Josh is religious, but there aren't many men who would claim to understand women.
He was buried, with all religious honours, in the church of St Leonard, Basel.
As if that were not trial enough, her parents had been ultra religious and conservative.
Being ultra conservative and religious didn't make her parents wrong.
and one of the richest religious houses in Ireland.
It can be a jumble of voices: politicians and corporations, celebrities, religious figures, and opinion leaders, a million conversations in a single room.
all the religious truths which she represents and imposes.
The Church has always exercised a dominating influence in this region, and the city has many churches and religious establishments.
Considerations of this latter kind will naturally present themselves in the two great departments of cosmology and psychology, or they may be delegated to an independent research under the name of religious philosophy.
Thurstan was generous to the churches of his diocese and was the founder of several religious houses.
During Lent, many religious people decide to abstain from something to focus more clearly on God.
I asked, just as a stocky bearded man dressed in a brown religious smock came out of a side door.
It is by no means certain that he made the remark often attributed to him, "Let us enjoy the papacy since God has given it to us," but there is little doubt that he was by nature devoid of moral earnestness or deep religious feeling.
No government is involved in these organizations, which are instead driven by a combination of religious and civic motives.
I will tell you the truth, Andrew... is Father's way of treating religious subjects.
The objective ground on which he bases his system is the religious experience of the Christian community.
Religious judgments of value determine objects according to their bearing on our moral and spiritual welfare.
Up to the revolutionary year 1830 his religious views had remained strongly tinged with rationalism, Hegel remaining his guide in religion as in practical politics and the treatment of history.
Her confessor lent her the Genius of Christianity, and to this book she ascribes the first change in her religious views.
I got up early and bathed in the pond; that was a religious exercise, and one of the best things which I did.
By the austere clothing and stern features, Katie assessed she was in some kind of religious convent.
The French found Moscow abandoned but with all the organizations of regular life, with diverse branches of commerce and craftsmanship, with luxury, and governmental and religious institutions.
In 1906 there were in the state 301,565 members of religious denominations, of whom 86.2% were Protestants.
A convention on the religious orders was concluded in 1904, but had not received the assent of the Senate in 1908.
There are seven other similar structures in the group. Inishmore also bears the name of Aran-na-naomh, Aran-of-the-Saints, from the number of religious recluses who took up their abode in it, and gave a celebrity to the holy wells, altars and shrines, to which many are still attracted.
After May, 1890, it was evident to me that she had reached a point where it was impossible to keep from her the religious beliefs held by those with whom she was in daily contact.
The "immediate object of theological knowledge is the faith of the community," and from this positive religious datum theology constructs a "total view of the world and human life."
On all disputed points, whether commercial, religious or political, his advice was invariably sought by the foreign ministers and the Chinese alike.
Both passed through phases of faith, but while even Positivism did not cool George Eliot's innate religious fervour, with George Sand religion was a passing experience, no deeper than her republicanism and less lasting than her socialism, and she lived and died a gentle savage.
Again, Christ has for the religious life of the community the unique value of Founder and Redeemer.
The pope was above all a religious man, of a gentle and contemplative character; the cardinal was pre-eminently a man of affairs.
The entire colony had the same religious views, so there was only the need for one church.
HERMIT, a solitary, one who withdraws from all intercourse with other human beings in order to live a life of religious contemplation, and so marked off from a "coenobite" (Gr.
Ritschl appears to confine Metaphysic to the category of Causality.) The theory as formulated has such grave ambiguities, that his theology, which, as we have seen, is wholly based on uncompromising religious realism, has actually been charged with individualistic subjectivism.
Everywhere preparations were made not for ceremonious welcomes (which he knew Pierre would not like), but for just such gratefully religious ones, with offerings of icons and the bread and salt of hospitality, as, according to his understanding of his master, would touch and delude him.
But not to speak of the intrinsic quality of histories of this kind (which may possibly even be of use to someone for something) the histories of culture, to which all general histories tend more and more to approximate, are significant from the fact that after seriously and minutely examining various religious, philosophic, and political doctrines as causes of events, as soon as they have to describe an actual historic event such as the campaign of 1812 for instance, they involuntarily describe it as resulting from an exercise of power--and say plainly that that was the result of Napoleon's will.
Here she met two men, one of whom indoctrinated her with religious mysticism,- the other with advanced socialism, Lamennais and Pierre Leroux.
Christianity was introduced in the 5th century, and Aran soon became one of the most famous island-resorts of religious teachers and ascetics.
There is a religious argument for immortality.
In accordance with his former action on all questions of religious toleration he opposed the shameful Five Mile Act of 1665.
A great religious festival is held here every twelfth year.
He resigned the crown to his brother Ramiro and went into a religious house.
He was, too, ever the friend of religious freedom and of an enlightened policy in all trade questions.
They were not assailed by a great religious movement, but destroyed piecemeal by the revolt of tribes and districts.
In the wars against the English in the 14th and 15th centuries and the religious wars of the 16th century the town had its full participation; and in 1665 it acquired a terrible notoriety by the trial and execution of many members of the nobility of Auvergne who had tyrannized over the neighbouring districts.
Ritschl is so faithful to the standpoint of the religious community, that he has nothing definite to say on many inevitable questions, such as the relation of God to pagan races.
Neither Hegelianism nor Aristotelianism is "vital" enough to sound the depths of religious life.
Louis, who was the eldest of four children, received from his mother a strict religious training.
The origin of such unendowed curacies is traceable to the fact that benefices were sometimes granted to religious houses pleno jure, and with liberty for them to provide for the cure; and when such appropriations were transferred to lay persons, being unable to serve themselves, the impropriators were required to nominate a clerk in full orders to the.
It is philosophy harnessed to a practical and religious interest.
They have also founded great religious institutions.
His life was mainly spent in this religious house.
from it rises a tall campanile, the inner walls of which have been covered in parts with frescoes of religious subjects, though these are now much defaced.
What, however, with the idealists was an object of thought alone, the absolute, is to Lotze only inadequately definable in rigorous philosophical language; the aspirations of the human heart, the contents of our feelings and desires, the aims of art and the tenets of religious faith must be grasped in order to fill the empty idea of the absolute with meaning.
Many claim that their religious texts are not only vatic but entirely true.
As his over-sanguine visions of a new order of things to be ushered in by political change disappeared, he began to direct his thoughts to religious subjects.
The steps by which the practice of resting from labour on the Lord's day instead of on the Sabbath was established in Christendom and received civil as well as ecclesiastical sanction are dealt with under Sunday; it is enough to observe here that this practice is naturally and even necessarily connected with the religious observance of the Lord's day as a day of worship and religious gladness, and is in full accordance with the principles laid down by Jesus in His criticism of the Sabbath of the Scribes.
The practice of cutting off the hair of the dead prevailed in India, though it does not appear in the Vedas (Monier-Williams, Religious Thought and Life in India, p. 281).
She was a change of life baby and they were so conservative and religious.
Carmen had been raised poor by aging and conservative parents who were old time religious.
Negotiations for the marriage began during the reign of Charles I., were renewed immediately after the Restoration, and on the 23rd of June, in spite of Spanish opposition, the marriage contract was signed, England securing Tangier and Bombay, with trading privileges in Brazil and the East Indies, religious and commercial freedom in Portugal and two million Portuguese crowns (about 300,000); while Portugal obtained military and naval support against Spain and liberty of worship for Catherine.
They had no special forms of religious worship, and no idols.
Though the outbreak was unconnected with the religious feud, the latent fanaticism of both creeds was soon aroused, and the island once more became a scene of pillage and devastation.
The religious types also are strongly divergent.
He sees insoluble contradictions in every mode of conceiving God as real, yet he advocates religious belief, though the object of that belief have but an abstract or imaginary existence.
Violation of the duties of hospitality was likely to provoke the wrath of the gods; but it does not appear that anything beyond this religious sanction existed to guard the rights of a traveller.
