Moral reform is the effort to throw off sleep.
It was a time when, under able leaders, a great national party was beginning the struggle for reform against the stagnant Austrian government.
Another educational reform, the opening of the Indian civil service to competition, took place at the same time, and Jowett was one of the commission.
Lucas brought in a bill in his first session to effect this reform, but was defeated on the motion to have the bill sent to England for approval by the privy council; and he insisted upon the independent.
This conception of the Sabbath, however, necessarily underwent an important modification when the local sanctuaries were abolished under the "Deuteronomic" reform, and those sacrificial rites and feasts which in Hosea's time formed the essence of every act of religion were limited to the central altar, which most men could visit only at rare intervals.
Outside the all-important domain of finance, the attention of Minghetti and his colleagues was principally absorbed by strife between church and state, army reform and railway redemption.
But in the course of time, notwithstanding many criticisms and objections, the reform spread from bottom fermentation to top fermentation breweries on the continent and in America.
Modern reform in Judaism is parting to some extent from this conception, but it still holds good even among the liberals.
Galen showed himself anxious to reform the church, but his chief energies were directed to increasing his power and prestige.
university statutes, in which he indicated the necessity for reform; and in 1850 and 1855 he was a member of the commission of inquiry relative to the university of Cambridge.
His words are wisdom to those legislators who contemplate no essential reform in the existing government; but for thinkers, and those who legislate for all time, he never once glances at the subject.
He failed to recognize the pressing need of reform within the church and the tremendous dangers which threatened the papal monarchy; and he unpardonably neglected the spiritual needs of the time.
In Congress he was a consistent defender of sound money and civil service reform; in municipal politics he was in favour of business administrations and opposed to partisan nominations.
General Campan's division did not seize the first fortification but was driven back, for on emerging from the wood it had to reform under grapeshot, of which Napoleon was unaware.
Thompson proved a worthy successor to Whewell; the twenty years of his mastership were years of progress, and he himself took an active part in the abolition of tests and the reform of university studies and of the college statutes.
A third radical method of redistribution is called land reform, which is actually a polite term for taking land from one person and giving it to another.
Pierre was staying at Prince Vasili Kuragin's and sharing the dissipated life of his son Anatole, the son whom they were planning to reform by marrying him to Prince Andrew's sister.
As Kant put it, this was "the proclamation of a great reform, which, however, will be slow in manifestation and in progress, and which will affect not only your people but others as well."
It had completed national unity, transferred the capital to Rome, overcome the chief obstacles to financial equilibrium, initiated military reform and laid the foundation of the relations between state and church.
While the council was engaged in planning a crusade and in considering the reform of the clergy, a new crisis occurred between the pope and the king of France.
He now took the lead in the reform of the pronunciation of Greek, his views after considerable controversy being universally adopted.
His first care was to carry out the instructions received from home, and effect a radical reform in the system of government.
As an ecclesiastic Morton followed orthodox Lancastrian lines: in 1489 he obtained a papal bull enabling him to visit and reform the monasteries, and he proceeded with some vigour against the abuses in the abbey of St Albans.
Amidst this sea of financial troubles the government drifted helplessly on, without showing any inclination or capacity to initiate a strong policy of reform in the methods of administration which had done so much to ruin the country.
Under the stress of the appalling financial conditions represented by chronic deficit, crushing taxation, the heavy expenditure necessary for the consolidation of the kingdom, the reform of the army and the interest on the pontifical debt, Sella, on the 11th of December 1871, exposed to parliament the financial situation in all its nakedness.
He was a leader of those who contended for reform in municipal government, was conspicuous for his public spirit, and exerted a great influence for good not only in New York City but in the state and nation.
Before the tariff reform of 1887 manufactured articles, alimentary products and raw materials for manufacture held the principal places in the imports.
Lord Palmerston's death in October 1865 was followed by the formation of the RussellGladstone ministry and the introduction of the Reform Bill of 1866.
A zealot for monastic and clerical reform, he introduced a more severe discipline, including the practice of flagellation, into the house, which, under his rule, quickly attained celebrity, and became a model for other foundations.
A reform of late years is the cond~anna condizionale, equivalent to the English being bound over to appear for judgment if called upon, applied in 94,489 cases in 1907.
The pope or his legate, however, took no steps to remove abuses or otherwise reform the Scandinavian churches.
This reform involved the ruin of many native reputations, and for a second time brought Hastings into collision with the wily Brahman, Nuncomar.
Its three main objects, the peace of Christendom, the crusade and the reform of the church, could be secured only by general agreement among the powers, and Leo or the council failed to secure such agreement.
They are: Methodist New Connexion (founded 1797-1798); Bible Christians (1815); United Methodist Free Churches 2 (about 1836); Primitive Methodists (founded 1807-1810); Independent Methodist Churches (about 1 806); Wesleyan Reform Union (1850, reorganized 1859).
The mandamenti or administrative divisions no longer correspond to the judicial divisions (mandamenti giudiziarii) which in November 1891 were reduced from 1806 to 1535 by a law which provided that judicial reform should not modify existing administrative and electoral divisions.
In 1570 Presbyterian views found a distinguished exponent in Dr Thomas Cartwright at Cambridge; and the temper of parliament was shown by the act of 1571, for the reform of disorders in the Church, in which, while all mention of doctrine is omitted, the doctrinal articles alone being sanctioned, ordination without a bishop is implicitly recognized.
But he did not move so fast in the path of reform as was expected, and agitation continued throughout the papal states.i In 1847 some administrative reforms were enacted, the laity were admitted to certain offices, railways were talked about, and political newspapers permitted.
He felt then, and still more after the Reform Act of 1866, that "we must educate our masters," 1 and he rather scandalized his old university friends by the stress he laid on physical science as opposed to classical studies.
On the 17th of January he was named on the commission for law reform, of which Hale was the chief; and on the 17th of March 1653, he was pardoned of all delinquency and thus at last made capable of sitting in parliament.
He contributed to the Antologia, a celebrated Florentine review, and in 1847 founded a newspaper called L' Italia, the programme of which, was "Reform and Nationality."
Tone himself admitted that with him hatred of England had always been "rather an instinct than a principle," though until his views should become more generally accepted in Ireland he was prepared to work for reform as distinguished from revolution.
General Ricotti Magnani, minister of war, therefore framed an Army Reform Bill designed to bring the Italian army as nearly as possible up to the Prussian standard.
He acted with good sense and moderation, and, although by no means a believer in democratic ideas, he saw the necessity of satisfying public opinion and frankly gave his support to larger measures of reform.
The religious ideas in South Germany were affected by the development of a reform party in Switzerland, under the influence of Zwingli, who claimed that at Einsiedeln, near the lake of Zurich, he had begun to preach the gospel of Christ in the year 1516 " before any one in my locality tion in had so much as heard the name of Luther."
While France was deeply affected during the 16th century by the Protestant revolt, its government never undertook any thoroughgoing reform of the Church.
But the king's French advisers were aware that Spain required a thorough financial and administrative reform.
in 104 9 a writing denouncing the vices of the clergy and entitled Liber Gomorrhianus; and soon became associated with Hildebrand in the work of reform.
He eloquently and persistently advocated the principle of oneman one-vote as the bed-rock of all democratic reform.
The growth of Clerical influence in France engendered a belief that Italy would soon have to defend with the sword her newly-won unity, while the tremendous lesson of the Franco-Prussian War convinced the military authorities of the need for thorough military reform.
She waited, however, until a deputation of the malcontents, who regretted the loss of liberum veto and who were afraid that the party of reform might undertake the emancipation of the serfs, came to St Petersburg and asked for support in defence of the ancient liberties.
But the defeat of his plans disillusioned him, and he turned to reform.
A brazen serpent, whose institution was attributed to Moses, had not hitherto been considered out of place in the cult; its destruction was perhaps the king's most notable reform.
5, 6), no social reform was possible; but now the young Josiah, the popular choice, was upon the throne.
He met the long-standing and general demand for reform without a revolution in doctrines or institutions.
In Reform 1871 this movement resulted in Munro and Palmer's Syllabus of Latin Pronunciation.
