Reformers sentence example
He was on the side of toleration and protected the reformers.
Although Aventinus did not definitely adopt the reformed faith, he sympathized with the reformers and their teaching, and showed a strong dislike for the monks.
It was different with the Reformers outside Germany.
The discipline was there before the Reformers.
We look in vain, therefore, for much more than the germs and principles of Presbyterianism in the churches of the first Reformers.Advertisement
This attitude of the reformers towards the festival, however, intensified by their abhorrence of the traffic in indulgences with which it had become closely associated, only tended to establish it more firmly among the adherents of the "old religion."
When it became clear that the idea of doctrinal change would find no acceptance at Rome, the Reformers appealed to the divine authority of the civil power against that of the popes; and princes within their several states succeeded, as the result of purely political struggles and combinations, in establishing the form of religion best suited to their convictions or their policy.
Still less does the history of authors and reformers explain to us the life of the peoples.
The fact that he embellished with his own great literary ability the speeches of the Liberals and Reformers only added to the influence of his news-letters.
This last was the belief of the Protestant Reformers, for whom the Bible was in matters of doctrine the ultimate court of appeal.Advertisement
After his release in May 1819, having broken away from Henry Hunt and the more moderate reformers, he prepared a new and comprehensive plot.
The 1st earl of Hertford destroyed it in 1544, and after it was rebuilt the Reformers demolished it again, some of its stones being used in erecting the tolbooth.
In 1786 he was appointed referendarius of Lithuania, and during the Four Years' Diet (1788-1792) displayed an amazing and many-sided activity as one of the reformers of the constitution.
The English reformers realized this fact; and notwithstanding their insistence on the unique authority of the canon of Scripture, their appeal to the fathers as representatives of the teaching of the undivided Church was as wholehearted as that of the Tridentine divines.
In the i 1 th century this new form of devotion was extolled by some of the most ardent reformers in the monastic houses of the west, such as Abbot Popon of Stavelot, St Dominic Loricatus (so called from his practice of wearing next his skin an iron lorica, or cuirass of thongs), and especially Cardinal Pietro Damiani.Advertisement
The majority of these reformers exemplified their preaching in their own persons, and St Dominic gained great renown by inflicting upon himself 300,000 strokes in six days.
The reformers of the previous reign had endeavoured to make the emancipated peasantry administratively and economically independent of the landed proprietors; the conservatives of this later era, proceeding on the assumption that the peasants did not know how to make a proper use of the liberty prematurely conferred upon them, endeavoured to re-establish the influence of the landed proprietors by appointing from amongst them " land-chiefs," who were to exercise over the peasants of their district a certain amount of patriarchal jurisdiction.
The reformers of the previous reign had sought to make the new local administration (zemstvo) a system of genuine rural self-government and a basis for future parliamentary institutions; these later conservatives transformed it into a mere branch of the ordinary state administration, and took precautions against its ever assuming a political character.
He escaped to Wittenberg, where with other of his compatriots he received the teaching of the German reformers.
He treated the question at issue as one of pure logic, and disliking the Reformers, the right of private judgment which Protestants claimed, and the somewhat prosaic uniformity of the English Church, he flung himself into a general campaign against Protestantism in general and the Anglican form of it in particular.Advertisement
But Mystics it would be false to say that these men protested against the doctrines of the Church in the way the Reformers felt themselves called upon to do.
On the other hand its claim for spiritual freedom was soon to be found in opposition also to the Reformers.
His writings have been and remain a storehouse of instruction for statesmen, an armoury for legal reformers.
He had come under the influence of the Cambridge reformers, and after Anne Boleyn's recognition as queen he was made her chaplain.
He distrusted popular enthusiasm, and he wrote in horror of the idea that "the people" should be the reformers of the Church.Advertisement
Many of the reformers wanted no bishops at all, while the Catholics wanted those of the old dispensation, and the queen herself grudged episcopal privilege until she discovered in it one of the chief bulwarks of the royal supremacy.
The reformers submitted on condition that no foreign garrison was to be imposed on Perth and that the religious questions in dispute should be brought before the Scottish parliament.
The Reformers themselves, indeed, like other dissidents and reformers before them, did not necessarily repudiate the name of Catholic; they believed, in fact, in catholicism, i.e.
But the appeal to the verbally inspired Bible was stronger than that to a church hopelessly divided; the Bible, and not the consent of the universal church, became the touchstone of the reformed orthodoxy; in the nomenclature of the time, " evangelical " arose in contradistinction to " Catholic," while, in popular parlance, the " protest " of the Reformers against the " corruptions of Rome " led to the invention of the term " Protestant," which, though nowhere assumed in the official titles of the older reformed churches, was early used as a generic term to include them all.
The great majority of names in the long list of worthies of the commonwealth-writers, statesmen, orators, artists, philanthropists, reformers and scholars, are intimately connected with Boston.
It was plundered by Henry VIII., to whom the memory of Becket was specially obnoxious; but the reformers were powerless to expunge the name of the saint from the Roman calendar, on which it still remains.
The German and Swiss Reformers also believed that the end of the world was near, but they had different aims in view from those of the Anabaptists.
Unfortunately politics were inextricably interwoven with the religious controversies of the time, and resistance to English influence involved resistance to the activities of the reformers in the church, whose ultimate victory has obscured the cardinal's genuine merits as a statesman.
A son of John Bethune of Auchmuty and a nephew of Cardinal Beaton, James was a trusted adviser of the Scottish regent, Mary of Lorraine, widow of James V., and a determined foe of the reformers.
In this he criticizes the bishops' Report in a sympathetic spirit, but points out how intimately the symbolism of the vestments had become associated with the doctrine of the Sacrifice of the Mass, and how logical was the action of the Reformers in rejecting certain of these vestments.
Of the six churches, the Schlosskirche, adorned with paintings by Lucas Cranach, in one of which ("The Last Supper") are portraits of several reformers, is the most interesting.
Six years elapsed before he again entered the House, and during that interval he had made the acquaintance and imbibed the doctrines of James Mill and the philosophical reformers of the school of Bentham.
He was subsequently employed on various papal missions, especially to Germany, but was unsuccessful in preventing the German princes from making a truce with the reformers, or in checking to any extent the progress of the new doctrines.
Whether systematic training can do anything to make the attainment of this balance easier is a question that has lately engaged the attention of many educational reformers; and whatever future casuistry may still have before it would seem to lie along the lines indicated by them.