Rulers of this name are found at Rhodes as late as the 1st century B.C. The Prytaneum was regarded as the religious and political centre of the community and was thus the nucleus of all government, and the official "home" of the whole people.
Bridget's saintly and charitable life soon made her known far and wide; she gained, too, great religious influence over her husband, with whom (1341-1343) she went on pilgrimage to St James of Compostella.
Civil war was raging in France, and Clement became an ardent partisan of the League; his mind appears to have become unhinged by religious fanaticism, and he talked of exterminating the heretics, and formed a plan to kill Henry III.
His strongest denunciation is directed against the religious practices of the time in Judea - the worship of the Canaanite local deities (the Baals), the Phoenician Tammuz, and the sun and other Babylonian and Assyrian gods (vi., viii., xvi., xxiii.); he maintained vigorously the prophetic struggle for the sole worship of Yahweh.
The event showed that he judged the situation rightly - the religious scheme announced by him, though not accepted in all its details, became the dominant policy of the later time, and he has been justly called ' The stricter marriage law is formulated in Lev.
These are followed by a scathing sketch of Israel's religious career (xx.
Despite the fact that with the exception of the period of the "Great Awakening" (1740-1742), when he preached as an itinerant in several neighbouring colonies, his active labours were confined to his own parish, his influence on the religious thought of his time in America was probably surpassed only by that of his old friend and teacher Jonathan Edwards.
The literature of the last two centuries consists mainly of translations and religious works written by ecclesiastics, some of whom were natives of the Albanian colonies in Italy.
These officials, at the command of the senate, consulted the Sibylline books in order to discover, not exact predictions of definite future events, but the religious observances necessary to avert extraordinary calamities (pestilence, earthquake) and to expiate prodigies in cases where the national deities were unable, or unwilling, to help. Only the interpretation of the oracle which was considered suitable to the emergency was made known to the public, not the oracle itself.
METHODISM, a term' denoting the religious organizations which trace their origin to the evangelistic teaching of John Wesley.
Napier lived in the very midst of fiercely contending religious factions; there was but little theological teaching of any kind, and the work related to what were then the leading political and religious questions of the day.
As has been said of another thinker, he was " one of those deeply religious men who, when crude theological notions are being revised and called in question seek to put new life into theology by wider and more humane ideas."
It was the town council which made arrangements for religious disputations, and provided for the housing and maintenance of the preachers.
The first reforms he wished to see introduced concerned the Lord's Supper, church praise, religious instruction of youth and the regulation of marriage.
In 1801 and 1802 Napoleon took into his own hands the independence of both Catholic and Protestant Churches, the national synod was abolished, and all active religious propaganda was rigorously forbidden.
A majority of the Ulster Protestants were Presbyterians, and in a great religious revival which took place the ministers of the Scottish regiments stationed in Ireland took a leading part.
She has been a zealous supporter of Irish national education, which is theoretically "united secular and separate religious instruction."
Bonnet resented Lavater's action, but Mendelssohn was bound to reply, though opposed to religious controversy.
Among them secular studies had been neglected, and Mendelssohn saw that he could best remedy the defect by attacking it on the religious side.
Churches and chapels are founded and maintained by religious orders and private gift as well.
The state, the departments, and the communes were thus relieved from the payment of salaries and grants to religious bodies, an item of expenditure which amounted in the last year of the old system to 1,101,000 paid by the state and 302,200 contributed by the departments and communes.
The Laws of 1882 and 1886 laicized the schools of this class, the former suppressing religious instruction, the latter providing that only laymen should be eligible for masterships.
There were also a great many schools in the control of various religious congregations, but a law of 1904 required that they should all be suppressed within ten years from the date of its enactment.
This piece was favourably received, and an attempt to suppress it on religious grounds failed.
The older records utilized by the Deuteronomic and later compilers indicate some common tradition which has found expression in these varying forms. Different religious standpoints are represented in the biblical writings, and it is now important to observe that the prophecies of Hosea unmistakably show another attitude to the Israelite priesthood.
A more directly religious element, it is true, was introduced by the practice of attending the synagogue service; but it is to be The grammatical inflexions of the word "Sabbath" would show that it is a feminine form, properly shabbat-t for shabbat-t.
So it was in old Israel: the Sabbath was one of the stated religious feasts, like the new moon and the three great .agricultural sacrificial celebrations (Hosea ii.
From this time forward the new moons, which till then had been at least as important as the Sabbath and were celebrated by sacrificial feasts as occasions of religious gladness, fall into insignificance, except in the conservative temple ritual.
- As the Sabbath was originally a religious feast, the question of the origin of the Sabbath resolves itself into an inquiry why and in what circle a festal cycle of seven days was first established.
In fact, the four quarters of the moon supply an obvious division of the month; and, wherever new moon and full moon are religious occasions, we get in the most natural way a sacred cycle of fourteen or 1 See, further, E.
religious feasts - with the phases of the moon among the Semites.
That full moon as well as new moon had a religious significance among the ancient Hebrews seems to follow from the fact that, when the great agricultural feasts were fixed to set days, the full moon was chosen.
In other cases the inclusion of documents relating to the temple business, payments of tithes and other dues, salaries to temple officials, and such ceremonies as marriages, &c., which may have demanded the presence of the congregation and were at least partly religious in nature, have been allowed to complicate the matter.
" It became clear that in the system of perpetual Becoming and of the dialectical passing over of all forms into one another, the finite personality could scarcely raise a plausible claim to the character of a substance and to immortality in the religious sense."
The desire is reasonable, moral, social, religious; it has the same worth as the loftiest ideals, and worthiest aspirations of the soul of man.
Religious instruction is not imparted by the state-paid teachers in any state, though in certain states persons duly authorized by the religious organizations are allowed to give religious instruction to children of their own denomination where the parents' consent has been obtained.
Open-air conventicles were held in all parts of the provinces, and the fierce Calvinist preachers raised the religious excitement of their hearers to such aitch that it found vent in a furious outburst The lcono- P oasts.
During the month of August bands of fanatical rioters in various parts of the country made havoc in the churches and religious houses, wrecking the altars, smashing the images and pictures, and carrying off the sacred vessels and other treasures on which they could lay their hands.
The regent was alienated from the popular leaders, and was no longer disposed to help William of Orange, Egmont, and Hoorn to secure a mitigation of religious persecution; and the heart of Philip was hardened in its resolve to exterminate heresy in the Netherlands.
with religious belief.
By it the northern provinces bound themselves together " as if they were one province " to maintain their rights and liberties " with life-blood and goods " against foreign tyranny, and to grant complete freedom of worship and of religious opinion throughout the confederacy.
Advance in his religious ideas led him to seek the freer atmosphere of Strassburg in the autumn of 1529.
Here, too, he published, in 1531, his most important work, the Chronica, Zeitbuch and Geschichtsbibel, largely a compilation on the basis of the Nuremberg Chronicle (1493), and in its treatment of social and religious questions connected with the Reformation, exhibiting a strong sympathy with heretics, and an unexampled fairness to all kinds of freedom in opinion.
By the time the third stage, which placed the seat of soul-life in the brain, was reached through the further advance of anatomical knowledge, the religious rites of Greece and Rome were too deeply incrusted to admit of further radical changes, and faith in the gods had already declined too far to bring new elements into the religion.
So completely had the state dominated the church that religious persecutions had become state persecutions, and Bonner was acting as an ecclesiastical sheriff in the most refractory district of the realm.
In the same year in which this work appeared, he and his wife Dorothea (1763-1839), a daughter of Moses Mendelssohn, joined the Roman Catholic Church, and from this time he became more and more opposed to the principles of political and religious freedom.
His chief interest from the first, however, lay in the religious question.
Cromwell chose his own troops, both officers and privates, from the" religious men,"who fought not for pay or for adventure, but for their faith.
In a letter to the city, possibly written by Cromwell himself, the officers repudiated any wish to alter the civil government or upset the establishment of Presbyterianism, but demanded religious toleration.
Cromwell's religious policy included the maintenance of a national church, a policy acceptable to the army but much disliked by the Scots, who wanted the church to control the state, not the state the church.
