The next year (1540) he published a refutation of the attacks upon his doctrine with a more elaborate exposition of it, under the title Grosse Confession.
His early friend and school companion, Adelmann, archdeacon of Liege, wrote to him letters of expostulation on the subject of this report in 1046 and 1048; and a bishop, Hugo of Langres, wrote (about 1049) a refutation of the views which he had himself heard Berengar express in conversation.
But it is above all St Augustine who in his refutation of Faustus, as well as in his sermons and elsewhere, clearly defined the true character of the honours paid to the saints: "Non eis templa, non eis altaria, non sacrificia exhibemus.
Each of them, the probability (chap. 8), the example (chap. 9), the proof (chap. to), the consideration (chap. 11), the maxim (chap. 12), the sign (chap. 13), the refutation (chap. 14), though very like what it is in the Rhetoric, receives in the Rhetoric to Alexander a definition slightly different from the definition in the Rhetoric, which it must be remembered is also the definition in the Prior Analytics.
The work is professedly a refutation of Hutcheson, but is rather constructive than polemical.
Hegel offers a supposed proof that Time and Space, Matter, Nature, are ascertainable and definable 2 This is Kant's positive refutation of Hume's scepticism.
But Reid's actions are better than his words; his real mode of procedure is to redargue Hume's conclusions by a refutation of the premises inherited by him from his predecessors.
Systematical, including Grundprobleme der Erkenntnistheorie; Kategorienlehre; Das sittliche Bewusstsein; Die Philosophie des Schonen; Die Religion des Geistes; Die Philosophie des Unbewussten (3 vols., which now include his, originally anonymous, self-criticism, Das Unbewusste vom Standpunkte der Physiologie and Descendenztheorie, and its refutation, Eng.
The opinions of Berengar are to be ascertained from the works written in refutation of them by Adelmann, Lanfranc, Guitmund, &c. from the fragments of the De sacr.
Amongst the articles which he inserted in it were De l'egalite and Refutation de l'eclectisme, which afterwards appeared as separate works.
Their refutation of the Protestant positions seemed needlessly sharp to the emperor, and five drafts were made of it.
The most important of these polemical treatises is the Refutation of all Heresies, which has come to be known by the inappropriate title of the Philosophumena.
The task is one of extraordinary difficulty, for the textual problems of the various writings are complex and confused: the Greek original is extant in a few cases only (the Commentary on Daniel, the Refutation, on Antichrist, parts of the Chronicle, and some fragments); for the rest we are dependent on fragments of translations, chiefly Slavonic, all of which are not even published.
For the Refutation we are still dependent on the editions of Miller (Oxford, 1851), Duncker and Schneidewin (GÃ¶ttingen, 1859), and Cruice (Paris, 1860).
His refutation of Hume's objection to the truth of miracles is perhaps his intellectual chef-d'ceuvre.
But this proof that the true kingdom of God could not be realized in an earthly state, under the limitations of national particularism, was not the final refutation of the Old Testament hope.
His first apologetical work ('AiroXo-ynrtKOs), written probably about 360 or 365, has been entirely recovered from the celebrated refutation of it by Basil, and may be found in J.
A second apology, written before 379 (`Tirp d7roXoylas airoXoyia), exists only in the quotations given from it in a refutation by Gregory of Nyssa.
A hundred bad writers misrepresented him and reviled him; but not one of the hundred could boast of having been thought by him worthy of a refutation, or even of a retort.
In 1766 he received a gold medal from the Academy of Sciences for an essay on the best means of lighting a large town; and among his early work were papers on the analysis of gypsum, on thunder, on the aurora and on congelation, and a refutation of the prevalent belief that water by repeated distillation is converted into earth.
In 1 706 he wrote a refutation of Dr Henry Dodwell's views on the immortality of the soul, and this drew him into controversy with Anthony Collins.
Parish, Hallucinations and Illusions and Zur Kritik des telepathischen Beweismaterials, and Mrs Sidgwick's refutation in Proc. S.P.R.
This did not suit Philip, who, although he instituted a process in the supreme tribunal of Aragon, speedily abandoned it and caused Perez to be attacked from another side, the charge of heresy being now preferred, arising out of certain reckless and even blasphe On the other hand it is suggested that this story of his being the son of Gomez was only circulated by Ruy Gomez's wife, Ana de Mendoza, as a refutation of the possibility of a supposed amour between her and Perez.
The second part is the refutation of the doctrines of John XXII.
It excited the suspicion of the Church, and a Jesuit, by name Baltus, published a ponderous refutation of it; but the peace-loving disposition of its author impelled him to leave his opponent unanswered.
