How to use Reforms in a sentence
His first reforms were connected with the army.
The reforms became more or less a dead letter.
The comprehensiveness of his legal and judicial reforms is very striking.
C. Farini was issued demanding the reforms advocated by the powers memorandum of 1831.
He made various reforms which were badly wanted in army administration, but on the whole the experiment of a civilian War Lord was not a complete success, and in April 1909 Senator Casana retired and was succeeded by General Spingardi, an appointment which received general approval.Advertisement
The large Adminis- territorial units of administration created by Peter the trative Great were broken up into so-called " governments " reforms. (gubernii) and further subdivided into districts (uyezdy), and each government was confided to the care of a governor and a vice-governor assisted by a council.
Partly from disappointment and nervous exhaustion, and partly from a conviction that the country required rest in order to judge the practical results of the reforms already accomplished, the tsar refrained from further initiating new legislation, and the government gave it to be understood that the epoch of the great reforms was closed.
On the 19th of March he laid before the House his programme of reforms, which included the emancipation of the peasants from the control of the communes and the handing over to them of the crown lands and imperial estates.
Stolypin indeed defended the coup d'etat in the Duma on the ground that the autocrat had merely altered what the autocrat had originally granted; but, while laying stress on the necessity for restoring order in the body politic, he announced a long programme of reforms, including agrarian measures, reform of local government and its extension in the frontier provinces, and state insurance of workmen.
The most far-reaching of these reforms, carried in the first session of the third Duma, was the partial abolition of the communal and family ownership of land, which involved the establishment of a class of true peasant-proprietors.Advertisement
Guchkov attacked the maladministration in the navy, pointing out that no reforms were possible so long as grand-dukes were at the head of its departments.
He had entered the war office in 1870, and in 1880 became general secretary, in which capacity he introduced many useful reforms in the army.
He wished the institutions of the present to approximate more closely to those of the past, and devised for the new French constitution a body of reforms which reflected the opinions he had formed upon the democracy at Rome and in ancient France.
He immediately set about introducing certain urgent reforms, suppressed all subsidies to the press, and declared his intention of governing according to law and justice.
It is a new source which is here suddenly introduced, belonging apparently to a history of the Temple; it throws no light upon the relations between Judah with its priests and Israel with its prophets, the circumstances of the regency under the priest Jehoiada are ignored, and the Temple reforms occupy the first place in the compiler's interest.Advertisement
The assumption that the decay of Assyria awoke the national feeling of independence is perhaps justified by those events which made the greatest impression upon the compiler, and an account is given of Josiah's religious reforms, based upon a source apparently identical with that which described the work of Jehoash.
But the details and success of the reforms, when viewed in the light of the testimony of contemporary prophets, are uncertain.
But if Josiah carried out the reforms ascribed to him they were of no lasting effect.
Whatever reforms Josiah actually accomplished, the restoration afforded the opportunity of bringing the Deuteronomic teaching into action; though it is more probable that Deuteronomy itself in the main is not much earlier than the second half of the 6th century B.C.'
It is the work of rebuilding and reorganization, of social and of religious reforms, which we encounter in the last pages of biblical history, and in the records of Ezra and Nehemiah we stand in Jerusalem in the very centre of epoch-making events.Advertisement
The reforms of Nehemiah were directed towards the establishment of a religious community at Jerusalem, in which the rigour of the law should be observed.
Mr Basil Thomson (who after Baker's deportation had carried out reforms which the natives, when left alone, were incapable of maintaining) was sent in 1900 to conclude the treaty by which the king placed his kingdom under British protection.
After a period of great distress and cruel oppression, in 1866, on the demand for reforms being again refused, a general insurrection took place, which was only put down by great exertions on the part of the Porte.
The Christian leaders prepared a moderate scheme of reforms, based on the Halepa Pact, which, with a few exceptions, were approved by the powers and eventually sanctioned by the sultan.
It soon became evident, however, that the Porte was endeavouring to obstruct the execution of the new reforms. Several months passed without any step being taken towards this realization; difficulties were raised with regard to the composition of the international commissions charged with the reorganization of the gendarmery and judicial system; intrigues were set on foot against the Christian governorgeneral; and the presence of a special imperial commissioner, who had no place under the constitution, proved so injurious to the restoration of tranquillity that the powers demanded his immediate recall.Advertisement
These measures were followed by the presentation of collective notes to the Greek and Turkish governments (2nd March), announcing the decision of the powers that (1) Crete could in no case in present circumstances be annexed to Greece; (2) in view of the delays caused by Turkey in the application of the reforms Crete should now, be endowed with an effective autonomous administration, intended to secure to it a separate government, under the suzerainty of the sultan.
Lvov, he founded the Octobrist party, in the hope that the Tsar's Government would recognize the necessity of great reforms and work with the moderate Liberals of the Zemstvos while safeguarding the monarchical principle.
He was severe, but just and impartial, and strove to effect necessary reforms by reducing the numbers of the Janissaries, improving the coinage, and checking the state expenditure.
In March his illness was evidently gaining on him, to his great grief, because he knew that he alone could yet save France from the distrust of her monarch and the present reforms, and from the foreign interference, which would assuredly bring about catastrophes unparalleled in the history of the world.
After he became field marshal, in 1784, he introduced many reforms into the army, and built a fleet in' the Black Sea, which, though constructed of very bad materials, did excellent service in Catherine's second Turkish War (1787-92).
It may be noted that Turgot always made the cures the agents of his charities and reforms when possible.
With the physiocrats, he believed in an enlightened absolutism, and looked to the king to carry through all reforms. As to the parlements, he opposed all interference on their part in legislation, considering that they had no competency outside the sphere of justice.
As a statesman he has been very variously estimated, but it is generally agreed that a large number of the reforms and ideas of the Revolution were due to him; the ideas did not as a rule originate with him, but it was he who first gave them prominence.
The Light Railways Act and the Locomotives on Highways Act were added to the statute book in 1896, and various clauses in the Finance Act effected reforms in respect of the death duties, the land-tax, farmers' income-tax and the beer duty.
Reforms were also made in the tedious technicalities of the feudal law.
Thanks to the exertions of Saliceti, one of the two deputies sent by the tiers etat of Corsica to the National Assembly of France, that body, on the 30th of November 1789, declared the island to be an integral part of the kingdom with right to participate in all the reforms then being decreed.
For the same reason he abstained from drastic religious reforms in his capacity as high-priest of Lydia.
Many reforms in ecclesiastical, educational, financial and administrative matters were introduced, and in general the grand-duchy may be said to have passed largely under the influence of Prussia, which, by an arrangement made in 1896, controls the Hessian railway system.
Conceived in the Hildebrandine spirit, his reforms led by a natural sequence to strained relations between Church and State; the equilibrium which he established was unstable, and depended too much upon his personal influence with the Conqueror.
His programme included the collective ownership of the means of production and the international association of labour, but when in June 1899 he entered Waldeck-Rousseau's cabinet of "republican defence" as minister of commerce he limited himself to practical reforms, devoting his attention to the improvement of the mercantile marine, to the development of trade, of technical education, of the postal system, and to the amelioration of the conditions of labour.
This policy, coupled with certain administrative and revenue reforms, and some private attempts in behalf of public education, made the last seven years of his rule, from 1827 to 1834, the most prosperous in the Spanish regime.
