Religions Sentence Examples
The battle of religions still continued.
Two of the greatest religions of the world, Christianity and Islam, are Semitic in origin, as well as Judaism.
Both religions were of Oriental origin; they were propagated about the same time, and spread with equal rapidity on account of the same causes, viz.
Possibly, fuller study of religions may help theologians to formulate the imperial claims of Christianity more happily than in the dry contrast between what is " revealed " and what is " natural."
While the characteristic features of apocalyptic literature were derived from Judaism, those of Gnosticism sprang partly from Greek philosophy, partly from oriental religions.Advertisement
The doctrine of fate appears also in what are known as the higher religions, e.g.
The belief in human immortality in some form is almost universal; even in early animistic cults the germ of the idea is present, and in all the higher religions it is an important feature.
But he had little success, and soon concluded a treaty by which both empires promised toleration to the worshippers of the two rival religions, Christianity and Zoroastrianism.
She wrote Institutions dehysique (1740), Dissertation sur la nature et la propagation du feu (1 744), Doutes sur les religions reculees (1792), and in 1756 published a translation of Newton's Principia.
In 1631 he published his Traite des religions, a book that still lives; and from this year onward he was a foremost man in the church.Advertisement
They do not mix with the Abyssinians, and never marry women of alien religions.
We order that the adherents of this faith be called Catholic Christians; we brand all the senseless followers of the other religions with the infamous name of heretics, and forbid their conventicles assuming the name of churches.
Only a few instances of heresy in other religions can be given.
But the comparative study of religions has suggested the lines of reconstitution and the careful analysis of survivals embedded in literature and the evidence of monumental remains, and in particular of the old calendars, has enabled modern scholars to make good progress in the task of separating the elements due to different periods and influences.
He also wrote Fichte's Science of Knowledge (1884); Poetry, Comedy and Duty (1888); Religions before Christianity (1883); Ethics for Young People (1891); The Gospel of Paul (1892).Advertisement
The other attitude, however, is that into which simple-minded Latin peasants actually lapse, as it is also that which characterizes other religions ancient or modern which use pictures or sculptures of gods, demons, men, brutes, or of particular parts and organs of the same.
In the history of human religions can we trace, as it were, a law of transition from sacred stock and stone up to picture and image?
The sisters of Meleager were 2 The god 'EAcoiiv was also Phoenician; see Driver, Genesis, p. 165; Lagrange, Religions Semitiques, Index, s.v.
It has been maintained by some that they are the twin brothers so frequent in early religions, the Romulus and Remus of the Roman foundation legends.
He is keen, positive, logical, combining with curious dashes of scepticism many genuine moral convictions and a good knowledge of the various national religions and mythologies whose relative value he is able to appreciate.Advertisement
The religions also of the two powers present many points of agreement, with some notable differences.
The distinction between the terms " religion " and " magic " is, in a similar way, often due merely to rivalry between the adherents of two or more mutually exclusive religions brought together in the same community.
In this was included a translation into Latin of part of Jodocus Schouten's account of Siam (Appendix de religione Siamensium, ex Descriptione Belgica Iodoci Schoutenii), and chapters on the religions of various peoples.
In the higher religions the disturbance is due, as just implied, to unsatisfactory conduct on man's part, i.e.
With the issue of the Tridentine canons, all hope even of compromise between the " new " and the " old " religions was definitely closed.Advertisement
But in the English Bible the presbyters of the New Testament are called " elders," not " priests "; the latter name is reserved for ministers of pre-Christian religions, the Semitic a '?"
Such ministers orpriests existed in all the great religions of ancient civilization.
We can only glance briefly at the ancient religions of India (Aryan).
Priestly acts - that is, acts done by one and accepted by the gods on behalf of many - are common to all antique religions, and cannot be lacking where the primary subject of religion is not the individual but the natural community.
Among higher religions orthodox Islam has never had real priests, doing religious acts on behalf of others, though it has, like Protestant churches, leaders of public devotion (imams) and an important class of privileged religious teachers (`ulema).
The two leading religions within Germany are the Evangelical (Lutheran) and the Roman Catholic, including respectively 58 and 39% of the population.
Nevertheless in all religions, and especially in the Brahmanic and Christian, the cathartic virtue of water is enhanced by the introduction into it by means of suitable prayers and incantations of a divine or magical power.
Roman Catholicism was recognized as the religion of the state, but other religions were tolerated.
He frankly disbelieved in toleration; "that state," he said, "could never be in safety where there was a toleration of two religions.
That the national or tribal god is the creator is an idea often found in very low religions.
Broadly speaking these methods of revelation are found in all ancient religions, but no other religion presents anything precisely analogous to prophecy.
The systems of Plato and Aristotle sought to adjust the rival claims of physics and ethics (although the supremacy of the latter was already acknowledged); but the popular religions were thrown overboard.
Hence the ancient religions of the East had a peculiar interest for the Neoplatonist.
Neoplatonism claimed to be not merely the absolute philosophy, the keystone of all previous systems, but also the absolute religion, reinvigorating and transforming all previous religions.
It contemplated a restoration of all the religions of antiquity, by allowing each to retain its traditional forms, and at the same time making each a vehicle for the religious attitude and the religious truth embraced in Neoplatonism; while every form of ritual was to become a stepping-stone to a high morality worthy of mankind.
Hence the existing religions, after being refined and spiritualized, were made the basis of philosophy.
While seeking to perfect ancient philosophy, it really extinguished it; and in like manner its attempted reconstruction of ancient religions only resulted in their destruction.
For in requiring these religions to impart certain prescribed religious truths, and to inculcate the highest moral tone, it burdened them with problems to which they were unequal.
Was not the universal empire of Rome ready at hand, and might not the new religion have stood to it in the same relation of dependence which the earlier religions had held to the smaller nations and states?
Did they know the Oriental religions, Judaism and Christianity in particular?