The reform was carried forward at University College, London, by Professor Key and by Professor Robinson Ellis in 1873, and was accepted at Shrewsbury, Marlborough, Liverpool College, Christ's Hospital, Dulwich, and the City of London school.
The reform was accepted by the various bodies of head masters and assistant masters in December 1906 - January 1907, and the proposed scheme was formally approved by the Board of Education in February 1907.
(a) During the first twenty years of the 16th century the reform of Latin instruction was carried out by setting aside the old medieval grammars, by introducing new manuals of classical literature, and by prescribing the study of classical authors and the imitation of classical models.
But neither of the two great parties in the educational world was satisfied; and great expectations were aroused when the question of reform was taken up by the German emperor, William II., in 1890.
Lastly, by the side of the classical Gymnasium, we now have the " German Reform Schools " of two different types, that of Altona (dating from 1878) and that of Frankfort-on-the-Main (1892).
Seiler, Geschichte des deutschen Unterrichtswesens (2 vols., 1906); Verhandlungen of June 1900 (2nd ed., 1902); Lehrpldne, &c. (1901); Die Reform des hoheren Schulwesens, ed.
He soon took the field, but after his failure to capture Padua the league broke up; and his sole ally, the French king, joined him in calling a general council at Pisa to discuss the question of Church reform.
Simultaneously General Ricotti Magnani matured the army reform scheme which he had elaborated under the preceding administration.
currency, and, eventually, fiscal reform.
The Chamber, though convinced of the danger of this reform, the perils of which were incisively demonstrated by Sella, voted by an overwhelming majority for an immediate reduction of the impost by onefourth, and its complete abolition within four years.
The immediate result of the reform was to increase the political influence of large cities where the proportion of illiterate workmen was lower than.
Sonnino applied, and subsequently amended, the Bank Reform Bill passed by the previous Administration (August 10, 1893) for the creation of a supreme state bank, the Bank of Italy, which was entrusted with the liquidation.
with General Ricottis Army Reform Bill, and again in December 1897, strueuon.
In view of the violence of Extremist obstruction, an effort was made to reform the standing orders of the Lower House, but parliamentary feeling ran so high that General Pelloux thought it expedient to appeal to the country.
In 1636 he became lecturer at Dedham in Essex, and was the leader of the church reform party in that county.
It contains the distinct proposal that the transport of letters should be wholly gratuitous - the precursor of subsequent reform - and the prophecy that, under given circumstances, "the Americans would raise cheaper corn than has ever been raised."
At Rome too he obtained a canonry attached to Cracow cathedral, and on his return to Poland in 1755 threw himself heart and soul into the question of educational reform.
During an administration of nearly twenty-five years Pond effected a reform of practical astronomy in England comparable to that effected by Bessel in Germany.
In1564-1566he accompanied the young king on an extended tour through France; and in 1566 he was instrumental in the promulgation of an important edict for the reform of abuses in the administration of justice.
The practical result of the Licinian reform was that the great plebeian families became, for all practical purposes, patrician.
In 1837 he went to Ireland as paymaster of civil services, and set himself to the promotion of various measures of reform.
From this time on three new streams begin to reinforce the rather feeble current of official efforts for reform.
From the first he combined religious and political reform.
A quarrel with the papacy turned, or helped to turn, his thoughts in the direction of Church reform, but he hoped this would come from within rather than from without, and with the aid of his friend John Gropper (1503-1559), began, about 1536, to institute certain reforms in his own diocese.
He was a powerful supporter of the movement for spelling reform, as a means of promoting the spread of the English language.
In 1889 he opened in Chicago the Bible Institute, and there trained Christian workers in Bible study and in practical methods of social reform; at Northfield in 1890 he opened a Training School in domestic science in the Northfield Hotel, formerly used only in summer for visitors at the annual conferences, of which the best known are the Bible (or Christian Workers') Conference, first held at Northfield in 1880, and the Students' (or College Men's) Conference, first held in 1887.
He is on the side of reform in education; Milton, Petty.
Further efficiency in classical education has been the aim of the movement in favour of the reform of Latin pronunciation.
The question of the use of the vernacular or of Hebrew is bound up with the differences between the orthodox and the liberal or reform parties, complicated by the many problems involved.
The borough returned two members to parliament from 1558 until disfranchised by the Reform Act of 1832.
Reform followed immediately.
of Russian administrative reform.
The reform of Cleisthenes answers in a general way to the reform of Licinius, though the different circumstances of the two cities hinder us from carrying out the parallel into detail.
But both at Rome and at Athens we see, at a stage earlier than the final reform, an attempt to set up a standard of wealth, either instead of or alongside of the older standard of birth.
The most celebrated among the many reform decrees issued by Gregory was the constitution determining for the first time the form of conclave at papal elections, which in large measure has remained ever since the law of the church.
Of this system - except so far as the confusion of the laws is -concerned - the reform of 1864 made a clean sweep. The new system established - based partly on English, partly on French models - was built up on certain broad 1864.
This was made part of the general reform of Russian local government, which in the autumn of 1910 was still under the consideration of the Duma.
It was only then, too, that a reform was started in secondary education, with the object of revising the so-called " classical " system favoured in the lyceums since the 'seventies, the complete failure of which has been demonstrated after nearly thirty years of experiment.
About that time a thorough reform of the machinery in use was effected whereby the number of hands employed was reduced, but the yearly production doubled or trebled.
They were accordingly replaced in great measure by the old autocratic methods of administration, and much of the administrative corruption which had been cured, or at least repressed, by the reform enthusiasm again flourished luxuriantly.
The majority of this decided to approach the crown with a suggestion for a reform of the Russian system on the basis of a national representative assembly, an extension of local self-government, and wider guarantees for individual liberty.
The enormous programme of constitutional reform foreshadowed in the manifesto had to be elaborated in haste by Count Witte, the minister of the interior, under circumstances by no means promising.
Stolypin indeed defended the coup d'etat in the Duma on the ground that the autocrat had merely altered what the autocrat had originally granted; but, while laying stress on the necessity for restoring order in the body politic, he announced a long programme of reforms, including agrarian measures, reform of local government and its extension in the frontier provinces, and state insurance of workmen.
Miliukov, La Crise russe (Paris, 1907; an earlier English edition appeared in 1905); Bernard Pares, Russia and Reform (1907); A.
From 1889 to 1892 he was parliamentary secretary to the Board of Trade in the Conservative Government, and from 1895 to 1903 (when he resigned as a Free Trader opposed to tariff reform) Secretary for Scotland.
1124), pope from 1119 to 1124, was Guido, a member of a noble Burgundian family, who became archbishop of Vienne about 1088, and belonged to the party which favoured reform in the Church.
Grindal indeed attempted a reform of the ecclesiastical courts, but his metropolitical activity was cut short by a conflict with the arbitrary temper of the queen.
With rare resignation Valdemar devoted the remainder of his life to the great work of domestic reform.
and the known leanings of the regent, the earl of Arran, to reform, encouraged many exiles, Wedderburn among them, to revisit Scotland.
The enormous influence of the collection, with its added Gude and Godlie Ballatis, on Scottish reform, is attested by the penalties enacted against the authors and printers of these books.
P. Karkaria, India, Forty Years of Progress and Reform, (London, 1896).
In May 1897 he secured the adoption of the Army Reform Bill,.
The Public Safety Bill for the reform of the police laws, taken over by him from the Rudini cabinet, and eventually promulgated by royal decree, was fiercely obstructed by the Socialist party, which, with the Left and Extreme Left, succeeded in forcing General Pelloux to dissolve the Chamber in May 1900, and to resign office after the general election in June.
Another and more drastic reform than that which had been previously initiated (probably at the instigation of Isaiah and Micah) now became necessary to save the state.
Doubtless such a reform met with strong resistance from the disestablished and vested interests, but it was firmly supported by royal influence and by the Jerusalem priesthood as well as by the true prophets of Yahweh who had protested against the idolatrous usages and corruptions of the high places.
He supported the Reform party steadily by his vote, and in 1830 was made president of the Board of Trade and master of the Mint.