The Revolution of 1868 in Spain promised such salutary changes for the Antilles as the introduction of political parties, the restoration of representation in the Spanish Cortes, and the enfranchisement of the slaves; but the imprudent "Insurrection of Lares," and other outbreaks of 1867-68, delayed these anticipated reforms. The reactionaries feared separation from the mother country.
More than a modicum of rusticity is needed as a protection to a man who attempts such colossal reforms. This necessity had its consequences in the disquieting inequalities of Wagner's early work, and the undeniable egotism that embittered his fiery nature throughout his life; while the cut-and-dried system of culture of later Wagnerian discipleship has revenged him in a specially sacerdotal type of tradition, which makes progress even in the study of his works impossible except through revolt.
In both provinces he was distinguished for his practical reforms and for his power in preaching.
The reforms proved a failure, mainly owing to the tacit opposition of the Turkish authorities, the insufficient powers attributed to the European officials, the racial feuds and the deplorable financial situation.
The reign of Josiah is important for the biblical account of the great religious reforms which began in his eighteenth year, when he manifested interest in the repair of the Temple at Jerusalem.
Although the character of the reforms throws remarkable light upon the condition of religion in Judah in the time of Josiah, it is to be observed that the writings of the contemporary prophets (Jeremiah, Ezekiel) make it very questionable whether the narratives are thoroughly trustworthy for the history of the king's measures.
He held this position till 1848, and worked with a remarkable intensity - holding teachers' conventions, delivering numerous lectures and addresses, carrying on an extensive correspondence, introducing numerous reforms, planning and inaugurating the Massachusetts normal school system, founding and editing The Common School Journal (1838), and preparing a series of Annual Reports, which had a wide circulation and are still considered as being "among the best expositions, if, indeed, they are not the very best ones, of the practical benefits of a common school education both to the individual and to the state" (Hinsdale).
He remained in Egypt four years, his period of office coinciding with the first great reforms, after the danger of bankruptcy had been avoided.
Though this was recognized by the more far-seeing of the Bond leaders, they were ready to support Kruger, whether or not he granted reforms, and they sought to make Milner's position impossible.
In 1878, as the result of the Ten Years' War, various administrative reforms, of a decentralizing tendency, were introduced.
Moreover, no great reforms were made in the abuses naturally incident to the old personal system.
Among the governors of the 19th century Miguel Tacon, governor in 1834-1839, a forceful and high-handed soldier, deserves mention, especially in the annals of Havana; he ruled as a tyrant, made many reforms as regarded law and order, and left Havana, in particular, full of municipal improvements.
Among those who waged the war were men who fought to compel reforms, others who fought for annexation to the United States, others who fought for independence.
The separatists, headed by Carlos Manuel de Cespedes (1819-1874), a wealthy planter who proclaimed the revolution at Yara on the 10th of October, demanded the same reforms, including gradual emancipation of the slaves with indemnity to owners, and the grant of free and universal suffrage.
Intervention by the United States seemed probable, but did not come, and after alternations in the fortunes of war, Martinez Campos in January 1878 secured the acceptance by the rebels of the convention (pacto) of Zanjon, which promised amnesty for the war, liberty to slaves in the rebel ranks, the abolition of slavery, reforms in government, and colonial autonomy.
As for autonomy and political reforms it has already been remarked that the change from the old regime was only superficial.
The demands of the Liberals were as in 1868; those for personal and property rights were much more definitely stated, and among explicit reforms demanded were the separation of civil and military power, general recognition of administrative responsibility under a colonial autonomous constitutional regime; also among economic matters, customs reforms and reciprocity with the United States were demanded.
He sent large bribes to influential persons at Constantinople; he aided the Turkish vali to repress the Christians, who had again revolted; and he supported the Bosnian nobles against reforms imposed by the vali.
The reforms in Turkey certainly encouraged the Serb and Moslem inhabitants of the occupied territory to petition the emperor for the grant of a constitution similar to that in force in the provinces of Austria proper.
A variety of other reforms, including the reorganization of Moslem education, were introduced by Omer Pasha, who governed the country until 1860.
Apart from unimportant modifications, the form of the budget must have remained unchanged until the organic reforms of Selim III., while its complete transformation into European shape dates only from the year 1278 (1862), when Fuad Pasha attached a regular budget to his report on the financial situation of the empire.
Then came forced loans and debased currency (1788), producing still more acute distress until, in 1791, at the close of the two years' war with Russia, in which the disaster which attended Ottoman arms may be largely ascribed to the penury of the Ottoman treasury, Selim III., the first of the " reforming sultans, " attempted, with but little practical success, to introduce radical reforms into the administrative organization of his empire.
Reform of this system, and, further, very necessary reforms of the methods of collection of the wines and spirits revenue (which is protection turned upside down, the home-growers being far more heavily taxed than importers), and of the customs (in which almost every possible administrative sin was exemplified), were also undertaken.
It should here be noted that, from the fiscal point of view, the reforms instituted at the commencement of the 19th century may be summarized thus.
Various administrative reforms were in hand in 1910-1911, by which it was expected considerably to reduce the credits demanded by the finance ministry - especially those in connexion with the holy cities.
The reforms already accomplished have resulted in a marked increase in the customs revenues.
The conclusion of peace was welcomed by Selim as the opportunity for carrying out reforms, of which he thoroughly realized the necessity in every branch of the administration, and especially in the army, to whose defects the disasters of the state were due.
These reforms excited much opposition, which was at first unheeded.
All officers who were partisans of the reforms were obliged to take refuge in flight; and Turkey's position would have been desperate but for the conclusion of the peace of Tilsit (July 7, 1807) between Russia and France, to which Turkey also became a party.
Reforms were effected in The reforms introduced by Sultan Mahmud and by the Tanzimat necessitated the remodelling of nearly all the departments of state.
For the financial reforms see the section Finance, above.
After the promulgation of the reforms, the judicial duties of the Imperial Divan, which with other functions also exercised those of a kind of supreme court of appeal, were transferred to the Sheikh-ul-Islam.
Lord Aberdeen made no secret of his dislike for the Turks, and openly expressed his disbelief in the reality of their reforms; and in January 1853 the tsar, in conversation with Sir Hamilton Seymour, the British ambassador at St Petersburg, spoke of the Ottoman Empire as " the Sick Man," and renewed the proposals for a partition made in 1844.
Admitted on equal terms to the European family of nations, the Ottoman government had given a solemn guarantee of its intention to make the long-promised reforms a reality.
The diplomacy of Europe had been searching in vain since the autumn Accession of 1875 for the means of inducing Turkey to institute of Abd-u1- effective administrative reforms and to grant to Hamid 11., its European provinces that autonomy which now 1876.
His successor in the grand vizierate, Kiamil Pasha, was soon called upon to deal with Armenian unrest, consequent on the non-execution of the reforms provided for in the Treaty of Berlin and the Cyprus Convention, which first found vent about 1890.
A commission composed of British, French and Russian officials held an inquiry into the events which had occurred, and early in 1895 England, France and Russia entered actively into negotiations with a view to the institution of reforms. The scheme propounded by the three powers encountered great objections from the Porte, but under pressure was accepted in October 1895.
