Yet despite the efforts of the government the Reformation made progress in the land.
The Reformation was introduced here in 1533, but it was not accepted by all the inhabitants.
That reformation failed to effect its purifying mission.
The last and most characteristic festival of Canaanite life was that of Asiph or " ingathering " which after the Deuteronomic reformation (621 B.C.) had made a single sanctuary and therefore a considerable journey with a longer stay necessary, came to be called Succoth or booths.
From that time until the Reformation the Christian sacrifice was all but universally regarded as the offering of the body and blood of Christ.
In 1875 a number of Russian Mennonites (descendants of the Anabaptists of the Reformation) came to the r.
In the Church of England since the Reformation matins is used for the order of public morning prayer.
Before the Reformation the Church would have had the last word; since that event the right and the duty of the civil power have been generally recognized.
During this reign the work of the Reformation made rapid progress, the sympathies both of the Protector and of the young king being decidedly Protestant.
(2) The purification and reformation of oneself for its reception, and (3) The improvement of the human race by striving for such purification.
The Reformation, too, brought its troubles.
The Reformation made no break in the continuity of the school, which had probably existed in the abbey since the 11th century.
The Lenten fast was retained at the Reformation in some of the reformed Churches, and is still observed in the Anglican and Lutheran communions.
In 1545 a council was opened at Trent for the reformation of church discipline and the promulgation of orthodox doctrine.
See also Reformation; Presbyterianism; Cameronians.
In England at the Reformation the alb went out of use with the other "Mass vestments," and remained out of use in the Church of England until the ritual revival of the 19th century.
Northumberland's recantation had done much to discredit the Reformation, Cranmer's, it was hoped, would complete the work.
This Austrian reformation was so typical of other changes elsewhere, and so expressive of the previous disabilities of the Jews, that, even in this rapid summary, space must be spared for some of the details supplied by Graetz.
Depreciation of the fathers was characteristic, not of the Anglican reformation, but of the 1 The editio princeps of Niceta's works was published by Dr A.
In the same year the Lutheran reformation took hold of him, and he began to issue appeals in prose and verse against the Mass and against the pope as antichrist.
At this crisis she was ruled by the monk Girolamo Savonarola, who inspired the people with a thirst for freedom, preached the necessity of reformation, and placed himself in direct antagonism to Rome.
Meanwhile Cranmer was actively carrying out the policy which has associated his name more closely, perhaps, than that of any other ecclesiastic with the Reformation in England.
With the Reformation in the 16th century, Church courts properly speaking disappeared from the non-episcopal religious communities which were established in g Holland, in the Protestant states of Switzerland and of Germany, and in the then non-episcopal countries of Denmark and Norway.
The course taken by Cranmer in promoting the Reformation exposed him to the bitter hostility of the reactionary party or " men of the old learning," of whom Gardiner and Bonner were leaders, and on various occasions - notably in 1543 and 1 545 - conspiracies were formed in the council or elsewhere to effect his overthrow.
The elector Richard von Greiffenklau (1467-1531) successfully opposed the Reformation, and inaugurated the exhibitions of the holy coat, which called forth the denunciations of Luther, but have continued since his day to bring wealth and celebrity to the city.
22, and partly also from the modern Wahhabite reformation (of the 19th century).
The reformation as such had no favourable influence on Jewish fortunes in Christian Europe, though the championship of the cause of toleration by Reuchlin had considerable value.
In the Church of England the term prelate has been since the Reformation applied only to archbishops and bishops.
So far as Western Christendom is concerned the corrected calendar is now universally accepted, and Easter is kept on the same day, but it was not until 1752 that the Gregorian reformation of the calendar was adopted in Great Britain and Ireland.
The reaction against the medieval theory at the time of the Reformation took the form of a return to what had no doubt been an early belief, - the idea that the Christian sacrifice consists in the offering of a pure heart and of vocal thanksgiving.
(1889) and Lollardy and the Reformation (1908), and Political History of England, vols.
They include his "Harangues" and "Remonstrances," the Epistles, the Memoire to Charles IX., a Traite de la reformation de la justice, and his will.
to Assyria, while the reformation in the reign of Josiah (621 B.C.) is conversely associated with the decay of Assyrian power after the death of Assur-bani-pal.
In all probability the reformation instituted in the reign of Hezekiah, to which 2 Kings xviii.
By some it is said to have begun at the Reformation; by some it is traced back to the days of Israel in O Egypt; 2 by most, however, it is regarded as of later Jewish origin, and as having come into existence in its present form simultaneously with the formation of the Christian Church.
He was content that ecclesiastical supremacy should be with the civil power, and he believed that the work of the Reformation would in that way be best preserved and furthered.
Even, therefore, where people desired the Reformation there were powerful influences opposed to the setting up of church government and to the exercise of church discipline after the manner of the apostolic Church; and one ceases to wonder at the absence of complete Presbyterianism in the countries which were forward to embrace and adopt the Reformation.
During the religious confusion of the Reformation, the practice of fasting was generally relaxed and it was found necessary to reassert the obligation of keeping Lent and the other periods and days of abstinence by a series of proclamations and statutes.
The book of Deuteronomy, in conjunction with the reformation of Josiah's reign (which synchronizes with the rapid decline of Assyria and the reviving prestige of Yahweh), appeared to mark the triumph of the great prophetic movement.
Bishop Georg von Polentz embraced the Reformation in 1523, and in 1525 the district was incorporated with the duchy of Prussia.
Calvin, at Farel's invitation, settled in Geneva (1536) the work of reformation became more constructive.
Here, too, he published, in 1531, his most important work, the Chronica, Zeitbuch and Geschichtsbibel, largely a compilation on the basis of the Nuremberg Chronicle (1493), and in its treatment of social and religious questions connected with the Reformation, exhibiting a strong sympathy with heretics, and an unexampled fairness to all kinds of freedom in opinion.
There was nothing in the Reformation to appeal to him, except the repudiation of papal control; and he was one of those numerous Englishmen whose views were faithfully reflected in the Six Articles.
From 1835 to 1838 he edited The Reformation, a radically partisan publication, devoted to free trade and the extreme states' rights theory.
It is, of course, true that the ethical conception of sin as violation of righteousness and an act of rebellion against the divine righteous will had been developed since the days of Amos and Isaiah; but, as we have already observed, cultus and prophetic teaching were separated by an immense gulf, and in spite of the reformation of 621 B.C. still remain separated.
Hume (1889); Records of the Reformation, by N.
In accordance with the consistent policy of inclusion and toleration by which the whole of his official life was characterized, he induced the council to call the assembly of notables, which met at Fontainebleau in August 1560 and agreed that the States General should be summoned, all proceedings against heretics being meanwhile suppressed, pending the reformation of the church by a general or national council.
On his return to Liegnitz he helped to spread the principles of the Reformation in the principality and in Silesia, while warning his colleagues against the abuse of the doctrine of justification by faith.
As already stated, John Napier was born in 1550, the year in which the Reformation in Scotland may be said to have commenced.
Ireland, Iona, the Culdees, &c.) from the early centuries of church history and throughout the medieval ages down to the Reformation of the 16th century.
Mysticism did not cease within the Catholic Church at the Reformation.
It has been customary for Protestant writers to represent the mystics of Germany and Holland as precursors of the Reformation.
But his dilemma on this point led him into further doubts, and he was eventually induced to revile his whole career and the Reformation.
Still more famous was Albert, count of Mansfeld (1480-1560), an intimate friend of Luther and one of the earliest and staunchest supporters of the Reformation.
The amice, whatever its origin or symbolism, became specifically a vestment associated with the sacrifice of the Mass, and as such it was rejected with the other "Mass vestments" in England at the Reformation.
It was the capital of the kingdom until 1443, and the residence of the bishops of Zealand until the Reformation.
xii.-xxvi.) is closely connected with the reformation in the reign of Josiah.
It was founded in 1150 by David I., and remained in the hands of the Cistercians till its suppression at the Reformation.
Jealousy of everything emanating from Rome still keeps the Eastern churches from correcting the calendar according to the Gregorian reformation, and thus their Easter usually falls before, or after, that of the Western churches, and only very rarely, as was the case in 1865, do the two coincide.
was called at Durham cathedral, was one of the chief sights of that church before the Reformation.
In the Church of England the use of the mitre was discontinued at the Reformation.
In those countries where the Reformation triumphed, this triumph represented the victory of the civil over the clerical powers in the long contest.
