The Renaissance had little or no influence on Sardinian architecture and culture.
Jackson rounded the corner onto Elm Street toward the Renaissance inspired estate he currently called home.
In the early 14th century, the age of Dante, the new spirit of the Renaissance made Italian rulers the patrons of art and literature, and the Jews to some extent shared in this gracious change.
For his position in the history of the revival, see Voigt's Wiederbelebung des classischen Alterthums, and Symonds's Renaissance in Italy.
Early Renaissance palaces occur frequently in Venice and form a pleasing contrast with those in the Gothic style.
Among charitable institutions the principal is the handsome royal infirmary, a Renaissance building.
The cathedral contains other 14th-century and early Renaissance paintings, the former including some Passion scenes, the only certain work of Barna da Siena, and some fine choir stalls.
Though it isn't so much a time as a state of mind, historians plot the Renaissance as moving around Europe for a couple of centuries.
The palaces of the later Renaissance are numerous and frequently grandiose though frigid in design.
Schultze, Geschichte der Philosophie der Renaissance, i.
i., Fhe Renaissance, which contains valuable bibliographies.
See the essay in Walter Pater's Renaissance (1878); and the study by J.
See the essay in Walter Pater's Renaissance (1878); and the study by J.
This epoch is marked by the renaissance of Sanskrit literature and the gradual revival of Hinduism at the expense of Buddhism.
This epoch is marked by the renaissance of Sanskrit literature and the gradual revival of Hinduism at the expense of Buddhism.
But the Internet Renaissance dwarfs by a hundredfold, a thousandfold, the Renaissance of Europe.
Flavin Biondo, the first Renaissance writer on the topography of ancient Rome (1388-1463), was a native of Forli.
Before modern philosophy began its career, there was a great revival of ancient philosophy at the Renaissance; sometimes anti-Christian, sometimes pro-Christian.
In 1479 a fire consumed the earlier buildings along the Rio, and these were replaced (1480-1550) by the present Renaissance structure.
We find it retaining some traces of Byzantine influence in the decorated surfaces of applied marbles, and in the roundels of porphyry and verd antique, while it also retained certain characteristics of Gothic, as, for instance, in the pointed arches of the Renaissance facade in the courtyard of the ducal palace designed by Antonio Rizzo (1499).
When we come to the fully developed Renaissance, architecture in Venice ceases to possess that peculiarly individual imprint which marks the earlier Library styles.
The central feature of the estate is a château (375 X 150 ft.) of French Renaissance design, after the famous chateau at Blois, France.
In these early days of the Internet Renaissance, the number of great masters is in the tens of thousands, not the hundreds.
And in our Internet Renaissance, aren't we seeing an explosion of these same things at a spectacularly more massive scale?
In 1479 a fire consumed the earlier buildings along the Rio, and these were replaced (1480-1550) by the present Renaissance structure.
The cathedral, originally erected in the 12th century, was reconstructed in the 15th and 16th; the façade shows traces of both periods, the Renaissance work being complete only in the lower portion.
We can trace the continuous growth of Venice through the successive styles of Byzantine, Gothic, early Renaissance and late Renaissance architecture.
The conditions which have the five been described, of despotism, mercenary warfare and bourgeois prosperity, determined the character of this epoch, which was also the period when the great achievements of the Renaissance were prepared.
Cesare Borgia was a type of the adventurers with which the Italy of the Renaissance swarmed, but he was cleverer and more unscrupulous than his rivals.
wide, built of granite and white limestone in the Italian Renaissance style, with 70 large Ionic columns, and a dome 205 ft.
In the Italian Renaissance, only a thin veneer of society's elites participated in the creation or ownership of the frescos, music, statues, and paintings; most were only passive observers.
Many of them, however, are of considerable architectural importance and the revival of the Renaissance style is perhaps illustrated nowhere better than in Stuttgart.
From the interior of the court access is given to the upper loggia by a very beautiful staircase of early Renaissance style, built in the middle of the 15th century by Antonio Rizzo.
There are several good palaces of the early Renaissance, a fine theatre (1857) and a museum containing important palaeo-ethnological collections, ancient and medieval sculptures, and the natural history collection of Spallanzani.
He was the foremost Jewish figure of the 18th century, and to him is attributable the renaissance of the House of Israel.
On the Continent, the movement was more aristocratic and theoretical; it was part of the intellectual renaissance which found its most striking expression in the principles of the French Revolution.
A Symondss Renaissance in Italy (5 vols., London, 1875, &c.) should be consulted.
Indeed, the building has been compared to the treasure den of a gang of "sea sharkers," and from a museum of sculpture of the most varied kind, nearly every century from the 4th down to the latest Renaissance being represented.
In the Italian Renaissance, people of wealth distinguished themselves by their altruistic endeavors.
The Renaissance artists and thinkers had very few tools: pen and paper, paint and canvas, marble and chisel, and a few more.
The massive and elaborately ornamented cathedral was built in the Renaissance style between 1746 and 1774; a Dominican church in Subtiaba is little less striking.
It is still characterized by great splendour; of San indeed, the library of San Marco, built by Jacopo Sansovino in 1536, is justly considered the most sumptuous example of Renaissance architecture in the world.
The architects Rupolo and Sardi have erected a considerable number of buildings, in which they have attempted, and with considerable success, to return either to Venetian Gothic or to the early Renaissance Lombardesque style.
The architects Rupolo and Sardi have erected a considerable number of buildings, in which they have attempted, and with considerable success, to return either to Venetian Gothic or to the early Renaissance Lombardesque style.
The creator of the present edifice was Francis I., under whom the architect Gilles le Breton erected most of the buildings of the Cour Ovale, including the Porte Doree, its southern entrance, and the Salle des Fetes, which, in the reign of Henry II., was decorated by the Italians, Francesco Primaticcio and Nicolo dell' Abbate, and is perhaps the finest Renaissance chamber in France.
The small cathedral of St Aurea, also an early Renaissance structure, with Gothic windows, is by some ascribed to Meo del Caprina (1430-1501).
The eastern façade overlooking the market-place was built in 1595-1628, in the Renaissance style, with three tiers of columns.
In the market-place is the market cross, said to date from 958, and a beautiful Renaissance fountain, the Petersbrunnen, erected in 1595.
Gian Francesco Poggio Bracciolini, Italian scholar of the Renaissance, was born in 1380 at Terranuova, a village in the territory of Florence.
Bacharach was a man of wide culture, and holds an honourable place among the pioneers of the Jewish Renaissance which was inaugurated towards the end of the 18th century.
The exaggeration of the height of the mitre, which began at the time of the Renaissance, reached its climax in the 17th century.
Symonds, The Renaissance in Italy (1877), ii.
It has a fine Renaissance facade, constructed about 1500 by Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici (afterwards Pope Leo X.), and some good terra cottas by the Della Robbia.
Most of the buildings belong to the Renaissance; except the castle, the 14th-century Palazzo Pubblico, and the portals of two or three churches, especially that of S.
The hotel de ville, the facade of which is decorated with armorial bearings of Renaissance carving, and the church of St Etienne, an unblemished example of Romanesque architecture, are of interest.
There may be noted Durand's Marguerite de Valois et la tour de Francois Ier (1848); La Ferriere's Marguerite d'Angouleme (1891); Lotheissen's Konigin Margareta von Navarra (1885); Miss Edith Sichel's Women and Men of the French Renaissance (1901), and P. Courtault's Marguerite de Navarre (1904).
Yet the group of islands called Rialto, in mid-Venetian lagoon, were first the asylum and then the magnificent and permanent home of a race that took a prominent part in the medieval and Renaissance history of Europe.
The library (1888-1895; cost $2,486,000, exclusive of the site, given by the state) is a dignified, finely proportioned building of pinkish-grey stone, built in the style of the Italian Renaissance, suggesting a Florentine palace.
That Douglas undertook this work and that he makes a plea for more accurate scholarship in the translation have been the basis of a prevalent notion that he is a Humanist in spirit and the first exponent of Renaissance doctrine in Scottish literature.
The Oedipus legend was handed down to the period of the Renaissance by the Roman and its imitations, which then fell into oblivion.
Nothing marks the secular attitude of the Italians at an epoch which decided the future course of both Renaissance and Reformation more strongly than the mundane proclivities of this apostolic secretary, heart and soul devoted to the resuscitation of classical studies amid conflicts of popes and antipopes, cardinals and councils, in all of which he bore an official part.
The medical school is in the Italian Renaissance style from the designs of Sir Rowand Anderson.
Numerous statues and bas-reliefs by Renaissance artists adorn the various altars and chapels.
Pedantry was an inevitable effect of the early Renaissance.
of literature, a founder of universities, he anticipated the spirit of the Renaissance.
From the point of view of general culture, Jacob Burckhardts Cultur der Renaissance in Italien (Basel, i86o), E.
At present the magnificent council chambers for the different legislative bodies of the Venetian republic and the state apartments of the doges are richly decorated with gilt carving and panelling in the style of the later Renaissance.
The essential point about the style is that it is intermediary between Venetian Gothic and full Renaissance.
When nominalism was revived in the 14th century by the English Franciscan, William of Occam, it gave evidence of a new tendency in thought, a distrust of abstractions and an impulse towards direct observation and inductive research, a tendency which had its fulfilment in the scientific movement of the Renaissance.
Pico's works cannot now be read with much interest, but the man himself is still interesting, partly from his influence on Reuchlin and partly from the spectacle of a truly devout mind in the brilliant circle of half-pagan scholars of the FlOrentine renaissance.
This point of view is eminently characteristic of the earlier Italian Renaissance.
It is a delightful book, and strongly characteristic of the French Renaissance.
The university of Paris had reached its zenith at the time of the council of Constance (1418), and was now losing its intellectual leadership under the attacks of the Renaissance and the Reformation.
Maria della Pensola are buildings of the 11th century with flat arches; the former has some good Renaissance sculptures.
The churches of St Etienne and St Jean, both of the Renaissance period with later additions, preserve stained glass of the 16th century.
The statuary of the lateral portals, the stained glass of the 13th century, and the choir-screen of the Renaissance are all unique from the artistic standpoint.
