Reform sentence example

reform
  • Moral reform is the effort to throw off sleep.
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  • This constitutional reform was severely criticized by contemporary political experts.
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  • Thus he praises Grosseteste, while he denounces Grosseteste's scheme of monastic reform.
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  • In 1642 he was appointed lecturer at St Margaret's, Westminster, and delivered a series of addresses to the Commons in which he advocated episcopal and liturgical reform.
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  • He demanded the reform of the taille, the suppression of internal customs duties and greater freedom of trade.
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  • Another reform was the substitution for the corvee of a tax in money levied on the whole province, the construction of roads being handed over to contractors, by which means Turgot was able to leave his province with a good system of roads, while distributing more justly the expense of their construction.
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  • He also contemplated a thorough-going reform of the ferme generale, but contented himself, as a beginning, with imposing certain conditions on the leases as they were renewed - such as a more efficient personnel, and the abolition for the future of the abuse of the croupes (the name given to a class of pensions), a reform which Terray had shirked on finding how many persons in high places were interested in them, and annulling certain leases, such as those of the manufacture of gunpowder and the administration of the messageries, the former of which was handed over to a company with the scientist Lavoisier as one of its advisers, and the latter superseded by a quicker and more comfortable service of diligences which were nicknamed" turgotines."He also prepared a regular budget.
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  • Turgot's only choice, however, was between "tinkering" at the existing system in detail and a complete revolution, and his attack on privilege, which might have been carried through by a popular minister and a strong king, was bound to form part of any effective scheme of reform.
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  • The reform of land tenure in Ireland, the representation of women, the reduction of the national debt, the reform of London government, the abrogation of the Declaration of Paris, were among the topics on which he spoke with marked effect.
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  • But, as he suggests himself, his studied advocacy of unfamiliar projects of reform had made him unpopular with "moderate Liberals."
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  • The last public work in which he engaged was the starting of the Land Tenure Reform Association.
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  • On his way to Paris he had been profuse in promises of reform and constitutional rule.
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  • (1886), chiefly on Pletho's scheme of political and social reform for the Peloponnese, as set forth in the pamphlets addressed to Manuel II.
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  • In 1521, on the invitation of Bishop Briconnet, he repaired to Meaux, and took part in efforts of reform within the Roman communion.
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  • By this reform two important offices in the Venetian constitution - the privy council (consiglieri ducali) and the senate (the pregadi or invited) - came into being.
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  • It proved a disastrous failure, and on the return of the shattered remnants (1171) a great constitutional reform seemed necessary.
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  • The, expansion of commerce which resulted from the Fourth Crusade soon made itself evident in the city by a rapid development in its architecture and by a decided strengthening of the commercial aristocracy, which eventually led to the great constitutional reform - the closing of the Maggior Consiglio in 1296, whereby Venice became a rigid oligarchy.
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  • The state penal institutions are the boys' industrial school near Lancaster (established in 1854 as a Reform Farm), the girls' industrial home (1869) at Rathbone near Delaware, the reformatory at Mansfield (authorized 1884, opened 1896) and the penitentiary at Columbus (1816).
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  • Its association with reform movements and great public issues of later times is not less close and interesting.'
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  • Civil service reform principles cover the entire municipal administration.
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  • Sagasta remained in office until 1890, long enough to carry out all his reform programme, including universal suffrage and the establishment of trial by jury.
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  • Europe had sinned in the face of God; otherwise Jerusalem would never have fallen; and the idea of a spiritual reform from within, as the necessary corollary and accompaniment of the expedition of Christianity without, breathes in some of the papal letters, just as, during the conciliar movement, the causa reformationis was blended with the causa unionis.
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  • As minister he carried through an important judicial reform which had been prepared by his predecessor, but had to retire from office because he was opposed to the reactionary measures for restoring the influence and privileges of the nobility.
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  • In the social reform he supported Bismarck, and as the undisputed leader of the largest party in the Reichstag he was able to exercise influence over the action of the government after Bismarck's retirement.
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  • Augustine, a hospital for the insane at Chattahoochee and a reform school at Marianna, all wholly supported by the state, and a Confederate soldiers' and sailors' home at Tallahassee, which is partially supported by the state.
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  • ought to be enquired after, and to mulct, arrest, punish, chastise and reform"; also "to preserve the public streams of our admiralty as well for the preservation of our royal navy, and of the fleets and vessels of our kingdom.
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  • as of whatsoever fishes increasing in the rivers"; also "to reform nets too straight and other unlawful engines and instruments whatsoever for the catching of fishes"; also to take cognizance "of the wreck of the sea.
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  • In this way Lanfranc set the seal of intellectual activity on the reform movement of which Bec was the centre.
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  • William adopted the Cluniac programme of ecclesiastical reform, and obtained the support of Rome for his English expedition by assuming the attitude of a crusader against schism and corruption.
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  • The new archbishop at once began a policy of reorganization and reform.
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  • He entered upon his great work by a systematic publication of pamphlets and articles in journals and magazines in behalf of his reform, but for some years he met with a discouraging lack of interest.
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  • Eventually the civil code with some changes was adopted in twenty-four states, and the criminal code in eighteen, and the whole formed a basis of the reform in procedure in England and several of her colonies.
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  • For an international commission of lawyers he prepared Draft Outlines of an International Code (1872), the submission of which resulted in the organization of the international Association for the Reform and Codification of the Laws of Nations, of which he became president.
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  • In 1877 the provincial deputation was re-established, but it was not until 1895 that the home government attempted, far too late, to enact a series of adequate reform measures, and in November 1897 followed this by a grant of autonomy.
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  • He served as a nominee of the opposition on the committee of twenty-four which was appointed, in the Oxford parliament of that year, to reform the administration.
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  • In 1886 he was made under secretary for foreign affairs; in 1892 he joined the cabinet as chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster; in 1894 he was president of the Board of Trade, and acted as chairman of the royal commission on secondary education; and in Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman's cabinet (1905) he was made chief secretary for Ireland; but in February 1907 he was appointed British ambassador at Washington, and took leave of party politics, his last political act being a speech outlining what was then the government scheme for university reform in Dublin - a scheme which was promptly discarded by his successor Mr Birrell.
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  • Recognizing that the true aim of the scheme of church reform brought forward in parliament in 1529 was to put down the only moral force that could withstand the royal will, he energetically opposed the reformation of abuses, which doubtless under other circumstances he would have been the first to accept.
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  • Her caution had its reward, for whatever she did was permanently gained, whereas her successor in his boundless zeal for reform brought his empire to the verge of a general rebellion.
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  • He earned the surname of "Pious" by banishing his sisters and others of immoral life from court; by attempting to reform and purify monastic life; and by showing great liberality to the church.
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  • Alexander, overwhelmed with grief, shut himself up in Castle St Angelo, and then declared that the reform of the church would be the sole object of his life henceforth - a resolution which he did not keep. Every effort was made to discover the assassin, and suspicion fell on various highly placed personages.
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  • The work of reform was carried further by B.
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  • did, in fact, call together at Pavia a council, which it was necessary to transfer almost at once to Siena, owing to an epidemic, and which had to be dissolved owing to circumstances still imperfectly known, just as it was beginning to discuss the subject of reform (1424).
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  • The Hussites, it was said, would think that the Church was afraid to face them; the laity would accuse the clergy of shirking reform; in short, this failure of the councils would produce disastrous effects.
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  • He was crowned in the Sistine Chapel 3rd March 1878, and at once began a reform of the papal household on austere and economic lines which found little favour with the entourage of the former pope.
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  • Meantime another and more radical reform had been in preparation and was already in progress, namely, the abolition of slavery itself in the foreign possessions of the several states of Europe.
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  • A well-conceived series of measures of reform was accordingly proposed to the colonial authorities.
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  • There were several feeble attempts at further reform, and even abortive projects of emancipation, from the commencement of the 19th century.
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  • Public opinion strongly favoured the projected reform; and even the masters who were opposed to it saw that, if the operation became necessary, it would be more safely for their interests intrusted to the nobles than to the bureaucracy.
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  • While this work of reconstruction was in progress domestic politics in England were convulsed by the tariff reform movement and Mr Chamberlain's resignation.
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  • He advocated the creation of a permanent deliberative imperial council, and favoured preferential trade relations between the United Kingdom and the other members of the empire; and in later years he took an active part in advocating the cause of tariff reform and colonial preference.
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  • At Monroe there is a State Reform School, and at New Orleans a Coloured Industrial Home and School.
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  • There was ostensible government regulation of rates after 1877, but the roads were guaranteed outright against any loss of revenue, and in fact practically nothing was ever done in the way of reform in the Spanish period.
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  • Finally, the government sustains about two score of penal establishments, reform schools, hospitals, dispensaries and asylums, which are scattered all over the island, - every town of any considerable size having one or more of these charities.
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  • Very much was done for public works, sanitation, the reform of administration, civil service and education.
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  • Consult the literature of history and colonial reform given below.
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  • On the domestic reform problem there is an enormous literature, from which may be selected (see general histories above and works cited under § Administration of this bibliography): M.
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  • After the Russo-Turkish War of 1828-29, a further attempt at reform was initiated by the sultan and his grand vizier, Reshid Pasha.
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  • The reform of the Ottoman government contemplated by the sultan Mahmud II.
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  • But the Turkish reform movement of 1908 seemed to promise a revival of Ottoman power, which might in time have enabled the Turks to demand the promised evacuation, and thus to reap all the ultimate benefits of the Austrian administration.
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  • Until quite recent times the conservative and fanatical spirit of the 'Ulema had been one of the greatest obstacles to progress and reform in a political system in which spiritual and temporal functions were intimately interwoven.
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  • The enthusiastic spirit of reform which heralded the accession of the latter sultan never altogether died out, and from about the last decade of the 19th century has been rapidly and effectively growing in force and in method.
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  • Finally, usage of paper money was restricted to the capital only, and in 1842 this partial reform of the paper currency was followed by a reform of the metallic currency, in the shape of an issue of gold, silver and copper currency of good value.
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  • Reform of this system, and, further, very necessary reforms of the methods of collection of the wines and spirits revenue (which is protection turned upside down, the home-growers being far more heavily taxed than importers), and of the customs (in which almost every possible administrative sin was exemplified), were also undertaken.
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  • pilgrimage to Mecca, in order to destroy the Janissaries and reform the country.