The enforcement of these reforms, however, was postponed sine die owing to the revolution which transformed the Ottoman Empire into a constitutional state; and the powers, anticipating an improvement in the administration of Macedonia by the new government, withdrew their military officers in the summer of 1908.
Various other reforms, notably the abolition of the spy system and the censorship, were announced soon afterwards.
This was regarded as an expression of confidence in the reformed parliament, which had laid the foundation of the important financial and administrative reforms already described.
The former of these is connected with western Bagdad by a very primitive horse-tramway, also a relic of Midhat Pasha's reforms. The two parts of the city are joined by pontoon bridges, one in the suburbs and one in the main city.
He began his reign under good auspices, with Turgot, the greatest living French statesman, in charge of the disorganized finances; but in less than two years he had yielded to the demand of the vested interests attacked by Turgot's reforms, and dismissed him.
Such was the administration of the taille until about the middle of the 17th century, after which time, although the broad lines remained the same, important reforms were introduced.
Though not a profound and systematic philosophical thinker, Thomasius prepared the way for great reforms in philosophy, and, above all, in law, literature, social life and theology.
He reformed the coinage, developed trade and commerce and introduced numerous agricultural reforms, especially on his own estates, which he was never weary of enlarging, so that on his death he was the wealthiest landowner in Denmark.
He gained a temporary victory when the diet of Augsburg in 1500 established a council of regency (Reichsregiment), and in 1502 persuaded the electors to form a union to uphold the reforms of 1495 and 1500.
The church had exercised a preponderating influence in all matters relating to education and the social life of the people, and it was felt that no sweeping reforms could be secured until its domination had been broken.
The difficulties in the reorganization of the finances of the state, which Dr Campos Salles had to face on his accession to Reforms power, were very great.
Nevertheless it retained a separate administration for more than two centuries, until the general reforms of the grand-duke Pietro Leopoldo, the French domination, and finally the restoration swept away all differences between the Sienese and Florentine systems of government.
Owing to the amount spent on railways, the Fiume harbour works and other causes, the Hungarian budgets after 1867 showed big annual deficits, until in 1888 great reforms were introduced and the finances of the country were established on a more solid basis.
The estates loyally supported him against the attempted exactions of the popes, and do not seem to have objected to any of his reforms, chief among which was the army-reform project of 1435, to provide for the better defence of the land against the Turks.
The same centralizing tendency was shown in the administrative and judicial reforms taken in hand by the diet of 1722.
Her reforms were made not by statute, but by royal decree.
Under Magyar pressure Seidler explicitly condemned all schemes of federalism, and pledged the Government and even the crown itself not to adopt any reforms which did not leave untouched the existing provincial boundaries.
Several of the reforms adopted for the Transvaal applied to or affected the sister colony.
The most original statement is perhaps the view that the words of Isaiah were preserved orally by his disciples, and did not see the light (in a revised form) till a considerable time after the crystallization of the reforms of Josiah into laws.
He met with much opposition in his efforts to introduce the reforms proposed by St Theresa, and was more than once imprisoned.
The importance of Crispi in Italian public life depended less upon the many reforms accomplished under his administrations than upon his intense patriotism, remarkable fibre, and capacity for administering to his fellow-countrymen the political tonic of which they stood in constant need.
For long the Brahmas did not attempt any social reforms. But about 1865 the younger section, headed by Babu Keshub Chunder Sen, who joined the Samaj in 1857, tried to carry their religious theories into practice by demanding the abandonment of the external signs of caste distinction.
As to such reforms in our conceptions of disease the advances of bacteriology profoundly contributed, so under the stress of consequent discoveries, almost prodigious in their extent and revolutionary effect, the conceptions of the etiology of disease underwent no less a transformation than the conceptions of disease itself.
In course of time there was a widespread desire in Europe for a stricter rule among the monks, and reforms of the Benedictine rule were instituted at Cluni (910), Chartreuse (about 1080) and Citeaux (1098).
All these reforms were represented in London.
His reforms met with the strong hostility of the Chamber of Peers, where the ultra-Royalists were in a majority, and to overcome it he got the king to create sixty new Liberal peers.
He was a staunch supporter of Charlemagne's principles of government and educational reforms; he established schools, and by his own literary achievements showed himself a worthy member of the learned circle which graced the Carolingian court.
Among other internal reforms the abolition of the last traces of servitude in 1289, and the increase in the number of arti, first to 12 and then to 21 (7 maggiori and 14 minori) must be mentioned.
Two months later the duke of Calabria, who had been appointed protector of the city in 1325, died, and further constitutional reforms were made.
He then went to London, and thence to Brussels, where, for his support of the reforms of Joseph II., he was ennobled and granted an honorarium of one thousand ducats.
Mahmud was thus early impressed with the necessity for dissembling his intention to institute reforms until he should be powerful enough to carry them through.
This, together with the weakness due to military reforms but recently begun, drove him to rely on foreign aid; which, in the actual conditions of Europe, meant the aid of Russia.
In June 1920, when the Giolitti Government was formed with the programme of a reconstitution of the Italian State and of radical reforms, Croce (who had been a senator of the Kingdom of Italy since 1920) was asked to accept the office of Minister of Public Instruction.
Menshikov understood perfectly the principles on which Peter's reforms were conducted, and was the right hand of the tsar in all his gigantic undertakings.
He remained in Sicily as governor until 1855, when he retired into private life, as he could not carry out the reforms he desired owing to the hostility of Giovanni Cassisi, the minister for Sicily.
The aim of the French Canadian opposition at this time was to obtain financial and also constitutional reforms. Matters came to a head when the legislative assembly of Lower Canada refused supplies and Papineau arranged for concerted action with William Lyon Mackenzie, the leader of the reform party in Upper Canada.
He has, however, left a curious sketch of his projected school reforms. His new duties led him to Strassburg, where he met the young Goethe, on whose poetical development he exercised so potent an influence.
In 1873 Gladstone set his hand to the third of three great Irish reforms to which he had pledged himself.
The next few years saw the introduction, under successive ministries, of Liberal reforms in the constitution, in criminal and civil law, and in education.
The Westminster Review (1824), established by the followers of Jeremy Bentham, advocated radical reforms in church, state and legislation.
It had a considerable effect, and prepared the way for the reforms begun by Burke and continued by Pitt.
The remaining years of his life he devoted to theological speculation and ecclesiastical reforms. His religious enthusiasm led him to oppress his Jewish subjects; on the other hand he sought to reconcile the Christian sects, and to this effect propounded in his Ecthesis a conciliatory doctrine of monothelism.
In 1427 he sold his rights as burgrave to the town of Nuremberg, and he was a prominent member of the band of electors who sought to impose reforms upon Sigismund.
As president he was punctilious in the discharge of his duties, ready to give help and encouragement to artists young and old, and his tenure of the office was marked by some wise and liberal reforms. He frequently went abroad, generally to Italy, where he was well known and appreciated.
Its organization, adopted by the common synod, was the product of the new democratic ideal embodied in the Cleisthenic reforms, as interpreted by a just and moderate exponent.
Sparta in particular remained, even after the reforms of Lycurgus, and on into historic times, simply the isolated camp of a compact army of occupation, of some s000 families, bearing traces still of the fusion of several bands of invaders, and maintained as an exclusive political aristocracy of professional soldiers by the labour of a whole population of agricultural and industrial serfs.