Many of Maurenbrecher's works are concerned with the Reformation, among them being England im Reformationszeitalter (Dusseldorf, 1866); Karl V.
and die deutschen Protestanten (Dusseldorf, 1865); Studien and Skizzen zur Geschichte der Reformationszeit (Leipzig, 1874); and the incomplete Geschichte der Katholischen Reformation (Nordlingen, 1880).
Apelt, Die Reformation der Sternkunde, p. 34; M.
Oncken in the Geschichte des Zeitalters der Reformation (1869, 2nd ed.
At the Reformation the buildings (except the church, now a ruin) passed into the possession of Lord Lovat.
of France to Haakon VI.; he made himself so agreeable to the Norwegian sovereign that he was invited, a little later, to superintend the reformation of the Benedictine monastery of St Benet Holme at Trondhjem.
The Benedictine abbey, founded in 1095, was used after the Reformation as a school, and is now an Evangelical theological seminary.
The materials thus obtained formed the basis of his historical and biographical works, which relate chiefly to the period of the Reformation.
Like Augustus, he attempted a reformation of morals and religion.
By his personal conduct he had set an ideal example for Anglican priests, and it was not his fault that national authority failed to crush the individualistic tendencies of the Protestant Reformation.
He was one of the plenipotentiaries who concluded peace with Lubeck at the congress of Hamburg, and subsequently took an active part in the great work of national reconstruction necessitated by the Reformation, acting as mediator between the Danish and the German parties who were contesting for 2 Hence another of the names - " hurricane-bird " - by which this species is occasionally known.
In October 1530 he broke into the church of Neuchatel with an iconoclastic mob, thus planting the Reformation in that city.
Through the intervention of the government of Bern, liberty of worship was granted on the 28th of March 1533 to the Reformation party in Geneva.
This was the signal for public disputations in which Farel took the leading part on the Reformation side, with the result that by decree of the 27th of August 1535 the mass was suppressed and the reformed religion established.
Calvin, on his way to Basel for a life of study, touched at Geneva, and by the importunity of Farel was there detained to become the leader of the Genevan Reformation.
When (1541) Calvin was recalled to Geneva, Farel also returned; but in 1542 he went to Metz to support the Reformation there.
The festival was, in fact, too popular to succumb to these efforts, and it survived throughout Europe till the Reformation, and even later in France; for in 1645 Mathurin de Neure complains in a letter to Pierre Gassendi of the monstrous fooleries which yearly on Innocents' Day took place in the monastery of the Cordeliers at Antibes.
His Parable of the Wicked Mammon (1528), Obedience of a Christen Man (1528), in which the two great principles of the English Reformation are set out, viz.
Though long an exile from his native land, Tyndale was one of the greatest forces of the English Reformation.
Before it was completed he had already begun the researches on which was based the second of his masterpieces, his Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Reformation (Berlin, 1839-47), a necessary pendant to his book on the popes, and the most popular of his works in his own country.
Dennis (1909); History of the Reformation in Germany, by S.
of Austria; State of Germany after the Reformation, by Lady Duff Gordon (1853); Memoirs of the House of Brandenburg and History of Prussia during the 17th and 18th Centuries, by Sir Alexander and Lady Duff Gordon (1849); and History of the Popes during the 16th and 17th Centuries, by S.
For a century of ter this the Modern Devotion flourished exceedingly, and its influence on the revival of religion in the Netherlands and north Germany in the 15th century was wide and deep. It has been the fashion to treat Groot and the Brothers of Common Life as "Reformers before the Reformation"; but Schulze, in the Protestant Realencyklopddie, is surely right in pronouncing this view quite unhistorical - except on the theory that all interior spiritual religion is Protestant: he shows that at the Reformation hardly any of the Brothers embraced Lutheranism, only a single community going over as a body to the new religion.
In this work Harnack traces the rise of dogma, by which he understands the authoritative doctrinal system of the 4th century and its development down to the Reformation.
In the same way the Crusades themselves may be regarded as a stage in the clerical reformation of the fighting laymen.
Nothing marks the secular attitude of the Italians at an epoch which decided the future course of both Renaissance and Reformation more strongly than the mundane proclivities of this apostolic secretary, heart and soul devoted to the resuscitation of classical studies amid conflicts of popes and antipopes, cardinals and councils, in all of which he bore an official part.
It later became one of the chief centres of the Reformation movement in Switzerland, so that the bishop retired in 1525 to Porrentruy, where he resided till 1792, finally settling at Soleure in 1828, the bishopric having been wholly reorganized since 1814.
In 741 Pope Zacharias made him legate, and charged him with the reformation of the whole Frankish church.
- For acts of synods prior to the Reformation see Spelman, Hardouin, W.
In 1532 it accepted the doctrines of the Reformation.
The university of Paris had reached its zenith at the time of the council of Constance (1418), and was now losing its intellectual leadership under the attacks of the Renaissance and the Reformation.
This was the problem that faced Ignatius, and in his endeavour to effect a needed reformation in the individual and in society his work and the success that crowned it place him among the moral heroes of humanity.
In the 12th century, together with the whole mining region of northern Hungary, it was colonized by German settlers, who later embraced the Reformation.
A great friend of Erasmus, whom he invited to Cambridge, whilst earnestly working for a reformation of abuses, he had no sympathy with those who attacked doctrine; and he preached at Paul's Cross (12th of May 1521) at the burning of Luther's books.
Recognizing that the true aim of the scheme of church reform brought forward in parliament in 1529 was to put down the only moral force that could withstand the royal will, he energetically opposed the reformation of abuses, which doubtless under other circumstances he would have been the first to accept.
Bach, Meister Eckhart der Vater der deutschen Speculation (1864); C. Ullmann, Reformatoren vor der Reformation (1842); W.
The land, which fell into two main portions, upper Hesse round Marburg, and lower Hesse round Cassel, was twice divided between two members of the ruling family, but no permanent partition took place before the Reformation.
How millennarianism nevertheless found its way, with the help of apocalyptic mysticism and Anabaptist influences into the churches of the Reformation, chiefly among the Reformed sects, but afterwards also in the Lutheran Church, how it became incorporated with Pietism, how in more recent times an exceedingly mild type of "academic" chiliasm has been developed from a belief in the verbal inspiration of the Bible, how finally new sects are still springing up here and there with apocalyptic and chiliastic expectations - these are matters which cannot be fully entered upon here.
The advent of the Reformation brought in critical methods, and the book was unjustly disparaged as a mere Christian forgery for nearly four centuries.
His encyclical issued at Easter 1902, and described by himself as a kind of will, was mainly a reiteration of earlier condemnations of the Reformation, and of modern philosophical systems, which for their atheism and materialism he makes responsible for all existing moral and political disorders.
of the Reformation in Scotland, ed.
About the same time he wrote for the Cabinet Cyclopaedia a "History of England from the Earliest Times to the Final Establishment of the Reformation."
This twofold development of the idea of God formed the point of leverage for Zoroaster's reformation.
The reasons for believing that this roll was substantially identical with the book of Deuteronomy were already appreciated by Jerome, Chrysostom, Theodoret and others,' and a careful examination shows that the character of the reformation which followed agrees in all its essential features with the prescriptions and exhortations of that book.
At the time of the reformation under Josiah, represented by Deuteronomy, the attempt was made to turn the family thank-offering of firstlings into a sacrificial rite performed by the priests in the Temple with the aid of the males of each household, who had to come up to Jerusalem but left the next morning to celebrate the Feast of Unleavened Bread in their homes.
The Reformation abolished the pastoral staff almost everywhere.'
The bishop's see of Geneva was transferred hither in 1535, after the Reformation, but suppressed in 1801, though revived in 1822.
Such is this famous work, full of obscurities, redundancies and contradictions, in which the thread of the argument is sometimes lost in a labyrinth of reasonings and citations, both sacred and profane, but which nevertheless expresses, both in religion and politics, such audacious and novel ideas that it has been possible to trace in it, as it were, a rough sketch of the doctrines developed during the periods of the Reformation and of the French Revolution.
The theory was purely democratic, but was all ready to be transformed, by means of a series of fictions and implications, into an imperialist doctrine; and in like manner it contained a visionary plan of reformation which ended, not in the separation of the church from the state, but in the subjection of the church to the state.
Count Litzow in The Life and Times of Master John Hus (London and New York, 1909), pp. 5-9, gives a good abstract of the Defensor pacis and the relations of Marsilius to other precursors of the Reformation.
Custom in this respect was, however, exceedingly varied for a long time, numerous important Churches having their own "uses," and it was not until the time of the Reformation that the Roman use was fixed and became the norm of the Churches of the Roman obedience.