The hotel de ville, a building of the 17th century, containing a museum and library, an older hotel de Tulle of the 13th century, and several medieval and Renaissance houses, are of interest.
A feature of greater interest is the extraordinary part which this theosophy played in the Christian Church, especially at the time of the Renaissance.
The residential château of the princes of Lippe-Detmold (1550), in the Renaissance style, is an imposing building, lying with its pretty gardens nearly in the centre of the town; whilst at the entrance to the large park on the south is the New Palace (1708-1718), enlarged in 1850, used as the dower-house.
The next period of advance stretches from the Renaissance to Newton and Leibnitz at the end of the 17th century.
Of the grandeur of the church itself, however, there can be no question: it is the finest portion of the whole Escorial, and, according to Fergusson, deserves to rank as one of the great Renaissance churches of Europe.
Probably no town in the kingdom has a nobler group of public buildings than those in Cathays Park, which also commands a view of the castle ramparts and the old keep. On opposite sides of a fine avenue are the assize courts and new town hall (with municipal offices), which are both in the Renaissance style.
Hamburg has comparatively few secular buildings of great architectural interest, but first among them is the new Rathaus, a huge German Renaissance building, constructed of sandstone in 1886-1897, richly adorned with sculptures and with a spire 33 o ft.
Facing the botanical gardens a new central post-office, in the Renaissance style, was built in 1887.
Among these are the town hall, of the 16th century, in the Transition style from late Gothic to Renaissance, restored in recent years; the Kornhaus; the Ehingerhaus or Neubronnerhaus, now containing the industrial museum; and the commandery of the Teutonic order, built in1712-1718on the site of a habitation of the order dating from the 13th century, and now used as barracks.
It contains fine buildings of the Renaissance, especially the palaces of the Vitelli, and the cathedral, originally Romanesque.
The Mithraeum hewn in the tufa quarries of the Capitoline Hill at Rome, still in existence during the Renaissance, is an example.
The Palazzo Accoramboni, on the other hand, is a Renaissance structure, with a fine entrance arch.
designed by Bernardo Rossellino, and now the Banca d'Italia; the enormous block of the Monte de' Paschi, a bank of considerable wealth and antiquity, enlarged and partly rebuilt in the original style between 1877 and 1881, the old Dogana and Salimbeni palaces; the Palazzo Spannochi, a fine early Renaissance building by Giuliano da Maiano (now the post office); the Loggia di Mercanzia (15th century), now a club, imitating the Loggia dei Lanzi at Florence, with sculptures of the 15th century; the Loggia del Papa, erected by Pius II.; and other fine buildings.
The post office is a handsome sandstone building in Renaissance style; it is colonnaded on two sides with polished granite columns and surmounted by a clock tower, containing a peal of bells.
It is divisible into two well-marked periods - the first extending to the end of the 12th century and embracing as its chief names Roscellinus, Anselm, William of Champeaux and Abelard, while the second extended from the beginning of the 13th century to the Renaissance and the general distraction of men's thoughts from the problems and methods of Scholasticism.
But, although the relation of reason to an external authority thus constitutes the badge of medieval thought, it would be unjust to look upon Scholasticism as philosophically barren, and to speak as if reason, after an interregnum of a thousand years, resumed its rights at the Renaissance.
Such language was excusable in the men of the Renaissance, fighting the battle of classic form and beauty and of the manysidedness of life against the barbarous terminology and the monastic ideals of the schools, or in the protagonists of modern science.
But each system is a fresh recognition of the rights of reason, and Scholasticism as a whole may be regarded as the history of the growth and gradual emancipation of reason which was completed in the movements of the Renaissance and the Reformation.
Although the term " algebra " is now in universal use, various other appellations were used by the Italian mathematicians during the Renaissance.
The renaissance of mathematics was thus effected in Italy, and it is to that country that the leading developments of the following century were due.
The Renaissance town-hall in the spacious market-place dates from 1570; it contains a library and a collection of antiquities.
Zagorsky, Francois Racki et la renaissance de la Croatie (1909); T.
Several of its churches are architecturally interesting, especially the Madonna delle Lacrime (1487) outside the town, the elegant early Renaissance architecture of which resembles that of the Madonna del Calcinaio at Cortona, and most of them (and also the municipal picture gallery) contain paintings by artists of the Umbrian school - notably Lo Spagna, a pupil of Perugino.
On the one hand, there was a conservatism which is exemplified when the Jews in course of immigration took with them the characteristic dress of their former adopted home, or when they remained unmoved by the changes of the Renaissance.
His works were studied and _learned by heart by the great Latin writers of the Renaissance, such as Erasmus and Melanchthon; and Casaubon, in his anxiety that his son should write a pure Latin style, inculcates on him the constant study of Terence.
They were erected in 1892 and are a handsome block in Renaissance style, three-storied, with a central tower surmounted by a statue of Liberty.
Nor can there be much doubt that the great attention bestowed on acting - the Jesuits kept up the Renaissance practice of turning schools into theatres for the performance of plays both in Latin and in the vernacular - had much to do with Voltaire's lifelong devotion to the stage.
Its principal buildings are the fine Renaissance parish church and the fortress-like 17th-century town hall.
The style prescribed was English Renaissance.
In the year 1838 Signor Bussolin revived several of the ancient processes of glass-working, and this revival was carried on by C. Pietro Biguglia in 1845, and by others, and later by Salviati, to whose successful efforts the modern renaissance of Venetian art glass is principally due.
There is a splendid museum of medieval and Renaissance antiquities in the Bargello, the ancient palace of the Podesta, itself one of the finest buildings in the city; among its many treasures are works of Donatello, Ghiberti, Verrochio and other sculptors, and large collections of ivory, enamel and bronze ware.
The best of these is the town hall, otherwise known as the basilica, one of the finest works of the Renaissance period, of which Palladio himself said that it might stand comparison with any similar work of antiquity.
The cathedral, which is Italian Gothic, dating mainly from the 13th century, consists of a nave with eight chapels on each side, and a very high Renaissance domed choir; it contains examples of the Montagnas and of Lorenzo da Venezia.
Of the other buildings of Coutances the church of St Pierre, in which Renaissance architecture is mingled with Gothic, and that of St Nicolas, of the 16th and 17th centuries, demand mention.
Opposite the Hof burg, the main body of which is separated from the Ring-Strasse by the Hofgarten and Volksgarten, rise the handsome monument of the empress Maria Theresa (erected 1888) and the imperial museums of art and natural history, two extensive Renaissance edifices with domes (erected 1870-89), matching each other in every particular and grouping finely with the new part of the palace.
To the north stands the new building of the university, a Renaissance structure by H.
von Siccardsburg (1813-1868), the sumptuous interior of which vies with that of Paris; the academy of art, built in 187276; the exchange, built in 1872-77, both by Hansen; and the Austrian museum of art and industry, an Italian Renaissance building erected by Ferstel in 1868-71.
The last contains valuable specimens of the industrial art of the middle ages and of the Renaissance period in gold, silver, bronze, glass, enamel, ivory, iron and wood.
See Fernao Lopes, Chronica del Rey Dom Pedro (1735); Camoens, Os Lusiadas; Antonio Ferreira's Ines de Castro, - the first regular tragedy of the Renaissance after the Sofonisba of Trissino; Luis Velez de Guevara, Reinar despues de morir, an admirable play; and Ferdinand Denis, Chroniques chevaleresques de l'Espagne et du Portugal.
The architectural style which has been principally followed in the later public buildings, among them the law courts, finished in 1897, the German bank, St Martin's hospital, as well as in numerous private dwellings, is the Italian and French Rococo, or Renaissance, adapted to the traditions of Munich architecture in the 17th and 18th centuries.
wide, chiefly contains buildings in the Renaissance style by Friedrich von Gartner.
The Festsaalbau, erected by Klenze in the Italian Renaissance style, is adorned with mural paintings and sculptures, while the KÃ¶nigsbau, a reduced copy of the Pitti Palace at Florence, contains a series of admirable frescoes from the Niebelungenlied by Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld.
St Michael's in the Renaissance style, erected for the Jesuits in 15831 595, contains the monument of Eugene Beauharnais by Thorwaldsen.
Other structures and institutions are the new buildings of the art association; the academy of the plastic arts (1874-1885), in the Renaissance style; and the royal arsenal (Zeughaus) with the military museum.
The first of these may belong to Lactantius's heathen days, the second is a product of the Renaissance (c. 1500), the third was written by Venantius Fortunatus in the 6th century.
In the 9th century, during the great movement termed the Carolingian Renaissance, these Annals became the usual form of contemporary history; it suffices to mention the Annales Einhardi, the Annales Laureshamenses (or "of Lorsch"), and the Annales S.
It is an irregular pile of buildings, in fine and simple early Renaissance style; a small part of the original façade of 1028 in black and white marble is preserved.
von Herder (6 vols., 1846; C. Joret, Herder et la renaissance litteraire en Allemagne au X VII I e siecle (1875); F.
From the skill of Fra Giocondo, Verona was for many years one of the chief centres in which the most refined and graceful forms of the early Renaissance were developed.
high), while in the north-east corner of the latter Piazza is the fine early Renaissance Palazzo del Consiglio (1476-1492), probably designed by Fra Giocondo.
(iv.) The early Renaissance developed into very exceptional beauty in Verona, mainly through the genius of Fra Giocondo (1435-1514), a native of Verona, who was at first a friar in the monastery of S.
Another of the leading architects of the next stage of the Renaissance was the Veronese Michele Sanmichele (1484-1559), a great military engineer, and designer of an immense number of magnificent palaces in Verona and other cities of Venetia.
Among the more noteworthy of the newer Protestant churches are the Peterskirche (1892-1895) in the North German Renaissance style, with a tower 256 ft.
New municipal buildings adjoining the " Rimer " on the north side were erected in 1900-1903 in German Renaissance style, with a handsome tower 220 ft.
The opera-house, erected near the Bockenheimer Tor in 1873-1880, is a magnificent edifice in the style of the Italian Renaissance and ranks among the finest theatres in Europe.