In May of this year he had an important interview with Bismarck, who wished to secure his support for the reform of the confederation, and after the war was over at once accepted the position of a Prussian subject, and took his seat in the diet of the North German Confederation and in the Prussian parliament.
Having filled the post of nuncio in England and Spain, he served successive popes as adviser in matters pertaining to heresy and reform.
made him cardinal-archbishop of Naples and a member of the reform commission.
A special account is given of this reform (Ezra ix.
Holdheim (q.v.) and Geiger (q.v.) led the reform movement in Germany and at the present day the effects of the movement are widely felt in America on the Liberal side and on the opposite side in the work of the neo-orthodox school founded by S.
In 1841 an independent reform congregation was founded, and the Spanish and Portuguese Jews have always maintained their separate existence with a IIaham as the ecclesiastical head.
Within the Synagogue the reform movement began in 1825, and soon won many successes, the central conference of American rabbis and Union College (1875) at Cincinnati being the instruments of this progress.
Before that event an Epitrope, or Committee of Reform," had appeared in the mountains - the harbinger of the prolonged struggle which ended in the emancipation of Crete.
Convinced as he was of the necessity for union and reform, he contributed more than any one to the adoption of the principle that, since the schism had survived the council of Pisa, it was necessary again to take up the work for a fundamental union, without considering the rights of John XXIII.
The reading in public of his two treatises De Potestate ecclesiastica and De Reformatione Ecclesiae revealed, besides ideas very peculiar to himself on the reform and constitution of the church, his design of reducing the power of the English in the council by denying them the right of.
Many questions in scie.ace and astrology, such as the reform of the calendar, attracted his attention.
His other works consisted of theological essays, ascetic or exegetic, questions of ecclesiastical discipline and reform, and of various polemical writings called forth for the most part by the schism.
Whatever reservations may be made as to a certain interested or ambitious side of his character, Pierre d'Ailly, whose devotion to the cause of union and reform is incontestable, remains one of the leading spirits of the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries.
Vatable and Farel; his connexion with the latter drew him to the Calvinistic side of the movement of reform.
In 1899 he was brought to trial on a charge of misappropriating state funds, and, although he was acquitted, the feeling among the reform element in his own party was so bitter against him that the legislature was deadlocked and his re-election was postponed for two years.
That he did not reform at a stroke all ancient abuses appears particularly in relation to the practice of blood revenge; to put an end to this deep-rooted custom would have been an impossibility.
Although united on free trade and in general on questions of domestic reform, a cabinet which contained Lord Palmerston and Lord John Russell, in addition to Aberdeen, was certain to differ on questions of foreign policy.
At Vienna, from 1452, he was the pupil and associate of George Purbach (1423-1461), and they jointly undertook a reform of astronomy rendered necessary by the errors they detected in the Alphonsine Tables.
to aid in the reform of the calendar; and there he died, most likely of the plague, on the 6th of July 1476.
He also took an active interest in the reform and reorganization of the system of taxation, and in the opening of the country to trade.
In 1859 he again took part in politics, resuming his place in the lower chamber, opposing in 1863 the project of Austria for the reform of the Confederation brought forward in the assembly of princes at Frankfort, in his book Die Reform des deutschen Bundestages, and becoming one of the leaders of the "little German" (kleindeutsche) party, which advocated the exclusion of Austria from Germany.
Thus he praises Grosseteste, while he denounces Grosseteste's scheme of monastic reform.
In 1642 he was appointed lecturer at St Margaret's, Westminster, and delivered a series of addresses to the Commons in which he advocated episcopal and liturgical reform.
He demanded the reform of the taille, the suppression of internal customs duties and greater freedom of trade.
Another reform was the substitution for the corvee of a tax in money levied on the whole province, the construction of roads being handed over to contractors, by which means Turgot was able to leave his province with a good system of roads, while distributing more justly the expense of their construction.
He also contemplated a thorough-going reform of the ferme generale, but contented himself, as a beginning, with imposing certain conditions on the leases as they were renewed - such as a more efficient personnel, and the abolition for the future of the abuse of the croupes (the name given to a class of pensions), a reform which Terray had shirked on finding how many persons in high places were interested in them, and annulling certain leases, such as those of the manufacture of gunpowder and the administration of the messageries, the former of which was handed over to a company with the scientist Lavoisier as one of its advisers, and the latter superseded by a quicker and more comfortable service of diligences which were nicknamed" turgotines."He also prepared a regular budget.
Turgot's only choice, however, was between "tinkering" at the existing system in detail and a complete revolution, and his attack on privilege, which might have been carried through by a popular minister and a strong king, was bound to form part of any effective scheme of reform.
With all these enemies, Turgot's fall was certain, but he wished to stay in office long enough to finish his project for the reform of the royal household before resigning.
From 1295 until the Reform Act of 1832 the county and town of Derby each returned two members to parliament.
Their own Reform Bill came soon after and it is again characteristic of Mill - at once of his enthusiasm and of his steady determination to do work that nobody else seemed able or willing to do - that we find him in the heat of the struggle in 1831 writing: to the Examiner a series of letters on "The Spirit of the Age" which drew from Carlyle the singular exclamation "Here is a new mystic!"
(On these points see Mary Taylor, Mrs Mill's grand-daughter, in Elliott's edition of the Letters.) closely reasoned and characteristic works, the Liberty, the Utilitarianism, the Thoughts on Parliamentary Reform, and the Subjection of Women, besides his posthumously published essays on Nature and on the Utility of Religion, were thought out and partly written in collaboration with his wife.
He then turned to politics, and published, in view of the impending Reform Bill, a pamphlet on parliamentary reform.
The reform of land tenure in Ireland, the representation of women, the reduction of the national debt, the reform of London government, the abrogation of the Declaration of Paris, were among the topics on which he spoke with marked effect.
But, as he suggests himself, his studied advocacy of unfamiliar projects of reform had made him unpopular with "moderate Liberals."
The last public work in which he engaged was the starting of the Land Tenure Reform Association.
On his way to Paris he had been profuse in promises of reform and constitutional rule.
(1886), chiefly on Pletho's scheme of political and social reform for the Peloponnese, as set forth in the pamphlets addressed to Manuel II.
In 1521, on the invitation of Bishop Briconnet, he repaired to Meaux, and took part in efforts of reform within the Roman communion.
By this reform two important offices in the Venetian constitution - the privy council (consiglieri ducali) and the senate (the pregadi or invited) - came into being.
It proved a disastrous failure, and on the return of the shattered remnants (1171) a great constitutional reform seemed necessary.
The, expansion of commerce which resulted from the Fourth Crusade soon made itself evident in the city by a rapid development in its architecture and by a decided strengthening of the commercial aristocracy, which eventually led to the great constitutional reform - the closing of the Maggior Consiglio in 1296, whereby Venice became a rigid oligarchy.
The state penal institutions are the boys' industrial school near Lancaster (established in 1854 as a Reform Farm), the girls' industrial home (1869) at Rathbone near Delaware, the reformatory at Mansfield (authorized 1884, opened 1896) and the penitentiary at Columbus (1816).
Its association with reform movements and great public issues of later times is not less close and interesting.'
Civil service reform principles cover the entire municipal administration.
Sagasta remained in office until 1890, long enough to carry out all his reform programme, including universal suffrage and the establishment of trial by jury.
Europe had sinned in the face of God; otherwise Jerusalem would never have fallen; and the idea of a spiritual reform from within, as the necessary corollary and accompaniment of the expedition of Christianity without, breathes in some of the papal letters, just as, during the conciliar movement, the causa reformationis was blended with the causa unionis.
As minister he carried through an important judicial reform which had been prepared by his predecessor, but had to retire from office because he was opposed to the reactionary measures for restoring the influence and privileges of the nobility.
In the social reform he supported Bismarck, and as the undisputed leader of the largest party in the Reichstag he was able to exercise influence over the action of the government after Bismarck's retirement.