SuIdas (s.v.), who mentions the second work, confounds the older Scylax with a much later author, who wrote a refutation of the history of Polybius, and is presumably identical with Scylax of Halicarnassus, a statesman and astrologer, the friend of Panaetius spoken of by Cicero (De div.
Of his many works, the earliest, published in 1810, entitled Versuch 'fiber die maltesische Sprache, was a successful refutation of the widely current opinion that the modern Maltese was of Punic origin.
His Apologeticus, a defence of the papal claims against the Empire, written - as is supposed - in refutation of Piero della Vigna's argument in favour of the independence of the Empire, has been lost.
The best known are the Annales Ecclesiastici, written by Cardinal Baronius as a rejoinder to and refutation of the Historia ecclesiastica or "Centuries" of the Protestant theologians of Magdeburg (12 vols., published at Rome from 1788 to 1793; Baronius's work stops at the year 1197).
Hence both science and religion must come to recognize as the" most certain of all facts that the Power which the Universe manifests to us is utterly inscrutable."Thus to be buried side by side in the Unknowable constitutes their final reconciliation, as it is the refutation of irreligion which consists of" a lurking doubt whether the Incomprehensible is really incomprehensible."Such are the foundations of Spencer's metaphysic of the Unknowable, to which he resorts in all the fundamental difficulties which he subsequently encounters.
Burke wrote his Vindication of Natural Society in imitation of Bolingbroke's style, but in refutation of his principles; and in the Reflections on the French Revolution he exclaims, "Who now reads Bolingbroke, who ever read him through?"
A misunderstanding as to the manner in which these should be dealt with was the immediate occasion of the publication by Hutchinson in 1724 of Moses's Principia, part i., in which Woodward's Natural History was bitterly ridiculed, his conduct with regard to the mineralogical specimens not obscurely characterized, and a refutation of the Newtonian doctrine of gravitation seriously attempted.
Among other uses and consequences of his treatise, Collier thinks it furnishes an easy refutation of the Romish doctrine of transubstantiation.
But Kant's refutation of subjective idealism and his vindication of the place of the object can be fully understood only.
His work De Fide has been preserved in connexion with a refutation written by Epiphanius (Haer.
He was burnt simply because he could not change his religion with the law and would not pretend that he could; and his execution is a complete refutation of the idea that Mary only persecuted heretics because and when they were traitors.
ZocearLKoL g XEyXoL: Sophistici Elenchi: On sophistic (roccaTLKOS) or eristic syllogism (EpLaTLKOS avXAoytapos), so called from the fallacies used by sophists in refutation (€AEy X os) of their opponents.
No doubt, rational evidences had appeared in books of rhetoric, as we see from Plato's Phaedrus, 266-267,where we find proofs,probabilities, refutation and maxim, but mixed up with other evidences.
28, § 5) in his refutation of the Kabbalistic heresy of the Ophites, we find Tobias figuring as a prophet, on the same level as Haggai.
He seems to have lived mainly as a hermit outside the city: his time was devoted to study, writing, teaching and the refutation of heresies.
His vacillating autobiography, Exemplar Humanae Vitae, was published with a "refutation" by Limborch in 1687, and republished in 1847.
C. Clemen's refutation in Die Einheitlichkeit der paulin.
To draw up, in concert with twenty other theologians, the refutation of the Protestant Confession, but was obliged to rewrite it five times before it suited the emperor.
In the opinion of the highest authority, Mark Pattison, "as a refutation of Scioppius it is most complete"; but there are certainly grounds for dissenting, though with diffidence, from this judgment.
Nor does he even attempt a refutation of the crucial point, which Scioppius had proved, as far as a negative can be proved - namely, that William, the last prince of Verona, had no son Nicholas, the alleged grandfather of Julius, nor indeed any son who could have been such grandfather.
Various experiments by Schwann, Helmholtz, Schultz, Schroeder, Dusch and others led to the refutation, step by step, of the belief that the more minute organisms, and particularly bacteria, arose de novo in the special cases quoted.
The inference is not expressly drawn, though it becomes perfectly clear from his refutation of William Whiston's curious counter theory that there were in the original Hebrew scriptures prophecies which were literally fulfilled in the New Testament, but had been expunged at an early date by Jewish scribes.
Scaliger's refutation, which was to contain an equal number of volumes of the errors in Baronius.
From papers in the possession of the imperial family he compiled Memoires du prince Eugene (1858-1860) and Refutation des memoires du duc de Raguse (1857), part of which was inserted by authority at the end of volume ix.
Again he works towards the same end in his celebrated refutation of the scholastic theory of real specific essences.