" Take the amice, which signifies discipline in speech," while other interpretations survive in 1 In the Anglican Church, in the numerous cases when the liturgical colours are used, these generally follow the Roman use, which was in force before the Reformation in the important dioceses of Canterbury, York, London and Exeter.
At the Reformation two tendencies became apparent.
At the present day the Lutheran Churches of Denmark and Scandinavia retain the use of alb and chasuble in the celebration of the eucharist (stole, amice, girdle and maniple were disused after the Reformation), and for bishops the cope and mitre.
The subject of ecclesiastical vestments has been, ever since the Reformation, hotly debated in the Church of England.
The chasuble and the rest, whatever their origin, had become associated during the middle ages with certain doctrines the rejection of which at the Reformation was symbolized by their disuse.
For the vestment question in the Church of England see the Report of the sub-committee of Convocation on The Ornaments of the Church and its Ministers (1908); Hierurgia Anglicana, documents and extracts illustrative of the ceremonial of the Anglican Church after the Reformation, new ed.
4 He sees in the revival of "vestments" "an energetic condemnation of the English Reformation."
SACRAMENTARIANS, the name given to those who during the Reformation controversies not only denied the Roman Catholic "transubstantiation," but also the Lutheran "consubstantiation."
After the beginning of the German Reformation many Utraquists adopted to a large extent the doctrines of Luther and Calvin; and in 1567 obtained the repeal of the compacts, which no longer seemed sufficiently far-reaching.
From the end of the 16th century the inheritors of the Hussite tradition in Bohemia were included in the more general name of "Protestants" borne by the adherents of the Reformation.
Krummel, Geschichte der bohmischen Reformation (Gotha, 1866) and Utraquisten and Taboriten (Gotha, 1871); Ernest Denis, Huss et la guerre des Hussites (Paris, 1878); H.
The date would fall between Josiah's reformation (621) and his death (609).
After the close of the diet the papal nuncio went to the Netherlands, where he kindled the flames of persecution, two monks of Antwerp, the first martyrs of the Reformation, being burnt in Brussels at his instigation.
pp. 141-142) thus describes the method and extent of the employment of incense at the mass prior to the Reformation: "According to the use of Sarum (and Bangor) the priest, after being himself censed by the deacon, censed the altar before the Introit began.
There is reason to think that, notwithstanding the order for the use of incense at every celebration, it was in practice burnt only on high festivals, and then only in rich churches, down to the period of the Reformation.
It was decided in the affirmative previous to his return; but he approved with astonishing eloquence, and thereafter was ever in the front rank in maintaining intercommunication between all churches holding the main doctrines of the Reformation.
He was likewise a good churchman and an able administrator of his diocese; he encouraged the reformation of the clergy and the monasteries.
Nanak seems to have been produced by the same cyclic wave of reformation as fourteen years later gave Martin Luther to Europe.
From the scriptural doctrine of the essentially spiritual nature of the kingdom of Christ, Glas in his public teaching drew the conclusions: (1) that there is no warrant in the New Testament for a national church; (2) that the magistrate as such has no function in the church; (3) that national covenants are without scriptural grounds; (4) that the true Reformation cannot be carried out by political and secular weapons but by the word and spirit of Christ only.
Burnet, History of the Reformation (new ed., Oxford, 1865); and R.
At the time of the Reformation these were still narrow, though already showing a tendency to expand.
About 1540 the Reformation gained an entrance into the town, which was taken by both parties during the Thirty Years' War.
In this respect it was an important factor in the rise of that middle-class literature which found its most virile expression in the period of the Reformation.
The period of the Reformation naturally increased the commonness of the crime.
His writings have been the basis of all Roman Catholic histories of the English Reformation.
He was a remarkable linguist, conversationalist and orator, notable for his uncompromising independence, his opinion that the German reformation was a misfortune and that the reformation should have been within the church.
Even before the Reformation, however, signs of decay had already begun to appear, and these multiplied in the 16th and 17th centuries.
A life was written by Caspar Brandt, son of Gerard Brandt, the historian of the Dutch reformation, and published in 1724; republished and annotated by J.
In 1540 the Reformation was introduced by Duke Philip of BrunswickSaltzderhelden (d.
The work which in his own opinion was his greatest, Johann von Wiclif and die Vorgeschichte der Reformation (2 vols., 1873), appeared in English with the title John Wiclif and his English Precursors (1878, new ed., 1884).
To Walton himself, however, the Reformation brought no disappointment.
von Juvalt, Forschungen uber die Feudalzeit im Curischen Raetien, 2 parts (Zurich, 1871); C. Kind, Die Reformation in den Bisthumern Chur and Como (Coire, 1858); Conradin von Moor, Geschichte von Curraetien (2 vols., Coire, 1870-1874); P. C. von Planta, Das alte Raetien (Berlin, 1872); Idem, Die Curraetischen Herrschaften in der Feudalzeit (Bern, 1881); Idem, Verfassungsgeschichte der Stadt Cur im Mittelalter (Coire, 1879); Idem, Geschichte von Graubunden (Bern, 1892).
Hoffmann, Naumburg an der Saale im Zeitalter der Reformation (Leipzig, 1900); S.
During her short course she gathered round her a devoted company of men and women trained to labour for the reformation of the individual, the church and the state.
With the Reformation' faith healing proper reappears among the Moravians and Waldenses, who, like the Peculiar People of our own day, put their trust in prayer and anointing with oil.
Although his faith in the dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church never swerved, his strenuous protests against papal corruptions, his reliance on the Bible as his surest guide, and his intense moral earnestness undoubtedly connect Savonarola with the movement that heralded the Reformation.
north of the city is the State Industrial Home for Girls (1879), for the reformation of juvenile offenders between the ages of ten and seventeen.
The condemnation which later writers, particularly those imbued with the spirit of the Deuteronomic reformation, pass upon all image-worship, is in harmony with the judgment upon Jeroboam for his innovations at Bethel and Dan (1(1 Kings xii.
As the last of the four great prophets of the 8th century he undoubtedly contributed to that religious and ethical reformation whose literary monument is the Book of Deuteronomy.2 The remainder of the book bearing the name of Micah falls into two main divisions, viz.
The great church movement of his time - the reformation of English monasticism on Benedictine lines - found in him a sympathizer, but in no sense an active participant.
At the Reformation Frankfort heartily joined the Protestant party, and in consequence it was hardly treated both by the emperor Charles V.
(1866); and Theodore Beza, the Counsellor of the French Reformation (1899).
During the period of the Reformation some of the rulers of Baden adhered to the older and some adopted the newer faith, and the house was similarly divided during the Thirty Years' War.
Drawn between various influences, that of Marguerite d'Angouleme, the du Bellays, and the duchesse d'Etampes, who was in favour of the Reformation or at least of toleration, and the contrary influence of the uncompromising Catholics, Duprat, and then Montmorency and de Tournon, he gave pledges successively to both parties.
The Protestant Reformation met an early and general welcome in Styria, but the dukes took the most stringent measures to stamp it out, offering their subjects recantation or expatriation as the only alternatives.
Among current serials may be mentioned Archives de psychologie de la Suisse romande (1901) edited by Flournoy and Claparede; Jahresverzeichnis der schweizerischen Universitatsschriften (1897-1898); Untersuchungen zur neueren Sprachand Literaturgeschichte (1903); Zwingliana: Mitteilungen zur Geschichte Zwingli and der Reformation (1897).
It may be added that after the Reformation Arianism was revived in Socinianism, and Pelagianism in Arminianism; but the conception of heresy in Protestantism demands subsequent notice.
On the other hand there were movements, such as the Waldensian, the Wycliffite and Hussite,which are often described as "reformations anticipating the Reformation" which "set out from the Augustinian conception of the Church, but took exception to the development of the conception," and were pronounced by the medieval church as heretical for (1) "contesting the hierarchical gradation of the priestly order; or (2) giving to the religious idea of the Church implied in the thought of predestination a place superior to the conception of the empirical Church; or (3) applying to the priests, and thereby to the authorities of the Church, the test of the law of God, before admitting their right to exercise, as holding the keys, the power of binding and loosing" (Harnack's History of Dogma, vi.
The Reformation itself was from the standpoint of the Roman Catholic Church heresy and schism.
The Roman Church anathematized, in the council of Trent, all the distinctive doctrines of the Protestant Reformation.