It is clear from the traditions about Lycurgus, for example, that even the Spartans had been a long while in Laconia before their state was rescued from disorder by his reforms; and if there be truth in the legend that the new institutions were borrowed from Crete, we perhaps have here too a late echo of the legislative fame of the land of Minos.
Many of these reforms were followed as models by other states.
These fragments of the "province of Italy," as it was when reconquered by Justinian, were almost all lost either to the Lombards, who finally conquered Ravenna itself about 750, or by the revolt of the pope, who separated from the empire on account of the iconoclastic reforms. The intervention of Pippin the Carolingian, who was called in by the popes to protect them against the Lombards and the Eastern emperors alike, made a revival of the exarchate impossible.
But these reforms were vitiated in their source.
Though not in name, in fact he was prime minister; in all internal affairs it was he who decided; and the fiscal and economic reforms of the new reign were the application of his theories.
He remained in the post, under Lord Crewe as Lord Morley's successor, till 1914; and so made his first official acquaintance with India under the influence of Lord Morley's reforms and Lord Crewe's Durbar changes of 1911.
Ultimately in July 1918 there was published an elaborate report, drawn up and signed by the Viceroy as well as by the Secretary of State, recommending a series of constitutional reforms which should give the Indian peoples a large and real share in their own government.
In India itself opinion was more divided, both among the English and among the Indians; but there was a large moderate section among both which welcomed the proposed reforms. In Dec. 1919 he had the satisfaction of passing the Government of India bill, embodying the recommendations of the report, through Parliament, and on its third reading he described it as a step in the discharge of our trusteeship for India; the ultimate justification of our rule would be in the capacity of the Indian peoples to govern themselves.
He never held office again, but he was very active in support of the causes which he had at heart, such as tariff reform, and woman suffrage; he was a keen critic of Lord Haldane's army reforms, and threw himself vigorously into the " die-hard " campaign of 1911.
Teachers and professors who were weak in English, lawyers, newspaper men and others, combined to deprive these reforms of their legitimate consequence, viz.
After the Treaty of Paris stability of government developed, and many important reforms were introduced under the strong government of the masterful Sir Thomas Maitland; he acted promptly, without seeking popularity or fearing the reverse, and he ultimately gained more real respect than any other governor, not excepting the marquess of Hastings, who was a brilliant and sympathetic administrator.
The elected members under the leadership of Dr Mizzi clamoured for more power, opposed reforms and protested against the carrying of government measures by the casting vote of a military governor as president of the council.
Sir Walter Hely-Hutchinson left Malta in March 1889, and was succeeded by Sir Gerald Strickland (Count Della Catena), who lost no time in pushing, and carrying with a rapidity that was considered hasty, reforms that had been retarded for years.
Strenuous efforts were made to placate the Italian party in the administration of the educational reforms; but, as these were not repealed, elected members refused supply, and kept away from the council.
But when in the early 'forties a feeling of unrest spread throughout Italy, even in Tuscany demands for a constitution and other political reforms were advanced; in1845-1846riots broke out in various parts of the country, and Leopold granted a number of administrative reforms. But Austrian influence prevented him from going further, even had he wished to do so.
In the following January he received from the pope a letter commending his action, and encouraging him in his social reforms. He was defeated at the general election of that year, but in 1894 was returned for Finistere (Morlaix).
For an account of his internal reforms see HUNGARY.
Having been elected M.P. for the Ayr burghs in 1818, he devoted the greater part of his life to the promotion of Liberal reforms. In 1820 he married the only daughter of Sir Samuel Romilly.
In the course of his reforms he thrust out a son of Joiada (son of Eliashib, the high-priest), who had married the daughter of Sanballat, an incident which had an important result (see Samaritans).
She was burdened with debt; the reforms of Colbert were ruined; and opposition to the king's regime began to make itself felt.
It was so named because a similar rising had recently taken place in Prague, Bohemia, at that time closely associated with France through the house of Luxemburg, kings of Bohemia, and it was caused by the reforms of Charles VII.
In 1850 he became vice-principal and Hebrew lecturer at St David's College, Lampeter, where he introduced muchneeded educational and financial reforms. He was appointed select preacher of Cambridge University in 1854, and preached a sermon on inspiration, afterwards published in his Rational Godliness after the Mind of Christ and the Written Voices of the Church (London, 1855).
He was an ardent social reformer; he secured the abolition of corporal punishment in the schools, the suppression of lotteries, of houses of ill-fame and of obscene literature; he instituted reforms in the hospitals, and insisted on the honours of public burial for the poor.
The old marshal vainly endeavoured to keep his own, Progressists within bounds in the Cortes of 1854-1856, and in the great towns, but their excessive demands for reforms and liberties played into the hands of a clerical and reactionary court and of the equally retrograde governing classes.
The Duma of the empire created in 1905 bears the name suggested by Speranski, and the institution of local self-government (the zemstvos) in 1864 was one of the reforms proposed by him.
On his public life and constitutional reforms see Theodor Schiemann, Geschichte Russlands unter Kaiser Nikolaus I., Bd.
On the 30th of October he issued a decree granting wide reforms, and when risings broke out in other parts of Italy early in 1848 and further liberties were demanded, he was at last induced to grant the constitution (8th February).
The struggle continued with great bitterness on both sides, but gradually the Danish government was forced to grant many important reforms. High schools were established at Reykjavik, and efforts made to better the trade and farming of the country.
The elections for the States General were soon to take place; and the first important act of the new bishop was to draw up a manifesto or programme of the reforms which he desired to see carried out by the States General of France.
He induced these to unite in opposing the Lutheran heresy on condition that the pope would issue a decree providing for some of the most needed reforms. There was to be no more financial oppression on the part of the clergy, and no unseemly payments for performing the church services.
A council held at Sens, 1528-29, approved all those doctrines of the old Church which the Protestants were attacking, and satisfied itself with enumerating a list of necessary conservative reforms.
The deliberations of 1561 resulted in the various reforms, the suspension of persecution and the liberation of Huguenot prisoners.
It is much less certain that the disciplinary reforms which the council, following the example of its predecessors, re-enacted, owed anything to Protestantism, unless indeed the council would have shown itself less intolerant in respect to such innovations as the use of the vernacular in the services had this not smacked of evangelicalism.
A quarrel with the papacy turned, or helped to turn, his thoughts in the direction of Church reform, but he hoped this would come from within rather than from without, and with the aid of his friend John Gropper (1503-1559), began, about 1536, to institute certain reforms in his own diocese.
His reforms, which reached every part of the school system, were fortunately introduced just at the beginning of railway and city growth.
Howe (q.v.), whose reforms in charity methods were felt through all the charitable interests of the state.
Though hostile, therefore, to the policy of Cleisthenes, their council seems to have suffered no direct abridgment of power from his reforms. After his legislation it gradually changed character and political sentiment by the annual admission of ex-archons who had held office under a popular constitution.
Many reforms were introduced.
But the reforms and concessions of Spain came too late.
Isaac's great aim was to restore the former strict organization of the government, and his reforms, though unpopular with the aristocracy and the clergy, and not understood by the people, certainly contributed to stave off for a while the final ruin of the Byzantine empire.
Upon a platform which called for radical reforms in the administrative departments, the civil service, and the national finances, Cleveland was nominated for president, despite the opposition of the strong Tammany delegation from his own state.