He gave a meaning to the myths of the popular religions, and he had something to say even for magic, soothsaying and prayer.
But, outspoken as he was in his criticism of the popular religions, he had no wish to give them up. He stood up for a pure worship of the many gods, and maintained the cause of every old national religion and the ceremonial duties of its adherents.
The adherents of the " old " and the " new religions alike had to justify their views to the unlearned as well as to the learned, and to give in simple formulas their reasons for the faith that was in them.
In short, Gnosticism, in all its various sections, its form and its character, falls under the great category of mystic religions, which were so characteristic of the religious life of decadent antiquity.
In Gnosticism as in the other mystic religions we find the same contrast of the initiated and the uninitiated, the same loose organization, the same kind of petty sectarianism and mystery-mongering.
And finally, as in all mystical religions, so here too, holy rites and formulas, acts of initiation and consecration, all those things which we call sacraments, play a very prominent part.
All these investigations point clearly to the fact that Gnosticism belongs to the group of mystical religions.
They are derived from the same period in which the underlying idea of the Gnostic systems also originated, namely, the time at which the ideas of the Persian and Babylonian religions came into contact, the remarkable results of which have thus partly found their way into the official documents of Parsiism.
The constitution of 1857 grants toleration to all religions, and since 1868 several Protestant denominations have established missions in the towns, but their numbers are still comparatively small.
Devoted to travel, he was in 1876 commissioned by the minister of public instruction to study the religions of the Far East, and the museum contains many of the fruits of this expedition, including a fine collection of Japanese and Chinese porcelain and many objects relating not merely to the religions of the East but also to those of Ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome.
It is perhaps safest to say that the science of religions has no data on which to go, in formulating conclusions as to the original form of the objects of religious emotion; in this connexion it must be remembered that not only is it very difficult to get precise information of the subject of the religious ideas of people of low culture, perhaps for the simple reason that the ideas themselves are far from precise, but also that, as has been pointed out above, the conception of spiritual often approximates very closely to that of material.
He wrote Caste in Ancient India (1881); Manu's Lawbook (1884); Religions of India (1895); The Great Epic of India (1901); and India Old and New (1901).
And yet other religions, ancient and modern, supply many parallels, which are considered in the article Sacrament.
Aristotle in his Ethics stigmatizes as "extremely unloving" (Xiav a4xXov) the denial that ancestors are interested in or affected by the fortunes of their descendants; and in effect ancestor-worship is the staple of most religions, ancient or modern, civilized or savage.
Towards the close of the 3rd century two great religions stood opposed to one another in western Europe, one wholly Iranian, namely Mithraism, the other of Jewish origin, but not without Iranian elements, part and parcel probably of, the Judaism which gave it birth, namely Christianity.
If even a small part of the stories about his father is founded on fact, it was he who first introduced Mani to that medley of religions out of which his system arose.
In the course of history the demons sought to bind men to themselves by means of sensuality, error and false religions (among which is to be reckoned above all the religion of Moses and the prophets), while the spirits of light carried on their process of distillation with the view of gaining the pure light which exists in the world.
As regards Mani himself, it is safest to assume that he held both Judaism and Catholic Christianity to be entirely false religions.
How are we to explain the rapid spread of Manichaeism, and the fact that it really became one of the great religions?
On comparing it with the Semitic religions of nature we perceive that it was free from their sensuous cultus, substituting instead a spiritual worship as well as a strict morality.
Originally furnished from fragments of various religions, it could increase or diminish this possession without rupturing its own elastic framework.
The various researches which have been made regarding Parsism, the ancient Semitic religions, Gnosticism, &c., are of the greatest importance for the investigation of Manichaeism.
Olcott, she founded the " Theosophical Society "with the object of (I) forming a universal brotherhood of man,(2) studying and making known the ancient religions, philosophies and sciences, (3) investigating the laws of nature and developing the divine powers latent in man.
Glover, The Conflict of Religions tin the Early Roman Empire, chap. x.
The Greek figure probably had little effect on the native ideas, but it is likely that it served as a useful link between the two' religions.
He studied assiduously The Sacred Books of the East, and earnestly contended that no systematic view of Christianity could afford to ignore the philosophy of other religions.
Within the limits of this article it is impossible to attempt any extended survey of parallels to Hebrew Messianic conceptions drawn from other religions.
In no other colony were so many different races and religions represented.
The rationalist spirit is, of course, coeval with human evolution; religion itself began with a rational attempt to maintain amicable relations with unknown powers, and each one of the dead religions succumbed before the development of rationalist inquiry into its premises.
The present article, after a brief glance at the conceptions of the future of the individual or the world found in other religions, will deal with the teaching of the Old and New Testaments, the Jewish and the Christian Church regarding the hereafter.
It is true that other religions have been called missionary religions, and that one of them long held first place in the religious census of mankind.
The Haskell Lectureship, which grew out of the Parliament of Religions in Chicago, belongs here.
Leonard, and refer only to Protestant missions to non I.-Statistics Of The Great Religions Of The World.
By additional articles the equality of religions was guaranteed and the rights of Protestants safeguarded, concessions which were denounced at Rome as a breach of the Concordat, which had been signed immediately before.
The play, which is written in blank verse, is too obviously a continuation of Lessing's theological controversy to rank high as poetry, but the representatives of the three religions - the Mahommedan Saladin, the Jew Nathan and the Christian Knight Templar - are finely conceived, and show that Lessing's dramatic instinct had, in spite of other interests, not deserted him.
He insists on the diversities in religions; he dwells also on what would indicate a common origin.
A further extension is given by some writers, who use the term as synonymous with the religions of primitive peoples, including under it not only the worship of inanimate objects, such as the sun, moon or stars, but even such phases of primitive philosophy as totemism.
Here we have the first attempt at a systematic comparison of ancient religions.