He expressed surprise that a man of such views as Zwingli should wish brotherly relations with the Wittenberg reformers" (Walker, The Reformation, p. 174).
A difference of opinion on the question of the presence of Christ in the elements at the Lord's Supper was thus allowed to divide and to weaken the forces of the Reformation.
At the Reformation Luther laid down the principle that the civil government is concerned with the province of the external and temporal life, and has nothing to do with faith and conscience.
trans., 1861-1862); the Gnostic and Manichaean heresies in the works of Mansel, Matter and Beausobre; the medieval heresies in Hahn's Geschichte der Ketzer im Mittelalter (1846-1850), and Preger's Geschichte der deutschen 111 - ystik (1875); Quietism in Heppe's Geschichte der quietistischen Mystik (1875); the Pietist sects in Palmer's Gemeinschaften and Secten Warttembergs (1875); the Reformation and 17th-century heresies and sects in the Anabaptisticum et enthusiasticum Pantheon and geistliches Ri st-Haus (1702).
In 1544 the Reformation was introduced, and in the following years numerous Protestant refugees from the Low Countries found their way to the town.
Two years afterwards he was appointed preacher in the St Lorenz Kirche, and about the same time he publicly joined the Lutheran party, taking a prominent part in the discussion which ultimately led to the adoption of the Reformation by the city.
He was present at the Marburg conference in 1529, at the Augsburg diet in 1530 and at the signing of the Schmalkald articles in 1537, and took part in other public transactions of importance in the history of the Reformation; that he had an exceptionally large number of personal enemies was due to his vehemence, coarseness and arrogance in controversy.
He exercised the jurisdiction of legatus natus of the pope throughout all England before the Reformation, and since that event he has been empowered, by 25 Hen.
canon law as confirmed or modified by statute since the Reformation.
CONFESSION OF BASEL, one of the many statements of faith produced by the Reformation.
This fact was not observed (that is, the collections of examples were not made) till recently, when experiments in private non-spiritualist circles drew attention to crystal-gazing, a practice always popular among peasants, and known historically to have survived through classical and medieval times, and, as in the famous case of Dr Dee, after the Reformation.
With the 14th century a new note, that of reformation, is struck; but on the whole there was a drop from the high level of the 13th.
Most of the Reformation preachers read their sermons, in contrast to the practice of earlier ages.
It is especially rich in Bibles, incunabula and books of the early Reformation period, and contains some fragments of the Gothic bible of Ulfilas.
The Religions of the World (1847); Moral and Metaphysical Philosophy (at first an article in the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, 1848); The Church a Family (1850); The Old Testament (1851); Theological Essays (1853); The Prophets and Kings of the Old Testament (1853); Lectures on Ecclesiastical History (1854); The Doctrine of Sacrifice (1854); The Patriarchs and Lawgivers of the Old Testament (1855); The Epistles of St John (1857); The Commandments as Instruments of National Reformation (1866); On the Gospel of St Luke (1868); The Conscience: Lectures on Casuistry (1868); The Lord', Prayer, a Manual (1870).
The religious reformation caused a considerable amount of expatriation, culminating in the expulsion of the Huguenots from France.
In 1645 he essayed a reformation of the calendar, but his plan was not adopted.
This was the last great effort in constructive theology of the Reformation period.
A reply to this by John Cochlaeus, also addressed to the Scottish king, occasioned a second letter from Alesius, in which he not only amplifies his argument with great force, but enters into more general questions connected with the Reformation.
The field for recruiting its members, as well as its landed estates, became restricted by the Reformation in England and Germany, and the French knights gradually gained a preponderance which upset the international equilibrium of the Order.
HOUSEL, the English name, until the time of the Reformation, for the Eucharist.
Lechler's Wiclif and die Vorgeschichte der Reformation, translated as Wycliffe and his English Precursors, R.
The circumstances in which it was held, the influence of the men who conducted its deliberations, and the result of its proceedings, combine to render it of no small importance for the history of the Reformation in Germany.
Dispensations, however, could be easily obtained from Rome, before the reformation of the Church of England, to enable a clerk to hold several ecclesiastical dignities or benefices at the same time, and by the Peterpence, Dispensations, &c. Act 1534, the power to grant such dispensations, which had been exercised previously by the court of Rome, was transferred to the archbishop of Canterbury, certain ecclesiastical persons having been declared by a previous statute (1529) to be entitled to such dispensations.
In the 12th century, however, the custom of beginning the civil year with the day of the Annunciation, or the - 25th of March, began to prevail, and continued to be generally followed from that time till the reformation of the calendar in 1752.
The Greeks of Alexandria formerly employed the era of Nabonassar, with a year of 365 days; but soon after the reformation of the calendar of Julius Caesar, they adopted, like other Roman provincials, the Julian intercalation.
- The Julian era begins with the ist of January, forty-five years B.C. It was designed to commemorate the reformation of the Roman calendar by Julius Caesar.
The history of institutions like universities and academies, and that of great popular movements like the Reformation, are of course 1 Technical subjects like painting or English law have been excluded by Hallam, and history and theology only partially treated.
The conception bears a remarkable resemblance to that of Paradise Lost; and it is almost certain that Milton, whose sympathies with the Italian Reformation were so strong, must have been acquainted with it, and with some of his later works.
See "Aktenstucke fiber das Verhalten der romischen Kurie zur Reformation, 1524-1531," in Quellen and Forschungen (Kon.
Arndt here dwells upon the mystical union between the believer and Christ, and endeavours, by drawing attention to Christ's life in His people, to correct the purely forensic side of the Reformation theology, which paid almost exclusive attention to Christ's death for His people.
As such it survived the introduction of the Reformation in 1542; but in 1566, on the death of Sigismund of Brandenburg (also archbishop of Madgeburg from 1552 to 1566), the last Catholic bishop, the chapter from motives of economy elected the infant Henry Julius of Brunswick-Luneburg.
He felt the corruption of his country, and sought to bring the world back to a lively sense of the necessity for reformation.
The bishop was a prince of the Holy Roman Empire, while his diocese was one of the largest in Germany, including (shortly before the Reformation) most of Baden and Wurttemberg, and 12 out of the 22 Swiss cantons (all the region on the right bank of the Aar, save the portions included in the diocese of Coire) - in it were comprised 350 monasteries, 1760 benefices and 17,000 priests.
In 1192 (some writers say in 1255) the city became an imperial free city, but the bishop and his chapter practically ruled it till the time of the Reformation.
Issel, Die Reformation in Konstanz (Freiburg i/B., 1898); F.
The authenticity of the book was unquestioned thenceforward till the Reformation, when the view of Jerome was revived by Erasmus, Carlstadt, Luther and others under various forms. In the Lutheran Church this opposition lasted into the next century, but in the Reformed it gave way much earlier.
He founded a college at his native place at Wye, which was suppressed at the Reformation.
Sichel's books, Catherine de' Medici and the French Reformation (1905), and The Later Years of Catherine de' Medici (1908).
The Reformation found only temporary acceptance at 'Regensburg, and was met by a counter-reformation inspired by the Jesuits.
It might not be easy to formulate precisely the doctrines for which he died, and certainly some of them, as, for example, that regarding the church, were such as many Protestants even would regard as unguarded and difficult to harmonize with the maintenance of external church order; but his is undoubtedly the honour of having been the chief intermediary in handing on from Wycliffe to Luther the torch which kindled the Reformation, and of having been one of the bravest of the martyrs who have died in the cause of honesty and freedom, of progress and of growth towards the light.
von Lechler's Wiclif and die Vorgeschichte der Reformation, translated by P. Lorimer (1878); in H.
He was a determined adversary of the Reformation.
All his spare time was spent in studying the early Fathers with Du Vergier, and laying plans for a reformation of the Church.
He assisted the first efforts of the Reformation at Magdeburg (1524), at Goslar (I 531) and at Einbeck (1534); took an active part in the debates at Schmalkalden (1537), where he defended the use of the sacrament by the unbelieving; and (1539) spoke out strongly against the bigamy of the landgrave of Hesse.
He was a man of strong will, of great aptitude for controversy, and considerable learning, and thus exercised a decided influence on, the Reformation.
At the Reformation the necessity for church discipline did not cease to be recognized; but the administration of it in many Reformed churches has passed through a period of some confusion.
In the churches which consciously shaped their polity at or after the Reformation the principle of excommunication is preserved in the practice of church discipline.
Even before his acquaintance with Zwingli in 1521 he had begun to preach the Reformation, his sympathetic character and his eloquence making him a great force.