Suspected, however, of sympathizing with the reformers, he deemed it prudent to leave Paris, and in 1535 went to the East with his cousin Jean de la Foret, the first French ambassador at Constantinople.
Both the abbey and the house were burned down by the Reformers in 1559, and next year the estates were granted to the Ruthvens.
In short, the English reformers knew very well that the ordinal and communion office which they drew up could not satisfy the requirements of medieval theology.
Palacky, though entirely national and Protestant in his sympathies, was careful to avoid an uncritical approbation of the Reformers' methods, but his statements were held by the authorities to be dangerous to the Catholic faith.
He became favourably known among the zealous reformers of the church, and it was during this stage of his career that he made a friend of Father Joseph.
The chief of these reformers are Jaidev, Ramanand and Kabir.
Thus it will be seen that the doctrines of these early reformers contained the germs of the later Sikh religion.
In the 16th century we find faith cures recorded of Luther and other reformers, in the next century of the Baptists, Quakers and other Puritan sects, and in the 18th century the faith healing of the Methodists in this country was paralleled by Pietism in Germany, which drew into its ranks so distinguished a man of science as Stahl (1660-1734) In the 19th century Prince Hohenlohe-WaldenburgSchillingsfiirst, canon of Grosswardein, was a famous healer on the continent; the Mormons and Irvingites were prominent among English-speaking peoples; in the last quarter of the 19th century faith healing became popular in London, and Bethshan homes were opened in 1881, and since then it has found many adherents in England.
The event showed that while their defeat in 1868 had taught them despondency, it had not taught them wisdom; it was still in their power to make a gallant fight by nominating a person for whom Republican reformers could vote.
He was invited to Geneva in 1.557, and to England again in 1561, but declined both invitations, maintaining, however, a constant correspondence with Jewel and other English prelates and reformers until his death at Zurich on the 12th of November 1562.
Resistance to the financial extortions of the government was cruelly chastised, and the "Chambre Ardente" was instituted against the Reformers.
But the violence of the Reformers threw him into the arms of the opposite party.
From that time, in spite of occasional indulgences shown to the Reformers, due to his desire to conciliate the Protestant powers, Francis gave a free hand to the party of repression, of which the most active and most pitiless member was Cardinal de Tournon; and the end of the reign was sullied by the massacre of the Waldenses (1545) Francis introduced new methods into government.
He expressed surprise that a man of such views as Zwingli should wish brotherly relations with the Wittenberg reformers" (Walker, The Reformation, p. 174).
The majority of modern scholars are agreed that the prophet prepares for the work of those reformers (Ezra, 458; Nehemiah, 444, 43 2 B.C.).
The Reformers gave the sermon a higher place in the ordinary service than it had previously held, and they laid special stress upon the interpretation and application of Scripture.
Among the Reformers were, of course, Martin Luther and most of his German collaborators; the Swiss Zwingli, Bullinger, Farel and Calvin; the English Latimer, John Bradford, John Jewel; the Scot John Knox.
The 17th-century preaching was, generally speaking, a continuation of that of the 16th century, the pattern having been set by the Council of Trent and by the principles and practice of the Reformers.
So far as the numerous works are concerned it is evident that the writers who posed as Rosicrucians were moral and religious reformers, and utilized the technicalities of chemistry (alchemy), and the sciences.
In 1629 he tions of the faith such as the Athanasian Creed published a confession in which he attempted to incorporate ideas of the reformers while preserving the leading ideas of Eastern traditional theology.
Some time afterwards he was appointed a canon of the collegiate church, and at first contended vigorously for the scholastic theology as against the doctrines of the Reformers.
He had been chosen to meet Hamilton in controversy, with a view to convincing him of his errors, but the arguments of the Scottish proto-martyr, and above all the spectacle of his heroism at the stake, impressed Alesius so powerfully that he was entirely won over to the cause of the Reformers.
Though as a theologian Cajetan was a scholastic of the older Thomist type, his general position was that of the moderate reformers of the school to which Reginald Pole, archbishop of Canterbury, also belonged; i.e.
Singularly enough it is the modern Catholic scholars, Johannes Janssen above all, who, in their efforts further to discredit the Protestant revolt by rehabilitating the institutions which the reformers attacked, have done most to explain the success of the Reformation.
Philip of Hesse was attracted by Zwingli's energy, and was eager that the northern reformers should be brought into closer relations with the south.
After a fierce attack on Protestants caused by the mutilation of a statue of the Virgin, in 1528, the king, anxious to con ciliate both the German Protestants and anti-papal England, invited some of the reformers of Meaux to preach in the Louvre.
A philosopher," as Gibbon long ago pointed out, _ who asks from what articles of faith above and against reason the early Reformers enfranchised their followers of P will be surprised at their timidity rather than scandal Y ized by their freedom.
Educated for the Church, he became elector and archbishop in 1515, and ruled his electorate with vigour and intelligence, taking up at first an attitude of hostility towards the reformers and their teaching.
His position in regard to the Eucharist is naturally more mature than that of the first reformers.
Coeffeteau won considerable distinction in the controversy against the Protestant reformers and also wrote a History of Rome from Augustus to Constantine.
Like others of the Reformers he had been led independently to preach justification by faith and to declare that Jesus Christ was the one and only Mediator between sinful man and God; but his construction rested upon what he regarded as biblical conceptions of the nature of God and man rather than upon such private personal experiences as those which Luther had made basal.
The landgrave of Hesse brought the two Reformers together in vain at Marburg in October 1529, and the whole Protestant movement broke into two camps, with the result that the attempt made at Schmalkalden in 1530 to form a comprehensive league of defence against all foes of the Reformation was frustrated.
Like all the Reformers, he was strictly Augustinian in theology, but he dwelt chiefly on the positive side of predestination - the election to salvation - and he insisted upon the salvation of infants and of the pious heathen.
These opinions were subversive of the system of the medieval church, and were naturally viewed with great disfavour by its officials; but it cannot fairly be said that they have much in common with the opinions of the Reformers of the 16th century.
The last step in the development of the Waldensian body was taken in 1530, when two deputies of the Vaudois in Dauphine and Provence, Georges Morel and Pierre Masson, were sent to confer with the German and Swiss Reformers.
The result of this intercourse was an alliance between the Vaudois and the Swiss and German Reformers.
The Swedish reformers of the 16th century, Olaus and Laurentius Petri, are commemorated by an obelisk.