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  • The war is blamed by Turkish historians as unjustifiable and untimely, the country needing reform.
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  • A serious outbreak took place at Adrianople in 1804, where 20,000 of the new troops had been sent, ostensibly to put down the revolt in Servia, but really to try to bring about the reform of the European provinces.
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  • Meanwhile the sultan's whole efforts were directed towards the reform of the country; the newly-instituted militia was in every respect a success; it grew in numbers, and hopes were entertained that it would gain popularity.
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  • At this difficult moment the army was obliged to march to the Danube, leaving the government in the hands of men hostile to reform.
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  • The army hereupon retired to Adrianople, and the powerful pasha of Rustchuk, Mustafa Bairakdar, who had distinguished himself by his resistance to the Russians, and who thoroughly shared Selim's desire for reform, was now induced by the many officers who held similar views to march on Constantinople to restore Selim to the throne.
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  • The reform of the army, however, involved the destruction of the Janissaries (q.v.), and though their massacre on the 15th of June left the sultan free to carry out his views with regard to the army, it left him too weak to resist the Russian demands.
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  • The severe crisis through which the Ottoman Empire had passed accentuated the need for strengthening it by a drastic reform of its system.
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  • Though the provisions of the Tanzimat were not fully observed, they afforded convincing proof that reform was entirely practicable in Turkey.
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  • Turkey's progress in the path of reform was viewed with some uneasiness in Russia, the cardinal principle of whose policy since 1829 had been to maintain her own influence at Constantinople by keeping the Otto- Policy man government weak.
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  • It was stipulated that Turkey's promises of reform gave no power the right of interference on behalf of the Christians.
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  • A reform not unworthy of notice was effected by the law promulgated on the 18th of June 1867 whereby foreigners were for the first time allowed to hold landed property throughout the Ottoman Empire (save in the Hejaz) on condition of their being assimilated to Ottoman subjects, i.e.
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  • Measures of reform in Armenia were also provided for, as also the convocation of an international commission for drawing up a reform scheme for the European provinces left to Turkey.
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  • Peace once restored, some attempt was made by Turkey in the direction of complying with her engagements to institute reform.
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  • English officers were engaged to reform the gendarmerie, and judicial inspectors of foreign nationality were to travel through the country to redress abuses.
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  • A serious Bulgarian insurrection in Macedonia in the autumn of 1903 induced Austria and Russia to combine in formulating the Miirzsteg reform programme, tardily consented to by Turkey, by which Austrian and Russian civil agents were appointed to exercise a certain degree of control and supervision over the three vilayets of Salonica, Monastir and Kossovo.
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  • The general reform on which the council had failed to come to an understanding had to be adjourned, and the council contented itself with promulgating, on the 9th of October 1417, the only reforming decrees on which an agreement could be reached.
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  • Ever since Austerlitz the Austrian officers had been labouring to reconstitute and reform their army.
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  • Translated into French, then into Italian (14th century) and into English (r6th century), it was known by Wycliffe and Luther, and was not without an influence on the Reform movement.
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  • By a reform of the censor Appius Claudius in 312 B.C. these non-assidui were admitted into the tribes, and the aerarii as such disappeared.
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  • Henry's English government was severe and grasping; but he "kept good peace" and honourably distinguished himself among contemporary statesmen in an age when administrative reform was in the air.
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  • Turgot's successor, Necker, however, continued the regime of reform until 1781, and it was only with Necker's dismissal that the period of reaction began.
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  • Huss indeed laid more stress on church reform than on theological controversy.
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  • The knights and nobles of Bohemia and Moravia, who were in favour of church reform, sent to the council at Constance (September 2nd, 1415) a protest, known as the "protestatio Bohemorum" which condemned the execution of Huss in the strongest language.
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  • in 1625 granted another and fuller charter, which remained the governing charter until the Municipal Reform Act.
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  • 1074) to institute astronomical observations on a larger scale, and to aid him in his great enterprise of a thorough reform of the calendar.
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  • It was he who caused the word "retrenchment" to be added to the Radical programme "peace and reform."
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  • Hence they were resolutely opposed to any idea of reform; for to begin making changes in the Church's system would be a tacit admission that Luther had some show of reason on his side.
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  • His treatise De monetae cudendae ratione, 1526 (first printed in 1816), written by order of King Sigismund I., is an exposition of the principles on which it was proposed to reform the currency of the Prussian provinces of Poland.
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  • Towards 194 Septimius Severus completed the reform of Caligula by detaching from the province of Africa the greater part of Numidia to constitute a special province governed by a procurator, subordinate to the imperial legate and resident at Cirta (Tissot ii.
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  • Until the reform of the comitia centuriata (probabl' during the censorship of Gaius Flaminius in 220 B.C.; *see Comitia),` the equites had voted first, but after that time this privilege was transferred to tine cenfury selected by lot from the centuries of ' the equites and the first class.
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  • Nominated president of the Academical commission for the reform of weights and measures, his services were retained when its "purification" by the Jacobins removed his most distinguished colleagues.
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  • His chief work, however, was done as an advocate of administrative reform in Germany.
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  • he had brought this question before the diet, and after Frederick's death, when he had become imperial chancellor, he was the leader of the party which pressed the necessity for reform upon Maximilian at the diet of Worms in 1495.
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  • The proud minister had been resisted p in his plans of reform at home by the Jesuits, and, determining to attack the power of the order, first deprived them of all temporal power in the state of Maranhao and Para.
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  • It was openly suggested in the journals to reform the constitution by turning Brazil into independent federal provinces, governed by authorities popularly elected, as in the United States.
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  • In 1834 a reform which was well received consisted in the alteration of the regency, from that of three members elected by the legislative chambers, to one regent chosen by the whole of the electors in the same manner as the deputies; and the councils of the provinces were replaced by legislative provincial assemblies.
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  • A grand social reform was effected in the law passed in September 1871, which enacted that from that date every child born of slave parents should be free, and also declared all the slaves belonging to the state or to the imperial household free from that time.
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  • Nevertheless President Peixoto made no effort to reform the methods of administration.
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  • President Salles publicly promised political reform, economy in the administration, and absolute respect for civil rights, and speedily made efforts to fulfil these pledges.
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  • His most important appearance as member for Stafford was in defence of Lord John Russell's first Reform Bill (1831).
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  • At this time also he exerted himself for the reform of justice in the ecclesiastical courts, for the uniformity of the law of marriage (which he held should be a purely civil contract) and for giving prisoners charged with felony the benefit of counsel.
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  • Once he had defended the monastic orders, advocating their reform and not their suppression, supported the rural clergy and idealized the village priest in his Parocho da Aldeia, after the manner of Goldsmith in the Vicar of Wakefield.
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  • The centenary of his birth in 1904 was celebrated by a flood of articles in the newspapers and magazines, naturally coloured by the new controversy in England over the Tariff Reform movement.
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  • For the question of franchise reform which played so great a part in the AustroHungarian crisis of1909-1910'see' History, below.
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  • Another important reform was the law permitting the free disposal of landed estate, which gave the holders an increased interest in their property, and an inducement to improve it.
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  • Charles, moreover, was a born financier, and his reform of the currency and of the whole fiscal system greatly contributed to enrich both the merchant class and the treasury.
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  • It was as much as the governor could do to save the state from destruction, let alone reform it.
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  • But his limited resources, and, above all, the proved incapacity of the militia in the field, compelled him instantly to take in hand the vital question of army reform.
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  • Moreover, to promote their own convenience, they readily allowed the king to assess as well as to collect the taxes, which consequently tended to become regular and permanent, while Matthias' reform of the treasury, which was now administered by specialists with separate functions, was economically of great benefit to the state.
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  • Moreover, the next century and a half was a period of domestic tranquillity, during which Hungary was able to repair the ruin of the long Turkish wars, nurse her material resources, and take the first steps in the direction of social and political reform.
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  • In the Upper House, however, the magnates united with the government to form a conservative party obstinately opposed to any project of reform, which frustrated all the efforts of the Liberals.
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  • (1835-1848), to attempt to crush the reform movement by arresting and imprisoning the most active agitators among them, Louis Kossuth and Miklos Wesselenyi.
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  • Kossuth demanded not merely the redress of actual grievances, but a reform which would make grievances impossible in the future.
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  • Other proposals were: the maintenance of the system of the joint army as established in 1867, but with the concession that all Hungarian recruits were to receive their education in Magyar; the maintenance till 1917 of the actual customs convention with Austria; a reform of the land laws, with a view to assisting the poorer proprietors; complete religious equality; universal and compulsory primary education.
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  • On the 19th of February 1906 the parliament was dissolved, without writs being issued for a new election, a fact accepted by the country with an equanimity highly disconcerting The agreement with the crown which had made this course possible included the postponement of the military questions that had evoked the crisis, and the acceptance of the principle of Universal Suffrage by the Coalition leaders, who announced that their main tasks would be to repair the mischief wrought by the " unconstitutional " Fejervary cabinet, and then to introduce a measure of franchise reform so wide that it would be possible to ascertain the will of the whole people on the questions at issue between themselves and the crown.
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  • The dominant Magyar parties were committed to the principle of franchise reform; but they were determined that this reform should be of such a nature as not to imperil their own hegemony.
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  • On the 10th of October 1907 there was a great and orderly demonstration at Budapest, organized by the socialists, in favour of reform.
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  • electoral reform, was not realized, nor near being realized.
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  • In 1369 his son Earl Thomas succeeded; from 1376 to 1379 he was among the lords striving for reform, and in the latter year he was appointed governor to the king.
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  • With Grant's successors, Hayes and Garfield, his relations were not cordial; an opponent of civil service reform, he came into conflict with President Hayes over the removal of Chester A.
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  • His two newspapers, the Illyrian National Gazette and the Danica Ilirska (Illyrian Daystar) provided a literary focus for the rising generation; while his reform of Croat orthography, planned on parallel lines with Vuk Karadzic's epochmaking philological work in Serbia, assured to modern SerboCroat literature a definitely unitary development.
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  • 4 1905 40 Croat deputies from Croatia, Dalmatia and Istria formulated in the so-called " Resolution of Fiume " a complete programme of political reform, and defined the basis upon which solid friendship between Croats and Magyars seemed attainable.
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  • By 1892 the Uitlanders began to feel that if they were to obtain any redress for their grievances combined constitutional action was called for, and the first reform move ment began.