Augustine, a hospital for the insane at Chattahoochee and a reform school at Marianna, all wholly supported by the state, and a Confederate soldiers' and sailors' home at Tallahassee, which is partially supported by the state.
ought to be enquired after, and to mulct, arrest, punish, chastise and reform"; also "to preserve the public streams of our admiralty as well for the preservation of our royal navy, and of the fleets and vessels of our kingdom.
as of whatsoever fishes increasing in the rivers"; also "to reform nets too straight and other unlawful engines and instruments whatsoever for the catching of fishes"; also to take cognizance "of the wreck of the sea.
In this way Lanfranc set the seal of intellectual activity on the reform movement of which Bec was the centre.
William adopted the Cluniac programme of ecclesiastical reform, and obtained the support of Rome for his English expedition by assuming the attitude of a crusader against schism and corruption.
The new archbishop at once began a policy of reorganization and reform.
He entered upon his great work by a systematic publication of pamphlets and articles in journals and magazines in behalf of his reform, but for some years he met with a discouraging lack of interest.
Eventually the civil code with some changes was adopted in twenty-four states, and the criminal code in eighteen, and the whole formed a basis of the reform in procedure in England and several of her colonies.
For an international commission of lawyers he prepared Draft Outlines of an International Code (1872), the submission of which resulted in the organization of the international Association for the Reform and Codification of the Laws of Nations, of which he became president.
In 1877 the provincial deputation was re-established, but it was not until 1895 that the home government attempted, far too late, to enact a series of adequate reform measures, and in November 1897 followed this by a grant of autonomy.
He served as a nominee of the opposition on the committee of twenty-four which was appointed, in the Oxford parliament of that year, to reform the administration.
In 1886 he was made under secretary for foreign affairs; in 1892 he joined the cabinet as chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster; in 1894 he was president of the Board of Trade, and acted as chairman of the royal commission on secondary education; and in Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman's cabinet (1905) he was made chief secretary for Ireland; but in February 1907 he was appointed British ambassador at Washington, and took leave of party politics, his last political act being a speech outlining what was then the government scheme for university reform in Dublin - a scheme which was promptly discarded by his successor Mr Birrell.
Recognizing that the true aim of the scheme of church reform brought forward in parliament in 1529 was to put down the only moral force that could withstand the royal will, he energetically opposed the reformation of abuses, which doubtless under other circumstances he would have been the first to accept.
Her caution had its reward, for whatever she did was permanently gained, whereas her successor in his boundless zeal for reform brought his empire to the verge of a general rebellion.
He earned the surname of "Pious" by banishing his sisters and others of immoral life from court; by attempting to reform and purify monastic life; and by showing great liberality to the church.
Alexander, overwhelmed with grief, shut himself up in Castle St Angelo, and then declared that the reform of the church would be the sole object of his life henceforth - a resolution which he did not keep. Every effort was made to discover the assassin, and suspicion fell on various highly placed personages.
The work of reform was carried further by B.
did, in fact, call together at Pavia a council, which it was necessary to transfer almost at once to Siena, owing to an epidemic, and which had to be dissolved owing to circumstances still imperfectly known, just as it was beginning to discuss the subject of reform (1424).
The Hussites, it was said, would think that the Church was afraid to face them; the laity would accuse the clergy of shirking reform; in short, this failure of the councils would produce disastrous effects.
He was crowned in the Sistine Chapel 3rd March 1878, and at once began a reform of the papal household on austere and economic lines which found little favour with the entourage of the former pope.
Meantime another and more radical reform had been in preparation and was already in progress, namely, the abolition of slavery itself in the foreign possessions of the several states of Europe.
A well-conceived series of measures of reform was accordingly proposed to the colonial authorities.
There were several feeble attempts at further reform, and even abortive projects of emancipation, from the commencement of the 19th century.
Public opinion strongly favoured the projected reform; and even the masters who were opposed to it saw that, if the operation became necessary, it would be more safely for their interests intrusted to the nobles than to the bureaucracy.
While this work of reconstruction was in progress domestic politics in England were convulsed by the tariff reform movement and Mr Chamberlain's resignation.
He advocated the creation of a permanent deliberative imperial council, and favoured preferential trade relations between the United Kingdom and the other members of the empire; and in later years he took an active part in advocating the cause of tariff reform and colonial preference.
At Monroe there is a State Reform School, and at New Orleans a Coloured Industrial Home and School.
There was ostensible government regulation of rates after 1877, but the roads were guaranteed outright against any loss of revenue, and in fact practically nothing was ever done in the way of reform in the Spanish period.
Finally, the government sustains about two score of penal establishments, reform schools, hospitals, dispensaries and asylums, which are scattered all over the island, - every town of any considerable size having one or more of these charities.
Very much was done for public works, sanitation, the reform of administration, civil service and education.
Consult the literature of history and colonial reform given below.
On the domestic reform problem there is an enormous literature, from which may be selected (see general histories above and works cited under § Administration of this bibliography): M.
After the Russo-Turkish War of 1828-29, a further attempt at reform was initiated by the sultan and his grand vizier, Reshid Pasha.
The reform of the Ottoman government contemplated by the sultan Mahmud II.
But the Turkish reform movement of 1908 seemed to promise a revival of Ottoman power, which might in time have enabled the Turks to demand the promised evacuation, and thus to reap all the ultimate benefits of the Austrian administration.
Until quite recent times the conservative and fanatical spirit of the 'Ulema had been one of the greatest obstacles to progress and reform in a political system in which spiritual and temporal functions were intimately interwoven.
The enthusiastic spirit of reform which heralded the accession of the latter sultan never altogether died out, and from about the last decade of the 19th century has been rapidly and effectively growing in force and in method.
Finally, usage of paper money was restricted to the capital only, and in 1842 this partial reform of the paper currency was followed by a reform of the metallic currency, in the shape of an issue of gold, silver and copper currency of good value.
Reform of this system, and, further, very necessary reforms of the methods of collection of the wines and spirits revenue (which is protection turned upside down, the home-growers being far more heavily taxed than importers), and of the customs (in which almost every possible administrative sin was exemplified), were also undertaken.
pilgrimage to Mecca, in order to destroy the Janissaries and reform the country.
The war is blamed by Turkish historians as unjustifiable and untimely, the country needing reform.
A serious outbreak took place at Adrianople in 1804, where 20,000 of the new troops had been sent, ostensibly to put down the revolt in Servia, but really to try to bring about the reform of the European provinces.
Meanwhile the sultan's whole efforts were directed towards the reform of the country; the newly-instituted militia was in every respect a success; it grew in numbers, and hopes were entertained that it would gain popularity.
At this difficult moment the army was obliged to march to the Danube, leaving the government in the hands of men hostile to reform.
The army hereupon retired to Adrianople, and the powerful pasha of Rustchuk, Mustafa Bairakdar, who had distinguished himself by his resistance to the Russians, and who thoroughly shared Selim's desire for reform, was now induced by the many officers who held similar views to march on Constantinople to restore Selim to the throne.
The reform of the army, however, involved the destruction of the Janissaries (q.v.), and though their massacre on the 15th of June left the sultan free to carry out his views with regard to the army, it left him too weak to resist the Russian demands.
The severe crisis through which the Ottoman Empire had passed accentuated the need for strengthening it by a drastic reform of its system.
Though the provisions of the Tanzimat were not fully observed, they afforded convincing proof that reform was entirely practicable in Turkey.
Turkey's progress in the path of reform was viewed with some uneasiness in Russia, the cardinal principle of whose policy since 1829 had been to maintain her own influence at Constantinople by keeping the Otto- Policy man government weak.
It was stipulated that Turkey's promises of reform gave no power the right of interference on behalf of the Christians.
A reform not unworthy of notice was effected by the law promulgated on the 18th of June 1867 whereby foreigners were for the first time allowed to hold landed property throughout the Ottoman Empire (save in the Hejaz) on condition of their being assimilated to Ottoman subjects, i.e.
Measures of reform in Armenia were also provided for, as also the convocation of an international commission for drawing up a reform scheme for the European provinces left to Turkey.
Peace once restored, some attempt was made by Turkey in the direction of complying with her engagements to institute reform.
English officers were engaged to reform the gendarmerie, and judicial inspectors of foreign nationality were to travel through the country to redress abuses.
