The view, often repeated, that the saccharum of the ancients is the hydrate of silica, sometimes found in bamboos and known in Arabian medicine as tabashir, is refuted by Yule, Anglo-Indian Glossary, p. 654; see also Not.
In any case, such scepticism is at all times sufficiently refuted by the imperishable and justifiable trust of reason in itself.
In the 9th century IIivi of Balkh wrote a rationalistic treatise 3 on difficulties in the Bible, which was refuted by Seadiah.
His chief books on chemistry were six volumes of Experiments and Observations on different Kinds of Air, published between 1774 and 1786; Experiments on the Generation of Air from Water (1793) Experiments and Observations relating to the Analysis of Atmospheric Air, and Considerations on the Doctrine of Phlogiston established and that of the Composition of Water refuted (1800).
But this theory was signally refuted by F.
The suspicion of some earlier scholars that the Praefatio and the Versus might be a modern forgery is refuted by the occurrence of the word vitteas, which is the Old Saxon fittea, corresponding to the Old English fitt, which means a "canto" of a poem.
In its earlier form this opinion rested chiefly on certain misinterpreted testimonies in Greek authors about a god 'Iaco, and was conclusively refuted by Baudissin; recent adherents of the theory build more largely on the occurrence in various parts of this territory of proper names of persons ' See Hebrew Religion.
Manson, The Salvation Army and the Public (1906; 3rd ed., 1908); Salvation Army Headquarters, A Calumny Refuted: A Reply to the Unfounded Charges of Sweating, &c. (1908); United Workers' AntiSweating Committee, Salvation Army Sweating: A Reply to the Mis-statements of General Booth and his Officials (1908; 2nd ed., 1910); Reports of the Trades Union Congress (1907 to 1910).
Curiously enough, the synod refused to believe that the heretical confession it refuted was actually by a former patriarch of Constantinople; yet the proofs of its genuineness seem to most scholars overwhelming.
The attacks on the genuineness of the whole or part of the collection have been refuted by Wilde (Leiden, 1889).
1457) showed the Donation of Constantine to be a forgery, denied that Dionysius the Areopagite wrote the works ascribed to him, and refuted the commonly accepted notion that each of the apostles had contributed a sentence to the Apostles' Creed.
For though the Reformers were critical of the authority of ecclesiastical tradition in the matter of 2 His arguments are stated briefly (and in order to be refuted) by Jerome in his commentary on Daniel.
3 p. 172 sqq.) can be easily refuted by a reference to the Isaianic oracles.
But this view, already refuted by Hume, is easily seen to be erroneous.
Other alleged discoveries, such as' the construction of early Roman history out of still earlier ballads, have not been equally fortunate; but if every positive conclusion of Niebuhr's had been refuted, his claim to be considered the first who dealt with the ancient history of Rome in a scientific spirit would remain unimpaired, and the new principles introduced by him into historical research would lose nothing of their importance.
Two other charges of a like nature were refuted as triumphantly.
The assertion preserved by Stobaeus that Thales recognized, together with the material element " water," " mind," which penetrates it and sets it in motion, is refuted by the precise testimony of Aristotle, who declares that the early physicists did not distinguish the moving cause from the material cause, and that before Hermotimus and Anaxagoras no one postulated a creative intelligence.
To this third pamphlet Hamilton replied with The Farmer Refuted (1775).
The artifice was successful, and no sooner had Wallis publicly refuted the solution than Hobbes claimed the credit of it, and went more wonderfully than ever astray in its defence.
Wallis, who had promised to leave him alone henceforward, refuted him again before the year was out.
The notion that the Arab invaders were welcomed and assisted by the Copts, driven to desperation by the persecution of Cyrus, appears to be refuted by the fact that the invaders treated both Copts and Romans with the same ruthlessness; but the dissensions which prevailed in the Christian communities, leading to riots and even civil war in Alexandria and elsewhere, probably weakened resistance to the common enemy.
The numerous objections made by eminent scholars in past centuries to the ascription of these twenty-five canons to the synod in encaeniis have been elaborately stated and probably refuted by Hefele.
Marignan questioned, on archaeological grounds, the date assigned to the tapestry, as the Abbe de la Rue had questioned it ninety years before; but his arguments were refuted by Gaston Paris and M.
Manlius Torquatus explains the Epicurean doctrine, which is refuted in ii.
Codde was accused of being its author, and though he successfully refuted this charge, he was ultimately deposed for Jansenism (1702), his opponent, Theodor de Kock, being appointed in his place.
They refuted him easily on many specific points, but carefully abstained from discussing the real question, at issue, namely the propriety of free inquiry.
The researches of Renan have refuted the once popular idea that a great part of the original island has disappeared by natural convulsions, though he believes that the remains of a submerged wall at the south end indicate that about 15 additional acres were once reclaimed and have been again lost.
Berzelius, and finally refuted (in 1832) by J.
Having, as he believed, refuted the opinions of the philosophers, he next investigated the pretensions of the Allegorists, who derived their doctrines from an imam.
In his Psychology Herbart rejects altogether the doctrine of mental faculties as one refuted by his metaphysics, and tries to show that all psychical phenomena whatever result from the action and interaction of elementary ideas or presentations (Vorstellungen).
He also wrote a treatise entitled De Petal reel de la presse et des pamphlets depuis Francois P r jusqu'a Louis XIV (1834), in which he refuted an empty paradox of Charles Nodier, who had tried to prove that the press had never been, and could never be, so free as under the Grand Monarch.
He is then refuted by Cotta.