He cannot see, as Justin and Clement see, a striving after truth, a feeling after God, in the older religions, or even in the philosophies of Greece.
Although the cults of the old Greek deities in the new cities, with their splendid apparatus of festivals and sacrifice might still hold the multitude, men turned ever in large numbers to alien Art religions, felt as more potent because strange, and the various gods of Egypt and the East began to find larger entrance in the Greek world.
But other religions of Oriental origin penetrated far, the worship of the Phrygian Great Mother, and in the 2nd century A.D.
Among the religions which penetrated the Hellenistic world from an Eastern source, one ultimately overpowered all the rest and made that world its own.
So long, however, as we have no closer acquaintance with Arab Judaism and Christianity, we must always reckon with the possibility that many of these mistakes were due to adherents of these religions who were his authorities, or were a naïve reproduction of versions already widely accepted by his contemporaries.
Many professions and religions, &c., are distinguished by the shape and color of the turban, and various classes, and particularly servants, are marked by the form and color of their shoes; but the poor go usually barefoot.
Their influence is enormous and hardly has a parallel in the history of religions.
Though the chief religions of the highlanders, the Episcopalian and Catholic forms, were depressed by persecution, and priests were few, the clans had long been accustomed to lack of religious functions and did not feel the want.
The people, however, are in undisturbed exercise of their own laws, religions, customs and institutions.
Cool, With the Dutch in the East (Amsterdam and London, 1897), in Dutch and English, is a narrative of the events sketched above, and contains many particulars about the folklore and dual religions of Lombok, which, with Bali, forms the last stronghold of Hinduism east of Java.
The unification of the peoples of antiquity in the Roman Empire, and the resultant amalgam of religions, gave a powerful impetus to the custom.
The comic poets satirized them, and Plato and Demosthenes inveighed against them; but they continued to spread, with all their fervid enthusiasm, their superstition and their obscene practices, wide among the people, whose religious cravings were not satisfied with the purely external religions of Hellenism.
On the other hand, the comparison we are now able to make between the canonical books of the older Buddhism and the later texts of the following centuries, shows a continual decline from the old standpoint, a continual approximation of the Buddhist views to those of the other philosophies and religions of India.
Civil marriage and divorce were introduced, and in 1904 all religions were placed on a position of equality in the eye of the law, and the foundation of new monasteries and convents was forbidden.
The gradations which follow are apportioned with some uncertainty amongst the religions of the East.
This does not mean of course that the religion had no ethical traits - ethical motives are frequently found in the old Oriental religions - but they were bound up with certain naturalistic conceptions of the relation between deities and men, and herein lay their weakness.4 In the age of the Assyrian supremacy Palestine entered upon a series of changes, lasting for about three centuries (from about 740), which were of the greatest significance for its internal development.
The oldest of these religions is Animism, which represents the beginnings of religion in India, and is still professed by the more primitive tribes, such as Santals, Bhils and Gonds.
It is doubtful if Buddhism, and still more so if Jainism and Sikhism, all of which are commonly recognized as distinct religions, ever differed from Hinduism to a greater extent than did the tenets of the earlier followers of Chaitanya in Bengal or those of the Lingayats in Mysore; and yet these latter two are regarded only as sects of Hinduism.
Considerations of their history and past political importance have led to the elevation of Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism to the rank of independent religions, while the numerous other schismatic bodies are held to be only sects.
But there is a marked tendency both on the part of the sects and of the distinct religions to lapse into the parent religion from which they sprang.
Hstian Tsang also travelled to India from China by the Central Asia route, and has left a fuller record of the state of the two religions in the 7th century.
At this day it forms one of the three great religions of the world, and is more numerously followed than either Christianity or Islam.
Animal sacrifice, libations, ritualistic purification, sprinkling of water, and symbolical rites of all kinds accompanied by short prayers, represent a religious practice which in the Babylonian-Assyrian religion, as in all religions, is older than any theology and survives the changes which the theoretical substratum of the religion undergoes.
The total number of persons belonging to all the other religions - Sikhs, Jains, Buddhists, Parsees, Christians, Jews, Aryas and Brahmoswas only 268,930, or less than o.
The leading thesis seems to have been that all the great religions of the world originated from the same supreme source, and that they were all to be regarded as so many divers expressions of one and the same fundamental truth, or "Wisdom Religion," in such form and dress as was best adapted to suit the times and the people for whose spiritual growth and development religious instruction was required.
According to a second classification, Christianity maybe placed among the " individual " religions, since it traces its origin, like Islam and Buddhism, to an individual as its founder.
This beginning is not in the dimness of antiquity nor in a multitude of customs, beliefs, traditions, rites and personalities, as is the case with the so-called " natural " religions.
It is not implied that in the formation of the " natural " religions individuals were not of great importance, nor, on the other hand, that in individual religions the founder formed his faith independently of the community of which he was a part; but only that as undoubted historic facts certain religions, in tracing their lines to individuals, thereby acquired a distinctive character, and retain the impress of their founder.
Such religions begin as a reform or a protest or revolt.
Thus demanding an act of will on the part of individuals, they are classed once more as " ethical " religions.
Christianity, regarded objectively as one of the great religions of the world, owes its rise to Jesus of Nazareth, in ancient Galilee.
Primitive man seldom connects sacrifice with notions of propitiation, indeed only in highly ethicized religions is the consciousness of sin or of guilt pre-eminent.
So universal are such ideas that the problem in particular religions is not their origin but their form.
Roman Catholicism is the prevailing creed, but all religions are tolerated, and none receives any endowment or other special privilege from the state.
With its advance the native languages and old religions gradually disappeared, and at last the whole country was thoroughly Hellenized, and the people united by identity of language and religion.
An analogy to purgatory can be traced in most religions.
He accordingly set himself to obtain information about other religions, sent to Goa, requesting that the Portuguese missionaries there should visit him, and listened to them with intelligent attention when they came.