A serious Bulgarian insurrection in Macedonia in the autumn of 1903 induced Austria and Russia to combine in formulating the Miirzsteg reform programme, tardily consented to by Turkey, by which Austrian and Russian civil agents were appointed to exercise a certain degree of control and supervision over the three vilayets of Salonica, Monastir and Kossovo.
The general reform on which the council had failed to come to an understanding had to be adjourned, and the council contented itself with promulgating, on the 9th of October 1417, the only reforming decrees on which an agreement could be reached.
Ever since Austerlitz the Austrian officers had been labouring to reconstitute and reform their army.
Translated into French, then into Italian (14th century) and into English (r6th century), it was known by Wycliffe and Luther, and was not without an influence on the Reform movement.
By a reform of the censor Appius Claudius in 312 B.C. these non-assidui were admitted into the tribes, and the aerarii as such disappeared.
Henry's English government was severe and grasping; but he "kept good peace" and honourably distinguished himself among contemporary statesmen in an age when administrative reform was in the air.
Turgot's successor, Necker, however, continued the regime of reform until 1781, and it was only with Necker's dismissal that the period of reaction began.
Huss indeed laid more stress on church reform than on theological controversy.
The knights and nobles of Bohemia and Moravia, who were in favour of church reform, sent to the council at Constance (September 2nd, 1415) a protest, known as the "protestatio Bohemorum" which condemned the execution of Huss in the strongest language.
in 1625 granted another and fuller charter, which remained the governing charter until the Municipal Reform Act.
1074) to institute astronomical observations on a larger scale, and to aid him in his great enterprise of a thorough reform of the calendar.
It was he who caused the word "retrenchment" to be added to the Radical programme "peace and reform."
Hence they were resolutely opposed to any idea of reform; for to begin making changes in the Church's system would be a tacit admission that Luther had some show of reason on his side.
His treatise De monetae cudendae ratione, 1526 (first printed in 1816), written by order of King Sigismund I., is an exposition of the principles on which it was proposed to reform the currency of the Prussian provinces of Poland.
Towards 194 Septimius Severus completed the reform of Caligula by detaching from the province of Africa the greater part of Numidia to constitute a special province governed by a procurator, subordinate to the imperial legate and resident at Cirta (Tissot ii.
Until the reform of the comitia centuriata (probabl' during the censorship of Gaius Flaminius in 220 B.C.; *see Comitia),` the equites had voted first, but after that time this privilege was transferred to tine cenfury selected by lot from the centuries of ' the equites and the first class.
Nominated president of the Academical commission for the reform of weights and measures, his services were retained when its "purification" by the Jacobins removed his most distinguished colleagues.
His chief work, however, was done as an advocate of administrative reform in Germany.
he had brought this question before the diet, and after Frederick's death, when he had become imperial chancellor, he was the leader of the party which pressed the necessity for reform upon Maximilian at the diet of Worms in 1495.
The proud minister had been resisted p in his plans of reform at home by the Jesuits, and, determining to attack the power of the order, first deprived them of all temporal power in the state of Maranhao and Para.
It was openly suggested in the journals to reform the constitution by turning Brazil into independent federal provinces, governed by authorities popularly elected, as in the United States.
In 1834 a reform which was well received consisted in the alteration of the regency, from that of three members elected by the legislative chambers, to one regent chosen by the whole of the electors in the same manner as the deputies; and the councils of the provinces were replaced by legislative provincial assemblies.
A grand social reform was effected in the law passed in September 1871, which enacted that from that date every child born of slave parents should be free, and also declared all the slaves belonging to the state or to the imperial household free from that time.
Nevertheless President Peixoto made no effort to reform the methods of administration.
President Salles publicly promised political reform, economy in the administration, and absolute respect for civil rights, and speedily made efforts to fulfil these pledges.
His most important appearance as member for Stafford was in defence of Lord John Russell's first Reform Bill (1831).
At this time also he exerted himself for the reform of justice in the ecclesiastical courts, for the uniformity of the law of marriage (which he held should be a purely civil contract) and for giving prisoners charged with felony the benefit of counsel.
Once he had defended the monastic orders, advocating their reform and not their suppression, supported the rural clergy and idealized the village priest in his Parocho da Aldeia, after the manner of Goldsmith in the Vicar of Wakefield.
The centenary of his birth in 1904 was celebrated by a flood of articles in the newspapers and magazines, naturally coloured by the new controversy in England over the Tariff Reform movement.
For the question of franchise reform which played so great a part in the AustroHungarian crisis of1909-1910'see' History, below.
Another important reform was the law permitting the free disposal of landed estate, which gave the holders an increased interest in their property, and an inducement to improve it.
Charles, moreover, was a born financier, and his reform of the currency and of the whole fiscal system greatly contributed to enrich both the merchant class and the treasury.
It was as much as the governor could do to save the state from destruction, let alone reform it.
But his limited resources, and, above all, the proved incapacity of the militia in the field, compelled him instantly to take in hand the vital question of army reform.
Moreover, to promote their own convenience, they readily allowed the king to assess as well as to collect the taxes, which consequently tended to become regular and permanent, while Matthias' reform of the treasury, which was now administered by specialists with separate functions, was economically of great benefit to the state.
Moreover, the next century and a half was a period of domestic tranquillity, during which Hungary was able to repair the ruin of the long Turkish wars, nurse her material resources, and take the first steps in the direction of social and political reform.
In the Upper House, however, the magnates united with the government to form a conservative party obstinately opposed to any project of reform, which frustrated all the efforts of the Liberals.
(1835-1848), to attempt to crush the reform movement by arresting and imprisoning the most active agitators among them, Louis Kossuth and Miklos Wesselenyi.
Kossuth demanded not merely the redress of actual grievances, but a reform which would make grievances impossible in the future.
Other proposals were: the maintenance of the system of the joint army as established in 1867, but with the concession that all Hungarian recruits were to receive their education in Magyar; the maintenance till 1917 of the actual customs convention with Austria; a reform of the land laws, with a view to assisting the poorer proprietors; complete religious equality; universal and compulsory primary education.
On the 19th of February 1906 the parliament was dissolved, without writs being issued for a new election, a fact accepted by the country with an equanimity highly disconcerting The agreement with the crown which had made this course possible included the postponement of the military questions that had evoked the crisis, and the acceptance of the principle of Universal Suffrage by the Coalition leaders, who announced that their main tasks would be to repair the mischief wrought by the " unconstitutional " Fejervary cabinet, and then to introduce a measure of franchise reform so wide that it would be possible to ascertain the will of the whole people on the questions at issue between themselves and the crown.
The dominant Magyar parties were committed to the principle of franchise reform; but they were determined that this reform should be of such a nature as not to imperil their own hegemony.
On the 10th of October 1907 there was a great and orderly demonstration at Budapest, organized by the socialists, in favour of reform.
electoral reform, was not realized, nor near being realized.
In 1369 his son Earl Thomas succeeded; from 1376 to 1379 he was among the lords striving for reform, and in the latter year he was appointed governor to the king.
With Grant's successors, Hayes and Garfield, his relations were not cordial; an opponent of civil service reform, he came into conflict with President Hayes over the removal of Chester A.
His two newspapers, the Illyrian National Gazette and the Danica Ilirska (Illyrian Daystar) provided a literary focus for the rising generation; while his reform of Croat orthography, planned on parallel lines with Vuk Karadzic's epochmaking philological work in Serbia, assured to modern SerboCroat literature a definitely unitary development.
4 1905 40 Croat deputies from Croatia, Dalmatia and Istria formulated in the so-called " Resolution of Fiume " a complete programme of political reform, and defined the basis upon which solid friendship between Croats and Magyars seemed attainable.
By 1892 the Uitlanders began to feel that if they were to obtain any redress for their grievances combined constitutional action was called for, and the first reform move ment began.
The reform leaders in the Transvaal, down to and including the Johannesburg rising, had always recognized as a cardinal principle the maintenance of the independence of the state.
A number of leading citizens were at once formed into a reform committee.
Under the supervision of the, reform committee, such arms as had been smuggled in were distributed, and Colonel Frank Rhodes was given charge of the armed men.