REFORMATION The Reformation, as commonly understood, means the religious and political revolution of the 16th century, of which the immediate result was the partial disruption of the Western Catholic Church and the establishment of various national and territorial churches.
The terms " Reformation " and " Protestantism " are inherited by the modern historian; they are not of his devising, and come to him laden with reminiscences of all the exalted enthusiasms and bitter antipathies engendered by a period of fervid religious dissension.
The heat of controversy is, however, abating, and during the past thirty or forty years both Catholic and Protestant investigators have been vying with one another in adding to our knowledge and in rectifying old mis takes; while an ever-increasing number of writers pledged to neither party are aiding in developing an idea of the scope and nature of the Reformation which differs radically from the traditional one.
That the religious elements in the Reformation have been greatly overestimated from a modern point of view can hardly be questioned, and one of the most distinguished students of Church history has ventured the assertion that " The motives, both remote and proximate, which led to the Lutheran revolt were largely secular rather than spiritual."
C. Lea, " dismiss the religious changes incident to the Reformation with the remark that they were not the object sought, but the means for attaining the object.
But not only is the character of the Reformation differently conceived from what it once was; our notions of the process of change are being greatly altered.
Singularly enough it is the modern Catholic scholars, Johannes Janssen above all, who, in their efforts further to discredit the Protestant revolt by rehabilitating the institutions which the reformers attacked, have done most to explain the success of the Reformation.
This is the central and significant fact of the so-called Reformation.
The Reformation was thus essentially a stage in the disengaging of the modern state from that medieval, international ecclesiastical state which had its beginning in the ecclesia of the Acts of the Apostles.
The decree Sacrosancta (April 1415) proclaimed that a general council assembled in the Holy Spirit and representing the Catholic Church militant had its power immediately from Christ, and was supreme over every one in the Church, not excluding the pope, in all matters pertaining to the faith and reformation of the Church of God in head and members.
The so-called " Reformation of Sigismund," drawn up in 1438, had demanded that the celibacy of the clergy should be abandoned and their excessive wealth reduced.
These measures, and the excitement which followed the arrival of the radicals from Zwickau, led Luther to return to Wittenberg in March 1522, where he preached a series of sermons attacking the impatience of the radical party, and setting forth clearly his own views of what the progress of the Reformation should be.
In 1 534 the Schmalkaldic League succeeded in restoring the banished duke of Wurttemberg, who declared himself in favour of the Lutheran reformation, and thus added another to the list of German Protestant states.
For the remedy of these abuses parliament turned to the king, " in whom and by whom the only and sole redress, reformation and remedy herein absolutely rests and remains."
There was, however, no such sudden breach with the traditions of the past as characterized the Reformation in some continental countries.
Pollard, for example, " The Reformation in England was mainly a domestic affair, a national protest against national grievances rather than part of a cosmopolitan movement toward doctrinal change " (Camb.
In the same year (September 1536), as Calvin was passing through the town on his way back to Strassburg after a short visit in Italy, he was seized by Farel and induced most reluctantly to remain and aid him in thoroughly carrying out the Reformation in a city in which the conservative sentiment was still very strong.
But this conservative reformation had begun before Luther's preaching, and might conceivably have followed much the same course had his doctrine never found popular favour or been ratified by the princes.
In conclusion, a word may be said of the place of the Reformation in the history of progress and enlightenment.
The Reformation was, fundamentally, then, but one phase, if the most conspicuous, in the gradual decline of the majestic medieval ecclesiastical State, for this decline has gone on in France, Austria, Spain and Italy, countries in which the Protestant revolt against the ancient Church ended in failure.
Reference is made here mainly to works dealing with the Reformation as a whole.
Lindsay, A History of the Reformation, 2 vols.
(1904), " The Reformation," and vol.
Creighton, History of the Papacy during the Reformation, 6 vols.
This is the standard Catholic treatment of the Reformation, and is being supplemented by a series of monographs, Ergcinzungen zu Janssens Geschichte des deutschen Volkes, which have been appearing since 1898 and correspond with the Protestant Schriften des Vereins fur Reformationsgeschichte (1883 sqq.).
von Bezold, Geschichte der deutschen Reformation (1890), an excellent illustrated account; E.
Berger, Die Kulturaufgaben der Reformation (2nd ed., 1908); Thudichum, Papsttum and Reformation (1903); " Janus," The Pope and the Council (1869), by DSllinger and others, a suggestive if not wholly accurate sketch of the papal claims; W.
Maurenbrecher, Geschichte der Katholischen Reformation, vol.
First Principles of the Reformation, the Three Primary Works of Dr Martin Luther, edited by Wace and Buchheim, - an English translation of the famous pamphlets of 1520.
His conversion was hailed with great joy by the Protestants, and the league of Schmalkalden declared they were resolved to defend him; but the Reformation in the electorate received checks from the victory of Charles V.
By the reformed Churches, including the Church of England, the festival is not observed, having been rejected at the Reformation as being neither primitive nor founded upon any "certain warrant of Holy Scripture."
His principal efforts as a reformer were directed towards the improvement of the liturgy, and the reformation of the monastic orders of the East.
The Reformation and the religious wars spread havoc among the Benedictines in many parts of northern Europe; and as a consequence, in part of the rule of Joseph II.
As the institute spread to other lands nunneries arose on all sides, and nowhere were the Benedictine nuns more numerous or more remarkable than in England, from Saxon times to the Reformation.
In the great upheaval of the Renaissance and the Reformation it was certain to be defied.
He stands in true succession to Richard Hooker in working out the principles of the English Reformation, though while Hooker argued mainly against Puritanism, Andrewes chiefly combated Romanism.
The Reformation set up a new idea of faith, or recurred to one of the oldest of all.
in 1506, was removed in 1516 to Kottbus and restored again to Frankfort in 1539, at which date the Reformation was introduced.
Such Homiliaria as were in use in England down to the end of the i 5th century were at the time of the Reformation eagerly sought for and destroyed, so that they are now extremely rare, and the few copies which have been preserved are generally in a mutilated or imperfect form.'
It was perhaps the most wanton of all Mary's acts of persecution; Ferrar had been no such protagonist of the Reformation as Cranmer, Ridley, Hooper and Latimer; he had had nothing to do with Northumberland's or Wyatt's conspiracy.
The Grey Friars' building was turned into a castle (Dronningborg) after the Reformation; its church was burned down in 1698.
St Lawrence's chapel, a chantry built under Edward I., was bought by the townsfolk at the Reformation.
The volumes of the Zurich Letters, published by the Parker Society, testify to his influence on the English reformation in later stages.
His other works include Origines Germanicae (1840); the lectures Die Krisis der Reformation (1845) and Feudalitat and Aristokratie (1858); Aus der Zeit Friedrichs des Grossen and Friedrich Wilhelms III.
Lindsay (History of the Reformation), clearer insight than the Lutherans, and Zwingli rather than Luther was in this matter Calvin's guide, and the guide of the reformed churches of Switzerland, France, England and the Netherlands.
He still, to use his own words, hung his new exposition on to "the old doctrines, however much they at times pained me, rather than on to the purer and clearer"; for he hoped that the reformation of the Church would proceed quietly and from within.
In the beginning of 1519 he began a series of discourses on St Matthew's Gospel, the Acts of the Apostles, and the Pauline epistles; and with these it may be said that the Reformation was fairly begun in Zurich.
His first Reformation tract, April 1522, dealt with this subject: "Von Erkiesen and Fryheit der Spysen."
Thus legal sanction was given in Zurich to the Reformation.
The progress of the Reformation attracted the attention of all Switzerland, but there was a strong opposition to it, especially in the five Forest Cantons: Lucerne, Zug, Schwyz, Uri and Unterwalden; and the Zurichers felt it necessary to form a league in its defence.
The landgrave of Hesse brought the two Reformers together in vain at Marburg in October 1529, and the whole Protestant movement broke into two camps, with the result that the attempt made at Schmalkalden in 1530 to form a comprehensive league of defence against all foes of the Reformation was frustrated.
Luther was content with changes in one or two fundamental doctrines; Zwingli aimed at a reformation of government and discipline as well as of theology.
Jackson in Heroes of the Reformation (New York and London, 1901); Prof. Egli's articles in Hauck-Herzog's Realencyklopcidie fiir prot.
Persecution gave new vitality to their doctrines, which passed on to Wycliffe and Huss, and through these leaders produced the Reformation in Germany and England.