The two great political issues of the time were the secularization of the clergy reserves in Ontario, and the abolition of seigniorial tenure in Quebec. Both of these reforms Macdonald long opposed, but when successive elections had proved that they were sup ported by public opinion, he brought about a coalition of Conservatives and moderate reformers for the purpose of carrying them.
Wherever the Reformation was introduced the stole was done away with, even when chasuble, alb and cope were retained; the reason being that it was the ensign of the major orders, which in the Catholic sense were rejected by the Reformers.'
On the question of the reform of the university of Oxford, he sympathized with the reformers, but felt himself prohibited, by the oaths which he had taken, from assuming any active part.
Passages have been collected, and it is an easy task, from the writings of Erasmus to prove that he shared the doctrines of the Reformers.
In Germany the Reformers called themselves usually evangelici, and avoided special designations for their communities, which they conceived only as part of the true Catholic Church; "Calvinists," "Lutherans," "Zwinglians" were, in the main, terms of abuse intended to stamp them as followers of one or other heretical leader, like Arians or Hussites.
From this conception the Reformers had, at the outset, no intention of departing.
The anathema of the Roman Church had fallen upon all the fundamental doctrines for which the Reformers had contended and died; the right of free discussion within the limits of the creeds, which had given room for the speculations of the medieval philosophers, was henceforth curtailed and confined; and the definitions of the schoolmen were for ever exalted by the authority of Rome into dogmas of the Church.
These represent a theory of the Church practically unknown to the Reformers, and only reached through the necessity for discovering a logical basis for the communities of conscientious dissidents from the established churches.
At the same time the differential duty on refined sugar, which operated as protection to the sugar trust, was not abolished, as the ardent tariff reformers had proposed, but kept in substance not greatly changed.
This circumstance, as well as the failure to make other desired reductions, caused the ardent tariff reformers to be greatly disappointed with the act of 1894 as finally passed, and led President Cleveland to permit it to become law without its endorsement by his signature.
He was known to be familiar with the works of the leading reformers; he was surrounded by Protestant counsellors, and he was actually married to Barbara, daughter of Prince Nicholas Radziwill, "Black Radziwill," the all-powerful chief of the Lithuanian Calvinists.
Nothing indeed did so much to popularize the new doctrines in Poland as this beneficial revival of the long-negle-ted vernacular by the reformers.
Presently reformers of every shade of opinion, even those who were tolerated nowhere else, poured into Poland, which speedily became the battle-ground of all the sects of Europe.
The chief cause of this subsidence was the division among the reformers themselves.
For the shock of the first partition was so far salutary that it awoke the public conscience to a sense of the national inferiority; stimulated the younger generation to extraordinary patriotic efforts; and thus went far to produce the native reformers who were to do such wonders during the great quadrennial diet.
During Luther's stay in the Wartburg Jonas was one of the most active of the Wittenberg reformers.
This was at first vigorously opposed, not least by Bismarck himself; but its convenience soon became evident, it was increasingly put into practice, and was so well based that later reformers have only needed to follow the lines laid down by Puttkammer.
He was one of the princes who urged upon the emperor the necessity of enforcing the Edict of Worms, and at several diets was prominent among the enemies of the Reformers.
They were partly moral reformers, partly religious teachers, partly political advisers.
The leading Reformers - Luther, Zwingli, Melancthon - frequently expressed themselves against the prevailing view of the manifold sense of Scripture, and in particular questioned the legitimacy of allegorical interpretation - except for purposes of popular and practical exposition.
The coeval origin of consonants and vowels had indeed been questioned or denied by the earliest reformers (Luther, Zwingli, Calvin), but later, in the period of Protestant scholasticism and under the influence of one school of Jewish Rabbis, Protestant scholars in particular, and especially those .of the Swiss school, notably the Buxtorfs, had committed themselves to the view that the vowels formed an integral and original part of the text of the Old Testament; and this they maintained with all the more fervency.
For though the Reformers were critical of the authority of ecclesiastical tradition in the matter of 2 His arguments are stated briefly (and in order to be refuted) by Jerome in his commentary on Daniel.
At the same time we can see from Luther's attitude how the doctrine of the Reformers (unlike that of the Protestant scholastics who came later) admitted considerable freedom, in particular with reference to the extent of the canon, but also to several questions of higher criticism.
Pusey indeed studied under Eichhorn, and in his Historical Enquiry into the probable causes of the Rationalist Character lately predominant in German Theology (1828-1830) speaks sympathetically of the attitude of the Reformers on the question of Scripture and in condemnation of the later Protestant scholastic doctrine; but even in this book he shows no receptivity for any of the actual critical conclusions of Eichhorn and his successors, and subsequently threw the weight of his learning against critical conclusions - notably in his Commentary on Daniel (1864).
When, therefore, the breach came, and the struggle between reformers and conservatives within the undivided Church was transformed into a struggle between Protestants and Romanists, it was inevitable that the authority which in the previous centuries had been ascribed to the Church 1 E.g.
The Peel report recommended that a large reduction in the number of licensed houses should be immediately effected, and that no compensation should be paid from the public rates or taxes, the money for this purpose being raised by an annual licence-rental levied on the rateable value of the licensed premises; it at once became a valuable weapon in the hands of advanced reformers.
In 1872 he was nominated for the presidency by the "Bourbon" Democrats, who refused to support Horace Greeley, awl by the "Labour Reformers"; he declined the nomination but received 21, 559 votes.
To the urgency of this peril the reformers were fully alive; and they sought its remedy in education.
Other prominent reformers, amongst them Coverdale, sought refuge in Geneva, the town of Calvin and Beza, where they employed their enforced leisure in planning and carrying out a new revision of the Bible.
He was educated at Oxford, where he adopted Lollard opinions, and had graduated as a master of arts before the 6th of October 1406, when he was concerned in the irregular proceedings through which a letter declaring the sympathy of the university was addressed to the Bohemian reformers.
Ultimately he had to flee from England, and took refuge in Bohemia, where he was received by the university of Prague on the 13th of February 1417, and soon became a leader of the reformers.
Nevertheless his reputation was so great that he was accepted as an arbitrator in doctrinal disputes amongst the reformers.
The 16th-century reformers strove to avoid the literalism of the words " This is my body," accepted frankly by the Roman and Eastern churches, and urged a Receptionist view, viz.