There are also a theatre (Schauspielhaus) in modern Renaissance style (1899-1902), devoted especially to drama, a splendid concert hall (Saalbau), opened in 1861, and numerous minor places of theatrical entertainment.
and its consequent accessibility, there arose a galaxy of scholars under whose influence the archaic style and the ancient Japanese traditions entered a period of renaissance.
To understand this 17th century renaissance, knowledge of one fact is necessary, namely, that about the year A.D.
But the renaissance of nationalism (kokusui hoson) saved the venerable drama, and owing to th~ exertions of Prince Iwakura, the artist HOsho Kuro and Umewaka Minoru, it stands as high as ever in popular favor.
It was a noble art, but unfortunately the rivalry of the Buddhist and later native styles permitted it to fall into comparative neglect, and it was left for a few of the faithful, the most famous of whom was a priest of the I 4th century named Kawo, to preserve it from inanition till the great Chinese renaissance that lent its stamp to the next period.
At a school of art officially established in Tokyo in 1873 under the direction of Italian teachersa school which owed its signal failure partly to the incompetence and intemperate behaviour of some of its foreign professors, and partly to a strong renaissance of pure Japanese classicismone of the few accomplishments successfully taught was that of modelling in plaster and chiselling in marble after Occidental methods.
Tc such a depth of debasement had the ceramic art fallen in Owari, that before the happy renaissance of the past ten years, Nagoya discredited itself by employing porcelain as a base for cloisonn enamelling.
He was pre-eminently the king of the Renaissance.
Owen, French Skeptics of the Renaissance (London, 1893); K.
The west façade, the most remarkable feature of the church, is, however, of the Renaissance period.
Dijon possesses several houses of the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries, notably the Maison Richard in the Gothic, and the Hotel Vogue in the Renaissance style.
outside the town to the N.W., is in the early Renaissance style (1488); the campanile was probably built from Bramante's plans in 1506.
It was no doubt very largely political, a part of his plan for the general renaissance of Roman life, which was to centre no longer round the abstract notion of the state, but round the persons Imperial of an imperial house.
The cathedral, originally a Tuscan Romanesque building of the 11th-12th centuries, is now a fine Renaissance basilica restored in the 18th century, containing some paintings by Luca Signorelli, a native of the place.
Maria del Calcinaio, a fine early Renaissance building by Francesco di Giorgio Martini of Siena, with fine stained glass windows.
The library, including 300,000 printed books and io,000 MSS., was, however, transferred to a large and new Renaissance edifice in 1887.
The cathedral, built entirely of marble, occupies the site of an earlier church, and was begun in 1396, from which period the nave dates: the façade belongs to 1457-1486, while the east of the exterior was altered into the Renaissance style, and richly decorated with sculptures by Tommaso Rodari in 1487-1526.
Agostino, the Palazzo Benincasa, and the Loggia dei Mercanti, all by Giorgio Orsini, usually called da Sebenico (who worked much at Sebenico, though he was not a native of it), and the prefecture, which has Renaissance additions.
Maria della Misericordia is an ornate example of early Renaissance work.
Francesco and the original Palazzo del Comune, now the prefecture (Gothic with Renaissance additions).
The present Palazzo Comunale, a Renaissance edifice, contains a fine museum, chiefly remarkable for the contents of prehistoric tombs found in the district (including good bronze fibulae, necklaces, amulets, &c., often decorated with amber), and a large collection of acorn-shaped lead missiles (glandes) used by slingers, belonging to the time of the siege of Asculum during the Social War (89 B.C.).
How much shall we allow for his position in Renaissance Italy, for the corruption in the midst of which he lived, for his own personal temperament?
The main work of the Carolingian renaissance was to restore Latin to its position as a literary language, and to reintroduce a correct system of spelling and an improved handwriting.
GIORDANO BRUNO (c. 1548-1600), Italian philosopher of the Renaissance, was born near Nola in the village of Cicala.
He had drunk deeply of the spirit of the Renaissance, the determination to see for himself the noble universe, unclouded by the mists of authoritative philosophy and church tradition.
Agnes Fry, 1905); Landsbeck, Bruno, der Martyrer der neuen Weltanschauung (1890); Owen, in Sceptics of the Italian Renaissance (London, 1893); C. H.
The beautiful Hebrew style created a new school of Hebrew poetry, and the Hebrew renaissance which resulted from the career of Moses Mendelssohn owed much to Luzzatto.
The chief buildings are the church of St Pierre (15th and 16th centuries), which has an imposing tower and rich interior decoration; a hotel de ville of the 18th century; and the Bailliage (16th century), a small building in the Renaissance style.
In its present shape, dating substantially from the Renaissance, it is a peaked head-covering not unlike a closed mitre, round which are placed one above the other three circlets or open iCYzc=4- i FIG.
In this, a genuine work of the Renaissance, Cano endeavours to free dogmatic theology from the vain subtleties of the schools and, by clearing away the puerilities of the later scholastic theologians, to bring religion back to first principles; and, by giving rules, method, co-ordination and system, to build up a scientific treatment of theology.
A 12th-century version of the first three books of Romulus in elegiac verse enjoyed a wide popularity, even into the Renaissance.
The large church of St Mary, with a lofty tower, dating from the 14th century, the Renaissance castle of the 16th century, now used as a prison, and one of the ancient town-gates restored in 1872 are memorials of the time when Stolp was a prosperous member of the Hanseatic League.
Its buildings present Venetian characteristics; it has some good palaces, notably the fine early Lombard Renaissance Palazzo dei Rettori, now the seat of the prefecture.
He edited the Goethe-Jahrbuch from 1880, Vierteljahrsschrift far Kultur and Litteratur der Renaissance (1885-1886), Zeitschr.
Among his works are Johann Reuchlin, sein Leben and seine Werke (Leipzig, 1871); and Johann Reuchlin's Briefwechsel (Tubingen, 1875); Renaissance and Humanismus in Italien and Deutschland (1882, 2nd ed.
are many reasons for believing that the older estimate of the influence of the so-called Renaissance, or " new learning," in promoting the Protestant revolt was an exaggerated one.
It is pretty clear that the common accounts of the Renaissance and of the revival of learning grossly exaggerate the influence of the writers of Greece and Rome, for they produced no obvious rationalistic movement, as would have been the case had Plato and Cicero, Lucretius and Lucian, been taken really seriously.
NeoPlatonism, which is in some respects nearer the Christian patristic than the Hellenic spirit, was as far as the radical religious thinkers of the Italian Renaissance receded.
Sainte-Marie contains many artistic treasures, the chief of which are the magnificent stained-glass windows of the Renaissance which light the apsidal chapels, and the 113 choir-stalls of carved oak, also of Renaissance workmanship. The archbishop's palace adjoins the cathedral; it is a building of the 18th century with a Romanesque hall and a tower of the r4th century.
In the great upheaval of the Renaissance and the Reformation it was certain to be defied.
Among the other prominent buildings in Weimar are the Griines Schloss (18th century), containing a library of 200,000 volumes and a valuable collection of portraits, busts and literary and other curiosities; the old ducal dower-house (Wittumspalais); the museum, built in1863-1868in the Renaissance style with some old masters and Preller's famous mural paintings illustrating the Odyssey.
Venetian influence is everywhere manifest; the Lion of St Mark is carved over the main gateway and on many public buildings; and among the narrow and steep lanes of the city there are numerous examples of Venetian Gothic or early Renaissance architecture.
The church of Argues, a building of the 16th century, preserves a fine stone rood screen, statuary, stained glass and other relics of the Renaissance period.
The town has a fine Renaissance château, well restored in modern times, with good collections of furniture and pictures.
The latter is a beautiful Renaissance structure, with a magnificent facade and a delicate spire, and contains a grand hall, the Kaisersaal, in which every Whit Monday a play, Der Meistertrunk, which commemorates the capture of the town by Tilly in 1631, is performed.
These details of his education (which, like most else that is known about him, come from his own mouth) are not only interesting in themselves, but remind the reader how, not far from the same time, Rabelais, the other leading writer of French during the Renaissance, was exercising himself, though not being exercised, in plans of education almost as fantastic. At six years old Montaigne was sent to the college de Guienne at Bordeaux, then at the height of its reputation.
When he reached manhood the French Renaissance was at high water, and the turn of the tide was beginning.
As the earlier Renaissance had specially occupied itself with the practical business and pleasures of life, so the later Renaissance specially mused on the vanity of this business and these pleasures.
A handsome Gothic Lutheran church was erected in 1892-1897, a post office (Renaissance) in 1881, and new administrative offices and law courts in 1876-1880.
Next follow chapters on the literary renaissance of the nation, its progress in art, mathematics, chemistry and natural science; the magnificent development of agriculture, modern industry, commerce and finance; and in particular its flourishing selfgovernment, " which will be exercised in the fullest freedom," and in which " the communal organization embodies in the highest degree the conception of self-government " (p. 234), and " the independent sphere of activity unlimited in its fundamental principle " (p. 235) in that " State control is exercised seldom and discreetly " (p. 236).
The article by Jakubel on " the literary renaissance " says: " The Prague theatre, which had vegetated miserably up to now, developed under the reign of Joseph II.
Among the Renaissance buildings the churches of S.
In the interior is the beautiful early Renaissance tomb of S.
From Gouda the two boys went to the school attached to St Lebuin's church at Deventer, which was one of the first in northern Europe to feel the influence of the Renaissance.
He had been born with the hopes of the Renaissance, with its anticipation of a new Augustan age, and had seen this fair promise blighted by the irruption of a new horde of theological polemics, worse than the old scholastics, inasmuch as they were revolutionary instead of conservative.
Erasmus has been called the "Voltaire of the Renaissance."
But the Frenchman Budaeus wrote an execrable Latin style, unreadable then as now, while the Teuton Erasmus charmed the reading world with a style which, though far from good Latin, is the most delightful which the Renaissance has left us.
In the annals of classical learning Erasmus may be regarded as constituting an intermediate stage between the humanists of the Latin Renaissance and the learned men of the age of Greek scholarship, between Angelo Poliziano and Joseph Scaliger.
May we hope that the events of modern times are leading her towards ards a renaissance?