Zwingli looked rather to the City Fathers than to the pope, and as long as he had them with him he moved confidently and laboured for reforms which were as much political and moral in character as religious.
Contrary to the usual custom he refused to receive presents from contractors, and he effected much-needed reforms in every part of the military administration.
Bardas justified this usurpation by introducing various internal reforms; in the wars of the period Michael himself took a more active part.
The assembly chose a board of Twelve Men to represent it, and a few months later this board demanded certain reforms, especially that the membership of the director-general's council should be increased from one to five by the popular election of four members.
The reforms proposed included the adoption of European time, the European calendar, and the Latin alphabet; the abolition of veiling of women - as a practice of far-reaching, injurious influence upon the race; the abolition of the annual, month-long fast of Ramazan, and of the Feasts of Bairam.
As a further concession to the insurgents, reforms on the widest scale were promised; but their application required time, even if the good faith of the Government could be trusted.
Ballance at once raised the pay of members from £150 to £240 a year, but otherwise directed his energies to constitutional reforms and social experiments.
Hereupon the Janissaries and other enemies of progress rose at Adrianople, and in view of their number, exceeding io,000, and the violence of their opposition, it was decided that the reforms must be given up for the present.
The Janissaries rose once more in revolt, induced the Sheikhul-Islam to grant a fetva against the reforms, dethroned and imprisoned Selim (1807), and placed his nephew Mustafa on the throne.
The pasha of Rustchuk, Mustafa Bairakdar, a strong partisan of the reforms, now collected an army of 40,000 men and marched ' on Constantinople with the purpose of reinstating Selim.
This scheme embodied the chief reforms desired by Theramenes, and marks the triumph of his policy.
The two great political issues of the time were the secularization of the clergy reserves in Ontario, and the abolition of seigniorial tenure in Quebec. Both of these reforms Macdonald long opposed, but when successive elections had proved that they were sup ported by public opinion, he brought about a coalition of Conservatives and moderate reformers for the purpose of carrying them.
This "round robin" created a sensation which aroused public opinion and was instrumental in bringing about some desirable reforms in the War Department.
The very sensation created by the novelty of his methods set standards and started reforms which have greatly improved the morale of the entire force.
The first ten years of his active reign passed in peace and quiet; agriculture, manufactures and industries were fostered, economical reforms instituted, and the heavy public debt of forty million thalers was steadily reduced.
The commercial and industrial interests of the country continued to be fostered, but only a few of the most unavoidable political reforms were granted.
He accorded at first only a few trifling reforms, which were far from removing the popular discontent, while he retained the unpopular minister, Count Detlew von Einsiedel (1773-1861), and continued the encouragement of the Roman Catholics.
He appears, however, to have set himself honestly to carry out reforms. The economical condition of Italy evidently excited his alarm and sympathy.
A reform commission without a programme naturally first occupied itself with reforms about which there was no controversy.
By means of this coalition the Ministry succeeded, indeed, in passing the military service reforms on April 24 1911 (reduction of the three years' service to two years, combined with an increase in the contingent of recruits); but this completely exhausted its parliamentary strength, and the first parliamentary suffrage Parliament ended with but poor results in the midst of unsolved national problems.
The incident strengthened Prince Albert's hands in trying to carry out sundry domestic reforms which were being stoutly resisted by vested interests.
The arrangement was fraught with danger to the public tranquillity, and one of the reforms of the last sovereign was the abolition of the office of "Chao Uparach and a decree that the throne should in future descend from the king to one of his sons born of a queen, which decree was immediately followed by the appointment of a crown prince.
In 1803 a commission met to consider the state of the Dutch colonies, and advocated drastic administrative and commercial reforms, notably freedom' of trade in all commodities except firearms, opium, rice and wood - with coffee, pepper and spices, which were state monopolies.
The chief reforms in the land system were those introduced by De Waal, then minister for the colonies, in 1870.
He soon became generally detested by the army, but pursued his course unflinchingly and introduced many indispensable hygienic reforms. "Clean barracks are healthy barracks," was his motto.
His principal reforms were the subdivision of the artillery divisions into separate independent units, the formation of artillery brigades, the establishment of a committee of instruction (1808), and the publishing of an Artillery Journal.
At Austerlitz he had the satisfaction of witnessing the actual results of his artillery reforms. The commissariat scandals which came to light after the peace of Tilsit convinced the emperor that nothing short of the stern and incorruptible energy of Arakcheev could reach the sources of the evil, and in January 1808 he was appointed inspector-general and war minister.
But the carrying out of reforms led at once to dissensions with the civil power, the starting-point being the attack upon simony.
The reforms begun at Constance and continued at Basel (1431-1449) proved, however, insufficient.
A considerable section of the priesthood demanded some dogmatical reforms, including the abolition of celibacy, the introduction of the vernacular into the Church services, and a more democratic administration of Church affairs.
In spite of his political reforms, he opposed the admission of the plebeians to the consulship and priestly offices; and, although these reforms might appear to be democratic in character and calculated to give preponderance to the lowest class of the people, his probable aim was to strengthen the power of the magistrates (and lessen that of the senate) by founding it on the popular will, which would find its expression in the urban inhabitants and could be most easily influenced by the magistrate.
A born ruler, Casimir introduced a whole series of administrative and economical reforms. He was the especial protector of the cities and the peasants, and, though averse from violent measures, punished aristocratic tyranny with an iron hand.
He also calculated that the demand itself would make the szlachta suspicious of all reform, including the Czartoryscian reforms, especially as both the king and his uncles were generally unpopular, as being innovators under foreign influence.
The sejm of 1766 not only rejected the dissident bill, but repealed all the Czartoryscian reforms and insisted on the retention of the liberum veto as the foundation of the national liberties.
The most indispensable reforms had been frantically opposed, the debate on the reorganization of the army had alone lasted six months.
Like the French aristocrats with the reforms of Necker, they would not listen till ruin had overtaken them.
In 1860 he was made vizier and pasha, and entrusted with the government of Nisch, where his reforms were so beneficial that the sultan charged him, in conjunction with Fuad Pasha and Ali Pasha, to prepare the scheme for adapting them to the empire which was afterwards known as the law of the vilayets.
Midhat Pasha now became grand vizier, reforms were freely promised, and the Ottoman parliament was inaugurated with a great flourish.
In the patronage of learning and in the exercise of authority over the morals and education of youth Laud was in his proper sphere, many valuable reforms at Oxford being due to his activity, including the codification of the statutes, the statute by which public examinations were rendered obligatory for university degrees, and the ordinance for the election of proctors, the revival of the college system, of moral and religious discipline and order, and of academic dress.
In 1637 he took part in the sentence of the star chamber on Prynne, Bostwick and Burton, and in the same year in the prosecution of Bishop Williams. He urged Strafford in Ireland to carry out the same reforms and severities.
Similarly though he carried out many useful administrative reforms, in a vain effort to combat Social Democracy he seriously interfered with the liberty of public meeting and attempted the forcible suppression of strike movements.
While in Egypt in 1827, Abd-el-Kader is stated to have been impressed, by the reforms then being carried out by Mehemet Ali, with the value of European civilization, and the knowledge he then gained affected his career.
Holyoake founded a society in London which subsequently under the leadership of Charles Bradlaugh advocated the disestablishment of the Church, the abolition of the Second Chamber and other political and economic reforms.