Religious toleration was granted, but with the important exception that some harsh measures were enacted against Anglicans and Roman Catholics, to neither of whom was liberty of worship accorded.
Cromwell himself, however, remained throughout a staunch and constant upholder of religious toleration.
aid - the religious mission of England in the world, her commercial interests, and her political independence being indissolubly connected in his mind.
The religious element, however, which predominated in Cromwell's foreign policy inclined him to peace, and in April of that year terms were arranged by which England on the whole was decidedly the gainer.
Gregory persuaded Tiridates to destroy the last relics of the old paganism, and carried out in the religious sphere his sovereign's policy of detaching Great Armenia from the Sassanid realm and allying it with the GraecoRoman empire and civilization.
This church contained some well-executed native paintings of St George and the Dragon, The Last Supper, &c. Among the religious observances of the Christians of Gondar is that of bathing in large crowds in the Gaha on the Feast of the Baptist, and again, though in more orderly fashion, on Christmas day.
In 1243 he was obliged to cede to Venice, Zara, a perpetual apple of discord between the two states; but he kept his hold upon Spalato and his other Dalmatian possessions, and his wise policy of religious tolerance in Bosnia enabled Hungary to rule that province peaceably for many years.
In October of this last year, however, the duke of Savoy, who came then to assist in person at the great religious feasts which celebrated the return of the country to unity of faith, expatriated such of the leading men as obstinately refused even to listen to the Catholic arguments.
The procession of the Host on Corpus Christi day became, as it were, a public demonstration of Catholic orthodoxy against Protestantism and later against religious Liberalism.
In most countries where religious opinion is sharply divided the procession of Corpus Christi is therefore now forbidden, even when Catholicism is the dominant religion.
Rajputana is of great archaeological interest, possessing some fine religious buildings in ruins and others in excellent preservation.
Religious officials and shepherds in charge of flocks were exempt.
Its intricacy lies in the character of the documents before us - religious formularies consisting partly of matter established in usage long before they were written down in their present shape, partly of additions made at the time of writing.
The effect of their preaching, and their example and their work among the poor, made itself felt throughout Umbria and brought about a great religious revival.
These words seem to contain the mere truth: Francis's peculiar religious genius was probably not adapted for the government of an enormous society spread over the world, as the Friars Minor had now become.
The schools which do not obtain equality with government schools are either some of those conducted by religious orders, or else those in which a sufficient standard is not reached.
The rest are largely directed by religious institutions.
Of this sum 260,000 was spent for religious purposes.
All the members of the suppressed communities received full exercise of all the ordinary political and civil rights of laymen; and annuities were granted to all those who had taken permanent religious vows prior to the 18th of January 1864.
The public worship endowment fund has relieved the state exchequer of the cost of public worship; has gradually furnished to the poorer parish priests an addition to their stipends, raising them to 32 per annum, with the prospect of further raising them to 40; and has contributed to the outlay incurred by the communes for religious purposes.
But the laws have not been rigorously enforced of late years; and the ecclesiastical possessions seized by the state were thrown on the market simultaneously, and so realized very low prices, being often bought up by wealthy religious institutions.
The chief items of annual expenditure drawn from the fund are the supplementary stipends to priests and the pensions to members of suppressed religious houses.
Supplementary stipends to bishops and parochial clergy, assignments to Sardinian clergy and expenditure for education and charitable purposes - - 142,912 f28,52f Roman Charitable and Religious Fund.The law of the 19th of June 1873 contained special provisions, in conformity with the character of Rome as the seat of the papacy, and with the situation created by the Law of Guarantees.
The law of 1873 created a special charitable and religious fund of the city, while it left untouched 23 monasteries and 49 convents which had either the character of private institutions or were supported by foreign funds.
New parishes were created, old parishes were improved, the property of the suppressed religious corporations was assigned to charitable and educational institutions and to hospitals, while property having no special application was used to form a charitable and religious fund.
Though their rule was favorable to the Romans, they were Arians; and religious differences, combined with the pride and jealousies of a nation accustomed to imperial honors, rendered the inhabitants of Italy eager to throw off their yoke.
In Naples King Ferdinand retained some of the laws and institutions of Murats rgime, and many of the functionaries of the former government entered Naples his service; but he revived the Bourbon tradition, the odious police system and the censorship; and a degrading religious bigotry, to which the masses were all too much inclined, became the basis of government and social iife.
Leo died in 1829, and the mild, religious Pius VIII.
The Ricasoli cabinet fell over the law against the religious houses, and was succeeded R ~ ~ by that of Rattazzi, who with the support of the Left ~flinistiy.
Pressure from all sides of the House, however, induced the ministry to retain office until after the debate on the application to Rome and the Papal States of the Religious Orders Bill (originally passed in 1866)a measure which, with the help of Ricasoli, was carried at the end of May.
While leaving intact the general houses of the various confraternities (except that of the Jesuits), the bill abolished the Religious corporate personality of religious orders, handed over Bill, their schools and hospitals to civil administrators, placed their churches at the disposal of the secular clergy, and provided pensions for nuns and monks, those who had families being sent to reside with their relatives, and those who by reason of age or bereavement had no home but their monasteries being allowed to end their days in religious houses specially set apart for the purpose.
The proceeds of the sale of the suppressed convents and monasteries were partly converted into pensions for monks and nuns, and partly allotted to the municipal charity boards which had undertaken the educational and charitable functions formerly exercised by the religious orders.
A few days after the passage of the Religious Orders Bill, the death of Rattazzi (5th June 1873) removed all probability of the immediate advent of the Left.
Perceiving the advantage of a visit to the imperial and apostolic court after the Italian occupation of Rome and the suppression of the religious orders, and convinced of the value of more cordial intercourse with the German empire, Visconti-Venosta and Minghetti advised their sovereign to accept both the Austrian and the subsequent German invitations.
In September of that year a number of religious institulions in the Near East, formerly under the protectorate of th~
A more difficult question was that of religious education in the public elementary schools.
In practice, however, when the council has suppressed religious instruction no such facilities are given.
The history of the two cognate names reflects in some measure the development of Indian religious speculation generally.
On the other hand, his divine substratum, the impersonal Brahma, the world-spirit, the one and only reality, remains to this day the ultimate element of the religious belief of intelligent India of whatever sect.
The gradual elaboration of the sacrificial ceremonial, as the all-sufficient expression of religious devotion, and a constantly growing tendency towards theosophic and mystic speculation on the significance of every detail of the ritual, could not fail to create a demand for explanatory treatises of this kind, which, to enhance their practical utility, would naturally deal with the special texts and rites assigned in the ceremonial to the several classes of officiating priests.
The chief interest, however, attaching to the Brahmanas is doubtless their detailed description of the sacrificial system as practised in the later Vedic ages; and the information afforded by them in this respect should be all the more welcome to us, as the history of religious institutions knows of no other sacrificial ceremonial with the details of which we are acquainted to anything like the same extent.
Indian Vedic henotheism (otherwise called kathenotheism); 3 Semitic monolatry, so important as the probable starting-point of religious development in Israel; the Greek use of " Zeus " almost as we say " God " - even the attempt to arrange deities in a monarchical pantheon, all show the tendency, though it so seldom attains a real victory.
It Simplifi- is possible for Christians to work out natural theology in separate detail; but we cannot wonder if they rarely attempt the task, believing as they do that they have a fuller revelation of religious truth elsewhere.
It is not the first runnings of the stream of religious thinking which have given the world its theistic philosophies.
There is perhaps a certain religious enthusiasm in the thought of being passively determined by Fate, the Universe, Zeus.
In Alciphron or the Minute Philosopher Berkeley gives the fullest statement of this argument, while adding more commonplace attacks on the pettiness of religious scepticism.
The Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion constitute Hume's formal profession of religious faith.
It was not yet socially safe to be a confessed religious sceptic.
This is the last word of religious truth, though pure philosophy stands still higher.
Ancient scepticism was frankly opposed to religious belief.