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  • The reform leaders in the Transvaal, down to and including the Johannesburg rising, had always recognized as a cardinal principle the maintenance of the independence of the state.
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  • A number of leading citizens were at once formed into a reform committee.
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  • Under the supervision of the, reform committee, such arms as had been smuggled in were distributed, and Colonel Frank Rhodes was given charge of the armed men.
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  • The whole of the reform committee (with the exception of a few who fled the country) were arrested on a charge of high treason and imprisoned in Pretoria.
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  • It was after the Johannesburg disarmament that Kruger had sixty-four members of the reform committee arrested, announcing at the same time that his motto would be ".
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  • His conduct immediately after Johannesburg had given up its arms, and while the reform committee were in prison, was distinctly disingenuous.
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  • In spite of this fact, however, the commission reported in favour of reform in various directions.
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  • This petition, the outcome of the second Uitlander movement for reform, was signed by 21,000 British subjects, and stated the Uitlander position at considerable length.
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  • Sir Alfred Milner urged the home government strongly to insist upon a minimum of reform, and primarily the five years' franchise; and Mr Chamberlain, backed by the cabinet, adopted the policy of the high commissioner.
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  • D., of Chatteris, England, and was a member of the Johannesburg Reform committee at the time of the Jameson Raid.
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  • He went to the Transvaal in 1884 and became honorary secretary to the Johannesburg Reform committee.
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  • Upon the fall of the Right from power in 1876 he joined the opposition, and, with characteristic vivacity, protracted during two months the debate on Baccelli's University Reform Bill, securing, single-handed, its rejection.
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  • 2) states that the measures used before the Solonian period of reform were called "Pheidonian."
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  • The town was first represented in parliament by two members in 1572; it lost its franchise by the Reform Act of 1832.
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  • A movement was set on foot for the reform of the constitution, the principal objects of this agitation being to prolong the presidential term to four years, to give Congress the right to choose the president of the republic, and to amend certain sections concerning the rights of persons taking part in armed insurrection arising out of political issues.
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  • The reform of the constitution was agreed to, and in 1894 General Crespo was duly declared elected to the presidency by Congress for a period of four years.
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  • To Pretoria Dr Jameson and his troopers were brought prisoners (January 1896) after the fight at Doornkop (to be handed over in few days to the British government), and thither also were brought the Reform Committee prisoners from Johannesburg.
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  • that he was anxious to reform the order and punish the knights who had adopted Lutheran doctrines.
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  • This led to the formation of the Sadharana (Universal) Brahma Samaj, now the most popular and progressive of the three sections of the movement and conspicuous for its work in the cause of literary culture, social reform and female education in India.
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  • to have made it his object to reform these evils, to reconcile scientific acquirements and practical skill, to bring back the unity of medicine as it had been understood by Hippocrates, and at the same time to raise the dignity of medical practitioners.
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  • The movement of reform started, of necessity, with scholars rather than practising physicians - more precisely with a group of learned men, whom we may be permitted, for the sake of a name, to call the medical humanists, equally enthusiastic in the cause of letters and of medicine.
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  • His attempt at reform, which was taken to be, as in effect it was, a revolt against the authority of the Arabian masters, led to his expulsion from Paris, and the formal prohibition by the parliament of his method.
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  • The revival of Galenic and Hippocratic medicine, though ultimately it conferred the greatest benefits on medical sciences, did not immediately produce any important or salutary reform in practical medicine.
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  • The reform of practical medicine was effected by men who aimed at, and partly succeeded in, rejecting all hypothesis and returning to the unbiassed study of natural processes, as shown in health and disease.
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  • In this he claimed to have made the most salutary reform because all physicians from Hippocrates had treated diseases by depletion and debilitating measures with the object of curing by elimination.
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  • The reform of medicine in France must be dated from the great intellectual awakening caused by the Revolution, but more definitely starts with the researches in anatomy and physiology of Marie Francois Xavier Bichat (1771-1802).
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  • A condition of this reform was the need of a preliminary training of the mind of the pupil in pure science, even in physics and chemistry; that is to say, before introduction into his professional studies.
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  • Moreover, freedom of trade and of travel has been promoted by a reform of the antiquated, cumbrous, and too often futile methods of quarantine - a reform as yet very far from complete, but founded upon a better understanding of the nature and propagation of disease.
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  • The result of the two years was undoubtedly to revive the confidence of the Opposition, who found that they had outlived the criticisms of the general election, and both on the question of tariff reform and on matters of general politics were again holding their own.
    0
    0
  • In this year the bill authorizing it was under his auspices submitted to the diet and passed; and with this financial achievement Matsukata saw the fulfilment of his ideas of financial reform, which were conceived during his first visit to Europe.
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  • He brought bills into parliament to reform Church patronage and Church discipline, and worked unremittingly for years in their behalf.
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  • The labours of the regular clergy here lie largely in the direction of social reform, and churches and missions have been established and are maintained by colleges, such as Christ Church, Oxford, schools and other bodies.
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    0
  • Moreover, as complete reform had always been steadily resisted, homogeneity was entirely wanting.
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  • Here at least the medieval system, in spite of any anomalies with respect to modern conditions, has resisted reform, and no other municipal body shares the traditions and peculiar dignity of the City Corporation.
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  • When we remember that more than half of the area of London was occupied by these establishments, and that about a third of the inhabitants were monks, nuns and friars, it is easy to imagine how great must have been the disorganization caused by this root and branch reform.
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  • When the Act for the reform of Municipal Corporations was passed in 1835 London was specially excepted from its provisions.
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  • Reform.
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  • He sided with the party at Oxford which favoured university reform, but this did not prevent him from being appointed provost of his college in 1855.
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  • The simoniacal election of Pietro Mezzabarba as bishop of Florence (1068) caused serious disturbances and a long controversy with Rome, which ended in the triumph, after a trial by fire, of the mdnk Petrus Igneus, champion of the popular reform movement; this event indicates the beginnings of a popular conscience among the Florentines.
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  • As soon as order was restored a balia was appointed to reform the government, in which task it was assisted by the Sienese and Perugian ambassadors and by Simone da Battifolle.
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  • Capponi did his best to reform the city and save the situation, and while adopting Savonarola's tone in internal affairs, he saw the dangers in the foreign situation, realizing that a reconciliation between the pope and the emperor Charles V.
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  • He soon saw that this would be impossible unless there were a general reform of all institutions, and therefore gave his support to the policy of the advanced party in the Assembly, denouncing the conduct of Louis XVI., and on the 10th of August 1792 voting in favour of his deposition.
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  • About the same time he published a pamphlet advocating the reform of the Prayer Book, while a tract issued on the 15th of July, Sundry reasons against the new intended Bill for governing and reforming Corporations, was declared illegal, false, scandalous and seditious; Prynne being censured, and only escaping punishment by submission.
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  • Ibrahim, the conqueror of Syria, scoffed at the sultan's idea that reform consisted in putting his soldiers into tight trousers and epaulettes."
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  • If he failed in his wider schemes of reform, this was only one more illustration of a truth of which other " enlightened " sovereigns besides himself had experienced the force, namely, that it is impossible to impose any system, however admirable, from above on a people whose deepest convictions and prejudices it offends.
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  • In 1862-1863 he took an active part in a movement for reform within the Hanoverian Church, and he was a member of the synod which passed the new constitution.
    0
    0
  • The aim of the French Canadian opposition at this time was to obtain financial and also constitutional reforms. Matters came to a head when the legislative assembly of Lower Canada refused supplies and Papineau arranged for concerted action with William Lyon Mackenzie, the leader of the reform party in Upper Canada.
    0
    0
  • But the attitude of the opposition remained no less hostile than before, and in March 1837 the governor was authorized to reject the demand for constitutional reform and to apply public funds in his control to the purposes of government.
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  • His motives were lofty, his life blameless, his plans for reform nobly conceived.
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  • As chairman of the Ways and Means Committee of the House of Representatives in1887-1889during President Cleveland's first administration, he led the fight for reform.
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  • In modern political history the expression "cave of Adullam" (hence "Adullamites") came into common use (being first employed in a speech by John Bright on the 13th of March 1866) with regard to the independent attitude of Robert Lowe (Lord Sherbrooke), Edward Horsman and their Liberal supporters in opposition to the Reform Bill of 1866.
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  • In 1884 a thorough reform of the government and administration of the country was begun under the direction of a succession of eminent French residents-general.
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  • ISAAC MAYER WISE (1819-1900), American Jewish theologian, was born in Bohemia, but his career is associated with the organization of the Jewish reform movement in the United States.
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  • Philipson, The Reform Movement in Judaism (1907).
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  • An important administrative reform was made in 1784, when Peru was divided into 7 intendencias, each under an officer called an intendente.
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    0
  • Although the double standard was in force, gold was practically demonetized by the monetary reform of 1872 because of the failure to fix a legal ratio between the two metals.
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  • In 1896 a reform of the electoral law was sanctioned.
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  • Another reform brought about by Pierola was a measure introduced and sanctioned in 1897 for a modification of the marriage laws.
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  • As early as 1870 President Grant recommended measures of civil service reform, and succeeded in obtaining an act authorizing him to appoint a Civil Service commission.
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  • The movement as a whole was of exactly the same character as the industrial revolution in England, and it led to the same result, a struggle for electoral reform.
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    0
  • Only a partial concession was made to the demand for reform.
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  • The mode of discipline practised by the pedantic and irritable old man who stood at the head of this institution was not at all to the young student's liking, and the impression made upon him stimulated him later on to work out his projects of school reform.
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    0
  • He was much carried away at this time by the idea of a radical reform of social life in Livonia, which (after the example of Rousseau) he thought to effect by means of a better method of school-training.
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  • There he enjoyed the society of Goethe, Wieland, Jean Paul (who came to Weimar in order to be near Herder), and others, the patronage of the court, with whom as a preacher he was very popular, and an opportunity of carrying out some of his ideas of school reform.
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  • But his great achievement was a speech against the Whig Reform Bill.
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  • His son, Lord Lincoln, had heard Gladstone's speech against the Reform Bill delivered in the Oxford Union, and had written home that " a man had uprisen in Israel."
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  • Returning to England for the session of 1859, he found himself involved in the controversy which arose over a mild Reform Bill introduced by the government.
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  • On the 18th of March 1867 the Tory Reform Bill, which ended in establishing Household Suffrage in the boroughs, was introduced, and was read a second time without a division.