The Renaissance meant the emancipation of the secular world from the domination of the Church, and it contributed in no small measure to the rupture of the educated class with ecclesiastical tradition.
While the Church, like a careful mother, sought to lead her children, never allowed to grow up, safely from time into eternity, the men of the Renaissance felt that they had come of age, and that they were entitled to make themselves at home in this world.
(1447-1455), was the first of the Renaissance popes.
(See also Papacy; Renaissance; Reformation, and biographies of popes, &c.)/n==Authorities== -FOr sources see U.
At the very threshold of the .Czech renaissance men of science were among the first pioneers of national thought, as for example Dobrovsky the philologist, and in the ensuing generation Purkyne (Purkinje) the physiologist, and Palacky the greatest of Czech historians.
Education was shamefully neglected, the masses being left in almost heathen ignorance - and this, too, at a time when the upper classes were greedily appropriating the ripe fruits of the Renaissance and when, to use the words of a contemporary, there were "more Latinists in Poland than there used to be in Latium."
It is written in rhymeless five-foot iambics, and is altogether a product of the Renaissance, reminding us of some of the productions of George Buchanan.
There is an artificial air about the idylls of Szymonowicz which makes one feel too keenly that they are productions of the Renaissance; one of their best features is the humane spirit towards the miserable peasantry which they everywhere display.
Mention has already been made of plays written by Rej and Kochanowski; they are mere fruits of the Renaissance, and cannot in any way be considered national.
His instincts and ambitions were those of a secular prince of the Renaissance; but circumstances forced him to become the patron of reform.
1898; see also his article English Law in this encyclopaedia), Domesday Book and Beyond (1897), Township and Borough (1898), Canon Law in England (1898), English Law and the Renaissance (1901), the Life of Leslie Stephen (1906), besides important contributions to the Cambridge Modern History, the English Historical Review, the Law Quarterly Review, Harvard Law Review and other publications.
His comprehensive work on the training of the future orator includes an outline of general education, which had an important influence on the humanistic schools of the Italian Renaissance.
were preserved until their recovery in the age of the Renaissance.
In his literary spirit he is a precursor of the humanists of the Renaissance.
Virgil is the main authority quoted in Remi's Commentary on Donatus, which remained in use until the Renaissance.
He is, in a limited sense, a precursor of the Renaissance, but he is far more truly to be regarded as the crowning representative of the spirit of the middle ages.
The Renaissance theory of a humanistic education is illustrated by several treatises still extant.
The first great school of the Renaissance was that established by Vittorino da Feltre at Mantua, where he resided for the last twenty-two years of his life (1424-1446).
(I) (2nd ed., 1897); for the Renaissance, G.
Geiger, Renaissance and Humanismus in Italien and Deutschland (1882, with bibliography); J.
Woodward, Studies in Education during the Age of the Renaissance (1906), chap. xiii.; Acland and Llewellin Smith, Studies in Secondary Education, with introduction by James Bryce (1892); Essays on a Liberal Education, ed.
The new humanism was a kind of revival of the Renaissance, which had been retarded by the Reformation in Germany and by the Counter-Reformation in Italy, or had at least been degraded to the dull classicism of the schools.
The new humanism agreed with the Renaissance in its unreserved recognition of the old classical world as a perfect pattern of culture.
But, while the Renaissance aimed at reproducing the Augustan age of Rome, the new humanism found its golden age in Athens.
The Latin Renaissance in Italy aimed at recovering and verbally imitating the ancient literature; the Greek Renaissance in Germany sought inspiration from the creative originality of Greek literature with a view to producing an original literature in the German language.
After the Renaissance, with its renewal of interest in Platonic studies, numerous attempts were made to rationalize the myth of Atlantis.
It became subject to the same critical methods which since the Renaissance have been applied to other ancient literatures.
Even after the Renaissance and the Reformation tradition continued influential.
Moreover, some of the " authorities " used by the Schoolmen had been discovered by the New Learning of the Renaissance to be no authorities at all, such as the writings falsely attributed to Dionysius the Areopagite.
Among the other public buildings are the guildhall, with Renaissance front, the corn exchange, the picturesque custom-house of the 17th century, the athenaeum (including a museum, hall and other departments), the Stanley Library and the municipal buildings.
The more conspicuous buildings are the cathedral, the exchange, the royal palace, now occupied by the captain-general, and the law courts, the episcopal palace, a handsome late Renaissance building (1616), the general hospital (1456), the town-house (end of the 16th century), the picture gallery, and the college.
Bonivard has been described as "a man of the Renaissance who had strayed into the age of the Reformation."
Francesco has an almost Renaissance facade, fine cloisters with a good 15th-century tomb, and a chapter-house with Giottesque frescoes.
The Thysian library occupies an old Renaissance building of the year 1655, and is especially rich in legal works and native chronicles.
The term has also been applied to the Italian humanists of the Renaissance, and in modern times, somewhat vaguely, to thinkers who have based their speculations on the Platonic metaphysics or on Plotinus, and incorporated with it a tendency towards a mystical explanation of ultimate phenomena.
The empirical science of the Renaissance and the two following centuries was itself a new development of Platonism and Neoplatonism, as opposed to rationalistic dogmatism, with its contempt for experience.
Moreover, in the universal unrest and oversetting of all authority, Christianity itself was in danger of perishing, not only as the result of the cultured paganism of the Renaissance, but also through the brutish ignorance of the common folk, deprived now of their traditional religious restraints.
He built the opera-house in Renaissance style, the new museum and picture gallery, and a Byzantine synagogue.
He forsook the base and rococo forms he found rooted in Germany, and, reverting to the best historic examples, fashioned a purer Renaissance.
The grammar-schools, founded in 1594 and endowed with the revenues of a suppressed gild, include a school of the second and a school of the third grade, the former a building of red brick in the Renaissance style erected in 1880, and the latter an old Elizabethan structure.
It was probably in 1547 that du Bellay met Ronsard in an inn on the way to Poitiers, an event which may justly be regarded as the starting-point of the French school of Renaissance poetry.
Tilley, The Literature of the French Renaissance (2 vols., 1904).
A large open atrium, which once existed at the west, is now completely destroyed, having been replaced by a Renaissance portico.
The effect of the facade is not improved by the Renaissance portico that has been added to it.
to the south is the fine Renaissance château of Bournazel, built for the most part by Jean de Buisson, baron of Bournazel, about 1545.
Of the secular buildings the most important is the Landhaus, where the local diet holds its sittings, erected in the 16th century in the Renaissance style.
The town hall, built in 1807, and rebuilt in 1892 in the German Renaissance style, and the imperial castle, dating from the 1 rth century, now used as government offices, are also worth notice.
The buildings which he caused to be erected by Bernardo Rossellino in1460-1463form a noble group of early Renaissance architecture round the Piazza del Duomo.
The latter retains Gothic details in the interior, but the facade is simple Renaissance work.
Of the churches, St Antoine (13th and 16th centuries) with some fine Renaissance stained glass, and St Jacques (13th and 15th centuries), need alone be mentioned.
Scholars since the Renaissance have not always been above inventing codices to obtain currency for their own conjectures.
He had a striking resemblance to the Italian princes of the later middle ages and the early renaissance, of the stamp of Filipo Maria Visconti.
The cathedral of St John the Baptist is a cruciform Renaissance building dating from 1492-1498, by the Florentine lIeo da Caprina.
There is practically nothing of the Renaissance period except the cathedral.
of Aragon:(1416-1458), surnamed the Magnanimous, who represented the old line of the counts of Barcelona only through women, and was on his father's side descended from the Castilian house of Trastamara, is one of the most conspicuous figures of the early Renaissance.
Like a true prince of the Renaissance he favoured men of letters whom he trusted to preserve his reputation to posterity.
There are a number of theatres, but the city had no large theatre of architectural merit previous to the construction of the Municipal Theatre at the intersection of the Avenida Central with Rua 13 de Maio, with an elegant marble facade in the French Renaissance style.
It was completed in 1866, but was subsequently extended and in great part rebuilt; it is in Italian renaissance style, having a richly adorned facade.
The decoration of the exterior was never completed; but the arcaded courtyard is the finest of the Renaissance, except perhaps that of the Cancelleria at Rome (Burckhardt).
Domenico, a Gothic building with a good early Renaissance portal and a relief in the lunette by Luca della Robbia (1449).
Bernardino, outside the town, is a plain early Renaissance structure.
He was a humanist before the Renaissance, surpassing all other representatives of the school of Chartres in his knowledge of the Latin classics, as in the purity of his style, which was evidently moulded on that of Cicero.
The royal palace, built in 1530-1535 by Duke George (and thus - called Georgenschloss), was thoroughly restored, and in some measure rebuilt between 1890 and 1902, in German Renaissance style, and is now an exceedingly handsome structure.
Among other buildings of note is the Hof theatre, a magnificent edifice in the Renaissance style, built after the designs of Semper, to replace the theatre burnt in 1869, and completed in 1878.
A new town hall of huge dimensions, also in German Renaissance, with an octagon tower 400 ft.
Lipsius in the Italian Renaissance style, 1890-1894.
It was, as Carlyle wrote to the author, "a sermon in stones," "a singular sign of the times," "a new Renaissance."
Among the other noteworthy buildings of Freiburg are the palaces of the grand duke and the archbishop, the old town-hall, the theatre, the Kaufhaus or merchants' hall, a 16th-century building with a handsome façade, the church of St Martin, with a graceful spire restored 1880-1881, the new town-hall, completed 1901, in Renaissance style, and the Protestant church, formerly the church of the abbey of Thennenbach, removed hither in 1839.
i., 1848-1850); by Nisard in Renaissance et Reforme (Paris, 1855); by Baumstark (Freiburg, 1879); by F.
This is, of course, more true of the middle ages than of the times that preceded and followed them; the Church under the Roman empire hardly as yet realized the possibilities of " sermons in stones," and took over, with little change, the model of the secular and religious buildings of pagan Rome; the Renaissance, essentially a neo-pagan movement, introduced disturbing factors from outside, and, though developing a style very characteristic of the age that produced it, started that archaeological movement which has tended in modern times to substitute mere imitations of old models for any attempt to express in church architecture the religious spirit of the age.