"1 5 An interesting manifesto of agnosticism, with a religious conclusion, is A.
When Otto Ritschl interprets values hedonistically - recoiling from Hegel's idealism the whole way to empiricism - he brings again to our minds the doubt whether hedonist ethics can serve as a foundation for any religious belief.
But is the basis for religious belief to be constructed purely within the region of " values " ?
Luthardt, to say that they draw this contrast, do you achieve much by calling the principles of moral and religious belief, with A.
Once again, empiricism may lead to some qualified and restricted form of agnosticism, religious or antireligious.
gives to the founders of religious houses the right of acting as guardians of such houses when they are without heads.
Throughout the middle ages the sancta civitas Trevirorum abounded in religious foundations and was a great seat of monastic learning.
Pregnant hints are given respecting a natural development of language which has its germs in sounds of quadrupeds and birds, of religious ideas out of dreams and waking hallucinations, and of the art of music by help of the suggestion of natural sounds.
Writers on biological subjects no longer have to waste space in weighing evolution against this or that philosophical theory or religious tradition; philosophical writers have frankly accepted it, and the supporters of religious tradition have made broad their phylacteries to write on them the new words.
It has cognizance of scandalous offences by laymen and punishes them by deprivation of religious privileges.
With the Reformation in the 16th century, Church courts properly speaking disappeared from the non-episcopal religious communities which were established in g Holland, in the Protestant states of Switzerland and of Germany, and in the then non-episcopal countries of Denmark and Norway.
The exemption of regular religious orders may be extended to religious societies without solemn vows by special concession of the pope, as in the case of the Passionists and Redemptorists (ib.
Certain religious houses, however, had their own final tribunals and were " peculiars," exempt from any diocesan or patriarchal jurisdiction for at least all causes relating to Church property (ib.
In addition to these there were in Ghent in 1901 fifty religious houses of various orders.
In addition there are training schools for teachers, an episcopal seminary, a conservatoire and an art academy with a fine collection of pictures mainly taken from the religious houses of the city on their suppression in 1795.
The horrors of war and of religious persecution, and the consequent emigration or expulsion of its inhabitants, had wrecked the prosperity of Ghent, the recovery of which was made impossible by the closing of the Scheldt.
When, therefore, in 1850, Mr Stowe was elected to a professorship in Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine, and removed his family thither, Mrs Stowe was prepared for the great work which came to her, bit by bit, as a religious message which she must deliver.
Mrs Stowe used the reputation thus won in promoting a moral and religious enmity to slavery.
She published also a small volume of religious poems, and towards the end of her career gave some public readings from her writings.
Two factors combined to give Pali its importance as one of the few great literary languages of the world: the one political, the other religious.
When Gotama the Buddha, himself a Kosalan by birth, determined on the use, for the propagation of his religious reforms, of the living tongue of the people, he and his followers naturally made full use of the advantages already gained by the form of speech current through the wide extent of his own country.
The first, a religious romance of remarkable interest, may owe its preservation to the charm of its style, the others to the accident that they were attributed by mistake to a famous apostle.
During the religious confusion of the Reformation, the practice of fasting was generally relaxed and it was found necessary to reassert the obligation of keeping Lent and the other periods and days of abstinence by a series of proclamations and statutes.
In these, however, the religious was avowedly subordinate to a political motive, viz.
in 1627 and 1631, again commanded abstinence from all flesh during Lent, and the High Church movement of the 17th century lent a fresh religious sanction to the official attitude.
The origin and the exact nature of this religious movement are alike uncertain.
A letter like this, clear cut in its thought, teeming with ideas emanating from an unique religious experience, and admirably adjusted to known situations, bears on the face of it the marks of genuineness even without recourse to the unusually excellent external attestation.
His mystic ceremonial became a guide to religious practice, and though with this there came in much meaningless and even bewildering formalism, yet the example of his life and character was a lasting inspiration to saintliness.
ORPHEUS, in Greek legend, the chief representative of the art of song and playing on the lyre, and of great importance in the religious history of Greece.
Harrison, however, regards him as a religious reformer from Crete, who introduced the doctrine of ecstasis without intoxication amongst the Thracians and was slain by the votaries of the frenzied ritual.
The name of Orpheus is equally important in the religious history of Greece.
He was the mythic founder of a religious school or sect, with a code of rules of life, a mystic eclectic theology, a system of purificatory and expiatory rites, and peculiar mysteries.
Both inculcated a peculiar kind of ascetic life; both had a mystical speculative theory of religion, with purificatory rites, abstinence from beans, &c.; but Orphism was more especially religious, while Pythagoreanism, at least originally, inclined more to be a political and philosophical creed.
On the other hand, the genuine Orphics, a fraternity of religious ascetics, found unscrupulous imitators and impostors, who.
rose against the Parthian king, Artabanus, his aim was religious as well as political.
From all centres the leading motives of exploration were probably the same - commercial intercourse, warlike operations, whether resulting in conquest or in flight, religious zeal expressed in pilgrimages or missionary journeys, or, from the other side, the avoidance of persecution, and, more particularly in later years, the advancement of knowledge for its own sake.
Interesting regions, Close of known only by the scant reports of pilgrims, were made the dark the objects of attention and study; while religious zeal, ages.
The yellow type is capable of a higher culture, cherishes higher religious beliefs, and inhabits as a rule the temperate zone, although extending to the tropics on one side and to the arctic regions on the other.
Modern collections of religious poetry sometimes bear the title of Psalms and Hymns, but these are always more or less directly connected with the actual Psalms of David.
Longfellow wrote "A Psalm of Life" (1839), which was an intimate confession of the religious aspirations of the author.
He saw Jews, Saracens, heretics and apostates roaming through Spain unmolested; and in this lax toleration of religious differences he thought he saw the main obstacle to the political union of the Spains, which was the necessity of the hour.
It has a bridge across the Cali, and a number of religious and public edifices.
To rationalize this or any of the series misses the whole point of the religious history.
In estimating the work of one who stands at the head of the religious and legal institutions of Israel, it is necessary to refrain from interpreting the traditions from a modern legal standpoint or in the light of subsequent ideas and beliefs for which the sources themselves give no authority.
30), but the religious practices associated with the former especially were not those of the purest type.
When Aaron himself is connected with the worship of the golden calf, and when to Moses is attributed a brazen serpent which the reforming king Hezekiah was the first to destroy, it is evident that religious conceptions developed in the course of ages.
II), much of the legal procedure ascribed to him must belong on internal grounds (religious, ethical and sociological evidence) to a postMosaic age.
Are all the Christian writers of a given period to be included among the "fathers," or those only who wrote on religious subjects, and of whose orthodoxy there is no doubt ?
Both in East and West, the 4th and 5th centuries form the golden age of dogmatic theology, of homiletic preaching, of exposition, of letter-writing, of Church history, of religious poetry.
At all stages of religious development, however, and more especially in the case of the more primitive types of cult, prayer as thus understood occurs together with, and shades off into, other varieties of observance that bear obvious marks of belonging to the same family.
Once satisfied, however, his faith remained clear and firm; and thenceforward his life became that of a supremely religious man.
He did not often talk about religion; he had not much of the accredited phraseology of piety even when he discoursed on spiritual topics; but more than most men he was directed by religious principle and feeling in all his conduct.
Under Arnold's superintendence the school became not merely a place where a certain amount of classical or general learning was to be obtained, but a sphere of intellectual, moral and religious discipline, where healthy characters were formed, and men were trained for the duties, and struggles and responsibilities of life.
What gave him his power, and secured for him so deeply the respect and veneration of his pupils and acquaintances, was the intensely religious character of his whole life.
While the schools of Babylonia were flourishing as the religious head of Judaism, the West, and especially Spain under Moorish rule, was becoming the home of Jewish scholarship. On the breaking of the schools many of the fugitives fled o- g up Y g?
His poems, both secular and religious, contained in his Diwan and scattered in the liturgy, are all in Hebrew, though he employed Arabic metres.