But in 1802 Chateaubriand had published his epoch-making Genie du Christianisme, in which he declared that of all religions Christianity was " the most poetical, the most human, the most favourable to freedom, art and letters."
Green, Prolegomena to Ethics (Oxford, 1883); Franz Cumont, Les Religions orientales dans le paganisme romain (Paris, 1907); Porphyrius, De Abstinentia; Plutarchus, De Carnium Esu.
The Talmud discusses and formulates rules upon points which other religions leave to the individual; it inculcates both ceremonial and spiritual ideas, and often sets up most lofty ethical standards.
In the next century the Persian author of the Dabistan exhibited the doctrines of no less than twelve religions and their various sects.
Thomas Hyde (1636-1703) studied the religion of the ancient Persians; John Spencer (1630-1693) analysed the laws of the Hebrews; and Lord Herbert of Cherbury (De Religione Gentilium, 1645) endeavoured to trace all religions back to five " truly Catholic truths " of primitive faith, the first being the existence of God.
Primitive Religion There is a point at which the History of Religion becomes in its predominant aspect a History of Religions.
It has been found unworkable, for instance, to classify the religions of really primitive peoples under a plurality of heads, as becomes necessary the moment that the presence of a distinctive basis of linked ideas testifies to the individuality of this or that type of higher creed.
Primitive religions are like so many similar beads on a string; and the concern of the student of comparative religion is at this stage mainly with the nature of the string, to wit, the common conditions of soul and society that make, say, totemism, or taboo, very much the same thing all the savage world over, when we seek to penetrate to its essence.
Indeed, as the history of the higher religions shows, religion tends in the end to break away from secular government with its aristocratic traditions, and to revert to the more democratic spirit of the primitive age, having by now obtained a clearer consciousness of its purpose, yet nevertheless clinging to the inveterate forms of human ritual as still adequate to symbolize the consecration of life - the quickening of the will to face life earnestly.
In this article religions are treated from the point of view of morphology, and no attempt can be made in the allotted limits to connect them with the phases of ritual, sociological or ethical development.
The transition has usually been effected ages before the higher religions come into view; but it has left innumerable traces in language and custom.
The Earth-Mother and Sky-Father are to be found again and again in religions, at various stages of development, as co-ordinating conceptions which comprehend the universe.'
The lower and unprogressive religions practically remain in the polydaemonistic stage, though not without occasionally feeling the stimulus of contact with higher faiths, like some of the West African peoples in.
Yet once again the term has been applied to characterize a whole group of religions, like the Indo-Germanic, which are ultimately founded on the unity of the divine nature in a plurality of divine persons.
The Christian apologists of the 2nd century, however, found plenty of testimony to their doctrine of the unity of God in the writings of Greek poets and philosophers; it was a commonplace in the revival under the Empire; and among the group of religions embraced under the name Buddhism more than one form must be ranked as monotheistic. The idealist philosophy of the Prajiia Paramita in the system of the " Great Vehicle " declared that " every phenomenon is the manifestation of mind " (Beal, Catena, p. 303).
All religions, even the most conservative and traditional, are in constant flux, they either advance or decay.
In these processes, which do not take place at equal rates in different cases, all kinds of survivals remain lodged, and embarrass every attempt to fix the place of specific religions in any general course of development.
This had the obvious advantage of lifting two great families into prominence, the Semitic and the IndoGermanic. The Semitic peoples were closely bound together by common types of thought and civilization, and produced three of the leading religions of the world, Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
And why, on the other hand, should the religions of the lower culture, which are practically of a common type, be separated genealogically into numerous independent families?
On this foundation the higher religions were classed as national or universal, the latter group being formerly supposed to include Buddhism, Christianity and Mahommedanism.
Further, there are elements of Islam, like the usages of the hajj (or pilgrimage to the sacred places at Mecca), the dryness of its official doctrine and the limitations of its real character as indicated in the Wahhabi revival, which so impair its apparent universalism that Kuenen found himself obliged to withdraw it from the highest rank of religions.
Jastrow, jun., starting from the relation of religion to life, distinguishes four groups, the religions of savages, the religions of primitive culture, the religions of advanced culture and the religions which emphasize as an ideal the coextensiveness of religion with life.
For a long series of suggested bases of classification see Raoul de la Grasserie, Des Religions Comparees au Point de Vue Sociologique (1899), chap. xii.; cf.
Purified or organized magical religions.
By this it is not intended to assert that moral ideas are wanting in the so-called " naturist " religions.
Monographs on the separate religions are named in their respective articles.
Reinach, Cultes, mythes et religions (2 vols., Paris, 1905-6); Frazer, Adonis, Attis and Osiris (1906); Ed.
Such ritual use of oil as a o payls or seal may have been suggested in old religions by the practice of keeping wine fresh in jars and amphorae by pouring on a top layer of oil; for the spoiling of wine was attributed to the action of demons of corruption, against whom many ancient formulae of aversion or exorcism still exist.
Under the new regime these cemeteries were made common to the dead of all religions.
Other religions are represented in Persia by about 80,000 to 90,000 Christians (Armenians, Nestorians, Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholics, Protestants), 36,000 Jews, and 9000 Zoroastrians.
For the development of the Asiatic religions, the Persian Empire was of prime importance.
These traits are most clearly marked in Judaism; but, after the Achaemenid period, they are common to all Oriental creeds, though our information as to most is scanty in the extreme, In this competition of religions that of Iran played a most spirited part.
Buddhism and Zoroastrianism have been wedded in the state religion, and, in characteristic rndian fashion, are on the best of terms with one another, precisely as, in the Chinese Empire at the present day, we find the most varied religions, side by side, and on an equal footing.
Thus the duel between the two great empires now becomes simultaneously a duel between the two religions.
Hormizd had not the ability to retain the authority of his father, and he further affronted the Magian priesthood by declining to proceed against the Christians and by requiring that, in his empire, both religions should dwell together in peace.