    0
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  • Gladstone alienated considerable masses of English opinion by his efforts to reform the tenure of Irish land, and provoked the Irish people by his attempts to establish social order and to repress crime.
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  • He was also appointed one of the commissioners for the reform of the canon law.
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  • Elected pope on the 29th of May 1724, he attempted to reform clerical morals; but neither the decrees of the Latin council (1725) nor his personal precepts had much effect.
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  • Men and women of all ranks began to visit it; the emperor himself consented (f 887) to witness a performance by the great stars of the stage at the private residence of Marquis Inouye; a dramatic reform association was organized by a number of prominent noblemen and scholars; drastic efforts were made to purge the old historical dramas of anachronisms and inconsistencies, and at length a theatre (the Yurabu-za) was built on purely European lines, where instead of sitting from morning to night witnessing one long-drawn-out drama with interludes of whole farces, a visitor may devote only a few evening-hours to the pastime.
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  • Incidentally they are hastening the assimilation of the written and the spoken languages (genbun itchi) which may possibly prelude a still greater reform, abolition of the ideographic script.
    0
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  • These evidences of civilization did not make their appearance until the first great era of Japanese reform, the Taika period (645650), when stations were established along the principal highways, provision was made of post-horses, and a system of bells and checks was devised for distinguishing official carriers.
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  • He became a strong advocate for parliamentary reform.
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    0
  • His support of Pitt's Reform Bill was qualified by a just dislike of the ministers' proposal to treat the possession of the franchise by a constituency as a property and not as a trust.
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  • In his civil administration he followed out his own ideas without deferring to the nobles or the Church, and the opposition which he encountered from these quarters went far to paralyse his attempts at reform.
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  • In 1806 he preached a widely circulated sermon on duelling, and about 1814 a series of six sermons on intemperance, which were reprinted frequently and greatly aided temperance reform.
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  • But on the other hand the church in maintaining its place and power may condemn as heretical genuine efforts at reform by a return, though partial, to the standard set by the Holy Scriptures or the Apostolic Church.
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  • Capito headed two opposing schools in jurisprudence, Labeo being an advocate of method and reform, and Capito being a conservative and empiricist.
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  • 1905, to a measure of reform in the Russian system of government in Lithuania.
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  • An agricultural reform initiated by the provisional Government aims at the distribution of the fallow lands of the large estates and the better exploitation of the land.
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  • In 1298 and 1407 Ashburton returned two members, from 1407 until 1640 one member only, and then again two members, until deprived of one by the Reform Act of 1832 and of the other by the Reform Act of 1885.
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    0
  • The effects of this policy of blind obscurantism far outweighed any good that resulted from the king's well-meant efforts at economic and financial reform; and seven this reform was but spasmodic and partial, and awoke ultimately more discontent than it allayed.
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  • It was not represented in parliament until given one member by the Reform Act of 1832.
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    0
  • Under the Reform Act (1832) the borough became merged in the county.
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  • Philosophical: Kritik der Schleiermacherschen Glaubenslehre (1836); Psychologie oder Wissenschaft vorn subjektiven Geist (1837; 3rd ed., 1863); Kritische Erlduterungen des Hegelschen Systems (1840); Vorlesungen 'fiber Schelling (1842); System der Wissenschaft (1850); Meine Reform der Hegelschen Philosophie (1852); Wissenschaft der logischen Idee (1858-59), with a supplement (Epilegomena, 1862); Hegels Naturphilosophie and die Bearbeitung derselben durch Vera (1868); Erlduterungen - zu Hegels Encyklopddie der philosophischen Wissenschaften (1871).
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  • Called to office after disaster had driven Turkey's forces from Hungary and Poland and her fleets from the Mediterranean, he began by ordering strict economy and reform in the taxation; himself setting the example, which was widely followed, of voluntary contributions for the army, which with the navy he reorganized as quickly as he could.
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  • After this event Hussein Kuprili, surnamed "the Wise," devoted himself to the suppression of the revolts which had broken out in Arabia, Egypt and the Crimea, to the reduction of the Janissaries, and to the institution of administrative and financial reform.
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  • He never held office again, but he was very active in support of the causes which he had at heart, such as tariff reform, and woman suffrage; he was a keen critic of Lord Haldane's army reforms, and threw himself vigorously into the " die-hard " campaign of 1911.
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  • Throughout his reign Casimir never neglected the great work of domestic reform, greatly aided by Jaroslaw Skotowicki, archbishop of Gnesen, formerly a professor at Bologna.
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  • He is credited with having brought about a reduction of the quantity of silver in the smaller coins; he was the author of the Tariff Act of 1857 and of the bonded-warehouse system, and was one of the first to advocate civil service reform.
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  • Sir P. Julyan was appointed royal commis sioner on the civil establishments, and Sir P. Keenan on education; their work revived the reform movement in 1881.
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  • An order in council (1899) making English the language of the courts after fifteen years (by which the Maltese would have obtained the right to be tried in English) was promulgated at a time when the system of taxation was also being revised; henceforth agitation in favour of Italian and against taxation attained proportions unpleasant for those who preferred popularity to reform and progress.
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  • Poole's Wycliffe and Movements for Reform, and G.
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  • In the construction of the Scottish Reform Act Kennedy took a prominent part; indeed he and Lord Cockburn may almost be regarded as its authors.
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  • After the accession of the Whigs to office in 1832 he held various important offices in the ministry, and most of the measures of reform for Scotland, such as burgh reform, the improvements in the law of entail, and the reform of the sheriff courts, owed much to his sagacity and energy.
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  • In other directions, though we find many salutary civil measures, yet there were no far-reaching schemes of reform.
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  • He had the courage also to reform the games, in spite of all the traditions of the playing fields.
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  • 8a with Soderini, assisted him in carrying out his policy, suggested important measures of military reform which Soderini adopted, and finally was involved in ruin by his fall.
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  • A few months after his arrival (seventh year of Artaxerxes, 458 B.C.) he instituted a great religious reform, viz.
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  • 15 obscurely worded) the reform was accepted, and the foundations of a new community were laid.
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  • He introduced a new system of weights and measures, which he ordered should be used throughout his kingdom, and took steps to reform the coinage.
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  • As the "ring" could be destroyed only by removing the corrupt judges who were its tools, Tilden, after entering the Assembly in 1872 to promote the cause of reform, took a leading part in their impeachment.
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  • In 1793 he supported Grey's motion for a return to the old constitutional system of representation, and so earned the title to be regarded as one of the earliest promoters of the cause of parliamentary reform; and he was one of the founders of the "Society of the Friends of the People."
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  • Among the later productions of his pen were, besides the Plan of a Reform in the Election of the House of Commons, pamphlets entitled Proceedings in the House of Commons on the Slave Trade (1796), Reflections on the Abundance of Paper in Circulation and the Scarcity of Specie (1810), Historical Questions Exhibited (1818), and a Letter to Earl Grey on the Policy of Great Britain and the Allies towards Norway (1814).
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  • To direct attention to the true nature of revolution, to demonstrate how inextricably the right of liberty is interwoven with the very existence of man as an intelligent agent, to point out the inherent progressiveness of state arrangements, and the consequent necessity of reform or amendment, such are the main objects of the Beitrage; and although, as is often the case with Fichte, the arguments are too formal and the distinctions too wiredrawn, yet the general idea is nobly conceived and carried out.
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  • This post he resigned in 1812, mainly on account of the difficulties he experienced in his endeavour to reform the student life of the university.
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  • The penitentiaries are at Huntsville and Rusk, and there is a reform school for juvenile offenders at Gainesville.
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  • The objects originally contemplated had been the restoration of the unity of the church and its reform in head and members; but so great had become the prominence of Bohemian affairs that to these also a first place in the programme of the approaching oecumenical assembly required to be assigned, and for their satisfactory settlement the presence of Huss was necessary.
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  • The result of these interviews was a series of projects of reform, including a constitutional system based on a series of dumas, the cantonal assembly (volost) electing the duma of the district, the dumas of the districts electing that of the province or government, and these electing the Duma of the empire.
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  • This monopoly had been abolished in 1787, and the trade had been declared free to all Danish subjects, but practically the old arrangement was continued under disguised forms. Jon Sigurbsson began a hard struggle against the Danish government to obtain a reform.
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  • During his life at Paris he had opportunities of mixing in the circles of the philosophers and of others who frequented the salon of Madame de Geniis, and he there formed those ideas in favour of political and social reform which he retained through life.
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  • It comprised the following items: the formation of a constitution which would strengthen the monarchy by calling to it the support of the whole nation, the drafting of a scheme of local self-government on democratic lines, the reform of the administration of justice and of the criminal law, and the abolition of the most burdensome of feudal and class privileges.
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  • Administrative reform was the only reform he would promise.
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  • In 1910 he had published a volume of speeches, which was translated into English, and in 1919 he brought out a work on political conflicts and constitutional reform.
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  • The noblesse were divided on the matter of toleration, but the cahiers (lists of grievances and suggestions for reform) submitted by the Third Estate demanded, besides regular meetings of the estates every five years, complete toleration and a reform of the Church.
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  • In any attempt to determine the relative importance of Protestant and Catholic countries in promoting modern progress it must not be forgotten that religion is naturally conservative, and that its avowed business has never been to forward scientific research or political reform.
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  • Supported by the estates of the electorate, and relying upon the recess of the diet of Regensburg in 1541, he encouraged Bucer to press on with the work of reform, and in 1543 invited Melanchthon to his.
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  • It has been amended with considerable freedom (37 amendments up to 1907), but with more conservatism than has often prevailed in the constitutional reform of other states; so that the constitution of Massachusetts is not so completely in harmony with modern democratic sentiment as are the public opinion and statute law of the state.
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  • And when such declensions occurred, they soon called forth efforts at reform and revival; indeed these constantly recurring reformmovements are one of the most striking features of Benedictine history, and the great proof of the vitality of the institute throughout the ages.
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  • But the influence of Cluny, even on monasteries that did not enter into its organism, was enormous; many adopted Cluny customs and practices and moulded their life and spirit after the model it set; and many such monasteries became in turn centres of revival and reform in many lands, so that during the 10th and 11th centuries arose free unions of monasteries based on a common observance derived from a central abbey.