In Italy Houdon had lived in the presence of that second Renaissance with which the name of Winckelmann is associated, and the direct and simple treatment of the Morpheus which he sent to the Salon of 1771 bore witness to its influence.
Among his books are Golden Days of the Renaissance in Rome (1906); and Wanderings in the Roman Campagna (1909).
His literary attainments attracted the notice of Charlemagne, and Paulus became a potent factor in the Carolingian renaissance.
With him the Christian Renaissance ascended the papal throne.
It is astonishing to contemplate how much he achieved, during his brief reign, in the cause of the Renaissance in both art and literature.
From the universal standpoint of history the significance of Nicholas's pontificate lies in the fact that, he put himself at the head of the artistic and literary Renaissance.
In the sphere of art he left an enduring monument in the Renaissance town of Pienza which he built.
- [En.] was simply the non-Christian tendency of the Renaissance, standing as it did on a purely pagan basis - " the stench of heathendom," as Dante described it.
A nature formed on great broad lines - a man of spontaneous impulses carrying away others as he himself was carried away, a genuine Latin in the whole of his being - he belongs to those imposing figures of the Italian Renaissance whose character is summarized in contemporary literature by the word terribile, which is best translated "extraordinary" or " magnificent."
Careless of the glories of Renaissance art, a stranger to all worldly instincts, the earnest Netherlander inscribed on his banner the healing of the moral ulcers, the restoration of unity to the Church - especially in Germany - and the preservation of the West from the Turkish danger.
In many points, especially his great nepotism - witness the promotion of the worthless Pier Luigi Farnesehe remained, even as pope, a true child of the Renaissance period in which he had risen to greatness.
For the Papacy in connexion with the Renaissance, see E.
Burkhardt, Cultur der Renaissance in Italien, 2 B.
The principal buildings include the Greek Orthodox cathedral, finished in 1864 after the model of the church of St Isaac at St Petersburg; the Armenian church, in a mixed Gothic and Renaissance style, consecrated in 1875; a handsome new Jesuit church, and a new synagogue in Moorish style, built in 1877.
With its Renaissance windows and portals this facade, though good in itself, was utterly out of keeping with the general style of the church, and in 1900 the removal of the inharmonious features was begun, to be replaced in a style strictly in accordance with the Gothic style of the rest of the building from the designs of Giuseppe Brentano.
The interior with its two orders is a very fine one, and its influence on Renaissance architects has been very considerable.
The principal buildings are the royal palace, built in1837-1840as a residence for the dukes of Nassau, and now a residence of the king of Prussia; the Court Theatre (erected 1892-1894); the new Kurhaus, a large and handsome establishment, with colonnades, adjoining a beautiful and shady park; the town-hail, in the German Renaissance style (1884-1888); the government offices and the museum, with a picture gallery, a collection of antiquities, and a library of 150,000 vols.
He attacked the dominant Aristotelianism of the time, and endeavoured to construct a philosophy which should harmonize faith and knowledge, and bridge over the chasm made by the first Renaissance writers who followed Pomponazzi.
In the Renaissance, it is true, falls the erection of many fine villas in the neighbourhood of Rome - not only in the hills round the Campagna, but even in certain places in the lower ground, e.g.
It is situated at the junction of the Maltsch with the Moldau, which here becomes navigable, and possesses a beautiful square, lined with fine arcaded buildings, the principal one being the town-hall, built in 1730 in Renaissance style.
On the south is the principal theatre, the Royal, a beautiful modern Renaissance building (1874), on the site of a former theatre of the same name, which dated from 1748.
The Norrevold Gade leads through the N6rretor y past the Folketeatre and the technical school to the Orsteds park, and from its southern end the Vestervold Gade continues through the Raadhus Plads, a centre of tramways, flanked by the modern Renaissance town hall (190,), ornamented with bronze figures, with a tower at the eastern angle.
The palace church is an interesting medley of Gothic and Renaissance detail.
from that of the Italian Renaissance, had begun.
On the market square stands the fine town hall (Rathaus), dating from the 15th century, with a handsome Renaissance façade of a somewhat later date, and before it a stone statue of Roland, the emblem of civic power.
Owen, Skeptics of the French Renaissance (1893); Lecky, Rationalism in Europe (1865).
There are also some good Renaissance palaces and other buildings, including the Municipio, begun in 1492 and completed by Jacopo Sansovino in 1554-1574.
Many of the commercial and private buildings are also worthy of notice, especially the Queensland National Bank, a classic Italian structure, the massive treasury buildings, one of the largest erections in Australia, the Queensland Club with its wide colonnades in Italian Renaissance style, and the great buildings of the Brisbane Newspaper Company.
Among the public buildings of Augsburg most worthy of notice is the town-hall in Renaissance style, one of the finest in Germany, built by Elias Holl in 1616-1620.
and Beatrice of Portugal, one of the most renowned princes of the later Renaissance, was born on the 8th of July 1528.
A great deal of the best of the Renaissance was founded on Epicureanism, and in more recent times a great number of prominent thinkers have been Epicureans in a greater or less degree.
The hotel de ville (15th century) and some houses of the Renaissance period are also of architectural interest.
The contest between Empire and Papacy was more than a mere struggle for supremacy between two world-powers; it was a war to the death between two fundamentally opposite conceptions of life, which in many respects anticipated and prepared the way for the Renaissance and the Reformation.
Frederick himself, of course, was Italian rather than German, akin to the despots of the Renaissance in his many-sided culture, his tolerant scepticism and his policy of cruelty well applied.
Still more powerful, because touching other elements of human nature and affecting a more important class, was the influence of the Renaissance, which, towards the end of the 15th century, passed from Italy to the universities of Germany.
Among Luthers friends was one, Ulrich von Hutten, at once penetrated with the spirit of the Renaissance and emphatically a man of action.
The Renaissance and the Reformation were awakening extravagant hopes in the minds of the German peasants, and it is still a matter of controversy among historians to what Tb extent Luther and the reformers were responsible for ~ their rising.
The Renaissance was followed by the fierce controversies aroused by the Reformation, and the result was the output of an enormous mass of writings covering every phase of the mighty combat and possessing every literary virtue save that of impartiality.
But apart from these polemical writings, many of which had only an ephemeral value, the Renaissance was the source of another stream of historical literature.
The chief histories on the period between the fall of the Hahenstaufen and the Renaissance are: T.
Bishop Creighton's principal published works are: History of the Papacy during the Period of the Reformation (5 vols., 1882-1897, new ed.); History of the Papacy from the Great Schism to the Sack of Rome (6 vols., 1897); The Early Renaissance in England (1895); Cardinal Wolsey (1895); Life of Simon de Montfort (1876, new ed.
The nave was begun in 1096 and is Romanesque in style; the transept and choir, which contain magnificent stained glass of the Renaissance period, are of Gothic architecture.
The fine Early Renaissance (1448) sculptural decorations of the chapel of S.
Buildings of the 15th century do not occupy an important place in Genoa, but there are some small private houses and remains of sculptural decoration of the Early Renaissance to be seen in the older portions of the town.
From the early Renaissance down to a comparatively recent time the influence of this treatise has been remarkably great.
Among other interesting buildings are the curious 14th-century Gothic town hall, the façade of which is concealed by a Renaissance addition; the palace of the grand duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, built in 1702; the law courts, built in 1878-79; the university buildings, erected in 1867-70; and an assembly hall of the estates of Mecklenburg (Standehaus), a handsome Gothic building erected in 1889-93.
With the Renaissance and the new learning, Hellenism came in again in flood, to form a chief part of that great river on which the modern world is being carried forward into a future, of which one can only say that it must be utterly unlike anything that has gone before.
Literature and the Press.Since the British occupation there has been a marked renaissance of Arabic learning and literature in Egypt.
The XXVIth Dynasty is often looked on as a renaissance; but when we compare similar work we see that it was poorer than the XXIInd, as that was poorer than the XIXth.
The Palazzo Orfini and the Palazzo Deli are two good Renaissance buildings.
In such work the painters of Upper Germany at this time, working in the spirit of the late Gothic style just before the dawn of the Renaissance, show considerable technical attainments, with a love of quaint costumes and rich draperies crumpled in complicated angular folds, some feeling for romance in landscape backgrounds, none at all for clearness or balance in composition, and in the attitudes and expressions of their overcrowded figures a degree of grotesqueness and exaggeration amounting often to undesigned caricature.
The awakening of Germany at the Renaissance was not, like the awakening of Italy a generation or two earlier, a movement almost exclusively intellectual.
It was indeed from Italy that the races of the north caught the impulse of intellectual freedom, the spirit of science and curiosity, the eager retrospect towards the classic past; but joined with these in Germany was a moral impulse which was her own, a craving after truth and right, a rebellion against spiritual tyranny and corruption - the Renaissance was big in the north, as it was not in the south, with a Reformation to come.
Without being so forward as the rival city of Augsburg to embrace the architectural fashions of the Italian renaissance - continuing, indeed, to be profoundly imbued with the old and homely German burgher spirit, and to wear, in a degree which time has not very much impaired even yet, the quaintness of the old German civic aspect - she had imported before the close of the 15th century a fair share of the new learning of Italy, and numbered among her citizens distinguished humanists like Hartmann Schedel, Sebald Schreier, Willibald Pirkheimer and Conrad Celtes.
From associates like these Di.irer could imbibe the spirit of Renaissance culture and research; but the external aspects and artistic traditions which surrounded him were purely Gothic, and he had to work out for himself the style and formlanguage fit to express what was in him.
On the right is the palace of Charles V., a cold-looking but majestic Renaissance building, out of harmony with its surroundings, which it tends somewhat to dwarf by its superior size.
The other work similarly enclosed represents the burial of the Virgin and is the later of the two in date and in the pure Renaissance style.
469.) This appointment marked an epoch in German university education; Wittenberg became the school of the nation; the scholastic methods of instruction were set aside, and in a Discourse on Reforming the Studies of Youth Melanchthon gave proof, not only that he had caught the Renaissance spirit, but that he was fitted to become one of its foremost leaders.