It is, however, by no means easy to determine their original tenets, as in the 13th and 14th centuries they were a body of obscure and unlettered peasants, hiding themselves in a corner, while in the 16th century they were absorbed into the general movement of the Reformation.
Still, a good deal of semi-congregationalism probably did exist in obscure circles which preluded the wider Reformation and were merged in it.
Congregationalism proper, as a theory of the organized Christian life contemplated in the New Testament, re-emerges only at the Reformation, with its wide recovery of such aspects of evangelic experience as acceptance with God and constant access' to Him through the sole mediation of Christ.
of the Reformation, i.
On Elizabeth's accession they ceased to assemble, until it was plain that she did not intend a radical reformation.
This sentence from Browne's spiritual autobiography contains the root of the whole matter, and explains the title of his other chief work, also of 1582, A Treatise of Reformation without tarrying for any, and of the wickedness of those Preachers which will not reform till the Magistrate command or compel them.
- The Turkish Revolution of 1908 was thought, at the time, to promise an era of genuine reformation and revival for the Ottoman Empire; a few years showed that it had opened, instead, the final brief period of that empire's existence.
For the good of the Turkish race and the ultimate Ottoman State the Committee intended reformation in these directions as well.
His principal historical works are Gregor von Nazianz (1825; 2nd ed., 1867) and Die Reformatoren vor der Reformation (2 vols., 1841; 2nd ed., 1866; Eng.
His parents, having embraced the principles of the Reformation, emigrated to the Palatinate in 1578, in order to enjoy freedom to profess their new faith, and they sent their son to be educated at Strassburg under Johann Sturm (1507-1589).
The Reformation, the religious wars and the Revolution have swept away nearly all the canons regular, but some of their houses in Austria still exist in their medieval splendour.
The next duke, John's son Magnus I., spent much time in struggles with the archbishop of Bremen and the bishop of Ratzeburg; he also assisted the progress of the Reformation in Lauenburg.
Under him Saxony was perhaps the most influential state in the Empire, and became the cradle of the Reformation.
The latter, a zealous Roman Catholic, had vainly tried to stem the tide of the Reformation in his dominions; Henry, on the other hand, was an equally devoted Protestant.
Wherever the Reformation was introduced the stole was done away with, even when chasuble, alb and cope were retained; the reason being that it was the ensign of the major orders, which in the Catholic sense were rejected by the Reformers.'
Thus, the reformation of Josiah has been thrust back from his eighteenth to his twelfth year (when he was nineteen years old) apparently because it was felt that so good a king would not:have tolerated the abuses of the land for so long a period,' but the result of this is to leave an interval of ten years between his conversion and the subsequent act of repentance (2 Chron.
The Reformation found many early adherents here, and the town played an important part during the religious wars of the 17th century.
2), subsequent history shows that the high-places, like the altars to heathen deities in Jerusalem itself, long remained undisturbed; it was the Deuteronomic reformation, ascribed to Josiah, which marked the great advance in the religion of Yahweh, and under its influence the history of the monarchy has been compiled.
After journeys in Italy and England, he again settled in Strassburg, but, disturbed by the Reformation, sought an exile at Lucerne in Switzerland in 1526.
There is not a trace of human kindness in his satires, which were directed against the corruption of the times, the Reformation, and especially against Luther.
Kawerau, Murner and die Kirche des Mittelalters (1890); and by the same writer, Murner and die deutsche Reformation (1891); also K.
The struggle for religious freedom has suffered no intermission since the beginning of the Reformation; and the result is that to-day its recognition is considered one of the most precious trophies won in the evolution of modern civilization; nor can these changes be reversed, for they stand in the closest connexion and reciprocity one with another, and represent the fruits of centuries of co-operation on the part of the European peoples.
In the Lutheran church also the practice of private confession survived the Reformation, together with both the exhibitive (I forgive, &c.) and declaratory (I declare and pronounce) forms of absolution.
The liberal school of thought of which Mohler was a prominent exponent was discouraged in official circles, while Protestants, on the other hand, complain that the author failed to grasp thoroughly the significance of the Reformation as a great movement in the spiritual history of mankind, while needlessly dwelling on the doctrinal shortcomings, inconsistencies and contradictions of its leaders.
In Protestant countries a secular nursing system came in with the Reformation.
But the intellectual activity of the Reformation also developed other views; the Socinians, with their humanitarian theory of the Person of Christ, taught that He died Only to assure men of God's forgiving love and to afford them an example of obedience - " Forgiveness is granted upon the ground of repentance and obedience."
The keynote of his History is contained in his assertion that the Reformation was "the root and source of the expansive force which has spread the Anglo-Saxon race over the globe."
Notwithstanding its defects, Froude's History is a great achievement; it presents an important and powerful account of the Reformation period in England, and lays before us a picture of the past magnificently conceived, and painted in colours which will never lose their freshness and beauty.
His reign is a period of some importance in the legislative history of Scotland, as measures were passed with regard to the tenure of land, the reformation of the coinage, and the protection of the poor, while the organization for the administration of justice was greatly improved.
He is, however, also the devil, as the age of the Reformation conceived him: a fallen angel who has not forgotten the splendour of his first estate, and who pictures to Faust the glories of heaven, in order to accentuate the horrors of the hell to which he triumphantly drags him.
As organizer of the reformation in Wurttemberg he did much fruitful work.
A last attempt was made by the papal court to enlist him in some public way against the Reformation.
On the Ile in the Rhone stands the tower (built c. 1219) of the old castle belonging to the bishop. Among the modern buildings we may mention the following: the University(founded in 1559, but raised to the rank of a University in 1873 only), the Athenee, the Conservatoire de Musique, the Victoria Hall (a concert hall, presented in 1904 to the city by Mr Barton, formerly H.B.M.'s Consul), the theatre, the Salle de la Reformation (for religious lectures and popular concerts), the Batiment Electoral, the Russian church and the new post office.
PROTESTANT, the generic name for an adherent of those Churches which base their teaching on the principles of the Reformation.
As the designation of a Church, "Protestant" was unknown during the Reformation period and for a long while after.
It became - to quote Professor Kattenbusch - the "secular" designation of the adherents of the Reformation, the shibboleth of the "liberal" ecclesiastical and theological tendencies.
The Protestant reformation resulted in a new development of historical writing.
It was a time of moral reformation, when men were awaking to the need of better and purer living.
The Reformation which thus began brought the disintegrating process of the middle ages to an end, and at the same time divided Western Catholicism in two.
(See also Papacy; Renaissance; Reformation, and biographies of popes, &c.)/n==Authorities== -FOr sources see U.
Martineau, Church History in England from the Earliest Times to the Reformation (London, 1878); W.
The actual divisions of Western Christendom are the outcome, less of the purely religious influences of the Reformation period than of the political forces with which they were associated and confused.
Considered from the standpoint of the world outside, the Roman Church is, no less than the Protestant communities, merely one of the sects into which Western Christendom has been divided - the most important and widespread, it is true, but playing in the general life and thought of the world a part immeasurably less important than that filled by the Church before the Reformation, and one in no sense justifying her claim to be considered as the sole inheritor of the tradition of the pre-Reformation Church.
If this be true of the Roman Catholic Church, it is still more so of the other great communities and confessions which emerged from the controversies of the Reformation.
It follows from the above argument that, from the period of the Reformation onward, no historical account of the Christian Church as a whole, and considered as a definite institution, is possible.
The Canaanite influence on the later organization of the Temple is clearly seen in the association of Temple prophets with the Temple priests under the control of the chief priest, which is often referred to by Jeremiah; even the viler ministers of sensual worship, the male and female prostitutes of the Phoenician temples, had found a place on Mt Zion and were only removed by Josiah's reformation.'
In that year he became duke of Saxony by his father's death, and he continued Henry's work in forwarding the progress of the Reformation.
von Ranke, Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Reformation, Bde.
The Benedictine abbey of St Blasius was founded in 1063 and dissolved at the Reformation.
LUTHERANS, the general title given to those Christians who have adopted the principles of Martin Luther in his opposition to the Roman Church, to the followers of Calvin, and to the sectaries of the times of the Reformation.
All the .more disquieting was the internal condition of the country, due mainly to the invasion of Poland by the Reformation, and the coincidence of this invasion with an internal revolution of a quasi-democratic character, which aimed at substituting the rule of the szlachta for the rule of the senate.
introduction into Poland of the most formidable adversaries of the Reformation, the Jesuits.
Vincent Zakrzewski, professor of history at Cracow, has written some works which have attracted considerable attention, such as On the Origin and Growth of the Reformation in Poland, and After the Flight of King Henry, in which he describes the condition of the country during the period between that king's departure from Poland and the election of Stephen Batory.