Fire, the most mysterious and impressive of the elements, the giver of light and of all the good things of life, is a thing sacred and adorable in primitive religions, and fire-worship still has its place in two at least of the great religions of the world.
The ambitious Bible de l'humanite (1864), an historical sketch of religions, has but little merit.
Working with the Evangelical Alliance and the Chicago (1893) World's Parliament of Religions, and in Germany, through the monthly Kirchenfreund, he strove earnestly to promote Christian unity and union; and it was his hope that the pope would abandon the doctrine of infallibility and undertake the reunion of Christianity.
The deists, differing widely in important matters of belief, were yet agreed in seeking above all to establish the certainty and sufficiency of natural religion in opposition to the positive religions, and in tacitly or expressly denying the unique significance of the supernatural revelation in the Old and New Testaments.
Tindal's aim seems to have been a sober statement of the whole case in favour of natural religion, with copious but moderately worded criticism of such beliefs and usages in the Christian and other religions as he conceived to be either non-religious or directly immoral and unwholesome.
But the subjectivism that founded its theology on the "common sense" of the individual was accompanied by a fatal pseudouniversalism which, cutting away all that was peculiar, individual and most intense in all religions, left in any one of them but a lifeless form.
The 10th of August impelled him to a still higher flight; he declared himself the personal enemy of Jesus Christ, and abjured all revealed religions.
He was reputed to be the most versatile and accomplished statesman of his age, and almost alone among his Scottish contemporaries he placed his country above the claims of either the Roman Catholic or the Protestant religions.
The Homeric view of him as the All-Father is a high spiritual concept, but one of which many savage religions of our own time are capable.
The history of religions supplies us with many examples of the High God losing his hold on the people's consciousness and love.
In many mystical Oriental religions the perfection of the human self is absorption in the infinite, as a ripple dies away on the surface of water.
Psychology has been drawn upon to interpret the movements of revolutions or religions, anthropology and ethnology furnish a clue to problems to which the key of documents has been lost.
Savage and barbaric religions recognize it, and the mythology of the world has hardly a more universal theme.
In 1839 he was appointed professor of foreign literature at Lyons, where he began the brilliant course of lectures afterwards embodied in the Two years later he was transferred to the College de France, and the Genie des religions itself appeared (1842) .
It was easy for agitators to persuade the sepoys that the new cartridges were greased with the fat of animals sacred to one creed or forbidden to another, and that the British government was thus engaged in a deep-laid plot for forcing them to become Christians by first making them outcasts from their own religions.
The Buddha has not escaped the fate which has befallen the founders of other religions; and as late as the year 1854 Professor Wilson of Oxford read a paper before the Royal Asiatic Society of London in which he maintained that the supposed life of Buddha was a myth, and "Buddha himself merely an imaginary being."
The census of 1901 gave a total of 25,468,209, out of which the chief religions furnished the following In Sind Islam has been the predominant religion from the earliest Arab conquest in the 8th century.
Under them the Konkan and the coast farther south were governed by chiefs of the Silahara family, whose rule is mainly notable for the revival of trade with the Persian Gulf and, doubtless as a result of this, the arrival in 775 on the west coast of a number of Parsee refugees, who found, in a country where three religions were already equally honoured, the toleration denied to them in Mussulman Persia.
Only so far as we can get away from the modern view that a person's name is a trifling accident, and breathe the atmosphere which broods over ancient religions, can we understand the use of the name in baptisms, exorcisms, prayers, purifications and consecrations.
Analogous Rites in other Religions (see also Purification).
The idea of spiritual re-birth, so soon associated with baptism, was of wide currency in ancient religions.
Pomps and gay religions flourished.
The necessity for such sacrificial furniture has been felt in most religions, and consequently we find its use widespread among races and nations which have no mutual connexion.
The belief, that the grant of liberty to all religions was only intended Jamess to serve as a cloak for the ascendancy of one, was so dedarastrong that the measure roused the opposition.
Properly speaking, however, there is nothing to distinguish Shamanism from the religions of other peoples in a similar stage of culture.
For Christ is viewed as bringing redemption - a conception of importance in many religions, but in none so important as in Christianity.
Out of that very Ritschl school, which began by despising all religions except those of the Bible; has developed the religionsgeschichtliclz movement, which dissolves Christianity in the wider stream.
Again, the new study of the religions of the world is seeking its place in the curriculum of Christian theology, just as it is seeking - in some way - to modify Christian thought.
Puritans like Owen and Goodwin, whose idea of ecclesiastical comprehension was dogmatic and narrow, were ready to accept sectarian variety, because it was their duty to allow many religions in the nation, but only one form of theology within their own sect.
Rewbell was an able, although unscrupulous, man of action, Barras a dissolute and shameless adventurer, La Revelliere Lepeaux the chief of a new sect, the Theophilanthropists, and therefore a bitter foe to other religions, especially the Catholic. Severe integrity and memorable public services raised Carnot far above his colleagues, but he was not a statesman and was hampered by his past.
Like all borrowed religions in Rome, it must have retained the rites and the terminology of its Greek original (Festus p. 257).
In Judaism, as in other, especially Oriental, religions, the natural dislike of material defilement has been elevated into a religious sentiment, and made to support a complicated system of quasi-sanitary abstinences and ceremonial purifications; then, as the ethical element predominated in the Jewish religion, a moral symbolism was felt to reside in the ceremonial code, and thus aversion to impurity came to be a common form of the ethico-religious sentiment.
It is a heterogeneous mixture of all the nations and religions of the East - Turks, Arabs, Persians, Indians, Armenians, Chaldaeans and Jews.
While that feeling is the characteristic of religion generally, this assumes various forms as the religions of the world.
All religions are positive, or their characteristics and value are mainly determined by the manner in which the world is conceived and imagined.