The whole of the reform committee (with the exception of a few who fled the country) were arrested on a charge of high treason and imprisoned in Pretoria.
It was after the Johannesburg disarmament that Kruger had sixty-four members of the reform committee arrested, announcing at the same time that his motto would be ".
His conduct immediately after Johannesburg had given up its arms, and while the reform committee were in prison, was distinctly disingenuous.
In spite of this fact, however, the commission reported in favour of reform in various directions.
This petition, the outcome of the second Uitlander movement for reform, was signed by 21,000 British subjects, and stated the Uitlander position at considerable length.
Sir Alfred Milner urged the home government strongly to insist upon a minimum of reform, and primarily the five years' franchise; and Mr Chamberlain, backed by the cabinet, adopted the policy of the high commissioner.
D., of Chatteris, England, and was a member of the Johannesburg Reform committee at the time of the Jameson Raid.
He went to the Transvaal in 1884 and became honorary secretary to the Johannesburg Reform committee.
Upon the fall of the Right from power in 1876 he joined the opposition, and, with characteristic vivacity, protracted during two months the debate on Baccelli's University Reform Bill, securing, single-handed, its rejection.
2) states that the measures used before the Solonian period of reform were called "Pheidonian."
The town was first represented in parliament by two members in 1572; it lost its franchise by the Reform Act of 1832.
A movement was set on foot for the reform of the constitution, the principal objects of this agitation being to prolong the presidential term to four years, to give Congress the right to choose the president of the republic, and to amend certain sections concerning the rights of persons taking part in armed insurrection arising out of political issues.
The reform of the constitution was agreed to, and in 1894 General Crespo was duly declared elected to the presidency by Congress for a period of four years.
To Pretoria Dr Jameson and his troopers were brought prisoners (January 1896) after the fight at Doornkop (to be handed over in few days to the British government), and thither also were brought the Reform Committee prisoners from Johannesburg.
that he was anxious to reform the order and punish the knights who had adopted Lutheran doctrines.
This led to the formation of the Sadharana (Universal) Brahma Samaj, now the most popular and progressive of the three sections of the movement and conspicuous for its work in the cause of literary culture, social reform and female education in India.
to have made it his object to reform these evils, to reconcile scientific acquirements and practical skill, to bring back the unity of medicine as it had been understood by Hippocrates, and at the same time to raise the dignity of medical practitioners.
The movement of reform started, of necessity, with scholars rather than practising physicians - more precisely with a group of learned men, whom we may be permitted, for the sake of a name, to call the medical humanists, equally enthusiastic in the cause of letters and of medicine.
His attempt at reform, which was taken to be, as in effect it was, a revolt against the authority of the Arabian masters, led to his expulsion from Paris, and the formal prohibition by the parliament of his method.
The revival of Galenic and Hippocratic medicine, though ultimately it conferred the greatest benefits on medical sciences, did not immediately produce any important or salutary reform in practical medicine.
The reform of practical medicine was effected by men who aimed at, and partly succeeded in, rejecting all hypothesis and returning to the unbiassed study of natural processes, as shown in health and disease.
In this he claimed to have made the most salutary reform because all physicians from Hippocrates had treated diseases by depletion and debilitating measures with the object of curing by elimination.
The reform of medicine in France must be dated from the great intellectual awakening caused by the Revolution, but more definitely starts with the researches in anatomy and physiology of Marie Francois Xavier Bichat (1771-1802).
A condition of this reform was the need of a preliminary training of the mind of the pupil in pure science, even in physics and chemistry; that is to say, before introduction into his professional studies.
Moreover, freedom of trade and of travel has been promoted by a reform of the antiquated, cumbrous, and too often futile methods of quarantine - a reform as yet very far from complete, but founded upon a better understanding of the nature and propagation of disease.
The result of the two years was undoubtedly to revive the confidence of the Opposition, who found that they had outlived the criticisms of the general election, and both on the question of tariff reform and on matters of general politics were again holding their own.
In this year the bill authorizing it was under his auspices submitted to the diet and passed; and with this financial achievement Matsukata saw the fulfilment of his ideas of financial reform, which were conceived during his first visit to Europe.
He brought bills into parliament to reform Church patronage and Church discipline, and worked unremittingly for years in their behalf.
The labours of the regular clergy here lie largely in the direction of social reform, and churches and missions have been established and are maintained by colleges, such as Christ Church, Oxford, schools and other bodies.
Moreover, as complete reform had always been steadily resisted, homogeneity was entirely wanting.
Here at least the medieval system, in spite of any anomalies with respect to modern conditions, has resisted reform, and no other municipal body shares the traditions and peculiar dignity of the City Corporation.
When we remember that more than half of the area of London was occupied by these establishments, and that about a third of the inhabitants were monks, nuns and friars, it is easy to imagine how great must have been the disorganization caused by this root and branch reform.
When the Act for the reform of Municipal Corporations was passed in 1835 London was specially excepted from its provisions.
He sided with the party at Oxford which favoured university reform, but this did not prevent him from being appointed provost of his college in 1855.
The simoniacal election of Pietro Mezzabarba as bishop of Florence (1068) caused serious disturbances and a long controversy with Rome, which ended in the triumph, after a trial by fire, of the mdnk Petrus Igneus, champion of the popular reform movement; this event indicates the beginnings of a popular conscience among the Florentines.
As soon as order was restored a balia was appointed to reform the government, in which task it was assisted by the Sienese and Perugian ambassadors and by Simone da Battifolle.
Capponi did his best to reform the city and save the situation, and while adopting Savonarola's tone in internal affairs, he saw the dangers in the foreign situation, realizing that a reconciliation between the pope and the emperor Charles V.
He soon saw that this would be impossible unless there were a general reform of all institutions, and therefore gave his support to the policy of the advanced party in the Assembly, denouncing the conduct of Louis XVI., and on the 10th of August 1792 voting in favour of his deposition.
About the same time he published a pamphlet advocating the reform of the Prayer Book, while a tract issued on the 15th of July, Sundry reasons against the new intended Bill for governing and reforming Corporations, was declared illegal, false, scandalous and seditious; Prynne being censured, and only escaping punishment by submission.
Ibrahim, the conqueror of Syria, scoffed at the sultan's idea that reform consisted in putting his soldiers into tight trousers and epaulettes."
If he failed in his wider schemes of reform, this was only one more illustration of a truth of which other " enlightened " sovereigns besides himself had experienced the force, namely, that it is impossible to impose any system, however admirable, from above on a people whose deepest convictions and prejudices it offends.
In 1862-1863 he took an active part in a movement for reform within the Hanoverian Church, and he was a member of the synod which passed the new constitution.
The aim of the French Canadian opposition at this time was to obtain financial and also constitutional reforms. Matters came to a head when the legislative assembly of Lower Canada refused supplies and Papineau arranged for concerted action with William Lyon Mackenzie, the leader of the reform party in Upper Canada.
But the attitude of the opposition remained no less hostile than before, and in March 1837 the governor was authorized to reject the demand for constitutional reform and to apply public funds in his control to the purposes of government.
His motives were lofty, his life blameless, his plans for reform nobly conceived.
As chairman of the Ways and Means Committee of the House of Representatives in1887-1889during President Cleveland's first administration, he led the fight for reform.
In modern political history the expression "cave of Adullam" (hence "Adullamites") came into common use (being first employed in a speech by John Bright on the 13th of March 1866) with regard to the independent attitude of Robert Lowe (Lord Sherbrooke), Edward Horsman and their Liberal supporters in opposition to the Reform Bill of 1866.
In 1884 a thorough reform of the government and administration of the country was begun under the direction of a succession of eminent French residents-general.
ISAAC MAYER WISE (1819-1900), American Jewish theologian, was born in Bohemia, but his career is associated with the organization of the Jewish reform movement in the United States.
Philipson, The Reform Movement in Judaism (1907).
An important administrative reform was made in 1784, when Peru was divided into 7 intendencias, each under an officer called an intendente.
Although the double standard was in force, gold was practically demonetized by the monetary reform of 1872 because of the failure to fix a legal ratio between the two metals.