Parker, closed his review of the reforms instituted in Germany and France by adding that in England there had classical been but little change.
These reforms appear to have given satisfaction to Algerian opinion.
The leading burghers were, however, soon alienated by his violent and despotic methods, by his defence of Kieft, and by his devotion to the interests of the company; the nine men became (as early as 1649, when they sent the famous Vertoogh, or Remonstrance, to the states-general asking for burgher government and other reforms) the centre of municipal discontent; and a bitter quarrel ensued.
The government had been losing ground in the country, and Mr Lloyd George and Mr Winston Churchill were conspicuously in alliance in advocating the use of the budget for introducing drastic reforms in regard to licensing and land, which the resistance of the House of Lords prevented the Radical party from effecting by ordinary legislation.
The same may be said of the many, often absurd, accusations subsequently brought against him by jealous rivals or ignorant contemporaries who hated Godunov's reforms as novelties.
By introducing genuine reforms for the benefit of officers and common soldiers alike, and by laying himself out for popularity in the most pronounced fashion - notably by his fire-eating attitude towards Germany in April 1887 in connexion with the Schnaebele frontier incident - Boulanger came to be accepted by the mob as the man destined to give France her revenge for the disasters of 1870, and to be used simultaneously as a tool by all the anti-Republican intriguers.
Not only so, but, when greater strictness of rule and of enclosure seemed the most needful reforms in communities that had become too secular in tone, the proposal of Ignatius, to make it a first principle that the members of his institute should mix freely in the world and be as little marked off as possible externally from secular clerical life and usages, ran counter to all tradition and prejudice, save that Cara.ffa's then recent order of Theatines, which had some analogy with the proposed Society, had taken some steps in the same direction.
The overthrow of Spanish rule in Mexico was the beginning of a new period, and efforts were made to introduce educational reforms, but the colonists and ecclesiastics were still governed by their fears and prejudices, and little was accomplished.
To obtain a clear view of the reforms aimed at by the Pleiade, the Deffence should be further considered in connexion with Ronsard's Abrege d'art poetique and his preface to the Franciade.
His mind gradually turned from belief in the efficacy of violent measures to the acceptance of constitutional methods; and in his last book, King Stork and King Log, he spoke with approval of the efforts of politicians on the Liberal side to effect, by argument and peaceful agitation, a change in the attitude of the Russian government towards various reforms. Stepniak constantly wrote and lectured, both in Great Britain and the United States, in support of his views, and his energy, added to the interest of his personality, won him many friends.
Here he worked diligently at practical reforms, being specially anxious to raise the standard of clerical life and work.
In his fifteenth year he made the acquaintance of Kazinczy and zealously adopted his linguistic reforms. In 1809 Kolcsey went to Pest and became a "notary to the royal board."
In 1839 he wrote a series of articles on popular education, and (in 1841) an anonymous work, Om Straff och straffanstalter, advocating prison reforms. Twice during his father's lifetime he was viceroy of Norway.
At the general election which followed, the governor-general was sustained by a narrow majority, but in 1848 the Liberals were again returned to power, and he and Mr Lafontaine formed their second administration under Lord Elgin and carried numerous important reforms, including the freeing from sectarian control of the Provincial University and the introduction into Upper Canada of an important municipal system.
The reforms in the regulations for degrees in divinity, the formation and first revision of the new theological tripos, the inauguration of the Cambridge mission to Delhi, the institution of the Church Society (for the discussion of theological and ecclesiastical questions by the younger men), the meetings for the divinity faculty, the organization of the new Divinity School and Library and, later, the institution of the Cambridge Clergy Training School, were all, in a very real degree, the result of Westcott's energy and influence as regius professor.
Turgot and Necker had attempted these reforms, and Calonne attributed their failure to the malevolent criticism of the parlements.
In reality his audacious plan of reforms, which Necker took up later, might have saved the monarchy had it been firmly seconded by the king.
Then began a period of radical reforms, recommended by public opinion and carried out by the autocratic power.
Early in 1881, on the advice of Count Loris-Melikov, he determined to try the effect of some moderate liberal reforms on the revolutionary agitation, and for this purpose he caused a ukaz to be prepared creating special commissions, composed of high officials and private personages who should prepare reforms in various branches of the administration.
The reactionaries in power put off their promised reforms so persistently as to anger even Metternich; nor did the replacement of Bernetti by Lambruschini in 1836 mend matters; for the new cardinal secretary of state objected even to railways and illuminating gas, and was liberal chiefly in his employment of spies and of prisons.
Recovering the crown lands, he abolished the principle of ministerial responsibility, the legislative power of the two chambers, and other reforms, virtually restoring affairs to their condition before 1833.
But even in his most sweeping reforms he never lost sight of the idiosyncrasies of the people.
He introduced many reforms in the various monastic orders and took vigorous measures against the heresies of the time.
In the reaction following the Civil War all reforms halted.
An immense mass meeting was held on the 30th of June, which sent a committee to the king with specific demands for radical reforms. Finding himself without support, he yielded without a struggle, dismissed his ministry and signed a constitution on the 7th of July 1887, revising that of 1864, and intended to put an end to personal government and to make the cabinet responsible only to the legislature; this was called the " bayonet constitution," because it was so largely the result of the show of force made by the Honolulu Rifles.
The reforms, however, which his new modes of teaching involved, and even some of his new doctrines, such as the non-infallibility of Aristotle, brought him into collision with other teachers in the university.
His institution of the permanent Committee of Imperial Defence, and of the new Army Council (1904), were reforms of the highest importance, resulting from the report of a "triumvirate" consisting of Lord Esher, Sir John Fisher and Sir George Clarke, appointed in November 1903.
In his last command, that of the East Indies station, he carried out many salutary reforms, especially in matters of discipline and victualling.
Urban set his hand to reforms from which his predecessor Gregory had recoiled.
The terms of the agreement were that a synodal decree should give an absolute assurance that the work of reformation would be taken in hand immediately after the election; reforms, on which all the nations were already united, were to be published before the election; and the mode of the papal election itself was to be determined by deputies.
During his reign crying abuses continued and grew in spite of certain reforms.
Though already 79 years of age, he was animated by the fiery zeal of youth, and he employed the most drastic methods for executing the necessary reforms anc combating the advance of Protestantism.
From the close of the Thirty Years' War to the outbreak of the French Revolution the papacy suffered abroad waning political prestige; at home, progressive financial embarrassment accompanied by a series of inadequate governmental reforms; and in the world at large, gradual diminution of reverence for spiritual authority.
Retrenchment often cut to the bone; wise reforms shattered on the inexperience or corruption of officials.
These reforms, embodied in the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, were part of the new Fundamental Law of the kingdom.
Other reforms were of a different character.
In spite of these reforms the Silesians, who felt severely the financial exactions of Matthias, began to resent the control of the Bohemian crown.
Making yearly visits to the country, and further keeping himself in touch with it by means of a special "minister of Silesia," he was enabled to effect numerous political reforms, chief of which were the strict enforcement of religious toleration and the restriction of oppressive seignorial rights.
After the retaking of Jerusalem and recovery of the Cross from the Persians in the eighteenth year of his reign, Heraclius called a mixed council at Karin (Theodosiopolis) of Greeks and Armenians under Ezr (Esdras), catholicus, at which the preceding council of Dvin was cursed, its reforms repudiated and the confession of Chalcedon adopted.
