influence in the city, probably fomented these dissensions, and, as we shall see later on, skilfully availed themselves of every chance likely to restore them to power.

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  • Then, however, moved by fear of the emperor, who had passed through Siena two months before on his way to Rome, and who was about to halt there on his return, it tried to conciliate its foes by creating a fresh council of 150 riformatori, who replaced the twelve defenders by a new supreme magistracy of fifteen, consisting of eight popolani, four dodicini, and three noveschi, entitled respectively "people of the greater number," "people of the middle number," and "people of the less number."

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  • The fifteen were replaced by a new supreme magistracy of ten priors, chosen in the following proportions - four of the twelve, four of the nine, and two of the people proper, or people of the greater number, but to the exclusion of all who had shared in the government or sat in council under the riformatori.

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  • Dividing the power between their two orders of the nine and the people, they excluded the riformatori and replaced them by a new and heterogeneous order styled the aggregati, composed of nobles, exiles of 1456 and citizens of other orders who had never before been in office.

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  • The government was now reconstituted under the protection of the French agents; the balia was abolished, its very name having been rendered odious by the tyranny of Spain, and was replaced by a similar magistracy styled capitani del popolo e reggimento.

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  • Prior to 1899 the jurisdiction of the port was in the hands of a marine board, three members of which were elected by the shipping interest, and the remaining four nominated by the government, but in that year the board was replaced by a single official, known as the superintendent of the department of navigation and responsible to the colonial secretary.

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  • The hydrogen in the primary and secondary nitro compounds which is attached to the same carbon atom as the nitro group is readily replaced by bromine in alkaline solution.

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  • This is a definition of x 3; the sign = is in such cases usually replaced by =.

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  • A continued product of this kind can, by taking logarithms, be replaced by an infinite series.

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  • In 1867 he was expelled by Abdur Rahman and replaced by Mir Mahommed Shah, and other representatives of the same family.

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  • The Serbo-Croat coalition, formed on the basis of the Fiume Resolution, at once acquired the mastery in Croatia, and even when its short-lived alliance with the Hungarian coalition - in power in Hungary since April 1906 - was replaced by acute conflict in the summer of 1907, no amount of repression from Budapest could destroy its solid majority in the Croatian diet.

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  • On Dec. 27 1912 Cuvaj was replaced by a colourless official, Dr. Unkelhausser, who marked time until a fresh candidate for the post of commissary or dictator was forthcoming in the person of Baron Skerlecz (July 23 1913).

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  • Protic was replaced by Davidovic, the Democrat leader, and though the Government remained a coalition, its weight was transferred farther to the Left.

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  • In the 3rd century Bronwen (white bosom), daughter of Bran Fendigaid (the blessed), is said to have stayed here, perhaps by force; and there was here a tower, called Twr Bronwen, and replaced about A.D.

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  • The west end appears to have been damaged in Roman times and to have been replaced by the attached columns with The Paadroaeion ' 'Erechtheum -e Ma?ple windows between them which appear in old drawings and are still partially extant.

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  • Lord Elgin carried off to London, about 1801-1803, one of the columns of the east portico and one of the caryatides; these were replaced later by terra-cotta casts.

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  • In Europe, Australasia and one large works at Singapore it has been practically replaced by the reverberatory furnace process, first introduced into Cornwall about the year 1700.

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  • In Palestine and western Syria, the home of pre-Christian Aramaic dialects, the vernacular Semitic speech had under Roman dominion been replaced by Greek for official and literary purposes.

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  • Crum was probably the first to recognize that some hydrogen atoms of the cellulose had been replaced by an oxide of nitrogen, and this view was supported more or less by other workers, especially Hadow, who appears to have distinctly recognized that at least three compounds were present, the most violently explosive of which constituted the main bulk of the product commonly obtained and known as guncotton.

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  • These denominations are still in use except the silver 20-centimos piece, which was replaced by one of 25 centimos in 1891.

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  • By the Municipal Corporations Act of 1835 a mayor, aldermen and a council replaced the capital burgesses, the older governing body.

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  • In December 1877 he replaced Nicotera as minister of the interior in the Depretis cabinet, his short term of office (70 days) being signalized by a series of important events.