In 1896 a reform of the electoral law was sanctioned.
Another reform brought about by Pierola was a measure introduced and sanctioned in 1897 for a modification of the marriage laws.
As early as 1870 President Grant recommended measures of civil service reform, and succeeded in obtaining an act authorizing him to appoint a Civil Service commission.
The movement as a whole was of exactly the same character as the industrial revolution in England, and it led to the same result, a struggle for electoral reform.
Only a partial concession was made to the demand for reform.
The mode of discipline practised by the pedantic and irritable old man who stood at the head of this institution was not at all to the young student's liking, and the impression made upon him stimulated him later on to work out his projects of school reform.
He was much carried away at this time by the idea of a radical reform of social life in Livonia, which (after the example of Rousseau) he thought to effect by means of a better method of school-training.
There he enjoyed the society of Goethe, Wieland, Jean Paul (who came to Weimar in order to be near Herder), and others, the patronage of the court, with whom as a preacher he was very popular, and an opportunity of carrying out some of his ideas of school reform.
But his great achievement was a speech against the Whig Reform Bill.
His son, Lord Lincoln, had heard Gladstone's speech against the Reform Bill delivered in the Oxford Union, and had written home that " a man had uprisen in Israel."
Returning to England for the session of 1859, he found himself involved in the controversy which arose over a mild Reform Bill introduced by the government.
On the 18th of March 1867 the Tory Reform Bill, which ended in establishing Household Suffrage in the boroughs, was introduced, and was read a second time without a division.
Gladstone alienated considerable masses of English opinion by his efforts to reform the tenure of Irish land, and provoked the Irish people by his attempts to establish social order and to repress crime.
He was also appointed one of the commissioners for the reform of the canon law.
Elected pope on the 29th of May 1724, he attempted to reform clerical morals; but neither the decrees of the Latin council (1725) nor his personal precepts had much effect.
Men and women of all ranks began to visit it; the emperor himself consented (f 887) to witness a performance by the great stars of the stage at the private residence of Marquis Inouye; a dramatic reform association was organized by a number of prominent noblemen and scholars; drastic efforts were made to purge the old historical dramas of anachronisms and inconsistencies, and at length a theatre (the Yurabu-za) was built on purely European lines, where instead of sitting from morning to night witnessing one long-drawn-out drama with interludes of whole farces, a visitor may devote only a few evening-hours to the pastime.
Incidentally they are hastening the assimilation of the written and the spoken languages (genbun itchi) which may possibly prelude a still greater reform, abolition of the ideographic script.
These evidences of civilization did not make their appearance until the first great era of Japanese reform, the Taika period (645650), when stations were established along the principal highways, provision was made of post-horses, and a system of bells and checks was devised for distinguishing official carriers.
He became a strong advocate for parliamentary reform.
His support of Pitt's Reform Bill was qualified by a just dislike of the ministers' proposal to treat the possession of the franchise by a constituency as a property and not as a trust.
In his civil administration he followed out his own ideas without deferring to the nobles or the Church, and the opposition which he encountered from these quarters went far to paralyse his attempts at reform.
In 1806 he preached a widely circulated sermon on duelling, and about 1814 a series of six sermons on intemperance, which were reprinted frequently and greatly aided temperance reform.
But on the other hand the church in maintaining its place and power may condemn as heretical genuine efforts at reform by a return, though partial, to the standard set by the Holy Scriptures or the Apostolic Church.
Capito headed two opposing schools in jurisprudence, Labeo being an advocate of method and reform, and Capito being a conservative and empiricist.
1905, to a measure of reform in the Russian system of government in Lithuania.
An agricultural reform initiated by the provisional Government aims at the distribution of the fallow lands of the large estates and the better exploitation of the land.
In 1298 and 1407 Ashburton returned two members, from 1407 until 1640 one member only, and then again two members, until deprived of one by the Reform Act of 1832 and of the other by the Reform Act of 1885.
The effects of this policy of blind obscurantism far outweighed any good that resulted from the king's well-meant efforts at economic and financial reform; and seven this reform was but spasmodic and partial, and awoke ultimately more discontent than it allayed.
It was not represented in parliament until given one member by the Reform Act of 1832.
Under the Reform Act (1832) the borough became merged in the county.
Philosophical: Kritik der Schleiermacherschen Glaubenslehre (1836); Psychologie oder Wissenschaft vorn subjektiven Geist (1837; 3rd ed., 1863); Kritische Erlduterungen des Hegelschen Systems (1840); Vorlesungen 'fiber Schelling (1842); System der Wissenschaft (1850); Meine Reform der Hegelschen Philosophie (1852); Wissenschaft der logischen Idee (1858-59), with a supplement (Epilegomena, 1862); Hegels Naturphilosophie and die Bearbeitung derselben durch Vera (1868); Erlduterungen - zu Hegels Encyklopddie der philosophischen Wissenschaften (1871).
Called to office after disaster had driven Turkey's forces from Hungary and Poland and her fleets from the Mediterranean, he began by ordering strict economy and reform in the taxation; himself setting the example, which was widely followed, of voluntary contributions for the army, which with the navy he reorganized as quickly as he could.
After this event Hussein Kuprili, surnamed "the Wise," devoted himself to the suppression of the revolts which had broken out in Arabia, Egypt and the Crimea, to the reduction of the Janissaries, and to the institution of administrative and financial reform.
He never held office again, but he was very active in support of the causes which he had at heart, such as tariff reform, and woman suffrage; he was a keen critic of Lord Haldane's army reforms, and threw himself vigorously into the " die-hard " campaign of 1911.
Throughout his reign Casimir never neglected the great work of domestic reform, greatly aided by Jaroslaw Skotowicki, archbishop of Gnesen, formerly a professor at Bologna.
He is credited with having brought about a reduction of the quantity of silver in the smaller coins; he was the author of the Tariff Act of 1857 and of the bonded-warehouse system, and was one of the first to advocate civil service reform.
Sir P. Julyan was appointed royal commis sioner on the civil establishments, and Sir P. Keenan on education; their work revived the reform movement in 1881.
An order in council (1899) making English the language of the courts after fifteen years (by which the Maltese would have obtained the right to be tried in English) was promulgated at a time when the system of taxation was also being revised; henceforth agitation in favour of Italian and against taxation attained proportions unpleasant for those who preferred popularity to reform and progress.
Poole's Wycliffe and Movements for Reform, and G.
In the construction of the Scottish Reform Act Kennedy took a prominent part; indeed he and Lord Cockburn may almost be regarded as its authors.
After the accession of the Whigs to office in 1832 he held various important offices in the ministry, and most of the measures of reform for Scotland, such as burgh reform, the improvements in the law of entail, and the reform of the sheriff courts, owed much to his sagacity and energy.
In other directions, though we find many salutary civil measures, yet there were no far-reaching schemes of reform.
He had the courage also to reform the games, in spite of all the traditions of the playing fields.
8a with Soderini, assisted him in carrying out his policy, suggested important measures of military reform which Soderini adopted, and finally was involved in ruin by his fall.
A few months after his arrival (seventh year of Artaxerxes, 458 B.C.) he instituted a great religious reform, viz.
15 obscurely worded) the reform was accepted, and the foundations of a new community were laid.
He introduced a new system of weights and measures, which he ordered should be used throughout his kingdom, and took steps to reform the coinage.
As the "ring" could be destroyed only by removing the corrupt judges who were its tools, Tilden, after entering the Assembly in 1872 to promote the cause of reform, took a leading part in their impeachment.
In 1793 he supported Grey's motion for a return to the old constitutional system of representation, and so earned the title to be regarded as one of the earliest promoters of the cause of parliamentary reform; and he was one of the founders of the "Society of the Friends of the People."
Among the later productions of his pen were, besides the Plan of a Reform in the Election of the House of Commons, pamphlets entitled Proceedings in the House of Commons on the Slave Trade (1796), Reflections on the Abundance of Paper in Circulation and the Scarcity of Specie (1810), Historical Questions Exhibited (1818), and a Letter to Earl Grey on the Policy of Great Britain and the Allies towards Norway (1814).