The Breite Weg and the old market contain numerous fine gable-ended private houses in the style of the Renaissance.
He was the first English monarch to be educated under the influence of the Renaissance, and his tutors included the poet Skelton; he became an accomplished scholar, linguist, musician and athlete, and when by the death of his brother Arthur in 1502 and of his father on the 22nd of April 1509 Henry VIII.
Slowly and obscurely the Renaissance comes to Scotland; its presence is indicated by the artistic tastes of the king, and, later, by the sweet and mournful poetry of Henryson.
But the Renaissance, like the religious revivals initiated in Italy, arrived in Scotland weak and weary; hence the church did not share in the new enthusiasms of the faith of St Francis, and art was trampled on by the magnates who hated poetry and painting.
1309), whose Renaissance tomb and frescoes illustrating the life of the saint by Lorenzo and Jacopo da San Severino are preserved in a room adjoining the chapel north of the high altar.
Maria della Consolazione, one of the finest buildings of the Renaissance, and often wrongly attributed to Bramante.
The pilgrimage thither must have attained great importance as early as the 15th century; for the popes of the Renaissance found themselves constrained to erect an imposing pilgrim church above the "Holy House."
In 1904 appeared the third volume, La Renaissance de Petal, in which the author describes the efforts of the Capetian kings to reconstruct the power of the Frankish kings over the whole of Gaul; and goes on to show how the clergy, the heirs of the imperial tradition, encouraged this ambition; how the great lords of the kingdom (the "princes," as Flach calls them), whether as allies or foes, pursued the same end; and how, before the close of the 12th century, the Capetian kings were in possession of the organs and the means of action which were to render them so powerful and bring about the early downfall of feudalism.
C. von Savigny, Flach studied the teaching of law in the middle ages and the Renaissance, and produced Cujas, les glossateurs et les Bartolistes (1883), and Etudes critiques sur l'histoire du droit romain au moyen age, avec textes inedits (1890) .
115), a huge limestone edifice in the late Gothic style, covering an area of 34 acres, erected in 1883-1902; the Academy, in Renaissance style, erected in 1862-1864, containing a lofty reception room, a library, a historic picture gallery, and a botanic collection; the Redoute buildings, a large structure in a mixed Romanesque and Moorish style, erected for balls and other social purposes; the extensive custom-house at the lower end of the quays, and several fine hotels and insurance offices.
In the beautiful Andrassy Ut are the opera-house (1875-1884), in the Italian Renaissance style; the academy of music; the old and new exhibition building; the national drawing school; and the museum of fine arts (1900-1905), in which was installed in 1905 the national gallery, formed by Prince Esterhazy, bought by the government in 1865 for £130,000, and formerly housed in the academy, and the collection of modern pictures from the national museum.
Other buildings remarkable for their size and interest are: the national museum (1836-1844); the town-hall (1869-1875), in the early Renaissance style; the university, with a baroque facade (rebuilt 1900), and the university library (opened in 1875), a handsome Renaissance building; the palace of justice (1896), a magnificent edifice situated not far from the Houses of Parliament.
Having laid the founda - tions of a successful business in his admirable domestic pottery - the best the world had ever seen up to that time - he turned his attention to artistic pottery, and the European renaissance of classic art - fostered by the discovery of Pompeii and the recovery of Greek painted vases from the ancient graves in Campania.
In the early Renaissance his doctrine of the soul's mortality was adopted by P. Pomponazzi against the Thomists and the Averroists.
Eventful as the age was both in Europe, where the Renaissance was in full growth, and in India, where the splendour of the emperor Akbar's reign exceeded alike that of his predecessors and his successors, Suleiman's conquests overshadowed all these.
Laibach is an episcopal see, and possesses a cathedral in the Italian style, several beautiful churches, a town hall in Renaissance style and a castle, built in the 15th century, on the Schlossberg, an eminence which commands the town.
He went to Rome in Winckelmann's footsteps; it was the antique he sought, and his interest in the artists of the Renaissance was virtually restricted to their imitation of classic models.
The calm beauty of Greek tragedy is seen in the new iambic version of Iphigenie auf Tauris (1787); the classicism of the Renaissance gives the ground-tone to the wonderful drama of Torquato Tasso (1790), in which the conflict of poetic genius with the prosaic world is transmuted into imperishable poetry.
Yet behind these unconvincing shadows of an imperial court with its financial difficulties, of the classical Walpurgisnacht, of the fantastic creation of the Homunculus, the noble Helena episode and the impressive mystery-scene of the close, where the centenarian Faust finally triumphs over the powers of evil, there lies a philosophy of life, a ripe wisdom born of experience, such as no European poet had given to the world since the Renaissance.
The scheme adopted breathed the spirit of the Renaissance; provision was made for the teaching of Greek, Erasmus lauded the institution and Pole was one of its earliest fellows.
east, not far from the Neusiedler lake, lies Esterhaza, with a beautiful castle in the French Renaissance style, belonging to Count Esterhazy.
The cathedral (1589-1604) is a late Renaissance building with a modern dome and early Renaissance choir-stalls, puplit, &c. In the Cappella Sistina, to the north, stands the simple, finely carved tomb erected by Sixtus IV.
British architects and artists who design for the principal decorating firms are to-day as conversant with the Renaissance and succeeding styles of France and Italy as medieval revivalists were familiar with the Gothic styles with which they made us so well acquainted.
Denis, and L'Art du moyen age (various dates); Karch, Die Rdthselbilder an der Broncethiire zu Augsburg (1869); Krug, Entwiirfe fiir Gold-, Silber-, and Bronze-Arbeiten; Linas, Orfevrerie merovingienne (1864), and Orfevrerie du XIII me siecle (1856); Bordeaux, Serrurerie du moyen age (1858); Didron, Manuel des oeuvres de bronze et d'orfevrerie du moyen age (1859); Du Sommerard, Arts au moyen age (1838-1846), and Musee de Cluny (1852); Rico y Sinobas, Trabajos de metales (1871); Bock, Die Goldschmiedekunst des Mittelalters (1855), and Kleinodien des heil.-romischen Reiches; Jouy, Les gemmes et les joyaux (1865); Texier, Dictionnaire d'orfevrerie (1857); Virgil Solis, Designs for Goldand Silversmiths (1512), (facsimile reproduction, 1862); Molinier, Les Bronzes de la Renaissance (1886); Servant, Les bronzes d'art (1880); Wilhelm Bode, Italian Bronze Statuettes of the Renaissance (Eng.
His studies included all the wide range of subjects, classics, science and philosophy, which constituted the curriculum of the Renaissance savants.
The monument of Don Ferrando d'Acunea, a Spanish viceroy of Sicily, is a fine early Renaissance work (1494).
But to the Europeans of the i 5th century India was practically an unknown land, which powerfully attracted the imagination of spirits stimulated by the Renaissance and ardent for discovery.
A belfry of 1403 and several houses of the Renaissance period, some of which are built over ancient wine-cellars, are architecturally notable.
The post-office, formerly the meeting-house of the Estates, a building adorned with old frescoes; the royal palace, which contains some very fine Renaissance work; and the townhall, built in 1446 and restored in 1860, are also noteworthy.
The town-hall, a fine building in a modified Renaissance style (characteristic of the majority of the other public buildings), has a lofty tower.
This castle, which is now used as a barracks, is one of the largest Renaissance buildings in Germany.
In the main, its architecture is Gothic, but the choir and the apsidal chapels, with their elaborate interior and exterior decoration, are of Renaissance workmanship. The graceful tower, which rises beside the southern portal to a height of 255 ft., belongs to the early 1 4 th century.
The most prominent buildings are the Gothic church of St Bartholomew, said to date from 1292, whose tower (325 ft.) is the highest in Bohemia, and the fine Renaissance town hall dating from the 16th century.
Notable is the so-called Deutsches Haus, the ancestral home of the counts of DrechselDeufstetten, a fine specimen of the German renaissance style of wooden architecture.
On the whole, however, Aristotle, Bacon and Mill, purged from their errors, form one empirical school, gradually growing by adapting itself to the advance of science; a school in which Aristotle was most influenced by Greek deductive Mathematics, Bacon by the rise of empirical physics at the Renaissance, and Mill by the Newtonian combination of empirical facts and mathematical principles in the Principia.
Aristotle, however, treats it as a dialectical rival to syllogism, and it influenced Galilei and Bacon in their views of inference after the Renaissance.
that of the criterion of truth, exercised its influence on the individualists of the Renaissance.
The pioneers of the Renaissance owe something of their strength to their training in the developments which the system that they overthrew underwent during this period.
Between him and the tide of feeling at the Renaissance lay the whole achievement of Arab science.
That impatience of authority to which we owe the Renaissance, the Reformation and the birth of Nationalism, is not stilled by the downfall of Aristotle as the nomen appellativum of the schools.
C. THE Renaissance Accordingly what is in one sense the revival of classical learning is in another a recourse to what inspired that learning, and so is a new beginning.
The science of the Renaissance differs from that of the false dawn in Greek times in the fact of fruitfulness.
He is with the nominalists of the later Scholasticism and the naturalists of the early Renaissance.
Among the churches mention must be made of the Zuiderkerk, or South church, with a conspicuous tower (1450-1525); and the Westerkerk, or West church, which possesses a beautifully carved Renaissance screen and pulpit of the middle of the 16th century, and a quaint wooden bell-house (1519) built for use before the completion of the bell-tower.
The campanile, in the Renaissance style, dates from 1451-1493, but the last storey was added at the end of the 16th century.
Cristoforo are all good early Renaissance buildings.
The numerous early Renaissance palaces, often with good terra-cotta decorations, form quite a feature of Ferrara; few towns of Italy have so many of them proportionately, though they are mostly comparatively small in size.
The building also contains fine choir-books with miniatures, and a collection of coins and Renaissance medals.
A considerable area within the walls of Ferrara is unoccupied by buildings, especially on the north, where the handsome Renaissance church of S.
The interesting Renaissance townhall was built in 1554 (restored in 1879).
(It was only after the Renaissance that the town-council came to be styled senate, and the burgomasters in Latin documents, consules.) As units of local government the towns must be considered as originally placed on the same legal ba s is as the villages, viz.