It is doubtful if the attempts of reformers to spiritualize the Eucharist bring us, except so far as they pruned ritual extravagances, nearer to its original significance; perhaps the Roman, Greek and Oriental churches have better preserved it.
In 1812, urging baptism by immersion upon his followers by his own example, he took his father's place as leader of the Disciples of Christ (popularly called Christians, Campbellites and Reformers).
At the time of the Reformation, the reformers, with their strong sense of the crucial importance of faith, emphasized the action of the individual in the service, and therefore laid it down as a rule that confirmation should be deferred till the child could learn a catechism on the fundamentals of the Christian faith, which Calvin thought he might do by the time he was ten.
The French were suspicious of the Union, aimed avowedly at checking their influence, and the complete self-government for which the " Reformers " in English-speaking Canada had clamoured was not yet conceded by the colonial office.
In 1858 the LiberalConservative party, formed in 1854 by a coalition, attempted to bring him out as a candidate for the upper house, which was at this date elective, but though he had broken with the advanced reformers, he could not approve of the tactics of their opponents, and refused to stand.
In the constitutional movement in Persia (1907) the Babis, though their sympathies are undoubtedly with the reformers, wisely refrained from outwardly identifying themselves with that party, to whom their open support, by alienating the orthodox mujtahids and mullds, would have proved fatal.
So, too, the vague and sentimental socialism which pervades Munera Pulveris, Time and Tide and Fors is now very much in the air, and represents the aspirations of many energetic reformers.
There are several instances of such men in Europe and America, but they are so rare that some reformers consider them as hardly justifying the large expenditure necessary to maintain the existing system.
Under the Massachusetts law, which is considered the best by reformers, the names of candidates for each office are arranged alphabetically on a " blanket " ballot, as it is called from its size, and the elector places a mark opposite the names of such candidates as he may wish to vote for.
The view of Zwingli and Calvin in the 16th century was not by any means acceptable to other reformers.
These ideas had taken shape, in all essentials, during the early days of the Church, underwent further development in the middle ages, and were maintained by the Catholic Church in the face of the opposition of the Reformers, while all the Protestant Churches rejected them.
The Unionists went to the polls with divided counsels, and sustained a crushing defeat, remarkable nevertheless for the comparative success of the tariff reformers.
Yet the wave of reaction which soon overwhelmed the freer tendencies of the first reformers, brought back the old view until the revival of biblical criticism more than a century ago.
Those who now left the Connexion joined the reformers of 1828 and 1836 and formed the Methodist Free Churches.
On the political side the chief features in the history of the state since 1865 have been the adoption of the constitution of 1873, the growth of the Cameron-Quay-Penrose political machine, and the attempts of the reformers to overthrow its domination.
In the interior of the church are the tombs of Luther and Melanchthon, and of the electors Frederick the Wise, by Peter Vischer the elder (1527), and John the Constant, by Hans Vischer; also portraits of the reformers by Lucas Cranach the younger.
Luther was appointed professor of philosophy here in 1508; and the new university rapidly acquired a considerable reputation from its connexion with the early Reformers.
In the Wittenberg Concord (1536) the reformers agreed to a settlement of the eucharistic controversy.
But the reformers, as represented by Alexander Menshikov and Peter Tolstoi, prevailed; and Golitsuin remained in the background till the fall of Menshikov, 1727.
Its use was furiously assailed by the extremer Reformers but, in spite of their efforts, was retained by Elizabeth's Act of Uniformity, and enforced by the advertisements and injunctions issued under her authority, which ordered the "massing vestments" - chasubles, albs, stoles and the like - to be destroyed.
On the one hand the archbishop was obliged to contend against the heretics or against fanatical reformers who found a following among the people; and on the other, since the archbishop was the real power in the city, the emperor, the nobles and the people each desired that he should be of their party; and to whichever party he did belong he was certain to find himself violently opposed by the other two.
The reformed doctrines had made considerable progress in the duchy when the duke obtained from the pope extensive rights over the bishoprics and monasteries, and took measures to repress the reformers, many of whom were banished; while the Jesuits, whom he invited into the duchy in 1541, made the university of Ingolstadt their headquarters for Germany.
Early in his reign Albert made some concessions to the reformers, who were still strong in Bavaria; but about 1563 he changed his attitude, favoured the decrees of the council of Trent, and pressed forward the work of 1308, died in 1312, leaving a son, Henry III.
These various reform movements among the orders were widely but not universally successful; and so the Reformation found religious houses in an unsatisfactory state in sufficient numbers to afford the reformers one of their chief handles against the old religion.
He did not escape the common lot of reformers.
The university, founded in 1389 by the sole efforts of the citizens, soon gained a great reputation; in the 15th century its students numbered much more than a thousand, and its influence extended to Scotland and the Scandinavian kingdoms. Its decline began, however, from the moment when the Catholic sentiment of the city closed it to the influence of the Reformers; the number of its students sank to vanishing point, and though, under the influence of the Jesuits, it subsequently revived, it never recovered its old importance.
The practical difficulties of the reformers, however, were only just beginning.
He had also earned renown by carrying on feuds with the citizens of Worms and of Metz, and now, with a view to realizing his larger ambitions, he opened the campaign (August 1522) by attacking the elector of Trier, who, as a spiritual prince, would not, it was hoped, receive any help from the religious reformers.
It had shown some sympathy with the reformers and had declined to put the edict of Worms into immediate execution.
But on this occasion the reformers were decidedly in the ascendant.
Before its dissolution the diet promulgated a decree providing that, pending the assembly of a national council, each prince should order the ecclesiastical affairs of his own state in accordance with his own conscience, a striking victory for the reformers and incidentally for separatist ideas.
Guided by Luther and Melanchthon, the principal states and cities in which the ideas of the reformers prevailedelectoral Saxony, Brandenburg, Hesse and the Rhenish Palatinate, Strassburg, Nuremberg, Ulm and Augsburgbegan to carry out measures of church reform.
Packs stories, which concerned the existence of a powerful league for the purpose of making war upon the reformers, were proved to be false, but the soreness occasioned thereby remained.
The supporters of the older faith were now predominant and, although they were inclined to adopt a somewhat haughty attitude towards Charles, they were not averse from taking strong measures against the reformers.
The decree of the diet, formulated in April, forbade the reformers to make further religious changes, while the toleration which was conceded to Romanists in Lutheran states was withheld from Lutherans in Romanist states.