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  • If the demand be for the red cells owing to loss from haemorrhage or any of the anaemias, the fatty marrow is rapidly replaced by cellular elements; this is mainly an active proliferation of the nucleated red cells, and gives rise to the erythroblastic type of marrow.

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  • The term hypertrophy is used when the individual tissue elements become bigger to meet the demands of greater functional activity; hyperplasia, if there is an increase in the number of these elements; and pseudo-hypertrophy, when the specific tissue element is largely replaced by another tissue.

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  • This strip is rapidly replaced, mainly by the connective tissue cells of the adjoining tissue growing across the temporary filled breach and firmly uniting the two cut surfaces.

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  • The potash and soda is then gradually replaced by calcium to.

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  • These are pressed upon and become atrophied, and may ultimately be replaced by adipose tissue.

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  • The younger Dionysius had been allowed to retire to Corinth; his island fortress was destroyed and replaced by a court of justice.

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  • This made her influential enemies, who soon afterwards replaced Stephen upon the throne.

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  • In 1561 St Paul's steeple and roof were destroyed by lightning, and the spire was never replaced.

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  • An adjoining room is next excavated and filled, and thus the whole floor is worked out and replaced with rock-filling.

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  • For heavy gradients rope haulage has no rival, though for moderate grades it is often advantageously replaced by electric and compressed air haulage.

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  • Except in a few instances these were long ago superseded by ron-wire ropes, which in turn have p been replaced by steel because of its greater strength.

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  • It is then mixed with the glass mixture and broken glass (" cullet "), and replaced in the J a 6 FIG.

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  • The glass at this stage has a comparatively dull surface and this must now be replaced by that brilliant and perfectly polished surface which is the chief beauty of this variety of glass.

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  • For if the body is removed, and replaced by the fluid as at first, this fluid is in equilibrium under its own weight and the thrust of the surrounding fluid, which must be equal and opposite, and the surrounding fluid acts in the same manner when the body replaces the displaced fluid again; so that the resultant thrust of the fluid acts vertically upward through the centre of gravity of the fluid displaced, and is equal to the weight.

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  • If p denotes the density of the air or medium W' = sird 3 xp, (23) W' I p __ W I -1 3 k12 I k22 x2 ±i a 2= 101-1 3 '111 2= 2 tan g S = Q (l - a) x 2+ I (26) in which a/p may be replaced by 800 times the S.G.

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  • I +W a W a), ' (k) 4 (I I) I+ w- R For a shot in air the ratio W'/W is so small that the square may be neglected, and formula (II) can be replaced for practical purpose in artillery by tan26= n2 = W i (0 - a) (k ð)7()4, (12) if then we can calculate /3, a, or (3-a for the external shape of the shot, this equation will give the value of 6 and n required for stability of flight in the air.

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  • In Semitic times Urra was pronounced Uri and confounded with uru, " ciiy "; as a geographical term, however, it was replaced by Akkadu (Akkad), the Semitic form of Agadewritten Akkattim in the Elamite inscriptions - the name of the elder Sargon's capital, which must have stood close to Sippara, if indeed it was not a quarter of Sippara itself.

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  • The former councils were replaced by the consiglio del popolo, consisting of 300 popolani and presided over by the capitano, and the consiglio del comune of 250 members, half of them nobles and half popolani, presided over by the podesta.

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  • The principle of this mode of pruning is to train in at considerable length, according to their strength, shoots of the last year's growth for producing shoots to bear fruit in the present; these rods are afterwards cut away and replaced by young shoots trained up during the preceding summer; and these are in their turn cut out in the following autumn after bearing, and replaced by shoots of that summer's growth.

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  • In 1809 it was replaced by the bitter wood or bitter ash of Jamaica, Picraena excelsa, which was found to possess similar properties and could be obtained in pieces of much larger size.

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  • The best results from extraction by diffusion have been obtained in Java, where there is an abundance of clear, good water; but in the Hawaiian Islands, and in Cuba and Demerara, diffusion has been abandoned on several well mounted estates and replaced by double and triple crushing; and it is not likely to be resorted to again, as the extra cost of working is not compensated by the slight increase of sugar produced.