But these varying conceptions with their religious meaning become religiously productive only in the souls of religious heroes, who are the authors of new religions, mediators of the religious life, founders of religious communities.
In 1881 the number of such pupils was 18,657; in 1891, 23,484; and in 1901, 28,484, of whom 17,103 were males and 11,381 females, divided as follows among the different religions - Roman Catholics 18,248, Protestant Episcopalians 5669, Presbyterians 3011, Methodists 760, and others 567.
In 1877 followed his appointment at the university of Leiden as professor of the history of religions, a chair specially created for him.
He was also the writer of the article "Religions" in the 9th edition of the Ency.
The ideas which may be gathered about the gods from the hymns are (as is usual in heathen religions) without consistency.
The dialogue between a Christian, a Jew and a philosopher suggested a comparative estimate of religions, and placed the natural religion of the moral law above all positive revelations.
When Fernando (Ferdinand III.), the conqueror of Andalusia, died in I 252, he was indeed the king of the two, or even the three, religions.
The first duties of the Inquisition were to deal with the converted Jews and Mahommedans, respectively known as Marranos and Moriscoes, and with those who still professed their religions.
Although it is in connexion with Hebrew and Christian monotheism that this belief in the devil has been most fully developed, yet there are approaches to the doctrine in other religions.
Among his chief works were The Apostle Paul (3rd ed., 1896); Memoire sur la notion hebraique de l'Esprit (1879); Les Origines litteraires de l'Apocalypse (1888); The Vitality of Christian Dogmas and their Power of Evolution (1890); Religion and Modern Culture (1897); Historical Evolution of the Doctrine of the Atonement (1903); Outlines of a Philosophy of Religion (1897); and his posthumous Religions of Authority and the Religion of the Spirit (1904), to which his colleague Jean Reville prefixed a short memoir.
Throughout the decline of the Roman empire, the barbarian invasions, the Mahommedan conquest and the middle ages, mere piracy always existed by the side of the great strife of peoples and religions.
It was blasphemy against any religion, including pagan religions.
His references are wide, ranging from urban alienation to alternative religions.
You cannot be a Satanist and not blaspheme against other religions, so have fun, go forth and blaspheme against other religions, so have fun, go forth and blaspheme.
Some philosophical religions are based on reason, some on revelation, and some on a moral code.
With such a varying ethnic composition, it is no surprise that a great diversity of religions is prevalent throughout Malaysia.
Mea culpa, mea maxima culpa ost religions have in common that they concern people's relations with god or with gods or spirits.
To begin, Alan Alford explains that the religions of the Near East were exploded planet cults.
Key... £ 49.00 Qty World Religions CD-ROM An illustrated encyclopedia with some useful images.
Sri Lankans of various religions believe that certain ritual devil dances can cure the sick, appease angry gods, and ensure good harvests.
In all other religions salvation is sought by self-effort, because God is not conceived of as absolutely holy.
It argues for a close interrelation between the mystery religions of the ancient world and the origins of Christianity.
Tensions are high as the different races, religions and cultures seldom mix, breeding mistrust and fear of anything that is different.
This, together with the influence of the different religions, created a very moralistic climate which was not always conducive to home care.
Many nature religions, such as animism, believe that everything found in nature has a personification, a spirit.
It also shows them as hypocrites for allowing the show to insult one religions prophet, but not even show anothers.
As I said before, I have little regard for any of them, but I particularly despise the so-called patriarchal religions.
Among these religions, the revealed religion of Muhammad is like the light of the sun among the lights of the stars.
Yet in spite of this, all of the great monotheistic religions teach that man was created in God's image.
For believers in the patriarchal religions, liberty is simply the freedom to practice the accepted religion.
The two major religions in Elizabethan England were the Catholic and Protestant religions.
As long he didn't try to argue that the Hebrew Scriptures were the truth and the pagan religions were not.
Religions are no different - even so-called fundamentalist ones.
Developing a tort of group defamation which applied to races and religions would be a very sweeping extension of present English law.
Religions, the common theosophy that pervades normal experience.
When the ancient world was in its last throes, the ancient religions were overcome by Christianity.
Hick feels that all religions are manmade views of the utterly transcendent and otherwise unknowable God, and should be viewed as such.
From the savage state, through the terror that gives birth to religions, through the creation of families by marriage, through burial rites and piety towards the dead, men approach civilization with the aid of poetic wisdom, and pass through three periods - the divine, heroic and human - in which they have three forms of government, language, literature, jurisprudence and civilization.
That there are defects in the logical process as here outlined to account for the curious rite constitutes no valid objection to the theory advanced, for, in the first place, primitive logic in matters of belief is inherently defective and even contradictory, and, secondly, the strong desire to pierce the mysterious future, forming an impelling factor in all religions - even in the most advanced of our own day - would tend to obscure the weakness of any theory developed to explain a rite which represents merely one endeavour among many to divine the intention and plans of the gods, upon the knowledge of which so much of man's happiness and welfare depended.
And for this reason it is customary to appoint diviners or interpreters to be judges of the true inspiration."' From such passages as the above we infer that the gift of tongues and of their interpretation was not peculiar to the Christian Church, but was a repetition in it of a phase common in ancient religions.
Caird (Evolution of Religion, 1893) tries to vindicate Christianity as the highest working of nature - true just because evolved from lower religions.
In spite of strenuous government opposition, inspired by the authorities of the Orthodox Church, amendments were carried allowing dissident ministers to assume ecclesiastical titles and to preach, and permitting Christians to join non-Christian religions or even to describe themselves as unbelievers.
Modern critics of his work note that he made no attempt to understand the oriental religions which he attacked, and censure him for invoking the aid of the Inquisition and sanctioning persecution of the Nestorians in Malabar.
The belief in such occasional manifestations has probably existed as long as the belief in the existence of spirits apart from human bodies (see Animism; Magic, &c.), and a complete examination into it would involve a discussion of the religions of all ages and nations.