1340) was the author of a very popular commentary on the Pentateuch and of religious discourses entitled Kad ha-gemalz, in both of which, unlike his teacher, he made large use of the Kabbalah.
In 1568, at the time of the religious troubles, they were transferred to the cathedral of Meaux, where his shrine may still be seen in the sacristy.
The renewal of the religious war in September 1567, however, was at once a symptom and a cause of diminished influence to L'Hopital, and in February 1568 he obtained his letters of discharge, which were registered by the parlement on the IIth of May, his titles, honours and emoluments being reserved to him during the remainder of his life.
Enfantin thus became sole "father," and the few who were chiefly attracted by his religious pretensions and aims still adhered to him.
But when Greek deities were introduced into Rome on the advice of the Sibylline books (in 495 B.C., on the occasion of a severe drought), Demeter, the Greek goddess of seed and harvest, whose worship was already common in Sicily and Lower Italy, usurped the place of Ceres in Rome, or rather, to Ceres were added the religious rites which the Greeks paid to Demeter, and the mythological incidents which originated with her.
Possibly the same cause may have kept the chronicler from enlarging on their religious character; yet in Sicily at least they might pass for crusaders.
All these might pass for religious wars, and they might really be so; it needed greater ingenuity to set forth the invasion of England as a missionary enterprise designed for the spiritual good of the benighted islanders.
The Conqueror beyond doubt sincerely aimed at being a religious reformer both in his duchy and in his kingdom, while it is needless to say that his immediate successor was exceptionally ungodly, whether among Normans or among other men.
But among their countrymen generally strict attendance to religious observances, a wide bounty to religious foundations, may be set down as national characteristics.
Admission to military command was won first, then admission to civil jurisdiction; a share in religious functions was won last of all.
The Old Testament was an immense religious asset to the early church.
It is partly practical: - Arm Christian sailors against religious danger!
Yet it seems plain that any theology, maintaining redemption as historical fact (and not merely ideal), must attach religious importance to conclusions which are technically probable rather than proven.
It becomes the assertion; historically, providentially, the expectation of a unique religious figure arose - " the " Messiah; and Jesus gave himself to be thought of as that great figure.
The controversy as to the nature of his religious opinions, arising as it did chiefly out of his connexion with the Encyclopaedia, has no longer any living interest now that the Encyclopaedists generally have ceased to be regarded with unqualified suspicion by those who count themselves orthodox.
The fullest revelation of his religious convictions is given in his correspondence with Voltaire, which was published along with that with Frederick the Great in Bossange's edition of his works.
aumonier), in the primitive sense, an officer in religious houses to whom belonged the management and distribution of the alms of the house.
He was an important court official whose duties comprised the superintendence of the Chapel Royal and all the religious ceremonies of the court.
So far as we can see, on the other hand, Basilides appears actually to represent a further development of Iranian dualism, which later produced the religious system of Mani.
The Maoris ate their enemies' hearts to gain their courage, but to whatever degree animistic beliefs may have once contributed to their cannibalism, it is certain that long before Captain Cook's visit religious sanction for the custom had long given place to mere gluttonous enjoyment.
The flagellants reappeared, and made the state of religious trouble in Germany, provoked by the struggle between the papacy and Louis of Bavaria, subserve their cause.
They were also charged with the maintenance of order in the mir and the family, punishing infractions of the religious law, husbands who beat their wives, and parents who ill-treated their children.
He speaks Finnish with Finns, Mongolian with Buriats, Ostiak with Ostiaks; he shows remarkable facility in adapting his agricultural practices to new conditions, without, however, abandoning the village community; he becomes hunter, cattle-breeder or fisherman, and carries on these occupations according to local usage; he modifies his dress and adapts his religious beliefs to the locality he inhabits.
They are chiefly Lutherans, but many of them belong to other religious sects - Anabaptists, Moravians, Mennonites.
According to returns published in 1905 the adherents of the different religious communities in the whole of the Russian empire numbered approximately as follows, though the heading Orthodox Greek includes a very great many Raskolniki or Dissenters.
It is this political rather than religious spirit which also underlies the repressive attitude of the government, and of the Orthodox Church as the organ of the government, towards the various dissident sects (Raskolniki, from raskol, schism), which for more than two centuries past have played an important part in the popular life of Russia, and, since the political developments of the end of the 19th and early years of the zoth century, have tended to do so more and more.
To the conservatives, known subsequently as Old Ritualists or Old Believers, this marked the beginning of the reign of Antichrist (was not 666 the number of the Beast?); but they continued the struggle, conservative opposition to the Westernizing policy of the tsars, which was held responsible for the introduction of Polish luxury and Latin heresy, giving it a political as well as a religious character.
In religious matters they were extremely tolerant.
When they first appeared in Europe they were idolaters or Shamanists, and as such they had naturally no religious fanaticism; but even when they adopted Islam they remained as tolerant as before, and the khan of the Golden Horde (Berkai) who first became a Mussulman allowed the Russians to found a Christian bishopric in his capital.
On April 7th, 1541, he sailed from Lisbon with Martim Alfonso de Sousa, governor designate of India, and lived amongst the common sailors, ministering to their religious and temporal needs, especially during an outbreak of scurvy.
Age mellowed her temper, and she turned more and more from secular ambitions to charity and religious works.
The first two causes have attracted many inquirers; but it is the last that has chiefly given to modern spiritualism its religious aspect.
Andrew Jackson Davis was in America the most prominent example of such persons; his work, The Principles of Nature, Her Divine Revelations (New York, 1847), was alleged to have been dictated in "clairvoyant" trance, and before 1848 his followers were expecting a new religious revelation.
It was at Keighley in Yorkshire - where also the first English periodical, the Yorkshire Spiritual Telegraph, was published in 1855 and onwards - that spiritualism as a religious movement first made any mark in England; but this movement, though it spread rather widely, cannot be said to have attained at any time very vigorous proportions.
Nowhere, however, has there been much religious organization in connexion with it, and the force of the movement seems to have declined rather than increased.
There have been several professional photographers (all detected in fraud sooner or later) who made it their business to take photo complaints, to certain epidemics of the middles ages,' and to phenomena that have occurred at some religious revivals.
and Mauss describe a sacrifice as "a religious act, which, by the consecration of a victim, modifies the moral state of the sacrificer or of certain material objects which he has in view," i.e.
Among the forms of human sacrifice must be reckoned religious suicide.
On religious suicide see Lasch in Globus, lxxv.
iii.; Gee's Elizabethan Clergy; Birt's Elizabethan Religious Settlement; and Pierce's Introduction to the Marprelate Tracts (1909).
- ?1556), Scottish poets and religious re - formers, were natives of Dundee, where their father James Wedderburn was a prosperous merchant.
- The entrance of Israel into Canaan marks the beginning of a new epoch in the development of Israel's religious life.
Now when the Hebrews succeeded to these agricultural conditions and acquired possession of the Canaanite abodes, they naturally fell into the same cycle of religious ideas and tradition.
The book of Judges with its " monotonous tempo - religious declension, oppression, repentance, peace," to which Wellhausen 4 refers as its ever-recurring cycle, makes us familiar with these alternating phases of action and reaction.
It was the religious expression of the unity of Israel which the life and death struggle with the Philistines had gradually wrought out.
It is probable that necromancy, like the worship of Asherah and `Ashtoreth, as well as the cult of graven images, was a Canaanite importation into Israel's religious practices.
This same narrative dwells upon the graven images, ephod and teraphim, as forming the apparatus of religious ceremonial in Micah's household.
Eli, the head priest at Shiloh in the early youth of Samuel, held an important position in what was then the chief religious and political centre of Ephraim; and the office passed by inheritance to the sons in ordinary cases.
9), 6 marks a new epoch in the religious development of the Hebrews.
The latter half of the 8th century, which witnessed a rapid succession of reigns in the northern kingdom accompanied by dismemberment of its territory and final overthrow, witnessed also the humiliating vassalage and religious decline of the kingdom of Judah.