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  • Apart from modifications in the details of sugar refining which have come into use in late years, it should be mentioned that loaf sugar made in conical moulds, and sugars made otherwise, to resemble loaf sugar, have practically disappeared from the trade, having been replaced by cube sugar, which is found to be more economical as subject to less waste by grocers and housekeepers, and also less troublesome to buy and sell.

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  • As a general rule the ripe proglottides are detached in chains and replaced by others which in their turn become detached, the process being repeated for a year or so until the worm weakens and is cast out.

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  • The more or less dormant nitrogen and other constituents of the humus are made immediately available to the succeeding crop, but the capital of the soil is rapidly reduced, and unless the loss is replaced by the addition of more manures the land may become sterile.

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  • The tendency was for the single organization, with a general monopoly of trade, to be replaced by a number of separate organizations representing the various trades and handicrafts.

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  • As soon as the adapters have been cleaeed of their contents, they are replaced, and again left to themselves for two hours, to be once more emptied and replaced, &c. The complete exhaustion of the charge of a furnace takes about eleven hours.

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  • The positive carbon was in some cases replaced by a water-cooled metal tube, or ferrule, closed, of course, at the end inserted in the crucible.

    0
    0
  • Since that date other processes have been devised and the electrolytic processes have entirely replaced the older methods of reduction with sodium.

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    0
  • The principality of Tmutarakan, founded by his grandson Mstislav (988), replaced the kingdom of Khazaria, the last trace of which was extinguished by a joint expedition of Russians and Byzantines (io16).

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  • Soon after this date we find the old aristocratic government of Pisa replaced by a more popular form.

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    0
  • The gild constitution of the city of Chur lasted from 1465 to 1839, while in 1874 the Burgergemeinde was replaced by an Einwohnergemeinde.

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  • In that year Admiral Lynch, who had replaced General Baquedano in command of the Chilean forces after the taking of Lima, sent an expedition against the Peruvians under General Caceres, and defeated the latter in the month of August.

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  • The retort may be replaced by a distilling flask, which is a round-bottomed flask (generally with a lengthened neck) provided with an inclined side tube.

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  • Practically any vessel may serve as a receiver - test tube, flask, beaker, &c. If noxious vapours come over, it is necessary to have an air-tight connexion between the condenser and receiver, and to pro vide the latter with an outlet tube leading to an absorption column or other contrivance in which the vapours are taken up. If the substances operated upon decompose when heated in air, as, for example, the zinc alkyls which inflame, the air within the apparatus is replaced by some inert gas, e.g.

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  • Sometimes linings of enamelled iron or other material are employed, which when worn can be replaced at a far lower cost than that of a new still.

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  • It is then run off, and replaced by fresh sea-water.

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  • S' 3' S' p called voluntary loans was abolished, and replaced by a tax of ro% (la decima) on all real property.

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  • The hope was not fulfilled, but a certain number of philosophic disciples gathered round Comte, and eventually formed themselves, under the guidance of the new ideas of the latter half of his life, into a kind of church, for whose use was drawn up the Positivist Calendar (1849), in which the names of those who had advanced civilization replaced the titles of the saints.

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  • In other dialects of Italy b is found representing an original voiced guttural (gw), which, however, is regularly replaced by v in Latin.

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  • The palace of the Ashikaga shoguns then replaced the Imperial court as the centre of patronage of art and literature and established a new era in art history.

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  • Thus a graceful and realistic school has replaced the comparatively stiff and conventional style of former times.

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  • On its outskirts pleasant walks and fine trees have replaced the old fortifications.

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  • These were transferred from the Chartreuse of Dijon (or of Champmol), built by Philip the Bold as a mausoleum, now replaced by a lunatic asylum.

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  • It lingered nine years under the new editor, who was replaced in 1675 by the abbe de la Roque, and the latter in his turn by the president Cousin, in 1686.

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  • In 1816 it was definitely re-established and replaced under government patronage, remaining subject to the chancellor or garde-des-sceaux until 1857, when it was transferred to the control of the minister of public instruction.

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