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    0
  • And so in the period of the reforming councils of Constance and Basel the state of the religious orders was seriously taken in hand, and in response to the public demand for reforming the Church '4,"in head and members," reform movements were set on foot, as among others, so among the Benedictines of various parts of Europe.
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  • During this century the Benedictine houses in many parts of Catholic Europe united themselves into congregations, usually characterized by an austerity that was due to the Tridentine reform movement.
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  • It has to be said that in the course of the middle ages, especially the later middle ages, grave disorders arose in many convents; and this doubtless led, in the reform movements initiated by the councils of Constance and Basel, and later of Trent, to the introduction of strict enclosure in Benedictine convents, which now is the almost universal practice.
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  • The Reform Act transferred their votes to the county.
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  • It is the seat of the State (Reform) School for Boys.
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  • He had voted against the act of November 1549 for a reform of the canon law, and on a later occasion his nonconformity brought him into conflict with the Council; he was also the only bishop who satisfied Hooper's test of sacramental orthodoxy.
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  • His one attempt at reform, the order forbidding the sale of intoxicants so as to stop the growing intemperance of the janissaries, broke down on the opposition of the soldiery.
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  • According to one account, he travelled as far as Bremen, called there by Archbishop Hermann in order to reform the musical service.
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  • AARON CHORIN (1766-1844), Hungarian rabbi and pioneer of religious reform.
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  • also materially assisted De Geer (q.v.) to carry through his memorable reform of the constitution in 1863.
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  • With the consent of his partner he resolved to go to Spain on behalf of the oppressed natives, and the result of his representations was that in 1516 Cardinal Jimenes caused a commission to be sent out for the reform of abuses, Las Casas himself, with the title of "protector of the Indians," being appointed to advise and report on them.
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  • This sentence from Browne's spiritual autobiography contains the root of the whole matter, and explains the title of his other chief work, also of 1582, A Treatise of Reformation without tarrying for any, and of the wickedness of those Preachers which will not reform till the Magistrate command or compel them.
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  • Financial reform and reorganization of the customs service were found equally necessary, if only to provide means for the increased cost of the army and navy.
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  • Crawford, was engaged to reorganize the customs; a number of German officers, selected by General von der Goltz, were brought in to reform the army; and the work of restoring the navy to efficiency was entrusted to a British adviser, Rear-Admiral Gamble, and a small British staff.
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  • Okehampton returned two members to parliament in 1300, and again in 1312 and 1313, after which there was an intermission till 1640, from which date two members were returned regularly until by the Reform Act of 1832 the borough was disfranchised.
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  • (5) Congregation of Ste Genevieve in Paris, a reform c. 1630.
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  • The book of Johann Busch, himself a canon of Windesheim, De Reformatione monasteriorum, shows that in the 15th century grave relaxation had crept into many monasteries of Augustinian canons in north Germany, and the efforts at reform were only partially successful.
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  • In 1844 Sir Charles Metcalfe, in his contest with the Reform party led by Baldwin and Lafontaine, appealed to the electors, and Macdonald was elected to the provincial assembly as Conservative member for Kingston.
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  • These are a state prison at Deer Lodge, managed by contract; a reform school at Miles City, an industrial school at Butte, an orphans' home at Twin Bridges, the soldiers' home at Columbia Falls, a school for deaf and blind at Boulder, and an insane asylum at Warm Springs, managed by contract.
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  • They are all under the supervision of a state board of charities and reform.
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  • In April 1889, on the accession to the presidency of Benjamin Harrison, Mr Roosevelt, then closely identified with the work of Civil Service reform, was appointed a member of the United States Civil Service Commission.
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  • The reply to this criticism is that Mr Blaine was the choice of the majority of the party, and that while Mr Roosevelt felt free to fight within the party vigorously for reform, he did not feel that the nomination justified a schism like that which occurred in the Democratic party over the free silver issue in 1896 - a schism which remained afterwards a hopeless weakness in that party.
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  • He was taken from the Federal service in Washington to New York City by a reform mayor and put in charge of the police, because he had shown both physical and moral courage in fighting corruption of all sorts; and the New York police force at that time was thoroughly tainted with corruption, not in its rank and file, but among its superior officers, who used the power in their hands to extort money bribes chiefly from saloonkeepers, liquor-dealers, gamblers and prostitutes.
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  • While he was criticized by the friends of Civil Service Reform for not going far enough during his presidency to protect the encroachments of those who desire to have the offices distributed as political rewards or for partisan ends, such specific acts as his transference to the classified service of all fourth-class postmasters east of the Mississippi and north of the Ohio rivers, his insistence upon a thorough investigation of the scandals in the Post Office department, and his order forbidding federal employes to use their offices for political purposes in the campaign of 1908 are typical of his vigorous support of the merit system.
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  • The first demand of the overwhelmingly democratic diet returned under this reform bill was that the king should accept the German constitution elaborated by the Frankfort parliament.
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  • A new electoral law of the same year reformed the Saxon diet by abolishing the old distinction between the various " estates " and lowering the qualification for the franchise; the result was a Liberal majority in the Lower House and a period of civil and ecclesiastical reform.
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    0
  • 13a law was probably as short-lived in its effects as preceding ones had been, but a more lasting reform was the maintenance at the public cost of the children of poor parents in the towns of Italy (Aur.
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    0
  • Like the English administrative system, the Austrian presented a rich variety, a variety indeed so rich that it clamoured for drastic reform.
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    0
  • Bienerth's last act as premier in May 1911 was the appointment of a commission nominated by the Emperor, to draw up a scheme of administrative reform.
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  • The continuous progress of society, it said, had made increased demands on the administration, that is to say, it was assumed that reform was not demanded so much by the defects of the administration but by the progress of the times, not because the administration was bad, but because life was better.
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  • It was an attempt to reform the administration without first reforming the State on equivalent lines.
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    0
  • A reform commission without a programme naturally first occupied itself with reforms about which there was no controversy.
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  • though politically of importance, did not provide any basis for reform on a large scale.
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  • It was not till March 1918 that the Seidler Government decided upon a programme of national autonomy as a basis for administrative reform, which was, however, never carried into effect.
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    0
  • With the carrying through of suffrage reform the Beck Ministry, which started in June 1906, had.
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  • In spite of the reform of the civil law in other respects (June 1 1911) these provisions remained in force until the republic. Owing to the opposition of the Christian Socialist party, they were even then not abolished; but they were relaxed by numerous dispensations in individual cases.
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  • - Hussarek,' who was appointed prime minister on July 24, declared his programme to be parliamentary government, with reconciliations of the nationalities, and constitutional and administrative reform.
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  • Even the reform of taxation carried out in the autumn of 1915 (modification of the inheritance and donations duty and the taxation on insurance policies and legal charges) cannot be regarded strictly as war taxes, as they had been planned a considerable time before the outbreak of the war and had only been delayed by the inability of Parliament to continue its work.
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  • Charitable Institutions, &c. - The state maintains a school for the blind at Gary, a school for deaf mutes at Sioux Falls, a tuberculosis sanatorium at Custer, a general hospital for the insane at Yankton, a school for the feeble-minded at Redfield, a soldiers' home at Hot Springs, a reform school at Plankinton, and a penitentiary at Sioux Falls.
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  • Its main object was ecclesiastical reform, but the provision that a copy of Magna Carta should be hung in all cathedral and collegiate churches seemed to the king a political action, and parliament declared void any action of this council touching on the royal power.
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  • He was also concerned in the reform of the currency by the withdrawal of the debased Bolivian coins.
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    0
  • Stoke-upon-Trent became the railway centre and head of the parliamentary borough of Stoke-upon-Trent, comprising the whole of the Staffordshire Potteries, which was created by the Reform Bill of 1832.
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    0
  • She had grasped the principles of hygiene, which were then beginning to be understood, and she applied them to the reform of the hospital administration.
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    0
  • In the same year the first district nurse began work in Liverpool; and in 1865 the reform of the much-neglected workhouse nursing was inaugurated by Miss Agnes Jones and twelve nurses from St Thomas's, who took up the work in Liverpool.
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  • Largely owing to friction between himself and the president, Bristow resigned his portfolio in June 1876; as secretary of the treasury he advocated the resumption of specie payments and at least a partial retirement of "greenbacks"; and he was also an advocate of civil service reform.
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    0
  • Zunz took no large share in Jewish reform, but never lost faith in the regenerating power of "science" as applied to the traditions and literary legacies of the ages.
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    0
  • On the question of the reform of the university of Oxford, he sympathized with the reformers, but felt himself prohibited, by the oaths which he had taken, from assuming any active part.
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  • In 1866 he expressed himself favourable to the making of household suffrage the basis of representation, an expression of opinion which probably influenced the Reform Bill of the following year - in the discussions on which Palmer took a prominent part, and especially in opposition to the so-called "fancy franchises" originally proposed by its authors.
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    0
  • Nevertheless he was influential in effecting the reform by which in 1869 it was sought to reconcile the Empire with Liberal principles.
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    0
  • The state supports a hospital for the insane at Jamestown, an institution for the feeble-minded at Grafton, a home for old soldiers at Lisbon, a blind asylum at Bathgate, a reform school (opened 1902) at Mandan and a penitentiary at Bismarck.
    0
    0
  • But although Bern supported the Reform, Fribourg did not, and in 1534 withdrew from its alliance with Geneva, while directly afterwards the duke of Savoy made a fresh attempt to seize the city.
    0
    0
  • Meanwhile Farel had been advancing the cause of religious reform, which was definitively adopted on the 21st of May 1536.
    0
    0
  • They placed themselves at the head of the movement for ecclesiastical reform.
    0
    0
  • The original sources of this reform movement lay far back, in the time of the Carolingians.
    0
    0
  • This reaction began with the reform of Benedict of Aniane (d.
    0
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  • In the next century the reform movement acquired a fresh centre in the Burgundian monastery of Cluny.
    0
    0
  • The reform movement had originally no connexion with ecclesiastical politics; but that came later when the leaders turned their attention to the abuses prevalent among the clergy, to the conditions obtaining in the Church in defiance of the ecclesiastical law.
    0
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  • The programme of reform thus included not only the extirpation of simony and Nicolaitism, but also the freeing of the Church from the influence of the State, the recovery of her absolute control over all her possessions, the liberty of the Church and of the hierarchy.
    0
    0
  • As a result, the party of reform placed itself in opposition to those ecclesiastical conditions which had arisen since the conversion of the Teutonic peoples.