But now that these external bases of the old religion were to be swept away, a reconstruction of religious ideas became necessary.
It became at once a codified standard of purer religious life and ultimately served as a beacon of light for the future.
It was the task of Ezekiel to take up once more the broken threads of Israel's religious traditions, and weave them anew into statelier forms of ritual and national polity.
On the other hand, the doctrine of pre-existence is speculative rather than religious, and applies to institutions rather than persons.
ZALMOXIS, or ZAMOLxIS, a semi-mythical social and religious reformer, regarded as the only true God by the Thracian Getae.
Next to these in religious importance comes the Confucian temple, known as the Kwo-tsze-kien.
He sought to vanquish,., but was himself vanquished by, the new religious force which was making such rapid inroads on the decaying paganism of the Roman empire.
In bringing about this " fall," however, Parsons the Jesuit appears to have had a considerable share; at least Lord Sheffield has recorded that on the only occasion on which Gibbon talked with him on the subject he imputed the change in his religious views principally to that vigorous writer, who, in his opinion, had urged all the best arguments in favour of Roman Catholicism.
Although, however, he adds that at this point he suspended his religious inquiries, " acquiescing with implicit belief in the tenets and mysteries which are adopted by the general consent of Catholics and Protestants," his readers will probably do him no great injustice if they assume that even then it was rather to the negations than to the affirmations of Protestantism that he most heartily assented.
His most ardent admirers, however, are constrained to admit that he was deficient in large-hearted benevolence; that he was destitute of any " enthusiasm of humanity "; and that so far as every sort of religious yearning or aspiration is concerned, his poverty was almost unique.
In 1906, of the 14,944 members of religious denominations 9,97 0 were Roman Catholics, 1,210 Protestant Episcopalians, 1,105 Latter-Day Saints (Mormons), 618 Methodists and 520 Presbyterians.
In addition to being a harvest festival, marked by the ordinary popular rejoicings, the Haloa had a religious character.
At Marseilles (after 410) he founded two religious societies - a convent for nuns, and the abbey of St Victor, which during his time is said to have contained 5000 inmates.
In the bitter religious controversies of the time Anglesey showed great moderation and toleration.
per Thomam Philippum (1686); The Happy Future State of England, by Sir Peter Pett (1688); Great News from Poland (1683), where his religious tolerance is ridiculed; Somers Tracts (Scott, 1812), viii.
Some of Park's sermons were published in 1885, under the title Discourses on Some Theological Doctrines as Related to the Religious Character.
In 1533, in an important synod, he defended against Martin Bucer the principles of religious freedom as well as his own doctrine and life.
An anathema was accordingly issued from Schmalkald against Schwenkfeld (together with Sebastian Franck); his books were placed on the Protestant "index"; and he himself was made a religious outlaw.
Schwenkfeld's mysticism was the cause of his divergence from Protestant orthodoxy and the root of his peculiar religious and theological position.
He regarded as essential a direct and immediate participation in the grace of the glorified Christ, and looked on religious ordinances as immaterial.
Grutzmacher's article in Hauck-Herzog's Realencyklopiidie; Robert Barclay's Inner Life of the Religious Societies of the Commonwealth (1876), and C. Beard's Hibbert Lectures (1883), ch.
But these were dreams which did not hold him long, and he would have been scandalized had he known that his name was subsequently used as the emblem of a political and religious party.
His Letters on the Evidences of Christianity (1815) have been several times reprinted, and an abridgment was published by the Religious Tract Society in 1853.
His career is extremely interesting as illustrating the development of religious opinion at a remarkable crisis in the history of English religious thought.
Owen Roe professed to be acting in the interest of Charles I.; but his real aim was the complete independence of Ireland, while the AngloNorman Catholics represented by the council desired to secure religious liberty and an Irish constitution under the crown of England.
To constitute the offence, the blasphemy must be uttered in public, be offensive in character, and have wounded the religious susceptibilities of some other person.
1 So they took their notions of strange beasts and other marvels of the visible world on trust and did their best to make them available for religious instruction.
Older material (often of composite origin) has been used, not so much for the purpose of providing historical information, as with the object of showing the religious significance of past history; 3 Or land Israel, W.
Throughout these vicissitudes there were important political and religious changes which render the study of the composite sources a work of unique difficulty.
The story of the " exodus " is that of the religious birth of " Israel," joined by covenant with the national god Yahweh' whose aid in times of peril and need ' On the name see Jehovah, Tetragrammaton.
The other, part of the religious history of " Israel," is essentially bound up with the religious genius of the people, and is partly connected with clans from the south of Palestine whose influence appears in later times.
External oppression and internal rivalries rent the Israelites, and in the religious philosophy of a later (Deuteronomic) age the period is represented as one of alternate apostasy from and of penitent return to the Yahweh of the " exodus."
History saw in David the head of a lengthy line of kings, the founder of the Judaean monarchy, the psalmist and the priest-king who inaugurated religious institutions now recognized to be of a distinctly later character.
Such was the religious environment of the ancient city which was destined to become the centre of Judaism.
The discovery of the inscription of a later king of Moab (q.v.) has proved that the east-Jordanic tribes were no uncivilized or barbaric folk; material wealth, a considerable religious and political organization, and the cultivation of letters (as exemplified in the style of the inscription) portray conditions which allow us to form some conception of life in Israel itself.
The conflict between Yahweh and Baal and the defeat of the latter are the characteristic notes of the religious history of the period, and they leave their impression upon the records, which are now more abundant.
The two factors are inseparable, for in ancient times no sharp dividing-line was drawn between religious and civic duties: righteousness and equity, religious duty and national custom were one.
Various collections are preserved in the Old Testament; they are attributed to the time of Moses the lawgiver, who stands at the beginning of Israelite national and religious history.
Hebrew religious institutions can be understood from the biblical evidence studied in the light of comparative religion; and without going afield to Babylonia, Assyria or Egypt, valuable data are furnished by the cults of Phoenicia, Syria and Arabia, and these in turn can be illustrated from excavation and from modern custom.
Worship is simpler at the smaller shrines than at the more famous temples; and, as the rulers are the patrons of the religion and are brought into contact with the religious personnel, the character of the social organization leaves its mark upon those who hold religious and judicial functions alike.
The Hebrews shared the paradoxes of Orientals, and religious enthusiasm and ecstasy were prominent features.
The prophets taught that the national existence of the people was bound up with religious and social conditions; they were in a sense the politicians of the age, and to regard them simply as foretellers of the future is to limit their sphere unduly.
A recollection of the manifold forms which religious life and thought have taken in Christendom or in Islam, and the passions which are so easily engendered among opposing sects, will prevent a one-sided estimate of the religious standpoints which the writings betray; and to the recognition that they represent lofty ideals it must be added that the great prophets, like all great thinkers, were in advance of their age.
The problem cannot be approached from modern preconceptions because there was much associated with the worship of Yahweh which only gradually came to be recognized as repugnant, and there was much in earlier ages and in other lands which reflects an elevated and even complex religious philosophy.
If the impression left upon current thought can be estimated from certain of the utterances of the court-prophet Isaiah and the Judaean countryman Micah, the light which these throw upon internal conditions must also be used to gauge the real extent of the religious changes ascribed to Hezekiah.
The assumption that the decay of Assyria awoke the national feeling of independence is perhaps justified by those events which made the greatest impression upon the compiler, and an account is given of Josiah's religious reforms, based upon a source apparently identical with that which described the work of Jehoash.
xvi., xxiii.), the religious revival was a practical failure, and it was not until a century later that the opportunity again came to put any new teaching into effect (§ 20).
In view of subsequent events it would be difficult to find a more interesting subject of inquiry than the internal religious and sociological conditions in Samaria at this age.
To the prophets the religious position was lower in Judah than in Samaria, whose iniquities were less grievous (Jer.
28 and above), were the recognized guardians of the religious cults.
An outburst of Jewish religious feeling is dated in the second year of Darius (520), but whether Judah was making a bold bid for independence or had received special favour for abstaining from the above revolts, external evidence alone can decide.