The Hanoverian government, backed by the Frankfort diet, was still more successful in its warfare with the moderate reformers whom it was pleased to treat as revolutionists; and in Austria the feudalists so completely gained the upper hand that on the 18th of August 1855 the government signed a concordat, by which the state virtually submitted itself to the control of the church.
Birney, associated himself after about 1836 with the anti-slavery movement, and became recognized as the leader of the political reformers as opposed to the Garrisonian abolitionists.
To obviate this catastrophe the British reformers set to work most energetically.
On the other hand, the Odense Recess of the 10th of August 1527, which put both confessions on a footing of equality, remained unrepealed; and so long as it remained in force, the spiritual jurisdiction of the bishops, and, consequently, their authority over the " free preachers " (whose ambition convulsed all the important towns of Denmark and aimed at forcibly expelling the Catholic priests from their churches) remained valid, to the great vexation of the reformers.
His earliest teacher, Wolfgang von Utenhof, who came straight from Wittenberg, and the Lutheran Holsteiner Johann Rantzau, who became his tutor, were both able and zealous reformers.
Later the Reformers dismantled much of what was left.
In 1493 he had gone as a pilgrim to Jerusalem, and had been made a knight of the Holy Sepulchre; but, although he remained throughout life an adherent of the older faith, he seems to have been drawn into sympathy with the reformers, probably through his connexion with the university of Wittenberg.
In his own country, all orders of men, from the emperor Maximilian down, delighted to honour him; and he was the familiar companion of chosen spirits among the statesmen, humanists and reformers of the new age.
In October 1834 he was elected member of parliament for York, and took his seat in January 1835, the Reformers being now in the majority.
A committee on grievances was appointed, as chairman of which Mackenzie presented the admirable Seventh Report on Grievances, largely written by himself, in which the case for the Reformers was presented with force and moderation, and the adoption of responsible government advocated as the remedy.
In the general election of June 1836 the Tory party Won a complete victory, Mackenzie and almost all the prominent Reformers being defeated at the polls.
He was also in correspondence with Papineau and the other leaders of the Reformers in Lower Canada, who were already planning a rising.
But the evils against which he struggled were real and grave; the milder measures of the Constitutional Reformers might have taken long to achieve the results which were due to his hot-headed advocacy.
At the Marburg conference (1529) between the German and Swiss reformers, Luther was pitted against Oecolampadius and Melanchthon against Zwingli in the discussion regarding the real presence in the sacrament.
The doctrines of the reformers made their appearance in the diocese early in the 16th century, and soon Archbishop Sigismund, a son of Joachim II., elector of Brandenburg, openly avowed his adherence to Lutheranism.
In his youth he was favourable to the reformers in religion.
He had to conduct the delicate negotiations which accompanied her return to Scotland, and though he was a supporter of the reformers on political grounds, he became her personal friend and was always willing to do her service.
Moreover, in his profound sympathy with the Reformers, he too frequently becomes their apologist.
His tomb in his college chapel of St Salvator's at St Andrews,; Ids college and his bridge over the river Eden, have survived as monuments of a good and great man; they passed unscathed through the ruin wrought by the reformers.
Mar was arrested on a charge of magic, and died, whether murdered or from natural causes is uncertain, while his accomplices are said to have been the protomartyrs of witchcraft, scarcely heard of in Scotland till the reformers began to burn old women.
They had evolved or inherited anti-papal heresies much like those of the reformers of 1559, but James turned their trial into a jest.
Maitland of Lethington, the Achitophel of his day, also deserted the regent; but in November the reformers were driven by the regent and her small band of French soldiers from Edinburgh to Stirling.
The earliest Anabaptists of Zurich allowed that the Picardi or Waldensians had, in contrast with Rome and the Reformers, truth on their side, yet did not claim to be in their succession; nor can it be shown that their adult baptism derived from any of the older Baptist sects, which undoubtedly lingered in parts of Europe.
As in religion he is entitled to be called one of the "Reformers before the Reformation," so in philosophy he was one of those who broke with scholasticism while it was still the orthodox system.
Whatever its origin, the word Mass had by the time of the Reformation been long applied only to the Eucharist; and, though in itself a perfectly colourless term, and used as such during the earlier stages of the 16th century controversies concerning the Eucharist, it soon became identified with that sacrificial aspect of the sacrament of the altar which it was the chief object of the Reformers to overthrow.
This, however, like the service itself, represented a compromise which the more extreme reformers would not tolerate, and in the second Prayer-book, together with such language in the canon as might imply the doctrine of transubstantiation and of the sacrifice, the word Mass also disappears.
It turns away contemptuously and fiercely from the sentimental aspirations of reformers possessed by the democratic doctrine of the rights of the omnipotent nation.
Historical material after 586 is scanty in the extreme, and, apart from the records of Nehemiah and a few other passages, the interest lies in the religious history of the communities and reformers who returned from Babylonia.
There are legends of persecutions instigated by Brahman reformers, such as Kumarila Bhatta and Sankar-Acharjya.
The book was not premeditated; a single poem, called out by the recruiting for the abhorred Mexican war, couched in rustic phrase and sent to the Boston Courier, had the inspiriting dash and electrifying rat-tat-tat of this new recruiting sergeant in the little army of Anti-Slavery reformers.
He set to work to restore some of these ruins, to reconstitute and pacify the Papal State, to put an end to the Schism, which showed signs of continuing in Aragon and certain parts of southern France; to enter into negotiations, unfortunately unfruitful, with the Greek Church also with a view to a return to unity, to organize the struggle against heresy in Bohemia; to interpose his pacific mediation between France and England, as well as between the parties which were rending France; and, finally, to welcome and act as patron to saintly reformers like Bernardino of Siena and Francesca Romana, foundress of the nursing sisterhood of the Oblate di Tor de' Specchi (1425).
He was opposed by a disaffected Republican faction known as " brindletails," or, as they called themselves, "reformers," led by Joseph Brooks (1821-1877), and supported by the Democrats.
An "Industrial Congress" at Philadelphia also nominated him for the presidency in 1848, and the "Land Reformers" in 1856.
Indian traditions tell how reformers have persuaded the people in the past to stop their human sacrifices to serpent-spirits (Fergusson, 64, Oldham, ioi), and a survival may be recognized in parts of the N.W.
Having assisted to suppress the rising led by Thomas Munzer in 1525, he helped Philip, landgrave of Hesse, to found the league of Gotha, formed in 1526 for the protection of the Reformers.