The dalmatic was in general use at the beginning of the 9th century, partly as a result of the Carolingian reforms, which established the Roman model in western Europe; but it continued to be granted by the popes to distinguished ecclesiastics not otherwise entitled to wear it, e.g.
From 1880 to 1882 he was secretary for war, a post he accepted somewhat unwillingly; and in that position he had to bear the responsibility for the reforms which were introduced into the war office under the parsimonious conditions which were then part of the Liberal creed.
He greatly aided in the introduction of many useful reforms, in fostering a more catholic and tolerant spirit, and in cementing a firm alliance with the sister church of England.
The elector had signalized his restoration by abolishing with a stroke of the pen all the reforms introduced under the French regime, repudiating the Westphalian debt and declaring null and void the sale of the crown domains.
In March 1852 the federal diet abolished the constitution of 1831, together with the reforms of 1848, and in April issued a new provisional constitution.
Many of the reforms in the penal codes of the principal European nations are traceable to Beccaria's treatise.
The growing power of Japan, seen in her wars with China and Russia, and the impotence of the Boxers against the European allies, made all classes in China realize their comparative impotence, and the central government began a series of reforms, reorganizing the military, educational, fiscal and political systems on Western lines.
Maximilian himself was an "enlightened" prince of the 18th-century type, whose tolerant principles had already grievously offended his clerical subjects; Montgelas was a firm believer in drastic reform "from above," and, in 1803, had discussed with the rump of the old estates the question of reforms. But the revolutionary changes introduced by the constitution proclaimed on the 1st of May 1808 were due to the direct influence of Napoleon.
Important reforms were now introduced, including the separation of the judicial and executive powers and the drawing up of a new criminal code.
Aali Pasha was one of the most zealous advocates of the introduction of Western reforms under the sultans Abdul Mejid and Abdul Aziz.
French officers were selected for the training and disciplining of the army, the civil list was arranged with economy and order, and reforms were introduced into the public service and system of administration.
By these articles the grand-duchy reforms. The election of 1847 gave a majority to the Liberals and a purely Liberal ministry was formed, and from this date onwards it has been the constitutional practice in Belgium to choose a homogeneous ministry from the party which possesses a working majority in the chamber.
These reforms resulted in a temporary increase of prosperity, or at any rate an alleviation of the previous misery of the peasants.
In that history the gradual development of commerce, the financial reforms in 1895, and the extension of the Paraguay Central railway after 1906, were events of far greater importance than any political movement which took place between 1870 and 1910.
The independent evidence for the present post-exilic form of the book has consequently led many scholars to the conclusion that it was directed against the drastic steps associated with the reforms of Ezra and Nehemiah, which, as is known, were not everywhere acceptable.
The improvements he introduced in the tenures of his peasantry anticipated in some respects the agricultural reforms of the next generation.
His governor-generalship (1827-1835) was notable for' many reforms, chief among which were the suppression of the Thugs, the abolition of suttee, and the making of the English language the basis of education in India.
The duke set to work to put his house in order, and inaugurated a series of useful reforms, ably assisted by his minister, Niccolo Balbo.
He effected some reforms in the monastic orders; urged the conversion of the sectaries in Bohemia; and sent missionaries to America, India, Abyssinia and the Congo.
But before he could take any steps to check the progress of Charles pecuniary neces- Reforms sities compelled him to meet the diet.
Such in outline were the reforms effected by the important diet of Worms.
An administrative council, a new Reichsreginieni, must be established, and other reforms were to be set on foot.
Important ecclesiastical reforms were approved, and instructions forbidding all innovations and calling upon the diet to execute the edict of Worms, sent by the emperor from Spain, were brushed aside on the ground that in the preceding March when this letter was written Charles and the pope were at peace, while now they were at war.
His plan was to bring about the meeting league of of a general council to make the necessary reforms in Schnial- the church, and then at whatever cost to compel the kalden...
His proposals to strengthen and reform the administration of Germany were, however, not acceptable to the princes, and the main one was not pressed; but the Netherlands were brought under the protection of the Empire and some minor reforms were carried through.
The feudalists called for a still further revision of the constitution, and urged that even the reforms effected by Stein should be undone.
The draft code of civil procedure, which was published in December 1872, introduced many important reforms, especially by substituting public and verbal procedure for the older German system, under which the proceedings were almost entirely carried on by written documents.
At the beginning of the autumn session a union of 204 members of the Reichstag was formed for the discussion of econolnic questions, and they accepted Bismarcks reforms. In December he was therefore able to issue a memorandum explaining his policy; it included a moderate duty, about 5%, on all imported goods, with the exception of raw material required for German manufactures (this was a return to the old Prussian principle); high finance duties on tobacco, beer, brandy and petroleum; and protective duties on iron, corn, cattle, wood, wine and sugar.
He extended his reforms to the collegiate churches (even to the fraternities of penitents and particularly that of St John the Baptist), and to the monasteries.
On his accession he proceeded at once to repeal the recent reforms in the constitution, and attempted to set up a pure despotism.
In the Annual Review for 1808 two articles of his are traced - a "Review of Fox's History," and an article on "Bentham's Law Reforms," probably his first published notice of Bentham.
These reforms were practically confined to the central provinces of the monarchy; for in Hungary, as well as in the outlying territories of Lombardy and the Netherlands, it was recognized that the conservative temper of the peoples made any revolutionary change in the traditional system inadvisable.
It only Internal remains to add that, in carrying out this system, Maria reforms Theresa was too wise to fall into the errors afterwards made by her son and successor.
Alongside the new bureaucracy, the old estates survived in somnolent inactivity, and even in Hungary, though the ancient constitution was left untouched, the diet was only summoned four times during the reign, and reforms were carried out, without protest, by royal ordinance.
The social, religious and educational reforms of Maria Theresa also mark her reign as the true epoch of transition from medieval to modern conditions in Austria.
But his interest was in the fascinating game of diplomacy; he was ambitious of playing the leading part on the great stage of international politics; and he was too consummate a courtier to risk the loss of the imperial favour by any insistence on unpalatable reforms, which, after all, would perhaps only reveal the necessity for the complete revolution which he feared.
In .1875 Andrassy drafted a note, which was accepted by the powers, requiring Turkey to institute the reforms necessary for the good government of the provinces.
Each of the financial and economic reforms described above was, of course, the subject of a separate law, but, so far as they are determined at the general settlement which takes The place between Austria and Hungary every ten years, they are comprised under the expression " Ausgleich " with (compact or compromise), which includes especially Hungary.
For a fuller description of these social reforms, see the Jahrbuch fir Gesetzgebung (Leipzig, 1886, 1888 and 1894); also the annual summary of new laws in the Zeitschrift fur Staatswissenschaft (Stuttgart).
In 1824 he received the comparatively small post of governor of Malta, in which island he introduced many reforms and endeared himself to the inhabitants.
The era of Diocletian dates from the 29th of August 284, the year of his reforms; later, however, the Christians called it the era of the Martyrs (though the persecution was not until 302), and it survived the Arab conquest.
Mahmud also was already planning reforms borrowed from the West, and Mehemet Ali, who had had plenty of opportunity of observing the superiority of European.