A man of wide learning and culture, he encouraged the settlement of Jewish scholars in Andalusia, and his patronage of literature, science and art promoted the Jewish renaissance in Europe.
The cathedral church of San Martino is a Renaissance building begun in 1488 by Cristoforo Rocchi; it is a vast "central" structure, finely designed, with four arms, which remained for centuries unfinished until the dome (only surpassed by those of St Peter at Rome and the cathedral at Florence) and façade were completed in 1898 according to Rocchi's still extant model; adjoining the church is the massive Torre Maggiore, 258 ft.
However the influence of the Early Renaissance had meanwhile become supreme throughout Italy, and the rest of the church with its external arcaded galleries and lofty pinnacles (including the fine dome) and the cloisters were executed in the new style under Guiniforte Solari (1453-1481) with details in terra-cotta of great beauty and richness.
It is perhaps the finest piece of elaborate and richly adorned Renaissance architecture in existence, and is the work of a number of different artists.
The museum (1901) is an imposing building in the German Renaissance style and contains, in addition to a valuable library, ethnographical and natural history collections.
1864), the architect; it is in the Italian Renaissance style, is 340 by 470 ft., and encloses four courts and a central rotunda surmounted by a flat black copper dome, with gilded panels and a lantern.
This phase began to give way in the irth century to a commercial and industrial renaissance, which received a great impetus from the crusading movements - themselves largely economic - and by the 14th century had made the Netherlands the factory of Europe, the Rhine a vast artery of trade, and north Italy a hive of busy cities.
But the renaissance of law began relatively early; by the 12th century it had created a university, by the 13th it was helping to organize national states and laying the basis for that order which the economic renaissance was already demanding.
The 17th century is not so much a renaissance here as a mere beginning.
With the revival of civilized conditions in secular life, secular ideals in art also revived; the ecclesiastical traditions in painting and sculpture, which always tend to become stereotyped, began in the West to be encroached upon long before the period of the "Renaissance."
But this Italian renaissance was not the only one.
The traditional idea of a barren middle r age and a single glorious renaissance proves false.
This is the so-called Renaissance (q.v.).
As for the claim that the "Renaissance" delivered men from that blind reliance upon authority which was typical of "medieval" thought, that is a fallacy cherished by those who themselves rely upon the authority of historians, blind to the most ordinary processes of thought.
The so-called Renaissance did much; but it did not do the things attributed to it by those who see the "middle ages" through humanist glasses.
The popes of the Renaissance were profoundly uninterested in theology; they were far more at home in an art gallery, or in fighting to recover their influence as temporal Italian princes, gravely shattered during the long residence of the papal court at Avignon in the 14th century.
If one single treatise of that century should be chosen to represent the spirit of the Italian people in the last phase of the Renaissance, the historian might hesitate between the Principe of Machiavelli and the Ricordi politici of Guicciardini.
RENAISSANCE - The "Renaissance" or "Renascence" is a term used to indicate a well-known but indefinite space of time and a certain phase in the development of Europe.'
If we insist upon the literal and etymological meaning of the word, the Renaissance was a re-birth; and it is needful to inquire of what it was the re-birth.
The former has the disadvantage of making it difficult to separate the Renaissance from other historical phases - the Reformation, for example - with which it ought not to be confounded.
In other words, the one definition of Renaissance makes it denote the whole change which came over Europe at the close of the middle ages.
We find it needful to retain both terms, Renaissance and Revival of Learning, and 1 For a somewhat different view of the parcelling out into such periods, see the article Middle Ages.
Important as the Revival of Learning undoubtedly was, there are essential factors in the complex called the Renaissance with which it can but remotely be connected.
That of Renaissance, Rinascimento, or Renascence is sufficient for the purpose, though we have to guard against the tyranny of what is after all a metaphor.
On the contrary, the Renaissance was rather the last stage of the middle ages, emerging from ecclesiastical and feudal despotism, developing what was original in medieval ideas by the light of classic arts and letters, holding in itself the promise of the modern world.
In this article the Renaissance will be considered as implying a comprehensive movement of the European intellect and will Method toward self-emancipation, toward reassertion of the natural rights of the reason and the senses, toward the conquest of this planet as a place of human occupation, and toward the formation of regulative theories both for states and individuals differing from those of medieval times.
These terms indicate moments in the whole process of modern history which were opposed, each to the other, and both to the Renaissance; and it is needful to bear in mind that they have, scientifically speaking, a quite separate existence.
Yet if the history of Europe in the 16th century of our era came to be written with the brevity with which we write the history of Europe in the 6th century B.C., it would be difficult at the distance of time implied by that supposition to distinguish the Italian movement of the Renaissance in its origin from the German movement of the Reformation.
The Renaissance, if we try to regard it as a period, was essentially the transition from one historical stage to another.
Thus, speaking roughly, the half-century between 1450 and 1500 may be termed the culminating point of the Renaissance.
The age of the Renaissance was now closed for the land which gave it birth.
It must not be imagined that so great a change as that implied by the Renaissance was accomplished without premonitory symptoms and previous endeavours.
It is therefore part of the present inquiry to pass in review some of the claimants to be considered precursors of the Renaissance.
We should, however, here remember that the study of Roman law, which was one important precursory symptom of the Renaissance, owed much to medieval respect for the empire as a divine institution.
The church preached Simon de Montfort's crusade, and organized Dominic's Inquisition; what Quinet calls the "Renaissance sociale par l'Amour" was extirpated by sword, fire, famine and pestilence.
Thus, while Christendom was still preoccupied with the Crusades, two main forces of the Renaissance, naturalism and enthusiasm for antique modes of feeling, already brought their latent potency to light, prematurely indeed and precociously, yet with a promise that was destined to be kept.
At this point the Revival of Learning intervened to determine the course of the Renaissance.
Without the Revival of Learning the direction of those forces would have been different; but that novel intuition into the nature of the world and man which constitutes what we describe as Renaissance must have emerged.
So much had to be premised in order to make it clear in what relation humanism stood to the Renaissance, since the Italian work of Dante, Petrarch and Boccaccio is sufficient to indicate the re-birth of the spirit after ages of apparent deadness.
They held their writings in the vernacular cheap, and initiated that contempt for the mother tongue which was a note of the earlier Renaissance.
But the victor's laurels were reserved for Ariosto, whose Orlando Furioso is the purest and most perfect extant example of Renaissance poetry.
Its touch on classical mythology is original, rarely imitative or pedantic. The art of the Renaissance was an apocalypse of the beauty of the world and man in unaffected spontaneity, without side thoughts for piety or erudition, inspired by pure delight in loveliness and harmony for their own sakes.
It must be added that their writings, like every other product of the Renaissance, except its purest poetry and art, exhibit a hybrid between medieval and modern tendencies.
The object of the foregoing paragraphs has been to show in what way the positive, inquisitive, secular, exploratory spirit of the Renaissance, when toned and controlled by humanism, penetrated the regions of literature, art, philosophy and science.
What has come to be called a classical education was the immediate product of the Italian Renaissance.
To this point the awakened intelligence of the Renaissance, instructed by humanism, polished by the fine arts, expanding in genial conditions of diffused wealth, had brought the Italians at a period when the rest of Europe was comparatively barbarous.
The Renaissance can, after all, be regarded only as a period of transition in which much of the good of the past was sacrificed while some of the evil was retained, and neither the bad nor the.
At the height of the Renaissance the five great powers in the peninsula formed a confederation of independent but mutually attractive and repellent states.
Meanwhile the people grew up unused to arms. When Italy between the years 1494 and 1530 became the battlefield of French, German and Spanish forces, it was seen to what a point of helplessness the political, moral and social conditions of the Renaissance had brought the nation.
It was needful to study at some length the main phenomena of the Renaissance in Italy, because the history of that phase of evolution in the other Western races turns almost entirely upon points in which they either adhered of the to or diverged from the type established there.
But that audacious exploratory energy which formed the motive force of the Renaissance as distinguished from the Revival of Learning took, as we shall see, very different directions in the several nations who now were sending the flower of their youth to study at the feet of Italian rhetoricians.
The Renaissance ran its course in Italy with strange indifference to consequences.
This was the attitude of the Italians when the Renaissance, which they had initiated as a thing of beauty, began to operate as a thing of power beyond the Alps.
Yet, though the Renaissance was thus widely communicated to the centres of German intelligence, it displayed a different character from that which it assumed in Italy.
Not in Cologne or Tubingen but in Padua and Florence did the German pioneers of the Renaissance acquire their sense of liberal studies.
To a student of the origins of German humanism it is Tear that something very different from the Renaissance of Lorenzo le' Medici and Leo X.
The point of contact between humanism and the Reformation in Germany has to be insisted on; for it is just here that the relation of the Reformation to the Renaissance in general makes itself apparent.
As the Renaissance had its precursory movements in the medieval period, so the German Reformation was preceded by Wickliffe and Huss, by the discontents of the Great Schism and by the councils of Constance and Basel.
The truth is that the Reformation was the Teutonic Renaissance.
It was the emancipation of the reason on a line neglected by the Italians, more important indeed in its political consequences, more weighty in its bearing -on rationalistic developments than the Italian Renaissance, but none the less an outcome of the same ground-influences.
The Renaissance was virtually closed, so far as it concerned Italy, when Clement VII.
A reaction immediately set in both against the Renaissance and the Reformation.
The complex onward effort of the modern nations, expressing itself in Italy as Renaissance, in Germany as Reformation, had aroused the forces of conservatism.
The principle contended for and established by this reaction was absolutism as opposed to freedom - monarchical absolutism, papal absolutism, the suppression of energies liberated by the Renaissance and the Reformation.
Renaissance and Reformation were, moreover, already at strife.
It will be well, in dealing with the Renaissance in Spain, to touch first upon the arts and literature, and then to consider those qualities of character in action whereby the nation most distinguished itself from the rest of Europe.
Architecture in Spain, emerging from the Gothic stage, developed an Early Renaissance style of bewildering richness by adopting elements of Arabic and Moorish decoration.