The Reformers turned to the government for aid and protection, and throughout Europe turmoil and war ensued.
The Reformers turned to the state for protection against the Roman Church, and ultimately as a refuge from anarchy, and they also returned to the theology of the Fathers as their safeguard against heresy.
Johann von Henneberg, who was abbot from 5529 to 1541, showed some sympathy with the teaching of the reformers, but the Counter-Reformation made great progress here under Abbot Balthasar von Dernbach.
From this time the old order was doomed, for the up-country, the dissenters and the reformers had combined against it.
And accordingly it is exactly in connexion with these two incarnations of Vishnu, especially that of Krishna, that a new spirit was infused into the religious life of the people by the sentiment of fervent devotion to the deity, as it found expression in certain portions of the epic poems, especially the Bhagavadgita, and in the Bhagavatapurana (as against the more orthodox Vaishnava works of this class such as the Vishnupurana), and was formulated into a regular doctrine of faith in the Sandilya-sutra, and ultimately translated into practice by the Vaishnava reformers.
In Spain The the Inquisition soon snuffed out the few Reformers.
The proposition that our knowledge of nature necessarily begins with observation and experience, is common to Bacon and many contemporary reformers of science, but he laid peculiar stress upon it, and gave it a new meaning.
The diversity of practice on this point drew one of the sharpest lines between reformers and orthodox, until the disorders introduced by these religious wars tempted the latter to imitate in considerable numbers the licence of their rivals.
After studying philology, philosophy and theology at Helmstadt, Jena, Giessen, Tubingen and Heidelberg, he travelled through Holland, France and England, where he became acquainted with the leading Reformers.
The organization was itself formed in 1857 by the amalgamation of the "Wesleyan Association" (which had in 1836 largely absorbed the Protestant Methodists of 1828) and the "Wesleyan Reformers" (dating from 1849, when a number of Wesleyan Methodist ministers were expelled on a charge of insubordination).
The cathedral is situated by the side of the river, and was one of the few ecclesiastical edifices that escaped injury at the hands of the Reformers.
Indifferent to theological, or even to patriotic, considerations, his plans to protect the reformers rested upon two main principles - unity among the Protestants at home and military aid from abroad.
Deceived by the forgeries of Otto von Pack, he believed in the existence of a conspiracy to crush the reformers, and was only restrained from attacking his enemies by the influence of John of Saxony and Luther.
This was begun about 1526, when an important synod was held at Homburg; the university of Marburg was founded in the interests of the reformers in 1527; and after the diet of Spires in 1529 the work was conducted with renewed vigour.
Here, and afterwards at Dieppe (where he preached in French), Knox kept in communication with the other Reformers, studied Greek and Hebrew in the interest of theology, and having brought his wife and her mother from England in 1555 lived for years a peaceful life.
Much influenced by Knox's preaching, he joined the reformers and in April 1560 was admitted minister of Kennoway in Fife, and in July of the same year minister of the Old or Middle Church at Perth.
He began by protecting and promoting the Swedish reformers Olavus and Laurentius Petri, and Laurentius Andreae.
They threatened, more than once, to march upon and destroy Stockholm, because the Reformers had made of it " a spiritual Sodom."
He was a polemical writer of prominence on the side of the Reformers.
His aim, however, had been to find a via media between the old and new; his temper was essentially conservative, his imagination held captive by the splendid traditions of the medieval church, and he had no sympathy with the revolutionary attitude of the Reformers.
It is, however, by his controversy with Luther and the other reformers that Eck is best remembered.
Meanwhile he continued unabated in his zeal against the reformers, publishing eight considerable works between 1522 and 1526.
Had the Transvaal government given way, even at the last hour, the reformers would have been satisfied.
As Charles Leonard's manifesto stated, the reformers as a body, desired to maintain the autonomy of the Transvaal and the republican form of government; Rhodes wished the revolution to be accomplished under the British flag.'
It has a Gothic parish church, a palace - Schloss Wilhelmsburgwith an interesting chapel and a collection of antiquities, and possesses a Gothic town hall in which the important Protestant League of Schmalkalden, or Smalkald, was concluded in 1531, and also the house in which the articles of Schmalkalden were drawn up in 1537 by Luther, Melanchthon and other reformers.
A Reformers' monument was unveiled in Kay Park in 1885.
The views of the Reformers had spread in his diocese, and he was suspected of temporizing with them.
He studied theological questions and espoused the cause of the Reformers.
Wenceslas maintained the vacillating attitude that was characteristic of his whole reign, though Queen Sophia still extended her protection to the reformers.
Some of the more advanced reformers left Prague and formed the party known as the Taborites, from the town of Tabor which became their centre.
Since the beginning of the Reformation in Germany the views of the Bohemian reformers had undergone a considerable change.
This fact, which became known in Bohemia, secured for him the support of the Bohemian church reformers, while the Romanists and retrograde Utraquists were traditionally on the side of the house of Habsburg.
As Rudolph had been educated in Spain it was at first thought that he would treat the Bohemian church reformers with great severity.
Some of the Reformers, notably Melanchthon, expected to effect a reunion of Christendom by means of the Easterns, cherishing the same hopes as the modern Old Catholic divines and their English sympathizers.
After slavery had fallen Phillips associated himself freely with reformers occupied in other paths, herein separating himself from the other patrician of the movement, Edmund Quincy, who always frankly said that after slavery was abolished there was nothing else worth fighting for.
He was also the first of the reformers who used Danish instead of Latin in the church services, the "Even song" he introduced at Viborg being of great beauty.
After the death of his father, a civil servant, his mother's second marriage transferred him to Canada, where he was chiefly brought up. He came to England in 1824, was called to the bar (Q.C. 1843), became intimate with the leading radical and utilitarian reformers, was elected M.P. for Bath in 1832, and took up that general attitude of hostility to the government of the day, be it what it might, which he retained throughout his life.
He held a high place among the reformers of Geneva, by whom he was sent on a mission to France in 1614.
In addition to the activity of the Reformers in Transylvania, there was also a Roman Catholic propaganda in Rumania, and the Orthodox Church found it necessary to convoke a synod in Jassy for the purpose of formulating anew its own dogmatic standpoint.
Legend says that Tauler nevertheless continued to perform religious services for the people, but though there may be a germ of historical truth in this story, it is probably due to the desire of the 16th-century Reformers to enroll the famous preachers of the middle ages among their forerunners.