It had been a fundamental element of both Jewish and Gentile religions, and Christianity tended rather to absorb and modify such elements than to abolish them.
Surrounded by ancient seats of culture in Egypt and Babylonia, by the mysterious deserts of Arabia, and by the highlands of Asia Minor, Palestine, with Syria on the north, was the high road of civilization, trade and warlike enterprise, and the meeting-place of religions.
So " the Pious " achieved the object for which presumably they took up arms. The re-establishment of Judaism, which alone of current religions was intolerant of a rival, seems to have excited the jealousy of their neighbours who had embraced the Greek way of life.
Not only the great religions of the world - Buddhism, Christianity, Islam - but those of secondary importance, such as Judaism, Parseeism, Taoism, are all Asiatic. No European race left to itself has developed anything more than an unsystematic paganism.
In 1882 Kuenen went to England to deliver a course of Hibbert lectures, National Religions and Universal Religion; in the following year he presided at the congress of Orientalists held at Leiden.
The points of collision were especially at Rome, in Africa, and in the Rhone Valley, and the struggle was the more obstinate because of the resemblances between the two religions, which were so numerous and so close as to be the subject of remark as early as the 2nd century, and the cause of mutual recrimination.
But his arguments against the first are really only valid against the limited and unworthy conceptions of divine agency involved in the ancient religions; his denial of the second is prompted by his vital realization of all that is meant by the arbitrary infliction of eternal torment after death.
In the first place, what we are accustomed to call higher religions deliberately attach greater sanctity to aniconic gods than to iconic ones, and that from no artistic incapacity.
A still greater prince was Gedymin (1315-1342) who did his utmost to civilize Lithuania by building towns, introducing foreigners, and tolerating all religions, though he himself remained a pagan for political reasons.
As in many mystical religions, so in Gnosticism, the ultimate object is individual salvation, the assurance of a fortunate destiny for the soul after death.
Such being the case, the relationship between the two religions remains a mere possibility, a possibility which the inquiry of Geyler (Das System des Manichaeismus and sein Verhi ltniss zum Buddhismus, Jena, 1875) has not been able to elevate into a probability.and this religion is very confusing?????
This we may consider as one of the striking parallels which meet us in other religions to that "hope of the advent of an ideal king which was one of the features of that larger hope of the salvation of Israel from all evils, the realization of perfect reconciliation with Jehovah and the felicity of the righteous in Him," to which reference was made in an early portion of this article and which constitutes the essential meaning of Messiahship. The form in which the Indian conception presents itself in the above quoted lines is more closely analogous amid many differences to the later and apocalyptic type of the Messianic idea as it appears in Judaism.
The same problems in a different context confronted the monotheistic religions of Judaism and Christianity.
So long, however, as we have no closer acquaintance with Arab Judaism and Christianity, we must always reckon with the possibility that many of these mistakes were due to adherents of these religions who were his authorities, or were a naÃ¯ve reproduction of versions already widely accepted by his contemporaries.
The lectures on the Philosophy of Art stray largely into the next sphere and dwell with zest on the close connexion of art and religion; and the discussion of the decadence and rise of religions, of the aesthetic qualities of Christian legend, of the age of chivalry, &c., make the A sthetik a book of varied interest.
It was written from the point of view of a Quaker who did not believe in revealed religion, but who held that "all religions are in their nature mild and benign" when not associated with political systems. Intermixed with the coarse unceremonious ridicule of what he considered superstition and bad faith are many passages of earnest and even lofty eloquence in favour of a pure morality founded on natural religion.
The Arya Samaj is not an eclectic system like the Brahma Samaj, which strives to find the common basis underlying all the great religions, and its narrower scope and corresponding intensity of conviction have won it a greater strength.
Next year he published Le Pape, a vision of the spirit of Christ in appeal against the spirit of Christianity, his ideal follower confronted and contrasted with his nominal vicar; next year again La Pitie supreme, a plea for charity towards tyrants who know not what they do, perverted by omnipotence and degraded by adoration; two years later Religions et religion, a poem which is at once a cry of faith and a protest against the creeds which deform and distort and leave it misshapen and envenomed and defiled; and in the same year L'Ane, a paean of satiric invective against the past follies of learned ignorance, and lyric rapture of confidence in the future wisdom and the final conscience of the world.
Yet in spite of this, all of the great monotheistic religions teach that man was created in God 's image.
As long he did n't try to argue that the Hebrew Scriptures were the truth and the pagan religions were not.
Worship consists of readings from scriptures of all religions.
N early all religions have their origins in Secular Humanism.
It is open to persons of all religions denominations, and the charge to each member is only sixpence per quarter.
Christianity and Islam, Kenya 's two main religions of the book, both make universalist claims on their adherents.
Of all horrible religions the most horrible is the worship of the god within.
Since she did not want to practice any specific religions, Amanda was okay with being an infidel.
This is typically because India today is a conglomeration of many religions.
Along with being honest with one another, many religions include an edict to "not bear false witness;" telling lies to a priest or God is considered far graver than lies to men or to oneself.
In faith, the concept of respect and tolerance is strong in many religions.
This is often demonstrated through church weddings and religious components of many wedding ceremonies, and many religions require pre-marital counseling before a couple weds to ensure they understand the sacred bond of marriage.
Estimates of the world's leading religions place Christianity as the one with the highest population, with about 2.1 billion or approximately 33% of the world's population.
Catholicism is one of the most portrayed religions throughout the media, whether it's movies, novels or on television.
Ironically, it is also one of the most poorly understood religions in the world.
Christians may meditate on a scripture readings, while others may repeat the name of a sacred deity, or something like the Om mantra practiced in Eastern religions.
Certain cultures and religions prohibit getting married on certain days or certain times of the year.
You and your fiancé are of different religions.
Certain elements may still need to be included to be considered a binding ceremony in various religions.