    0
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  • attached himself to the party of reform.
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    0
  • For, thanks to him and to the men he gathered round him (Hildebrand, Humbert and others), their principles were established in Rome, and the pope himself became the leader of ecclesiastical reform.
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  • ensured the occupation of the Holy See by a pope favourable to the party of reform; and in 1078 Gregory VII.
    0
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  • The monastic reform movement was essentially Latin in origin; and even more significant was the fact that scholasticism, the new theology, had its home in the Latin countries.
    0
    0
  • These all recognized in the convocation of a general council the means of setting bounds to the abuses in the government of the Church by an extensive reform.
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  • (See Papacy; Constance, Council Of, and Basel, Council Of.) Thus the attempt to reform the Church by means of councils failed; but this very failure led to the survival of the desire for reform.
    0
    0
  • After the failure of the attempts at reform by the councils, the guidance of the Church was left undisturbed in the hands of the popes, and they were determined that it should remain so.
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  • Zoroastrianism is not a nature religion, but the result of a reform which never, under the old empire, thoroughly penetrated the masses; and the priesthood, as it was not based on family tradition, did not form a strict hereditary caste.
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    0
  • It was drawn from the peasant and small-farmer class, was in favour of land reform, private property rights and increased production all round.
    0
    0
  • The democratic sentiment of the Czechoslovak nation, and its maturity in social matters, resulted in the adoption of a social policy which, while proceeding without undue haste, was characterized by a comparatively rapid course of reform.
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  • "the most notable accomplishment of the young republic in the field of social-political reform has been the enactment of Dec. 19 1918 establishing an 8-hour day for industrial and agricultural workers (with some specific exceptions).
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  • Long before the political revolution of 1918 the Czechoslovaks had been convinced of the necessity for a far-reaching measure of land reform, both from a social and economic point of view as well as from national considerations.
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    0
  • In this year began the " Tariff Reform " movement initiated by Mr Joseph Chamberlain, but Free Trade retained a strong hold on the British electorate, and the return of the overwhelming Radical majority to parliament in 1906 involved its retention under the fiscal policy of that party.
    0
    0
  • In January 1910 the Liberal government was again returned to power; but the Unionist party was now committed to Tariff Reform, which had made great strides in obtaining popular support.
    0
    0
  • His next publications also were on economic or political subjects, Rationale of Political Representation (1835), and Money and its Vicissitudes (1837), now practically forgotton; about the same time also appeared some of his pamphlets, Discussion of Parliamentary Reform, Right of Primogeniture Examined, Defence of Joint-Stock Banks.
    0
    0
  • The election had, however, been preceded by a correctura jurum, or reform of the constitution, which resulted in the Henry of famous "Henrican Articles" which converted Valois, king, Poland from a limited monarchy into a republic 1573-1574.
    0
    0
  • But, though driven from the field, the agitation simmered all over the country for nearly two years longer, and was only terminated, in1609, by a general amnesty which excluded every prospect of constitutional reform.
    0
    0
  • This he calculated would bring about a retaliatory invasion of Poland by the Turks, which would justify him in taking the field against them also with all the forces of the Republic. In case of success he would be able to impose the will of a victorious king upon a discredited diet, and reform the constitution on an English or Swedish model.
    0
    0
  • His belated attempts to reform the constitution only led to conspiracies against his life and crown, in which the French faction, which he had been the first to encourage, took an active part.
    0
    0
  • Unfortunately the other great families of Poland were obstinately opposed to any reform or, as they called it, any "violation" of the existing constitution.
    0
    0
  • He had in fact already summoned a Russian army corps to assist him to reform his country, which sufficiently explains his own haughtiness and the unwonted compliancy of the rival magnates.
    0
    0
  • He also calculated that the demand itself would make the szlachta suspicious of all reform, including the Czartoryscian reforms, especially as both the king and his uncles were generally unpopular, as being innovators under foreign influence.
    0
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  • A poet of some importance was Sebastian Fabian Klonowicz (1545-1602), who latinized his name into Acernus, Klon being the Polish for maple, and wrote in both Latin and Polish, and through his inclination to reform drew down on himself the anger of the clergy.
    0
    0
  • His father, a declared partisan of reform, trained him for an administrative career, and at the age of twenty-two he was attached as secretary to Falk Effendi, whom he accompanied in Syria for three years.
    0
    0
  • He was one of the hundred associates of the Company of New France, created by Richelieu to reform abuses and take over all his country's interests in the new world.
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    0
  • Elsewhere he showed his liberality and his zeal for reform.
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  • He laboured to reform the monastic orders, especially the Franciscan, and was never guilty of nepotism.
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    0
  • His instincts and ambitions were those of a secular prince of the Renaissance; but circumstances forced him to become the patron of reform.
    0
    0
  • By the promotion to the cardinalate of such men as Contarini, Caraffa, Pole and Morone, and the appointment of a commission to report upon existing evils and their remedy, the way was opened for reform; while by the introduction of the Inquisition into Italy (1542), the establishment of the censorship and the Index (1543), and the approval of the Society of Jesus (1540), most efficient agencies were set on foot for combating heresy.
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  • Minister of public works in the first Depretis cabinet of 1876, and minister of the interior in the Cairoli cabinet of 1878, he in the latter capacity drafted the franchise reform, but created dissatisfaction by the indecision of his administrative acts, particularly in regard to the Irredentist agitation, and by his theory of repressing and not in any way preventing crime, which led for a time to a perfect epidemic of murders.
    0
    0
  • During this period he promulgated the Criminal Code, and began the reform of the magistracy.
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    0
  • Paton, The Teaching of Classics -in Prussian Secondary Schools (on " German Reform Schools ") (1907, Wyman, London); J.
    0
    0
  • Some misgivings on this reform found expression in a work on the Teaching of Latin, pub lished by Prof. C. E.
    0
    0
  • Harry, The Mar y land Constitution of 1851, Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science (Baltimore, 1902), contains an account of the agitation from 1835 to 1850 for constitutional reform; B.
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    0
  • The early champions of Church reform in the beginning of the 16th century found in the Bible their most trustworthy weapon.
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  • 1866), married the daughter of Lord Ashton; he was Unionist M.P. for South Manchester from 1900 to 1905, and later for Taunton, and also acted as Municipal Reform leader on the London County Council.
    0
    0
  • After the passing of the Scottish Reform Bill, which he introduced in parliament, he was returned for Edinburgh in December 1832.
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    0
  • Under an act of 1898 two houses of reform for juvenile offenders, one for boys, the other for girls, were established near Lexington.
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  • In January 1561 he was given the lucrative office of master of the court of wards in succession to Sir Thomas Parry, and he did something to reform that instrument of tyranny and abuse.
    0
    0
  • Boris' most important domestic reform was the ukaz (1587) forbidding the peasantry to transfer themselves from one landowner to another, thus binding them to the soil.
    0
    0
  • This judicial reform (or rather compromise) was the work of Caesar's uncle, L.
    0
    0
  • Thus Caesar's work remained unfinished, and this must be borne in mind in considering his record of legislative and administrative reform.
    0
    0
  • He confessed freely that the Society had faults and that there was a great deal of unrest among the members; and he mentioned among the various points calling for reform the education of the novices and students; the state of the lay brother and the possessions of the Society; the spying system, which he declared to be carried so far that, if the general's archives at Rome should be searched, not one Jesuit's character would be found to escape; the monopoly of the higher offices by a small clique: and the absence of all encouragement and recompense for the best men of the Society.
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  • of Spain complained bitterly of the Society to Sixtus V., and encouraged him in those plans of reform (even to changing the name) which were only cut short by the pope's death in 1590, and also that the long protracted discussions on grace, wherein the Dominicans contended against the Jesuits, were carried on at Rome with little practical result, by the Congregation de auxiliis, which sat from 1598 till 1607.
    0
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  • There is also a mechanics' training school (antes y oficios) for men and a similar school for women, schools for the blind and for deaf-mutes, reform schools, and garrison schools for soldiers.
    0
    0
  • It was said in 1859 that the church owned one-third of the real and personal property of the republic. The reform laws of that year nationalized its property, abolished its numerous orders and institutions and deprived it of state support and of all participation in political affairs.
    0
    0
  • Possibly it is from this reform that we may date the antithesis of Federals and Centralists, which is so conspicuous in the history of republican Mexico.
    0
    0
  • The proposed reform roused the Clericals to resistance.
    0
    0
  • He opposed the reform tendency of Geiger (q.v.), and presented Jewish orthodoxy in a new and attractive light.
    0
    0
  • In 1783 a convention of delegates from all the volunteer corps in Ireland assembled in Dublin for the purpose of procuring a reform in parliament; but the House of Commons refused to entertain the proposition, and the convention separated without coming to any practical result.
    0
    0
  • "RABINDRANATH TAGORE (1861-), Indian poet and author, was a member of a well-known Bengali family noted for its activities in literature, art and religious reform as well as for its public benefactions.
    0
    0
  • In conjunction with Raja Rammohan Roy he initiated the movement of religious reform which took shape as the Adi Brahmo Somaj.
    0
    0
  • In 1769 Pechlin sold the "Hats" as he had formerly sold the "Caps," and was largely instrumental in preventing the projected indispensable reform of the Swedish constitution.
    0
    0
  • This reform has not, to any appreciable extent, rendered more stable the value of the notes issued.
    0
    0
  • An ingenious, though ineffective, proposal for the reform of the calendar was put forward in his Elenchus Calendarii Gregoriani (Frankfort, 1612); and he published a book on music, Melodiae condendae ratio (Erfurt, 1592), still worth reading.
    0
    0
  • With their growth in wealth and dignity the Cluniac foundations became as worldly in life and as relaxed in discipline as their predecessors, and a fresh reform was needed.
    0
    0
  • The Roman books are silent, and there is no mention of it in the collection known as the Leonine Sacramentary; while in the so-called Gelasian Massbook, which, as we have it, is full of Gallican additions made to St Gregory's reform, there is the same silence, though in one MS. of the 10th century given by Muratori we find a form for the ordination of an acolyte.
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  • The Discovery Of The Period Of Thirty Three Years Is Ascribed To Omar Khayyam, One Of The Eight Astronomers Appointed Byjelal Ud Din Malik Shah, Sultan Of Khorasan, To Reform Or Construct A Calendar, About The Year 1079 Of Our Era.