Towards the close of the reign of Darius there was a fresh revolt in Egypt; it was quelled by Xerxes (485-465), who did not imitate the religious tolerance of his predecessors.
The interest of the writers is as usual in the religious history; they were indifferent to, or perhaps rather ignorant of, the strict order of events.
2 In addition to this, the Egyptian story of the priest Uza-hor at the court of Cambyses and Darius reflects a policy of religious tolerance which illustrates the biblical account of Ezra and Nehemiah (Brugsch, Gesch.
Religious Life after the Exile (1898); E.
Greater weight must be laid upon the independent evidence of the prophetical writings, and the objection that Palestine could not have produced the religious fervency of Haggai or Zechariah without an initial impulse from Babylonia begs the question.
There are external historical circumstances and internal literary features which unite to show that the application of the literary hypotheses of the Old Testament to the course of Israelite history is still incomplete, and they warn us that the intrinsic value of religious and didactic writings should not depend upon the accuracy of their history.'
It is the work of rebuilding and reorganization, of social and of religious reforms, which we encounter in the last pages of biblical history, and in the records of Ezra and Nehemiah we stand in Jerusalem in the very centre of epoch-making events.
Nehemiah also turns his attention to religious abuses.
In this separation of the Judaeans from religious and social intercourse with their neighbours, the work of Ezra (q.v.) requires notice.
But the former gained the day, and, realizing that the only hope of maintaining a pure worship of Yahweh lay in a forcible isolation from foreign influence, its adherents were prepared to take measures to ensure the religious independence of their assembly.
He was commissioned to inquire into the religious condition of the land and to disseminate the teaching of the Law to which he had devoted himself (Ezra vii.).
The true seed of Israel separated themselves from all foreigners (not, however, without some opposition) and formed an exclusively religious body or " congregation."
Dreams of political freedom gave place to hopes of religious independence, and " Israel " became a church, the foundation of which it sought in the desert of Sinai a thousand years before.
Judah was now a religious community whose representative was the high priest of Jerusalem.
To external evidence one must look, therefore, for that which did not fall within the scope or the horizon of the religious historians.
It has been easy to confuse the study of the Old Testament in its relation to modern religious needs with the technical scientific study of the much edited remains of the literature of a small part of the ancient East.
The growth of the Old Testament into its present form, and its preservation despite hostile forces, are the two remarkable phenomena which most arrest the attention of the historian; it is for the theologian to interpret their bearing upon the history of religious thought.
The reforms of Nehemiah were directed towards the establishment of a religious community at Jerusalem, in which the rigour of the law should be observed.
All the religious rites of Judaism were proscribed and the neighbouring Greek cities were requested to enforce the prohibition upon their Jewish citizens.
Judas had won for them religious freedom: but the Temple required a descendant of Aaron for priest and he was come.
Further, as confederates of the senate and people of Rome, the Jews had received accession of territory, including the port of Joppa and, with other material privileges, the right of observing their religious customs not only in Palestine but also in Alexandria and elsewhere.
There is a story of a priest named Onias preserved both by Josephus and in the Talmud, which throws some light upon the indecision of the religious in the period just reviewed.
So long as the Law was not deliberately outraged and so long as the worship was established, most of the religious leaders of the Jews were content to wait.
Many religious teachers and many revolutionaries were crucified within this period; and the early Christians were outwardly distinguished from other Jews only by their scrupulous observance of religious duties.
But this severity cemented the alliance of religious fanatics with the physical-force party and induced the ordinary citizens to join them, in spite of the punishments which they received when captured.
The scribes through the synagogues preserved the national spirit and directed it towards the religious life which was prescribed by Scripture.
Pharisaic Judaism, put to the severest test to which a religious system has ever been subject, showed itself able to control and idealize life in all its phases.
Little more than half a century after the overthrow of the Jewish nationality, the Mishnah was practically completed, and by this code of rabbinic law - and law is here a term which includes the social, moral and religious as well as the ritual and legal phases of human activity - the Jewish people were organized into a community, living more or less autonomously under the Sanhedrin or Synedrium and its officials.
Their functions were political rather than religious, though their influence was by no means purely secular.
The Jews were thrust into a position of isolation, and the Code of Theodosius and other authorities characterize the Jews as a lower order of depraved beings (inferiores and perversi), their community as a godless, dangerous sect (secta nefaria, feralis), their religion a superstition, their assemblies for religious worship a blasphemy (sacrilegi coetus) and a contagion (Scherer, op. cit.
But Justinian (527-565) was the first to interfere directly in the religious institutions of the Jewish people.
Mahommedan Babylonia (Persia) was the home of the gaonate, the central authority of religious Judaism, whose power transcended that of the secular exilarchate, for it influenced the synagogue far and wide, while the exilarchate was local.
Hebrew religious poetry was revived for synagogue hymnology, and, partly in imitation of Arabian models, a secular Hebrew poetry was developed in metre and rhyme.
Socially they suffered by the outburst of religious animosity.
Holland from the moment that it joined the union of Utrecht (1579) deliberately set its face against religious persecution (Jewish Encyclopedia, i.
Finally the city of London - not only as the converted champion of religious liberty but as the convinced apologist of the Jews - sent Baron Lionel de Rothschild to knock at the door of the unconverted House of Commons as parliamentary representative of the first city in the world " (Wolf, loc. cit.).
ascended the throne in that year, and though the constitution of 1849 recognized the principle of religious liberty, an era of reaction supervened, especially when " the concordat of 1855 delivered Austria altogether into the hands of the clericals."
But the day of medieval intolerance had passed, and in 1867 the new constitution " abolished all disabilities on the ground of religious differences," though anti-Semitic manipulation of the law by administrative authority has led to many instances of intolerance.
The Greek constitution admits no religious disabilities, but anti-Semitic riots in Corfu and Zante in 1891 caused much distress and emigration.
It was not till 1874 that full religious equality was granted to the Jews of Switzerland.
In 1908 an organization, inclusive of various religious sections, was founded under the description " the Jewish community of New York."
Statistics.-Owing to the absence of a religious census in several important countries, the Jewish population of the world can only be given by inferential estimate.
A good example of the dependence of prelacy on jurisdiction is found in those religious orders, such as the Dominicans, where authority is strictly elective and temporary.
abbots and religious superiors, who are withdrawn from the ordinary diocesan jurisdiction and themselves possess episcopal jurisdiction (jurisdictio quasi episcopalis).
The judges are chosen without regard to religious belief, and precautions have been taken to render them independent of political parties.
The Mussulman cadis retain their jurisdiction in regard to religious affairs, marriage, divorce, the wardship of minors and inheritance.
The remains of several shrines within the building, and the religious element perceptible in the frescoes, show that a considerable part of the Palace of Cnossus was devoted to purposes of cult.
One part of her religious being survives in that of the later Rhea, another in that of Aphrodite, one of whose epithets, Ariadne (= the exceeding holy), takes us back to the earliest Cnossian tradition.
It appears certain from the associations in which they are found at Cnossus, that these Minoan bull sports formed part of a religious ceremony.
The funeral rites are similar, and the religious representations show an identical form of worship. At the same time the local traditions and conditions differentiate the continental from the insular branch.
Not only the native form of writing, but the household arrangements, sepulchral usages, and religious rites remain substantially the same.
Clay tablets were here found belonging to the earlier type of the linear script (Class A), together with a great number of clay sealings with religious and other devices and incised countermarks.
Among the more interesting relics found were ivory figures of Egyptian or strongly Egyptianizing fabric. On an adjacent hill were the remains of what seems to have been in later times a temple of the Dictaean Zeus, and from the occurrence of rich deposits of Minoan vases and sacrificial remains at a lower level, the religious tradition represented by the later temple seems to go back to prehistoric times.
A parliamentary regime was thus inaugurated, and party warfare for a time took the place of the old religious antagonism, the Moslems attaching themselves to one or other of the political factions which now made their appearance among the Christians.
The principal religious denominations are the Baptist (371,518 in 1906) and the Methodist (212,105 in 1906).