Giving himself up to preaching and polemics, he aided the Reformation by his gift as a translator, turning Luther's and Melanchthon's works into German or Latin as the case might be, thus becoming a sort of double of both.
Moreover, in his works on The Reformation (3 vols.
This salutary doctrine, however, has undoubtedly been obscured to some extent by the phrase a poena et a culpa, which, from the 13th century to the Reformation, was applied to Plenary Indulgences.
The history of education in Germany since 1500 falls into three periods: (a) the age of the Revival of Learning and the Reformation (1500-1650), (b) the age of French in- Germany.
The new humanism was a kind of revival of the Renaissance, which had been retarded by the Reformation in Germany and by the Counter-Reformation in Italy, or had at least been degraded to the dull classicism of the schools.
During the Reformation period Miihlhausen became notorious as one of the chief seats of the Anabaptists.
428), maintained its power virtually unbroken down to the Reformation.
The spirit and the age of humanism and the Reformation effected and witnessed important developments in the study of the Old Testament.
The first task, of Old Testament textual criticism after the Reformation was to prove the independence of these two texts, to gain general Tecognition of the fact that vowels and accents formed no part .of the original Hebrew text of the Old Testament.
Down to the - Reformation conditions were unfavourable to such criticism; the prevailing dogmatic use of Scripture gave no occasion for inquiry into the human origins or into the real purport and character of the several books.
Not the reformation but the resurrection of Israel is the goal of the prophets' hope (Hos.
In doing battle against the Tyrian Baal he is content with a reformation for which the whole nation can be heartily won, because it makes no radical change in their inherited faith and practices of worship. And in stimulating resistance to Syria he is.
The immediate result of Josiah's reformation was the complete dissolution of anything that could be called a political party of prophetic ideas; the priests and the ordinary prophets were satisfied with what had been accomplished; the old abuses began again, but the nation had received a reformed constitution and there was nothing more to be said.
The time of respite had been wasted, all attempts at national reformation had failed; how should Yahweh spare a nation which had shown no tokens of fitness to discharge the vocation of Yahweh's people ?
The Reformation quickened men's interest in the Scriptures to an extraordinary degree, so that, notwithstanding the adverse attitude adopted by the Roman Church at and after the council of Trent, the translation and circulation of the Bible were taken in hand with fresh zeal, and continued in more systematic fashion.
Briggs appreciated clearly the advantages of a centesimal division of the quadrant, and by dividing the degree into hundredth parts instead of into minutes, made a step towards a reformation in this respect, and but for the appearance of Vlacq's work the decimal division of the degree might have become recognized.
But it is not until the first stirrings of revolt against the hierarchy, which preceded the Reformation, that they became at all widespread or numerous.
The age of the Reformation gave a great stimulus to the production of catechisms. This was but natural at a time when the invention of printing had thrown the Bible open to all, and carried the war of religious opinion from the schools into the streets.
See Ehrenfeuchter, Geschichte des Katechismus (187); P. Schaff, History of the Creeds of Christendom (3 vols., 1876-1877); Mitchell, Catechisms of the Second Reformation (1887); C. Achelis, Lehrbuch der prakt.
He became Zwingli's best helper, and after more than a year of earnest preaching and four public disputations in which the popular verdict had been given in favour of Oecolampadius and his friends, the authorities of Basel began to see the necessity of some reformation.
Basel was slow to accept the Reformation; the news of the Peasants' War and the inroads of Anabaptists prevented progress; but at last, in 1525, it seemed as if the authorities were resolved to listen to schemes for restoring the purity of worship and teaching.
die Reformation der Kirche zu Basel (1843); K.
He had advanced as far as the tenth sheet, bearing the signature K, when his work was discovered by Johann Cochlaeus, a famous controversialist and implacable enemy of the Reformation, who not only caused the Senate of Cologne to prohibit the continuation of the printing, but also communicated with Henry VIII.
of Reformation, ii.
His devotion to Protestantism made him feverishly alive to the perils which threatened the Reformation; and he took an alarmist view of every situation.
He studied theology under Calvin and Beza at Geneva and, returning to the Netherlands in 1560, threw himself energetically into the cause of the Reformation, taking an active part in the compromise of the nobles in 1565 and the assembly of St Trond.
His general exhortations, courteously expressed in the first person plural, are directed towards a wide reformation of manners.
During the troubles of the Reformation era, when the papal deposing power threatened to become a reality, the Gallican theory became of great importance.
At the Reformation it was deprived of its status as a cathedral, and the building was used for some of the purposes of the courts of justice.
At the Reformation the chasuble was rejected with the other vestments by the more extreme Protestants.
After the peace of Augsburg the elector mainly confined his attention to Brandenburg, where he showed a keener desire to further the principles of the Reformation.
See Steinmuller, Einfiihrung der Reformation in die Kurmark Brandenburg durch Joachim II.
For a long time he had been taken up with a history of the Reformation, but only one part of it, dealing with the Reformation at Geneva.
- Marriage by a person in holy orders was probably necessary at common law, at any rate from the Reformation up to 1836.
This latter practice was in accordance with abundant precedent, but had become very infrequent, if not obsolete, for many years before the Reformation.
That the tendency of opinion in the English Church during the period of the Reformation was against reservation is beyond doubt, and that the practice actually died out would seem to be equally clear.
Grafton's Alexander Campbell, Leader of the Great Reformation of the Nineteenth Century (St Louis, 1897).
More than once, however, Manichaeism experienced attempts at reformation; for of course the auditores very easily became worldly in character, and movements of reformation led temporarily to divisions and the formation of sects.
Manichaeism in the West had also some experience of attempts at reformation from the ascetic side, but of these we know little.
He had already gained some reputation as an industrious theologian, and had published among other works an annotated edition of the Prayer Book (1867), a History of the English Reformation (1868), and a Book of Church Law (1872), as well as a useful Dictionary of Doctrinal and Historical Theology (1870).
Religious Bodies.According to the national census of religious bodies taken in 1906 there were then in the country 186 denominations represented by 212,230 organizations, 92.2% of which represented 164 bodies which in history and general character are identified more or less closely with the Protestant Reformation or its subsequent development.
The reformation of abuses generally took the form of the establishment of new monastic orders, with new and more stringent rules, requiring a modification of the architectural arrangements.
At the time of the Reformation, the reformers, with their strong sense of the crucial importance of faith, emphasized the action of the individual in the service, and therefore laid it down as a rule that confirmation should be deferred till the child could learn a catechism on the fundamentals of the Christian faith, which Calvin thought he might do by the time he was ten.
Though the Reformation left it unscathed, it suffered wanton violence from time to time.
At The Time Of The Council Of Nice, Which Was Held In 325, It Fell On The 21St; And When The Reformation Of The Calendar Was Made In 1582, It Had Retrograded To The 11Th.
At The End Of The Cycle The Dominical Letters Return Again In The Same Order On The Same Days Of The Month; Hence A Table Of Dominical Letters, Constructed For Twenty Eight Years, Will Serve To Show The Dominical Letter Of Any Given Year From The Corn Mencement Of The Era To The Reformation.
It Deserves To Be Remarked, That As The Dominical Letter Of The First Year Of The Era Was B, The First Column Of The Following Table Will Give The Dominical Letter Of Every Year From The Commencement Of The Era To The Reformation.
It continued in use till the Gregorian reformation.
By means of the lunar cycle the new moons of the calendar were indicated before the Reformation.
These Works Were Probably Little Regarded At The Time; But As The Errors Of The Calendar Went On Increasing, And The True Length Of The Year, In Consequence Of The Progress Of Astronomy, Became Better Known, The Project Of A Reformation Was Again Revived In The I 5Th Century; And In 1474 Pope Sixtus Iv.
Perceiving That The Measure Was Likely To Confer A Great Eclat On His Pontificate, Undertook The Long Desired Reformation; And Having Found The Governments Of The Principal Catholic States Ready To Adopt His Views, He Issued A Brief In The Month Of March 1582, In Which He Abolished The Use Of The Ancient Calendar, And Substituted That Which Has Since Been Received In Almost All Christian Countries Under The Name Of The Gregorian Calendar Or New Style.
During The 1257 Years That Elapsed Between The Council Of Nicaea And The Reformation, The Error Had Accumulated To Four Days, So That The New Moons Which Were Marked In The Calendar As Happening, For Example, On The 5Th Of The Month, Actually Fell On The 1St.