    0
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  • Parliamentary representation began in 1295 and continued until the Reform Act of 1870.
    0
    0
  • During his administration President Hayes devoted his efforts mainly to civil service reform, resumption of specie payments and the pacification of the Southern States, recently in rebellion.
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  • Sharpe, the surveyor of the customs. While these measures were of limited scope and effect, they served greatly to facilitate the more extensive reform of the civil service which subsequently took place, though at the same time they alienated a powerful faction of the Republican party in New York under the leadership of Roscoe Conkling.
    0
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  • He now occupied a great position for which he was supremely fitted, and at a juncture in the reform of university studies when a theologian of liberal views, but universally respected for his massive learning and his devout and single-minded character, would enjoy a unique opportunity for usefulness.
    0
    0
  • He was a strong supporter of Church reform, especially in the direction of obtaining larger powers for the laity.
    0
    0
  • Developments associated with the Deuteronomic reform and the reorganization of Judaism in post-exilic days can be unmistakably recognized, and it would be unsafe to assume that other vicissitudes have not also left their mark.
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  • His real crime was not heresy but reform.
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    0
  • Aldborough formerly returned two members to parliament, but was disfranchised by the Reform Act of 1832.
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  • Charles V.rpressed in vain upon him the archbishopric of Cambrai, but Blosius studiously exerted himself in the reform of his monastery and in the composition of devotional works.
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  • As soon as Catholic emancipation was carried, the demand for parliamentary reform and extension of the franchise agitated Great Britain from end to end.
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  • He conceived the agitation for reform to be a purely fictitious one, worked up by partisans and men of disorder in their own interest, and expressing no real want on the part of the public at large.
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  • Wholly unaware of the strength of the forces which he was provoking, the duke, at the opening of the parliament which met after the death of George IV., declared against any parliamentary reform whatever.
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    0
  • Lord Grey, the chief of the new ministry, brought in the Reform Bill, which was resisted by Wellington as long as anything was to be gained by resistance.
    0
    0
  • His opposition to reform made him for a while unpopular.
    0
    0
  • The passions excited during the stormy epoch of the Reform Bill had long passed away.
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    0
  • The government found, therefore, in the educated classes a new-born public spirit, anxious to assist it in any work of reform that it might think fit to undertake.
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  • He moderated, guided and in great measure realized the reform aspirations of the educated classes.
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    0
  • For some years the emperor, with his sound common-sense and dislike of exaggeration, held the balance fairly between the two extremes; but long years of uninterrupted labour, anxiety and disappointment weakened his zeal for reform, and when radicalism assumed more and more the form of secret societies and revolutionary agitation, he felt constrained to adopt severe repressive measures.
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  • At the beginning of the reform period there had been much enthusiasm for scientific as opposed to classical education.
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    0
  • He was a supporter of the League of Nations; he indorsed woman suffrage and was a strong advocate of civil-service reform for the post-office and consular appointments.
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    0
  • Though giving at first a modified support to the Reform government, he soon broke with it and became leader of the Radical or "Clear Grit" party.
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    0
  • The Municipal Reform Act of 1832 reduced the number of members to one, and in 1885 the town was disfranchised.
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  • Among the more important legislative changes with which he was principally connected were a reform of the Navigation Acts, admitting other nations to a full equality and reciprocity of shipping duties; the repeal of the labour laws; the introduction of a new sinking fund; the reduction of the duties on manufactures and on the importation of foreign goods, and the repeal of the quarantine duties.
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  • Another body having a more or less similar purpose is the International Law Association, which was founded in 1873 as the " Association for the Reform and Codification of the Law of Nations," with practically the same objects as those which led to the constitution of the Institute of International Law.
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  • 3 Surely with all the existing activity in the removal of causes of war, in the reduction to precise expression of the rules of law governing the relations of states with one another, in the creation of international judicatures for the application of these rules, in the concluding of treaties specifically framed to facilitate the pacific settlement of difficulties diplomacy may have failed to adjust, in the promotion of democratic civilian armies with everything to lose by war,!and all the other agencies which have been described above, the hope seems warranted that, in no distant future, life among nations will become still more closely assimilated to life among citizens of the same nation, with legislation, administration, reform all tending to the one great object of law, order and peace among men.
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  • Licinius Crassus the orator) he recognized the need of reform.
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    0
  • That the people themselves did not regard the reform as a trifle is plain from the numerous rebellions against it.
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    0
  • The object of this reform is to encourage independent voting.
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  • (5) The reform of the civil service and the gradual elimination of the vicious principle of " to the victors belong the spoils."
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  • With the reform of the civil service elections become less a scramble for office and more a contest of political or economic principle.
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  • The reform sought by the law is thorough publicity, and not only are details of receipts and expenditures to be published, but the names of contributors and the amount of their contributions.
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    0
  • At the same time, as he could not be suspected of any sympathy with Lutheran or Wickliffite heretics, he might fairly be regarded as qualified to lead the party which aimed at reform in State and Church within the limits of Catholic orthodoxy.
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    0
  • But in the king's mind the public questions of reform were entirely sunk in the personal one of the divorce.
    0
    0
  • After his return the contest was renewed between the so-called National party, which favoured absolution, and the Reform party, which sought to establish parliamentary government.
    0
    0
  • Meanwhile a reform league had been formed to stop the prevailing misrule and extravagance; it was supported by a volunteer military force, the " Honolulu Rifles."
    0
    0
  • Wolsey, then engaged in beginning his reform of the English church, procured that he himself should be joined to the legation as senior legate; thus the Italian, who arrived in England on the 23rd of July 1518, held a subordinate position and his special legatine faculties were suspended.
    0
    0
  • They fostered liberty and reform, and even radicalism.
    0
    0
  • But in order to discharge it, a reform of psychology as well as of metaphysics is required.
    0
    0
  • Hence Descartes began the reform of psychology not only by the appeal to consciousness, " I think," but also by opposing body and soul, no longer as matter and form, but as different substances.
    0
    0
  • Mr Ritchie's remission of the shilling import-duty on corn led to Mr Chamberlain's crusade in favour of tariff reform and colonial preference, and as the session proceeded the rift grew in the Unionist ranks.
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    0
  • The free-trade Unionists, with the duke of Devonshire, Lord Goschen, Lord James and Lord Hugh Cecil, as their chief representatives, started a Free Food league in opposition to Mr Chamberlain's Tariff Reform league; and at a great meeting at Queen's Hall, London, on the 24th of November their attitude was made plain.
    0
    0
  • From 1903 onwards the question of army reform had been under discussion, and the government was anxious to get this settled, though in fact Mr Brodrick's and Mr Arnold-Forster's schemes for reorganization failed to obtain any general support.
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    0
  • The opposition were determined to raise debates in the House of Commons on the fiscal question, and Mr Balfour was no less determined not to be caught in their trap. These tactics of avoidance reached their culminating point when on one occasion Mr Balfour and his supporters left the House and allowed a motion hostile to tariff reform to be passed nem.
    0
    0
  • The new compact was indicated in Mr Balfour's letter, in which he declared that "fiscal reform is, and must remain, the first constructive work of the Unionist party; its objects are to secure more equal terms of competition for British trade and closer commercial union with the colonies; and while it is at present unnecessary to prescribe the exact methods by which these objects are to be attained, and inexpedient to permit differences of opinion as to these methods to divide the party, though other means are possible, the establishment of a moderate general tariff on manufactured goods, not imposed for the purpose of raising prices, or giving artificial protection against legitimate competition, and the imposition of a small duty on foreign corn, are not in principle objectionable, and should be adopted if shown to be necessary for the attainment of the ends in view or for purposes of revenue."
    0
    0
  • His speech at Birmingham (November 14, 1907), fully accepting the principles of Mr Chamberlain's fiscal policy, proved epoch-making in consolidating the Unionist party - except for a small number of free-traders, like Lord Robert Cecil, who continued to hold out - in favour of tariff reform; and during 1908 the process of recuperation went on, the by-elections showing toamarked degree the increased popular support given to the Unionist candidates.
    0
    0
  • The question of reform having arisen, from the apostolic see alone could its fulfilment be expected, since in it, with the succession of St Peter, were preserved the most august traditions of Christianity.
    0
    0
  • All good Christians Reform.
    0
    0
  • were calling for reform; bishops, princes, and monks were in agreement on this point when they spoke or acted according to their convictions.
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    0
  • There was no dispute as to his possessing the authority in spiritual matters necessary to impose reform and overbear the resistance which might arise; no one was better qualified than he to treat with the holders of the temporal power and obtain the support which was necessary from them.
    0
    0
  • (1048-1054) the pope suddenly came forward as the active and indefatigable champion of reform; simony and incontinence of the clergy were attacked by the one most qualified to purify the Church of them.
    0
    0
  • Henceforth the way was open, and it became clear that, given good popes, the reform movement might be carried into effect.
    0
    0
  • being Side by side with the general movement towards reform, he had set before himself the object of freeing the papacy, not only from its temporal oppressors but also from its protectors.
    0
    0
  • The work of reform was now in a good way; the freedom of the pontifical elections had been assured, which gave some Gregory promise that the struggle against abuses would be VII., conducted successfully.
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    0
  • The Work To reform the Church in every grade and purge of Gregory the priesthood in order to shield it from feudal VII.
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    0
  • He simultaneously excommunicated several sovereigns and mercilessly persecuted the archbishops and bishops who were hostile to reform.
    0
    0
  • At this council almost all the questions at issue related to reform, and many give evidence of great breadth of mind, as well as of a very acute sense of contemporary necessities.
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    0
  • His efforts in the direction of reform, moreover, deserve recognition.
    0
    0
  • It is true that his election was immediately impugned by the cardinals on frivolous grounds; but the responsibility for this rests, partially at least, with the pope himself, whose reckless and inconsiderate zeal for reform was bound to excite a revolution among the worldly cardinals still yearning for the fleshpots of Avignon.
    0
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  • less successful in political than in ecclesiastical reform, which latter included the combating of the Fraticelli, the amendment of the clergy, the encouragement of piety by the regulation of feast-days, the recommendation of increased devotion to the sacrament of the altar, and the strengthening of the conception of the Church by the great jubilee of 1423.
    0
    0
  • He led the movement for a reform of the Empire and the opposition to the papal encroachments, supporting the theory of church government enunciated at Constance and Basel and condemned in Pius II.'s bull Execrabilis.