In 1844-1845 there was some improvement in the condition of the country as a result of financial reforms the pasha was compelled to execute.
But there was to be no embarking on a general scheme of reforms, which would increase unnecessarily the responsibilities of the protecting power and necessitate the indefnite prolongation of the military occupation.
Even these latter, who gained most by the reforms, considered that they had good reason to complain, for the defeat of Arabi and the re-establishment of order had enabled the Christian money-lenders to return and insist on the payment of claims, which were supposed to have been extinguished by the rebellion.
Lord Dufferin who had been sent to The Sudan Cairo to draw up a project of constitutional reforms, question.
Various reforms were carried, but the proposal to sell the Danish islands in the West Indies to the United States fell through.
The result testifies to the confidence inspired by Alfred's character and generalship, and to the efficacy of the military reforms initiated by him.
The evil had been long felt, and reforms apparently often proposed, but nothing (except by the compilation of the Codex theodosianus) had been done till Justinian's time.
They are very bulky, and with the exception of a few, particularly the 116th and 118th, which introduce the most sweeping and laudable reforms into the law of intestate succession, are much more interesting, as supplying materials for the history of the time, social, economical and ecclesiastical, than in respect of any purely legal merits.
Considering that his legal reforms are those by which his name is mainly known to posterity, it is curious that we should have hardly any information as to his legal knowledge, or the share which he took in those reforms. In person he was somewhat above the middle height, well-shaped, with plenty of fresh colour in his cheeks, and an extraordinary power of doing without food and sleep. He spent most of the night in reading or writing, and would sometimes go for a day with no food but a few green herbs.
He effected some reforms and economies during his tenure of this office, but, unable to carry out all his wishes, became chief secretary for Ireland in March 1833.
In Russia, too, certain reforms were carried out; but they could not survive the suspicious interference of the autocrat and his officials.
In 1897 a Bulgarian proposal for joint pacific action with a view to obtaining reforms in Macedonia was rejected by Greece.
Largely as the result of his representations, many important reforms were ordered by Lord Goderich, afterwards earl of Ripon, the colonial secretary.
Pottery models of offerings are found in the ashes, and these were probably the substitutes for sacrifices decreed by Cheops (Khufu) in his temple reforms. A great clearance of temple offerings was made now, or earlier, and a chamber full of them has yielded the fine ivory carvings and the glazed figures and tiles which show the splendid work of the Ist dynasty.
These reforms profoundly modified and in some cases abolished older organizations which had grown inadequate to modern wants.
Her reforms in church matters had apparently made her unpopular with the Celts, but under cover of a mist her body was conveyed to and buried at Dunfermline.
While Dundee was raising the clans and outmanoeuvring Mackay, a party in parliament was agitating for constitutional reforms, and especially for freedom from the Lords of the Articles.
But wherever he was allowed a free hand he introduced epoch-making reforms in all the branches of his department, including posts, telegraphs, &c. A man of such strength of character was not to be turned from his course by any amount of opposition, and he rather enjoyed to be alluded to as "the iron-handed minister."
Count Lamsdorff visited Vienna in December 1902, when arrangements were made for concerted action in imposing on the sultan reforms in the government of Macedonia.
Further steps were taken after Goluchowski's interview with the tsar at Miirzsteg in 1903, and two civil agents representing the countries were appointed for two years to ensure the execution of the promised reforms. This period was extended in 1905, when Goluchowski was the chief mover in forcing the Porte, by an international naval demonstration at Mitylene, to accept financial control by the powers in Macedonia.
Holding office by sufferance of Gambetta, he halted in an undetermined attitude between the radicals and the reactionaries till the delay of urgent reforms lost him the support of all parties.
At the time of the Servian reforms both branches of the plebs had a plausible claim to recognition as members of the state, the clients as already partial members of the curia and the gees, the unattached plebeians as equally free with the patricians and possessing clans of their own as solid and united as the recognized gentes.
The aim of the reforms associated with the name of Servius Tullius appears to have been the imposition of the duties of citizenship upon the plebeians.
Besides the abolition of tests, effected by the act of 1871, many of the reforms there suggested, such as the revival of the faculties, the reorganization of the professoriate, the abolition of celibacy as a condition of the tenure of fellowships, and the combination of the colleges for lecturing purposes, were incorporated in the act of 1877, or subsequently adopted by the university.
A complete change of policy was inaugurated by Mr Mackenzie (1841-1843), and his successor Lord Seaton (1843-1849) was induced by the European disturbances of 1848 to initiate a number of important reforms. But the party which wished for union with Greece was rapidly growing in vigour and voice.
For a few days in 1859 he held office as lord high commissioner, and in that capacity he proposed for the consideration of the assembly a series of reforms. These reforms were, however, declared inadmissible by the assembly; and Sir Henry Storks, who succeeded Gladstone in February 1859, began his rule by a prorogation.
This rejection of the advances of the Uitlandersby whose aid he could have built up a free and stable republic - led to his downfall, though the failure of the Jameson Raid in the first days of 1896 gave him a signal opportunity to secure the safety of his country by the grant of real reforms. But the Raid taught him no lesson of this kind, and despite the intervention of the British government the Uitlanders' grievances were not remedied.
Much that he construed as necessary to a state was wanting in Prussia; and some of the reforms already introduced did not find their place in his system.
Another, remaining true to the principles, doctrines, usages and hierarchy of the medieval church, dreamt only of a purification of moral life, and saw its end realised in the reforms of the council of Trent.
From the time of the formation of this league, Luther retired gradually from the forefront of a reformation movement which had become largely political, and busied himself with reforms in public worship and suggestions for an organization of the polity of the Evangelical church.
Long before his death he realized that he had outlived his own principles, and many of his former admirers had commenced to dub him a "rank conservative," whose political aims and reforms were no longer adequate.
In 1567 he was translated to the archbishopric of Dublin, where the queen looked to him to carry out reforms in the Church.
Though the total strength of the army in India has undergone little change, important reforms of organization have been effected in recent years which have greatly improved The .
The police, it is admitted, still form an unsatisfactory part of the administration, though important reforms have recently.
Despite the united resistance of the civil servants, and an actual mutiny of two hundred military officers, Clive carried through his reforms. Both private trade and the receipt of presents were absolutely prohibited for the future, while a substantial increase of pay was provided out of the monopoly of salt.
Warren Hastings, a tried servant of the company, distinguished alike for intelligence, for probity and for knowledge of oriental manners, was nominated governor by the court of directors, with express instructions to carry out a predetermined series of reforms. In their own words, the court had resolved to " stand forth as diwan, and to take upon themselves, by the agency of their own servants, the entire care and administration of the revenues."
Some of these reforms were distasteful to the covenanted service and to the officers of the army, but Lord William was always staunchly supported by the court of directors and by the Whig ministry at home.
In addition, after making careful inquiry through various commissions, he reformed the systems of education and police, laid down a comprehensive scheme of irrigation, improved the leave rules and the excessive report-writing of the civil service, encouraged the native princes by the formation of the Imperial Cadet Corps and introduced many other reforms. His term of office was also notable for the coronation durbar at Delhi in January 1903, the expedition to Lhasa in 1904, which first unveiled that forbidden city to European gaze, and the partition of Bengal in 1905.
Elizabethan period; a slight suggestion sends the interlocutors off on the discussion of current reforms in church and state and society.