The Baptist and Methodist churches are the leading religious denominations in the state; but there are also Presbyterians, Lutherans, members of the Christian Connexion (O'Kellyites), Disciples of Christ (Campbellites) Episcopalians, Friends, Roman Catholics, Moravians and members of other denominations.
were not religious refugees,.
they came to the province not from religious but economic motives."
Weeks deals with the religious history in his Religious Development in the Province of North Carolina (Baltimore, 1892), Church and State in North Carolina (Baltimore, 1893) and Southern Quakers and Slavery (Baltimore, 1896); he is anti-Anglican, but judicial.
The first is the philosophic side of mysticism; the second, its religious side.
Mysticism differs, therefore, from ordinary pantheism in that its inmost motive is religious; but, whereas religion is ordinarily occupied with a practical problem and develops its theory in an ethical reference, mysticism displays a predominatingly speculative bent, starting from the divine nature rather than from man and his surroundings, taking the symbolism of religious feeling as literally or metaphysically true, and straining after the present realization of an ineffable union.
It appears, therefore, contemporaneously with Christianity, and is a sign of the world-weariness and deep religious need that mark the decay of the old world.
Before the rise of Neoplaton ism proper we meet with various mystical or semimystical expressions of the same religious craving.
This externality of religious truth to the mind is fundamental in scholasticism, while the opposite view is equally fundamental in mysticism.
They often took opposite sides in politics and they also differed in the type of their religious life; but they uniformly desired to strengthen one another in living intercourse with God.
Nicolas of Basel, the mysterious layman from whose visit Tauler dates his true religious life, seems to have been the chief organizing force among the Gottesfreunde.
There is no sign that Tauler, for example, or Ruysbroeck, or Thomas a Kempis had felt the dogmatic teaching of the Church jar in any single point upon their religious consciousness.
The first influence of Boehme was in the direction of an obscure religious mysticism.
Attention has often been called to the religious character of Asia.
Hence there is clearly a deep-seated difference between the religious feelings of the two continents.
The Buddhist influence is not merely religious, for it is always accompanied by Indian art and literature, and often by an Indian alphabet.
Its open advocacy of force attracts warlike races, and the intensity of its influence is increased by the fusion of secular and religious power, so that the Moslem Church is a Moslem state characterized by slavery, polygamy, and, subject to the autocracy of the ruler, by the theoretical.
Confucianism is an ethical rather than a religious system, and hence was able to co-exist, though not on very friendly terms, with Buddhism, which reached China about the 1st century A.D.
and was the chief source of Chinese religious ideas, except the older ancestor worship. But they are not a religious people, and like many Europeans regard the church as a department of the state.
Indian history until Mahommedan times is marked by the unusual prominence of religious ideas, and is a record of intellectual development rather than of political events.
- The Israelites appear to have been originally a nomadic tribe akin to the Arabs, whom they resemble in their want of political instinct and in their extraordinary religious genius.
According to tradition it was invaded by an Aryan-speaking colony from the valley of the Ganges in the 6th century B.C. It received Buddhism from north India in the time of Asoka, and has had considerable importance as a centre of religious culture which has influenced Burma and Siam.
Almost all Asiatic countries have a literature, but it is often not indigenous and consists of foreign works, chiefly religious, read either in translations or the original.
And meanwhile the religious convictions of the highest minds in Israel were undergoing a marked change.
It is in David's history that the clans of the south first attained prominence, and some of them are known to have been staunch upholders of a purer worship of Yahweh, or to have been associated with the introduction of religious institutions among the Israelites.
However, he regarded St Anselm as his friend, and he showed the customary liberality to religious houses.
As the last capital of the ancient Hindu dynasty of the Cholas, and in all ages one of the chief political, literary and religious centres of the south, the city is full of interesting associations.
The purely hereditary principle was of comparatively late growth, the outcome of obvious convenience, exalted under the influence of various forces into a religious or quasi-religious dogma.
Graduating from Harvard in 1841, he was a schoolmaster for two years, studied theology at the Harvard Divinity School, and was pastor in1847-1850of the First Religious Society (Unitarian) of Newburyport, Massachusetts, and of the Free Church at Worcester in 1852-1858.
In 1820 Webster took an important part in the convention called to revise the constitution of Massachusetts, his arguments in favour of removing the religious test, in favour of retaining property representation in the Senate, and in favour of increasing the independence of the judiciary, being especially notable.
Eventually, Count Heinrich was pressured to rid the area of religious dissidents, and the Brethren felt compelled to leave.
Lord Capel, who was much beloved, and who was a man of deep religious feeling and exemplary life, wrote Daily Observations or Meditations: Divine, Morall, published with some of his letters in 1654, and reprinted, with a short life of the author, under the title Excellent Contemplations, in 1683.
He advocated freedom of the corn trade, reduction of the number of religious communities, and deprecated regulation of the interest on loans.
The name does not indicate a social caste, or a religious sect; it is not even tribal.
All classes high and low are fond of the religious festivals, the principal of which, the Dasahra, occurs in October, when the first harvest of the year has been secured and the second crops sown.
These recitations are partly religious, partly also romantic and quasi-historical.
THE TEUTONIC ORDER, or Teutonic Knights of St Mary's Hospital at Jerusalem (Der deutsche Orden, Deutsche Ritter) was one of the three great military and religious orders which sprang from the Crusades.
A religious order, largely composed of immigrants from abroad, could not permanently rule a state which had developed a national feeling of its own; and the native aristocracy, both of the towns and the country, revolted against its dominion.
In fact, nearly the whole of the region between the Caucasus and the Perso-Turkish frontier on the south, from the Caspian Sea on the one side to the Black Sea on the other, was embroiled in a civil war of the most sanguinary and ruthless character, the inveterate racial animosities of the combatants being in both cases inflamed by religious fanaticism.
He was the son of John Strype, or van Stryp, a member of a Brabant family who, to escape religious persecution, settled in London, in a place afterwards known as Strype's Yard in Petticoat Lane, as a merchant and silk throwster.
These decrees were not, indeed, at once universally enforced; but the convulsions of the Revolutionary epoch and the religious reorganization that followed completed the work.
south-west of the city of Manitowoc, is St Nazianz, an unorganized village near which in 1854 a colony or community of German Roman Catholics was established under the leadership of Father Ambrose Oswald, the primary object being to enable poor people by combination and cooperation to supply themselves with the comforts of life at minimum expense and have as much time as possible left for religious thought and worship. The title of the colony's land was vested in Father Oswald after the panic of 1857 until his death in 1874, when he devised the lands to "the colony founded by me."
The colony had no legal existence at the time, but was then incorporated as the "Roman Catholic Religious Society of St Nazianz," and as such sued successfully for the bequest.
tall; the Library building which houses the state library (about 80,000 volumes, with many portraits and a valuable collection of old manuscripts), the State Law Library and also the offices of most, of the state officials; the Post-Office and Customs House; the State Penitentiary; the Chamber of Commerce; and, among the religious edifices, the Sacred Heart Cathedral (Roman Catholic), presented to the city by Mr and Mrs Thomas F.
Many periodicals (including several religious weeklies) are published in Richmond.
The religious feeling, which had not been absent even during the struggles of manhood, deepened in old age, and took the form the piety of the times prescribed.
The reformers submitted on condition that no foreign garrison was to be imposed on Perth and that the religious questions in dispute should be brought before the Scottish parliament.
The objects of religious knowledge are beyond the plane of history, or rather - in a thoroughly Gnostic and Neo-Platonic spirit - they are regarded as belonging to a supra-mundane history.
Napoleon, though he did not bar the door absolutely against such a proceeding, granted her her heart's desire by secretly going through a religious ceremony on the evening before the coronation.
It was performed by Fesch, now a cardinal; but Napoleon could afterwards urge the claim that all the legal formalities had not bten complied with; and the motive for the marriage may probably be found in the refusal of the pope to appear at the coronation unless the former civil contract was replaced by the religious rite.