    0
    0
  • Charles had the word reform perpetually on his lips; but it could deceive none who were acquainted with the man.
    0
    0
  • This assembly was also designed to deal with the question of reform, when the pope was summoned from this world (Feb.
    0
    0
  • Thus Luther assumed the leadership of a national opposition, and appeared as the champion who was to undertake the much-needed reform of abuses which clamoured for redress.
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    0
  • - a man who saw his noblest task, not in an artistic Maecenate, nor in the prosecution ofolitical designs, but in the reform of the Church 152 2 -1 23., P g ?
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  • How clearly he read the causes of religious decadence, how deeply he himself was convinced of the need of trenchant reform, is best shown by his instructions to Chieregati, his nuncio to Germany, in which he laid the axe to the root of the tree with unheard-of freedom.
    0
    0
  • Even though, in his all too brief pontificate, he failed to attain any definite results, he at least fulfilled the first condition of any cure by laying bare the seat of disease, gave an important impetus to the cause of the reform of the Church, and laid down the principles on which this was afterwards carried through.
    0
    0
  • It was he who regenerated the College of Cardinals by leavening it with men of ability, who took in hand the reform of the Curia, confirmed the Jesuit Order, and finally brought the Council of Trent into existence (Sessions I.
    0
    0
  • On the 10th of April 1555, after a conclave which lasted five days, the reform party secured Marce// /555 us 11.
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    0
  • The sequel was the end of the nepotism and the relentless prosecution of reform within the Church.
    0
    0
  • For Rome, in especial, he completed the task of reform.
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    0
  • The Curia, once so corrupt, was completely metamorphosed, and once more became a rallying point for men of stainless character, so that it produced a profound impression even on non-Catholics; while the original methods of St Philip Neri had a profound influence on the reform of popular morals.
    0
    0
  • The renewed vigour which this internal reformation had infused into the Church was now manifest in its external effects; and Pius V., the pope of reform, was followed by the popes of the Catholic restoration.
    0
    0
  • If ecclesiastical authority fostered what was commonly regarded as intolerant obscurantism, to be enlightened meant to be prepared in spirit for that reform which soon developed into the Revolution.
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    0
  • In November of that year he fled in disguise from his capital to Gaeta, in the kingdom of Naples, and when French arms had made feasible his restoration to Rome in April 1850 he returned in a temper of stubborn resistance to all reform; henceforth he was no longer open to the influence of men of the type of Rossi or Rosmini, but took the inspiration of his policy from Cardinal Antonelli and the Jesuits.
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    0
  • Church republican France thereupon destroyed the Roman republic. Napoleon lost 1200 in dead and wounded, actually secured not a single reform on which he had insisted, and drew upon himself the fateful obligation to mount perpetual guard over the Vatican.
    0
    0
  • was not merely one of defiance towards supposed hostile forces within and without the Church; it was also strenuous in pushing on the R work of internal organization and reform.
    0
    0
  • greatly diminished the need for and appreciation of Hertzen's assistance in the work of reform.
    0
    0
  • The House of Refuge of western Pennsylvania, located in Allegheny in 1854 (act of 1850), became the Pennsylvania Reform School in 1872, and was.
    0
    0
  • The sinking fund was formerly divided among certain favoured banks in such manner as would best advance the political interests of the organization which controlled the state; but just after the reform victory in the election of 1905 the sinking fund commission instituted the policy of buying bonds at the market price, and the debt is now being reduced by that method.
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    0
  • It has at its head a cardinal formerly called the pro-datarius, the datarius having formerly been a prelate; and now datarius, since the reform by Pius X.
    0
    0
  • The reform of Pius X.
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    0
  • He quickly made his mark in the House of Commons, one of his earliest speeches being in favour of his father's reform of the marriage law.
    0
    0
  • 5 a striking reform is associated with his name.
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    0
  • Her renowned toleration stopped short of allowing the dissenters to build chapels, and her passion for legislative reform grew cold when she found that she must begin by the emancipation of the serfs.
    0
    0
  • Her opposition to the reform of the Polish government was plainly due to a wish to preserve an excuse for further spoliation, but her conduct was less cruel and base than that of Prussia.
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  • Their discipline afterwards became so slack that an appeal was made to Cardinal Borromeo asking him to reform their houses.
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    0
  • He set himself to reform his monastery and restore St Basil's spirit in its primitive vigour.
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    0
  • His eldest brother being a prodigal he succeeded to the paternal estate, but threw the will into the fire on his brother's promising to reform.
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  • But his military incapacity and his blind hatred of democratic reform went far to undo his work.
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  • What progress reform made during his pontificate was due to its acquired momentum, rather than to the zeal of the pope.
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  • The situation that resulted issued in the revolutionary year 1848 in a general manifestation of public discontent; and Frederick William, who had become elector on his father's death (November 20, 1847), was forced to dismiss his reactionary ministry and to agree to a comprehensive programme of democratic reform.
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  • He devoted infinite pains and thought to the reform of government both in England and Normandy.
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  • From the accession of Prince Charles, in 1866, a gradual reform began.
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  • A corollary to this system was the much needed reform of the Polish constitution, without which nothing beneficial was to be expected from any political combination.
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  • At the diet of 1605 Sigismund and his partisans endeavoured so far to reform the Polish constitution as to substitute a decision by a plurality of votes for unanimity in the diet.
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  • This most simple and salutary reform was, however, rendered nugatory by the opposition of Zamoyski, and his death the same year made matters still worse, as it left the opposition in the hands of men violent and incapable, like Nicholas Zebrzydowski, or sheer scoundrels, like Stanislaw Stadnicki.
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  • In 1771 Beccaria was made a member of th° supreme economic council; and in 1791 he was appointed one of the board for the reform of the judicial code.
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  • Hayes began the reform of the civil service with the New York custom-house.
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  • Contrary to the general expectation, his appointments were as a rule unexceptionable, and he earnestly promoted the Pendleton law for the reform of the civil service.
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  • After the reform of 1867 they returned only one member and in 1885 the borough was disfranchised.
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  • Restored in 985, Henry proved himself a capable ruler by establishing internal order, issuing important laws and taking measures to reform the monasteries.
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  • In 1472 he founded the university of Ingolstadt, attempted to reform the monasteries, and was successful in a struggle with Albert Achilles of Brandenburg.
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  • Albert, whose attempts to reform the monasteries earned for him the surname of Pious, was almost elected king of Bohemia in 1440.
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  • The funds of the suppressed order of Jesus, which Maximilian Joseph had destined for the reform of the educational system of the country, were used to endow a province of the knights of St John of Jerusalem, for the purpose of combating the enemies of the faith.
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  • Maximilian himself was an "enlightened" prince of the 18th-century type, whose tolerant principles had already grievously offended his clerical subjects; Montgelas was a firm believer in drastic reform "from above," and, in 1803, had discussed with the rump of the old estates the question of reforms. But the revolutionary changes introduced by the constitution proclaimed on the 1st of May 1808 were due to the direct influence of Napoleon.
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  • Meanwhile, on the 1st of February 1817, Montgelas had been dismissed; and Bavaria had entered on a new era of constitutional reform.
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  • The earlier years of his reign were marked by a liberal spirit and the reform, especially, of the financial administration; but the revolutions of 1831 frightened him into reaction, which was accentuated by the opposition of the parliament to his expenditure on building and works of art.
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  • The sharp dissensions which existed among the princes over the question of reform culminated in open warfare in 1460, when Albert was confronted with a league under the leadership of the elector palatine, Frederick I., and Louis IX.
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  • Among societies of general utility are the Society for Public Welfare (Maatschappij tot nut van't algemeen, 1785), whose efforts have been mainly in the direction of educational reform; the Geographical Society at Amsterdam (1873); Teyler's Stichting or foundation at Haarlem (1778), and the societies for the promotion of industry (1777), and of sciences (1752) in the same town; the Institute of Languages, Geography and Ethnology of the Dutch Indies (1851), and the Indian Society at the Hague, the Royal Institute of Engineers at Delft (1848), the Association for the Encouragement of Music at Amsterdam, &c.
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  • King William I.in the following year,having become unpopular through his resistance to reform, resigned his crown to Reign of William his son William II., who reigned in peace till his II.
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  • By this reform the number of electors, which had been raised in 1887 from 140,000 to 300,000, was augmented to 700,000.
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  • He laid himself out to diffuse the system, and also to carry out a reform of its abuses by en- forcing a strict observance of the Rule of St Benedict (of whom, it may be noted, he was the earliest biographer).
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  • "AKHWAN MOVEMENT, a religious revival or reform, confined mostly to the Nejd districts of Arabia.
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  • It is most difficult to appreciate aright this man of fervid imagination, of powerful and persistent convictions, of unbated honesty and love of truth, of keen insight into the errors (as he thought them) of his time, of a merciless will to lay bare these errors and to reform the abuses to which they gave rise, who in an instant offends us by his boasting, his grossness, his want of selfrespect.
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  • issued a new charter, under which the borough was governed until the Municipal Reform Act 1835.
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  • We know that Peisistratus ruled by controlling the archonship, which was always held by members of his family, and the archonship of Isagoras was clearly an important party victory; we know further the names of three important men who held the office between Cleisthenes' reform and the Persian War (Hipparchus, Themistocles, Aristides) from which we infer that the office was still the prize of party competition.
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  • But against this must be set the statement by the same authority that this double method was part of the Solonian reform.
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  • The town was governed under this charter until the Municipal Reform Act of 1835.
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  • Kidderminster sent two members to the parliament of 1295, but was not again represented until the privilege of sending one member was conferred by the Reform Act of 1832.
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  • In 1850 Bell successfully contested the borough of St Albans in order that he might be able to advocate his proposals for reform more effectually in parliament.
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  • He was, too, one of the few monarchs who have left to their successors reasoned programmes of reform for the state.
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  • popularity with his Belgian subjects; but it was far otherwise with his policy of internal reform.
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  • Both sides felt that reform was again necessary, but the Catholic majority disagreed among themselves as to the form it should take.
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  • It was not until terrible reports as to the misgovernment of the Congo created a strong agitation for reform in Great Britain, America and other countries responsible for having aided in the creation of the state, that public opinion in Belgium seriously concerned itself with the subject.
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  • Under the Reform Act of 1832 the burgh returns one member to Parliament.
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