In earlier days the Church reformers Mille" and Hus also preached here.
In 1842 he joined the Reformers in the cry for constitutional government, and from 1852 to 1854 was Speaker of the house.
The revolution of July (1830) brought a new freedom to the socialist reformers.
But the Campbellite doctrines differed widely from the hyper-Calvinism of the Baptists whom they had joined in 1813, especially on the points on which Stone had quarrelled with the Presbyterians; and after various local breaks in 1825-1830, when there were large additions to the Restorationists from the Baptist ranks, especially under the apostolic fervour and simplicity of the preaching of Walter Scott (1796-1861), in 1832 the Reformers were practically all ruled out of the Baptist communion.
His hostility towards the reformers, however, was not so extreme as that of his brother Joachim I., elector of Brandenburg; and he appears to have exerted himself in the interests of peace, although he was a member of the league of Nuremberg, which was formed in 1538 as a counterpoise to the league of Schmalkalden.
But there was a danger behind this revival; for the reformers of the 11th century, in their zeal for establishing the Kingdom of God on earth, were not content with raising the moral and intellectual standards prevailing in Christendom, but sought to bring the whole scheme of life under the church, by asserting the absolute supremacy of the spiritual over the temporal power, wherever the two came in contact or overlapped.
Wycliffe at a later period of his life developed views on doctrinal matters, not connected with his original thesis about the relations between Church and State, and foreshadowed most of the leading tenets of the reformers of the 16th century.
Though many clerics were found among the rebels, it does not seem that any of them were \Vycliffites, or that the reformers teaching had played any part in eiciting the peasantry at this time.
All the hopes of liberal reformers were now with him.
Lord Ashley and the factory reformers contended, on the one hand, that ten hours were long enough for any person to work; their opponents maintained, on the contrary, that the adoption of the clause would injure the working-classes by lowering the rate of wages, and ruin the manufacturers by exposing them to foreign competition.
Two other great collections are the Parker Societys publications (56 vois.), which contain besides the works of the reformers a considerable number of their letters, and Strypes works (26 vols.).
It was to this last clause that the Reformers most seriously objected.
When the Reformers attacked the abbey church in March 1560, they spared the nave, which served as the parish church till the 19th century, and now forms the vestibule of the New church.
When the Reformers went beyond Augustine to Paul, Protestantism was born.'
Antecedently to their separation from each other the Reformers took over the theology of Greek orthodoxy as a whole.
Ritschl, it represents the last word in doctrine along the lines laid down by the Reformers.
Sacraments are a republication of the " Word " of the Gospel; we have to content ourselves with this rather evasive formula, so often employed by the Reformers.
Joint deliberation would ensure a majority to the reformers and therefore the abolition of privileges and the extinction of feudal rights of property.
He regretted the sudden outbreak of the revolution of February (1848), because it found the social reformers unprepared.
To this " humanism " the Reformation seemed at first more' hostile than the Roman hierarchy; indeed, the extent to which this latter had allowed itself to become paganized by the Renaissance was one of the points that especially roused the Reformers' indignation.
Hardly was the affair of Caroli settled, when new and severer trials came upon the Genevan Reformers.
Though Calvin built his theology on the foundations laid by earlier reformers, and especially by Luther and Bucer, his peculiar gifts of learning, of logic and of style made him pre-eminently the theologian of the new religion.
The old warfare between the Up Country and the Low Country has been renewed in a modified form in the conflict between Reformers and Conservatives.
The emperor dismissed Persigny, and summoned moderate reformers such as Duruy and Behic. But he was still possessed with the idea of settling his throne on a firm basis, and uniting all France in some glorious enterprise which should appeal to all parties equally, and "group them under the mantle of imperial glory."
During the 19th century strenuous efforts to better the state of education were made by Bishop Strossmayer (1815-1905) and other reformers; but, although some success was achieved, only one-third of the population could read and write in 1900.
This duke, however, at whose instigation the famous discussion between Luther and Johann von Eck took place in the Pleissenburg of Leipzig, inflicted some injury upon the town's trade and also upon its university by the harsh treatment which he meted out to the adherents of the new doctrines; but under the rule of his successor, Henry, Leipzig accepted the teaching of the reformers.
Indifference and satiety spread speedily; the bourgeoisie forsook the reformers directly they had recourse to violence (February 1358), and the Parisians became hostile when Etienne Marcel complicated his revolutionary work by intrigues with Navarre, releasing from prison the grandson of Louis X., the Headstrong, an ambitious, fine-spoken courter of popularity, covetous of the royal crown.
The reformers shook off the yoke of systems in order boldly to renovate both knowledge and faith; and, instead of resting on the abstract a priori principles within which man and nature had been imprisoned, they returned to the ancient methods of observation and analysis.
The reformers had now no leaders, and their situation seemed as perilous as that of their co-religionists in the Netherlands; while the sieges of La Rochelle and Leiden, the enforced exile of the prince of Orange, and the conversion under pain of death of Henry of Navarre and the prince of Cond, made the common danger more obvious.
Economic reformers found a moral justification for their dissatisfaction in philosophical theories; the chance conjunction of a philosopho-political idea with a national deficit led to the preponderance of the third estate at the elections, and to the predominance of the democratic spirit in the states-general.
Godoys office was entrusted to Saavedra, but the reformers did not obtain the advantages which they expected from the change.
It is sufficient to say that while Mr Balfour's sympathetic "send off" appeared to indicate his inclination towards Mr Chamberlain's programme, if only further support could be gained for it, his endeavour to keep the party together, and the violent opposition which gathered against Mr Chamberlain's scheme, combined to make his real attitude during the next two years decidedly obscure, both sections of the party - free-traders and tariff reformers - being induced from time to time to regard him as on their side.
Amid the wreck of the party - Mr Balfour and several of his colleagues themselves losing their seats - he had the consolation of knowing that the tariff reformers won the only conspicuous successes of the election.
But he remained in the background as the inspirer and adviser of the Tariff Reformers.
Charles appeared to consent, but the agreement was annulled by letters from King John, announcing at the same time the conclusion of a two years' truce, and the reformers failed to secure their ends.
The Reformers similarly affirmed the truthfulness of the Bible.
It will embolden those who are trying to thwart the ambitions of reformers.
It demonstrates what drug law reformers have been saying for decades, that the war on drugs has failed and is often actively counterproductive.