In The Gregorian Calendar This Error Is Assumed To Amount To One Day In 3121 Years Or Eight Days In 2500 Years, An Assumption Which Requires The Line Of Epacts To Be Changed Seven Times Successively At The End Of Each Period Of 300 Years, And Once At The End Of 400 Years; And, From The Manner In Which The Epacts Were Disposed At The Reformation, It Was Found Most Correct To Suppose One Of The Periods Of 2500 Years To Terminate With The Year 1800.
The Years In Which The Solar Equation Occurs, Counting From The Reformation, Are 1700, 1800, 1900, 2100, 2200, 2300, 2500, &C. Those In Which The Lunar Equation Occurs Are 1800, 2100, 2400, 2700, 3000, 3300, 3600, 3900, After Which, 4300, 4600 And So On.
At The Reformation The Epacts Were Given By The Line D.
Hence In The Julian Calendar The Dominical Letter Is Given By The Equation L= 7M 3 X () W This Equation Gives The Dominical Letter Of Any Year From The Commencement Of The Era To The Reformation.
By Means Of The Formulae Which We Have Now Given For The Dominical Letter, The Golden Number And The Epact, Easter Sunday May Be Computed For Any Year After The Reformation, Without The Assistance Of Any Tables Whatever.
AURIFABER (the latinized form of Goldschmidt), a surname borne by three prominent men of the Reformation period in Germany.
From the close of the 12th century, certainly long before the Reformation and for some time after it, the primates of Ireland lived in Drogheda.
After the Reformation five in succession lived in Drogheda and there were buried, though there is now nothing to fix the spot where any of them lies.
In the gardens is a chalybeate spring known as St Blaize's Well, which was in high repute before the Reformation.
He saw the invasion of Poland by the Reformation, and the democratic upheaval which placed all political power in the hands of the szlachta; he saw the collapse of the ancient order of the Knights of the Sword in the north (which led to the acquisition of Livonia by the republic) and the consolidation of the Turkish power in the south.
A learned treatise on the reformation of the calendar, written by him about the same time, is also preserved in the Ashmolean Library at Oxford.
The latter is composed chiefly of objects removed from the churches in consequence of the Reformation.
John Ruskin founded the Reformation in Art.
One of the most important steps taken at the Reformation was the compilation and provision of a comprehensive service book for general and compulsory use in public worship in all cathedral and parish churches throughout the Church of England.
3); he insists on the fact that Groot's theological and ecclesiastical ideas were those commonly current in his day, and that the attempts to make him "a reformer before the Reformation" are unhistorical.
During the whole course of it the process of internal domestic reformation had been slowly but unceasingly proceeding.
The Reformation was a fateful epoch in the history of church architecture.
CONFESSION OF AUGSBURG, the most important Protestant statement of belief drawn up at the Reformation.
Articles 22-28 describe and defend the reformation of various "abuses."
At the Reformation the altars in churches were looked upon as symbols of the unreformed doctrine, especially where the struggle lay between the Catholics and the Calvinists, who on this point were much more radical revolutionaries than the Lutherans.
The short reign of Mary produced a temporary reaction, but the work of reformation was resumed on the accession of Elizabeth.
1106), as legate; like Urban and Gregory, he gave or confirmed monastic privileges without the protection he granted to the monks assuming a character of hostility towards the episcopate; and, finally, he gave an impulse to the reformation of the chapters, and, unlike Urban II., maintained the rights of the canons against the claims of the abbots.
And, again, if this transaction settled the investiture question, it did not solve the problem of the reconciliation of the universal power of the popes with the claims of the emperors to the government of Europe; and the conflict subsisted - slumbering, it is true, but ever ready to awake under other forms. Nevertheless, the two great Christian agitations directed by the papacy at the end of the nth century and the beginning of the 12th - the reformation and the crusade - were of capital importance for the foundation of the immense religious monarchy that had its centre in Rome; and it is from this period that the papal monarchy actually dates.
As for the reformation, which under Urban II.
It was raised above feudalism only to be abased before the two directing forces of the reformation, the papacy and the religious orders.
Even in the cities, the seats of the episcopal power, the reformation encouraged the attempts at revolt or autonomy which tended everywhere to diminish that power.
- After the reformation and the crusade the papal monarchy existed, and the next step was to consolidate and extend it.
St Bernard completed the reformation, combated heresy, and by his immense moral ascendancy gained victories by which Rome benefited.
A superficial glance at Innocent's correspondence is sufficient to convince us that he was pre-eminently concerned for the reformation and moral welfare of the Church, and was animated by the best intentions for the re-estab lishment in the ecclesiastical body of order, peace and respect for the hierarchy.
though not with complete success, a reformation of ecclesiastical abuses; and it was he who assisted in restoring the Empire at last to some measure of stability.
This college by withdrawing it from the turmoils of the Anglo-French War, and bring within the bounds of possibility the much-needed Temporary reformation in ecclesiastical affairs.
In the midst of the confusion, which reigned supreme in the council, the upper hand was gained by that party which held that the only method by which the schism could be ended and a reformation of ecclesiastical discipline ensured was a drastic limitation of the papal privileges.
John Huss, the reformation of the Church, both in its head and members, claimed the main attention of the fathers of the council.
The terms of the agreement were that a synodal decree should give an absolute assurance that the work of reformation would be taken in hand immediately after the election; reforms, on which all the nations were already united, were to be published before the election; and the mode of the papal election itself was to be determined by deputies.
(See Basel, Council Of, and Felix V.) Thus the assembly of Christendom at Basel had resulted, not in the reformation of the Church, but in a new schism !
Nicholas of Cusa was nominated legate for Germany, and began the work of reformation by travelling through every province in Germany dispensing blessings.
For some time he entertained serious thoughts of reformation; but the matter was first postponed and then forgotten.
It was by members of this Oratory - especially St Gaetano di Tiene; Carafa (later Paul IV.), and the great bishop of Verona, Giberti - that the foundations of the Catholic reformation were laid.
was not a representative of the Catholic reformation, in the full sense of the words.
Thus, in the course of his long reign he did valuable work in the cause of the Catholic reformation and prepared the way for the Catholic restoration.
Unfortunately, on the 1st of May, an attack of apoplexy cut short the life of this pope, who seemed peculiarly adapted for the reformation of the Church.
The breach with the Protestant Reformation was now final, and all Catholics felt themselves once more united and brought into intimate connexion with the centre of unity at Rome (see Trent, Council Of).
inaugurate the heroic age of the Catholic reformation and restoration.
The last pope to be canonized, his pontificate marks the zenith of the Catholic reformation.
The renewed vigour which this internal reformation had infused into the Church was now manifest in its external effects; and Pius V., the pope of reform, was followed by the popes of the Catholic restoration.
These, without intermitting the work of reformation, endeavoured by every means to further the outward expansion of Catholicism.
In a word, the age of the Catholic restoration was beginning - a movement which has been misnamed the counter Reformation.
The keynote of the counter Reformation had been struck by the popes who immediately preceded this period.
Gregory's brief but notable pontificate marks nevertheless the hightide of the counter Reformation.
In the Empire the collapse of the Bohemian revolt led ultimately to the merciless repression of the Evangelicals The in Bohemia (1627), and in the hereditary lands of Counter- Austria (1628), as well as to the transference of the Reformation.
lowest depths of spiritual and political impotence since the Reformation, and the belief was even widespread that the prisoner of Fontainebleau would be the last of the long line of St Peter's successors.
HUGH LATIMER (c. 1490-1555), English bishop, and one of the chief promoters of the Reformation in England, was born at Thurcaston, Leicestershire.
This was perhaps, as regards England, the most critical conjuncture in the history of the Reformation, both on this account and on account of the position in which Henry VIII.
It was, however, the preaching of Latimer more than the edicts of Henry that established the principles of the Reformation in the minds and hearts of the people; and from his preaching the movement received its chief colour and complexion.
These privileges still remained to them at the outset of the religious Reformation, which the Silesians, in spite of their Catholic zeal during the Hussite wars, accepted readily and carried out with singularly little opposition from within or without.
But a drastic revolution in their government was imposed upon them by the German king, Ferdinand I., who had been prevented from interference during his early reign by his wars with the Turks, and who showed little disposition to check the Reformation in Silesia by forcible means, but subsequently reasserted the control of the Bohemian crown by a series of important enactments.
At the Reformation the celebration of All Souls' Day was abolished in the Church of England, though it has been renewed in certain churches in connexion with the "Catholic revival."