They are mainly noticeable as proving that certain coteries in Spain were willing to accept the Italian Renaissance.
It expressed itself at last in the monumental work of Don Quixote, which places Cervantes beside Rabelais, Ariosto and Shakespeare as one of the four supreme exponents of the Renaissance.
The revival of learning produced in Spain no slavish imitation as it did in Italy, no formal humanism, and, it may be added, very little of fruitful scholarship. The Renaissance here, as in England, displayed essential qualities of intellectual freedom, delight in life, exultation over rediscovered earth and man.
The note of Renaissance work in Germany was still Gothic. This we feel in the penetrative earnestness of Darer, in the homeliness of Hans Sachs, in the grotesque humour of Eulenspiegel and the Narrenschiff, the sombre pregnancy of the Faust legend, the almost stolid mastery of Holbein.
The Spanish Renaissance would in itself suffice, if other witnesses were wanting, to prove how inaccurate is the theory that limits this movement to the revival of learning.
In the history of the Renaissance, Spain and Portugal represent the exploration of the ocean and the colonization of the other Explora- hemisphere.
The Renaissance, far from being the re-birth of antiquity with its civilization confined to the Mediterranean, with its Hercules' Pillars beyond which lay Cimmerian darkness, was thus effectively the entrance upon a quite incalculably wider stage of life, on which mankind at large has since enacted one great drama.
But we have to observe that the last great phenomenon of the Spanish Renaissance was Ignatius Loyola, who organized the militia by means of which the church worked her Counter-Reformation.
The logical order of an essay which attempts to show how Renaissance was correlated to Reformation and CounterReformation has necessitated the treatment of Italy, Germany and Spain in succession; for these three nations were the three main agents in the triple process to be analysed.
The Renaissance may be said to have begun in France with Charles VIII.'s expedition to Naples, and to have continued until the extinction of the house of Valois.
But we need not have recourse to this legend for the explanation of such Italian influences as were already noticeable architec- in the Renaissance buildings on the Loire.
There are students of the 15th century in France who resent this intrusion of the Italian Renaissance.
Beginning with the older castles of Touraine, and passing onward to the Tuileries, we trace the passage from the medieval fortress to the modern pleasure-house, and note how architecture obeyed the special demands of that new phenomenon of Renaissance civilization, the court.
These three masters were the contemporaries of Corneille, and do not belong to the Renaissance period.
It may indeed be said in general that what is true of France is likewise true of all countries which felt the artistic impulses of the Renaissance.
French literature was quick to respond to Renaissance influences.
The Renaissance displayed itself in their effort to purify the form and diction of poetry.
It was a marked characteristic of the Renaissance in France to appropriate the spoils of Greece and Rome for the profit of the mother tongue.
But the greatest name of the epoch, the name which is synonymous with the Renaissance in France, has yet to be uttered.
The Renaissance cannot be comprehended in its true character without familiarity with these six representatives of its manifold and many-sided inspiration.
The French Renaissance, so rich on the side of arts and letters, was hardly less rich on the side of classical studies.
France had already absorbed the earlier Renaissance in an Italianizing spirit before the Reformation made itself felt as a political actuality.
The Renaissance in the Low Countries, as elsewhere, had its brilliant age of arts and letters.
We have a right to connect this later period with the Renaissance, because the diststcted state of the Netherlands during the 16th century suspended, while it could not extinguish, their aesthetic development.
The various schools of the 17th century, moreover, are animated with the Renaissance spirit no less surely than the Florentine school of the 15th or the Venetian of the 16th.
It would, however, be uncritical to pursue this subject further; for the encyclopaedic labours of the Dutch philologers belong to a period when the Renaissance was overpast.
It is enough here to have alluded to the part played by the Low Countries in the genesis of a motive force which may be described as the last manifestation of the Renaissance striving after self-emancipation.
It was thus that England took the influences of the Renaissance and Reformation simultaneously, and almost at the same time found herself engaged in that struggle with the Counter-Reformation which, crowned by the defeat of the Spanish Armada, stimulated the sense of nationality and developed the naval forces of the race.
Both Renaissance and Reformation had been anticipated by at least a century in England.
The circumstances just now insisted on explain the specific character of the English Renaissance.
The first period of the English Renaissance was one of imitation and assimilation.
It seemed as though the Renaissance ran a risk of being throttled in its cradle by superfluity of foreign and pedantic nutriment.
It was under these conditions that Spenser gave his romantic epic to the world, a poem which derived its allegory from the middle ages, its decorative richness from the Italian Renaissance, its sweetness, purity, harmony and imaginative splendour from the most poetic nation of the modern world.
the Elizabethan drama, which in its totality is the real exponent of the English Renaissance, came into existence.
To complete the sketch, we must set Bacon, the expositor of modern scientific method, beside Spenser and Shakespeare, as the third representative of the Renaissance in England.
Puritanism indicated a revolt of the religious conscience of the nation against the arts and manners of the Renaissance, against the encroachments of belligerentCatholicism, against the corrupt and Italianated court of James I., against the absolutist pretensions of his son Charles.
In its final manifestation during the Commonwealth, Puritanism won a transient victory over the mundane forces of both Reformation and Renaissance, as these had taken shape in England.
Thus the geographical isolation of England, and the comparatively late adoption by the English of matured Italian and German influences, give peculiar complexity to the phenomena of Reformation and Renaissance simultaneously developed on our island.
It has been impossible to avoid an air of superficiality, and the repetition of facts known to every schoolboy, in this sketch New of so complicated a subject as the Renaissance, - embracing many nations, a great variety of topics and an indefinite period of time.
Yet no other treatment was possible upon the lines laid down at the outset, where it was explained why the term Renaissance cannot now be confined to the Revival of Learning and the effect of antique studies upon literary and artistic ideals.
The purpose of this article has been to show that, while the Renaissance implied a new way of regarding the material world and human nature, a new conception of man's destiny and duties on this planet, a new culture and new intellectual perceptions penetrating every sphere of thought and energy, it also involved new reciprocal relations between the members of the European group of nations.
The Renaissance closed the middle ages and opened the modern era, - not merely because the mental and moral ideas which then sprang into activity and owed their force in large measure to the revival of classical learning were opposed to medieval modes of thinking and feeling, but also because the political and international relations specific to it as an age were at variance with fundamental theories of the past.
In truth the Renaissance was ruled by no Astraea redux, but rather by a severe spirit which brought no peace but a sword, reminding men of sternest duties, testing what of moral force and tenacity was in them, compelling them to strike for the old order or the new, suffering no lukewarm halting between two opinions.
Had this not been, the Renaissance or re-birth of Europe would be a term without a meaning.
Of works on the Renaissance in general may be mentioned Jacob Burckhardt, Die Cultur der Renaissance in Italien (Eng.
Symonds, Renaissance in Italy; Marc Monnier, Renaissance de Dante a Luther; Eugene Miintz, Precurseurs de la Renaissance (1882), Renaissance en Italie et en France (1885), and Hist.
i., "The Renaissance" (Cambridge, 1903), where full bibliographies will be found.
The general type of architecture is Gothic, but the rich details, which are lavished with especial freedom in the interior courts, are usually borrowed from the Renaissance.
For his life see Ardito, Giovanni Pontano e i suoi tempi (Naples, 1871); for his place in the history of literature, Symonds, Renaissance in Italy.
Among the principal public buildings are the town hall (1880), in the French Renaissance style; the county hall (1898), a handsome structure with octagonal tower and dome over the principal entrance; the large corn exchange (1837, enlarged 1862), including a concert-room; the market house, the sessions house, the county offices (1896) and the prison for the West Riding; the mechanics' institution with large library, church institute and library, and the fine art institution.
are both good early Renaissance churches; the latter is rich in frescoes by Pordenone.
The Palazzo dei Tribunali and the Palazzo degli Scoti are fine early Renaissance brick buildings with terra-cotta decorations.
Chamberlayne, Lacrimae nicossienses (Paris, 1894); and C. Enlart's volumes, L' Art gothique et la Renaissance en Chypre (Paris, 1899), deal with medieval architecture.
The influence of the Renaissance seems to have been tardy in penetrating into Wales itself, nor did the numerous ecclesiastical changes during the period of the Reformation cause any marked signs either of resentment or approval amongst the mass of the Welsh people, although some of the ancient Catholic customs lingered on obstinately.
But the most remarkable phenomenon in modern Wales has been the evident growth of a strong national sentiment, the evolution of a new Welsh Renaissance, which demanded special recognition of the Principality's claims by the Imperial parliament.
It is true that a Young Wales party has arisen, which seeks to narrow this movement to the exclusion of English ideas and influences; and it is also true that there is a party which is abnormally suspicious of and hostile to this Welsh Renaissance; but in the main it is correct to say that the bulk of the Welsh nation remains content to assert its views and requirements in a reasonable manner.
Indeed it was freely admitted by the most learned men of the middle ages and Renaissance that celibacy had been no rule of the apostolic church; and, though writers of ability have attempted to maintain the contrary even in modern times, their contentions are unhesitatingly rejected by the latest Roman Catholic authority.3 The gradual growth of clerical celibacy, first as a custom and then as a rule of discipline, can be traced clearly enough even through the scanty records of the first few centuries.
In 1519, at the king's expense, he went to Padua, the Athens of Europe, according to Erasmus; and there, where Colet and Cuthbert Tunstall had also been educated, the "nobleman of England" as he was called, came into contact with the choicest minds of the later Italian Renaissance, and formed the friendships that influenced his life.
It also escaped the classicism of the Renaissance with its insistence upon the test - either fact or fiction.
The famous château of the family of Orleans (see Architecture: Renaissance Architecture in France), a fine example of Renaissance architecture, stands on the more westerly of the two hills.
The picturesqueness of the town is enhanced by many old mansions, the chief of which is the Renaissance Hotel d'Alluye, and by numerous fountains, among which that named after Louis XII.
The style, that of the Italian Renaissance, is noble and refined, the royal apartments rich in treasures of art.
On the first is the national museum (1866), a Renaissance building, containing historical, numismatic and art-industrial collections, with ancient and modern sculptures, picture-gallery and engravings.
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