Visit the web and convertible dodge for reformers tho he could obtain.
Militant reformers would suppress antiquities looting by international treaty, court order, state fiat, and the moral artillery of shame and guilt.
The USA has already proved fertile ground for education reformers who believe in choice.
He had first met the opinions of the reformers at St Andrews, and now embraced the reformed kirk.
Many manuscript books of popular psalmody were deliberately destroyed by Victorian reformers.
I believe we owe it to our children and grandchildren to stay engaged and to help spread liberty, and to help reformers.
Moreover, they have high electrical efficiency and they can use any fuel, as long as they include fuel reformers.
Nor, of course, did the reformers always want them if they were likely to block change.
The at times lazy assertion by penal reformers that they do has done little to enhance the cause of prison reform.
Prayers for the dead were declared illegal by the Protestant reformers in the late 1530s.
He was always ready to co-operate with all classes of temperance reformers.
Quotes on several or hospital the quiz is tort reformers still.
The factory reformers tended to be Tory protectionists who wanted to protect the Corn Laws.
Raymond Johnston believed that the 16th century reformers needed to be rediscovered.
The church reformers believed that the Church of Rome, despite the corruption of later centuries, was still the true church.
The Reformers gave great emphasis to the fact that each person's labor is a divine vocation or calling.
Hence friction, at times, between the Reformers and civic authorities friendly to the Reformation; not as to whether there should be "discipline" (that was never doubted) but as to whether it should be ecclesiastical or municipal.
The legend of an imprisoned pope, subject to every whim of his gaolers, had nevet- failed to arouse the pity and loosen the purse-strings of the faithful; dangerous innovators and would-be reformers within the church could be compelled to bow before the symbol of the temporal power, and their spirit of submission tested by their readiness to forgo the realization of their aims until the head of the church should be restored to his rightful domain.
In 1 535 a sort of compromise was brought about between himself and the Reformers, he promising not to disturb the peace of the church and they not to treat him as a disturber.
A new Small Holdings Act (1907) for England was passed; the Trades Disputes Act (1906) removed the position of trades unions from the controversy excited over the Taff Vale decision; Mr LloydGeorge's Patents Act (1907) and Merchant Shipping Act (1906) were welcomed by the tariff reformers as embodying their own policy; a long-standing debate was closed by the passing of the Deceased Wife's Sister Act (1907); and acts for establishing a public trustee, a court of criminal appeal, a system of probation for juvenile offenders, and a census of production, were passed in 1907.
Ideas of revolt and reform of decadent systems are always in the air, it may be for centuries, until some one man bolder than the rest stands out to give them free expression; and as John the Baptist preceded Jesus Christ, so Nanak was preceded by several reformers, whose writings are incorporated in the Granth itself.
Many reformers, like Glapion, the Franciscan confessor of Charles V., who had read the Address with equanimity if not approval, were shocked by Luther's audacity in rejecting the prevailing fundamental religious conceptions.
The man who could manage to rule a congeries of jealous factions, including Irish Catholics and Orangemen, French and English anti-federationists and agitators for independence, Conservatives and Reformers, careful economists and prodigal expansionists, was manifestly a man of unusual power, superior to small prejudices, and without strong bias towards any creed or section.
But the king, and even Kollontaj, despairing of success, now acceded to the confederation; hostilities were suspended; the indignant officers threw up their commissions; the rank and file were distributed all over the country; the reformers fled abroad; and the constitution of the 3rd of May was abolished by the Targowicians as "a dangerous novelty."
But theologians in the West had elaborated a theory of the grace of confirmation, which made its severance from baptism seem natural; and at the time of the Reformation, while neither side favoured the Eastern practice, the reformers, with their strong sense of the crucial importance of faith, emphasized the action of the individual in the service, and therefore laid it down as a rule that confirmation should be deferred till the child could learn a catechism on the fundamentals of the Christian faith, which Calvin thought he might do by the time he was ten.
At first he moved so slowly that many of the impatient, would-be reformers began to murmur at the unnecessary delay.
From an active instrument of the religious society, the archiepiscopate degenerated into a purely formal power; while the episcopate itself, which the sincere reformers wished to liberate and purge in order to strengthen it, emerged from the crisis sensibly weakened as well as ameliorated.
His dauntless courage, his perseverance, and his earnestness at length prevailed, and he had the satisfaction, before he died, of seeing his favourite system of church polity firmly established, not only at Geneva, but in other parts of Switzerland, and of knowing that it had been adopted substantially by the Reformers in France and Scotland.
Allowing the queen of Navarre to shut herself up in La Rochelle, the citadel of the reformers, and the king to loiter over the siege of Saint Jean dAngly, Coligny pushed boldly forward towards Paris and, having reached Burgundy, defeated the royal army at Arnay-le-duc. Catherine had exhausted all her resources; and having failed in her project of remarrying Philip II.
The same is true of the more modern reformers and benefactors of their race.
A very few, as heroes, patriots, martyrs, reformers in the great sense, and men, serve the state with their consciences also, and so necessarily resist it for the most part; and they are commonly treated as enemies by it.
If a man is thought-free, fancy-free, imagination-free, that which is not never for a long time appearing to be to him, unwise rulers or reformers cannot fatally interrupt him.
In the first place the historian describes the activity of individuals who in his opinion have directed humanity (one historian considers only monarchs, generals, and ministers as being such men, while another includes also orators, learned men, reformers, philosophers, and poets).
Like medieval monks in their flowing skirts, the dress reformers believed that freer clothes would free the mind.
Therefore, Western governments should listen more to what reformers in the region advise.
Who were the social reformers in the 19th century?
Raymond Johnston believed that the 16th century Reformers needed to be rediscovered.
Luther and the Reformers addressed the twin problem of Indulgences and Purgatory, and the specious theory behind them.
The Reformers gave great emphasis to the fact that each person 's labor is a divine vocation or calling.
There are different styles of Reformers available.
There are compactable Reformers that are designed to fold down and slide under a bed.
Ultimately, Reformers are designed specifically for Pilates exercise and help you maintain your core focus and mind/body fusion.
Rather than stackable reformers which are difficult to move, and take up space, the PPS allows small studios to add Pilates to their offerings without compromising quality or service.
This was specially true of the Reformers in Switzerland, France, Scotland, Holland and in some parts of Germany.
Longimanus (465-425), attracts attention because the famous Jewish reformers Ezra and Nehemiah flourished under a king of this name.