Many organized religions have strict guidelines as to the wedding vows that can be used, but if you're getting married in your backyard, on the beach, or in any kind of civil ceremony, you're likely to have a lot more leeway with your vows.
Religious buildings and religions themselves often have dress codes for ceremonies and services.
This is especially useful if your ceremony is a Christian one but other holy books such as the Koran work will for other religions.
Some religions require the ceremony take place in their place of worship.
In sobriety I tried a number of different churches and religions.
Perhaps Madonna and Mel Gibson can team up and manage to offend all religions before the year is out.
He studied Eastern religions in college.
Cross Necklaces - A symbol within many different religions, the cross is one of the most common pendants worn around the world.
While Christian and Jewish jewelry is easiest to find in the USA, the Internet also has jewelry representing many world religions.
With the world economy shifting, more and more Italian jewelers are catering to eastern religions by offering more religious jewelry options.
Out of the various religions, Christianity and Judaism are two of the most popular focuses for gold jewelry made in Italy.
Leaders of the vast majority of religions throughout the world condemn any form of female circumcision.
The religious response to homosexuality varies, though in the three major Western religions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) homosexuality and bisexuality are considered sins.
In some cultures, especially those influenced by homophobic religions, homosexuality is considered a perversion and has been outlawed; in some jurisdictions homosexual behavior is a crime punishable by death.
Prejudice reduction may also encompass teaching the tolerance of various religions, sexual preferences, and disabilities.
For many centuries the Tao yin yang symbol has represented the beliefs of one of the main Asian philosophies and religions of the Eastern world.
There are a large number of animals and mystical creatures that people of various cultures and religions think of as good luck charms.
Ancestry also has other databases of early Pennsylvania marriages from a variety of religions.
If you'd like to teach about all of the different religions and holiday traditions, Homeschooling Free Resources will provide you with dozens of free links on holiday history activities and projects.
Other prominent religions there include Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity.
In Christian religions votive candles are also known as prayer candles and are generally burned during religious ceremonies as an offering.
Different types of candles play a significant role in most religions of the world.
In many of those religions, the significance of votive candles is tied to the religious traditions of making offerings.
In some religions, such as the Catholic faith, rows of votive candles are often lit at the feet of magnificent statues as church goers ask for answers to their prayers.
While many other religions and cultures may not recognize the "Christ" in the holiday, the period of time is still one of reverence and celebration for millions.
Observances by Chinese society who may celebrate Christmas but not identify themselves with Christian religions are similar to the secular celebrations of the United States.
The website is available for people of all ages (over 18), races and religions, but is not available for same-sex couples.
Like many religions, Catholicism has many different incarnations.
All religions and political parties are represented.
The chances are greater, however, for a multiracial couple to have drastically different religions, which can definitely make the relationship more complicated.
This is because India has about 29 states, each with a different language, customs, etc. It also is a land of diverse religions.
Most of your profile on OK Cupid should be filled out as completely as normal, and be sure to include information about your faith in both the drop-down list of religions and also in your profile description.
Hall moved with his grandmother to the United States where, at the age of 19, he began publicly speaking about ancient religions, traditions, philosophy and the sciences.
He's interested in religions, spirituality, philosophy and psychology.
Whichever you choose, there are now religious home schooling offerings for most of the major religions.
Religious Resources is a directory of coloring books and activities for all major religions.
However, even before Christianity, religions made mention of the thirteenth.
While there are many subtle variations among the different religions that incorporate reincarnation, when it comes to the subject of reincarnation and suicide, they share a high-level commonality.
Numerous religions across the world incorporate some form of out-of-body experience or astral travel into their ceremonies, rituals and practices.
Some religions that espouse reincarnation also believe that you could just as easily return as a plant, animal or even an insect.
Religious iconography can be included in tribal art, but often artwork of currently existing religions, such as Islam, Christianity and Buddhism, is instead put into the category of religious art.
It can also be found in Buddhist, Hindu and Celtic religions, to name a few.
Religions and tattoos go together more often than most people think.For many, the expression of faith in a higher power is an intimate part of the human experience, one they want to share with the rest of the world.
Of course, symbols aren't just found in religions.
Crosses, in all their forms, have been used since ancient times as designations of various religions and other societies - although the most well known of these is the Christian variation.
Second, a lot of people practice some form of faith, and crosses appear in the symbolism of many religions, thus they have a general appeal.
Though angels are a universal symbol among most religions, even those who do not adhere to a particular faith can appreciate the message being expressed in angel artwork.
After all, Michael is considered the head of God's army in some religions.
While many may consider the praying hands as strictly a Christian tattoo, other religions embrace it, too.
Many cultures and religions use fire as symbol to mark change or certain religious rites.
Cultures and religions of the world have often used fire to symbolize many things.
Ancient civilizations (and more modern ones) have long viewed the skies as a mystical presence and there are some religions where stars and constellations play a role in their beliefs.
Different countries, religions, and cultures have developed their own beliefs and concepts in relation to it.
Many religions and cultures (Christianity and Buddhism especially) relate this process to spiritual evolution.
While the origin of Namaste is Hindu, it is embraced by many other cultures and religions.
Christianity, Islam and in fact most religions have elements of fasting in them, whether they're commonly observed or not.
The stories are often sweet and simple, with people from all ethnicities, religions, and financial situations featured.
But a number of non-Christian religions feature a deity dying and returning, notably Mithrism and the pantheism of ancient Egypt (Osiris).
One aspect the major eastern religions share is that to become enlightened, one must divest oneself of earthly attachments, which interfere with the process of enlightenment, keeping one too firmly attached to the every day routine.
In the East all such traits are exaggerated, a result perhaps rather of the statecraft than of the religions of Egypt and Persia.
Before that time three religions (cultes) were recognized and supported by the state-the Roman Catholic, the Protestant (subdivided into the Reformed and Lutheran) and the Hebrew.