To direct attention to the true nature of revolution, to demonstrate how inextricably the right of liberty is interwoven with the very existence of man as an intelligent agent, to point out the inherent progressiveness of state arrangements, and the consequent necessity of reform or amendment, such are the main objects of the Beitrage; and although, as is often the case with Fichte, the arguments are too formal and the distinctions too wiredrawn, yet the general idea is nobly conceived and carried out.
This post he resigned in 1812, mainly on account of the difficulties he experienced in his endeavour to reform the student life of the university.
The penitentiaries are at Huntsville and Rusk, and there is a reform school for juvenile offenders at Gainesville.
The objects originally contemplated had been the restoration of the unity of the church and its reform in head and members; but so great had become the prominence of Bohemian affairs that to these also a first place in the programme of the approaching oecumenical assembly required to be assigned, and for their satisfactory settlement the presence of Huss was necessary.
The result of these interviews was a series of projects of reform, including a constitutional system based on a series of dumas, the cantonal assembly (volost) electing the duma of the district, the dumas of the districts electing that of the province or government, and these electing the Duma of the empire.
This monopoly had been abolished in 1787, and the trade had been declared free to all Danish subjects, but practically the old arrangement was continued under disguised forms. Jon Sigurbsson began a hard struggle against the Danish government to obtain a reform.
During his life at Paris he had opportunities of mixing in the circles of the philosophers and of others who frequented the salon of Madame de Geniis, and he there formed those ideas in favour of political and social reform which he retained through life.
It comprised the following items: the formation of a constitution which would strengthen the monarchy by calling to it the support of the whole nation, the drafting of a scheme of local self-government on democratic lines, the reform of the administration of justice and of the criminal law, and the abolition of the most burdensome of feudal and class privileges.
Administrative reform was the only reform he would promise.
In 1910 he had published a volume of speeches, which was translated into English, and in 1919 he brought out a work on political conflicts and constitutional reform.
The noblesse were divided on the matter of toleration, but the cahiers (lists of grievances and suggestions for reform) submitted by the Third Estate demanded, besides regular meetings of the estates every five years, complete toleration and a reform of the Church.
In any attempt to determine the relative importance of Protestant and Catholic countries in promoting modern progress it must not be forgotten that religion is naturally conservative, and that its avowed business has never been to forward scientific research or political reform.
Supported by the estates of the electorate, and relying upon the recess of the diet of Regensburg in 1541, he encouraged Bucer to press on with the work of reform, and in 1543 invited Melanchthon to his.
It has been amended with considerable freedom (37 amendments up to 1907), but with more conservatism than has often prevailed in the constitutional reform of other states; so that the constitution of Massachusetts is not so completely in harmony with modern democratic sentiment as are the public opinion and statute law of the state.
And when such declensions occurred, they soon called forth efforts at reform and revival; indeed these constantly recurring reformmovements are one of the most striking features of Benedictine history, and the great proof of the vitality of the institute throughout the ages.
But the influence of Cluny, even on monasteries that did not enter into its organism, was enormous; many adopted Cluny customs and practices and moulded their life and spirit after the model it set; and many such monasteries became in turn centres of revival and reform in many lands, so that during the 10th and 11th centuries arose free unions of monasteries based on a common observance derived from a central abbey.
And so in the period of the reforming councils of Constance and Basel the state of the religious orders was seriously taken in hand, and in response to the public demand for reforming the Church '4,"in head and members," reform movements were set on foot, as among others, so among the Benedictines of various parts of Europe.
During this century the Benedictine houses in many parts of Catholic Europe united themselves into congregations, usually characterized by an austerity that was due to the Tridentine reform movement.
It has to be said that in the course of the middle ages, especially the later middle ages, grave disorders arose in many convents; and this doubtless led, in the reform movements initiated by the councils of Constance and Basel, and later of Trent, to the introduction of strict enclosure in Benedictine convents, which now is the almost universal practice.
The Reform Act transferred their votes to the county.
It is the seat of the State (Reform) School for Boys.
He had voted against the act of November 1549 for a reform of the canon law, and on a later occasion his nonconformity brought him into conflict with the Council; he was also the only bishop who satisfied Hooper's test of sacramental orthodoxy.
His one attempt at reform, the order forbidding the sale of intoxicants so as to stop the growing intemperance of the janissaries, broke down on the opposition of the soldiery.
According to one account, he travelled as far as Bremen, called there by Archbishop Hermann in order to reform the musical service.
AARON CHORIN (1766-1844), Hungarian rabbi and pioneer of religious reform.
also materially assisted De Geer (q.v.) to carry through his memorable reform of the constitution in 1863.
With the consent of his partner he resolved to go to Spain on behalf of the oppressed natives, and the result of his representations was that in 1516 Cardinal Jimenes caused a commission to be sent out for the reform of abuses, Las Casas himself, with the title of "protector of the Indians," being appointed to advise and report on them.
This sentence from Browne's spiritual autobiography contains the root of the whole matter, and explains the title of his other chief work, also of 1582, A Treatise of Reformation without tarrying for any, and of the wickedness of those Preachers which will not reform till the Magistrate command or compel them.
Financial reform and reorganization of the customs service were found equally necessary, if only to provide means for the increased cost of the army and navy.
Crawford, was engaged to reorganize the customs; a number of German officers, selected by General von der Goltz, were brought in to reform the army; and the work of restoring the navy to efficiency was entrusted to a British adviser, Rear-Admiral Gamble, and a small British staff.
Okehampton returned two members to parliament in 1300, and again in 1312 and 1313, after which there was an intermission till 1640, from which date two members were returned regularly until by the Reform Act of 1832 the borough was disfranchised.
(5) Congregation of Ste Genevieve in Paris, a reform c. 1630.
The book of Johann Busch, himself a canon of Windesheim, De Reformatione monasteriorum, shows that in the 15th century grave relaxation had crept into many monasteries of Augustinian canons in north Germany, and the efforts at reform were only partially successful.
In 1844 Sir Charles Metcalfe, in his contest with the Reform party led by Baldwin and Lafontaine, appealed to the electors, and Macdonald was elected to the provincial assembly as Conservative member for Kingston.
These are a state prison at Deer Lodge, managed by contract; a reform school at Miles City, an industrial school at Butte, an orphans' home at Twin Bridges, the soldiers' home at Columbia Falls, a school for deaf and blind at Boulder, and an insane asylum at Warm Springs, managed by contract.
They are all under the supervision of a state board of charities and reform.
In April 1889, on the accession to the presidency of Benjamin Harrison, Mr Roosevelt, then closely identified with the work of Civil Service reform, was appointed a member of the United States Civil Service Commission.
The reply to this criticism is that Mr Blaine was the choice of the majority of the party, and that while Mr Roosevelt felt free to fight within the party vigorously for reform, he did not feel that the nomination justified a schism like that which occurred in the Democratic party over the free silver issue in 1896 - a schism which remained afterwards a hopeless weakness in that party.
He was taken from the Federal service in Washington to New York City by a reform mayor and put in charge of the police, because he had shown both physical and moral courage in fighting corruption of all sorts; and the New York police force at that time was thoroughly tainted with corruption, not in its rank and file, but among its superior officers, who used the power in their hands to extort money bribes chiefly from saloonkeepers, liquor-dealers, gamblers and prostitutes.
While he was criticized by the friends of Civil Service Reform for not going far enough during his presidency to protect the encroachments of those who desire to have the offices distributed as political rewards or for partisan ends, such specific acts as his transference to the classified service of all fourth-class postmasters east of the Mississippi and north of the Ohio rivers, his insistence upon a thorough investigation of the scandals in the Post Office department, and his order forbidding federal employes to use their offices for political purposes in the campaign of 1908 are typical of his vigorous support of the merit system.
The first demand of the overwhelmingly democratic diet returned under this reform bill was that the king should accept the German constitution elaborated by the Frankfort parliament.
A new electoral law of the same year reformed the Saxon diet by abolishing the old distinction between the various " estates " and lowering the qualification for the franchise; the result was a Liberal majority in the Lower House and a period of civil and ecclesiastical reform.
13a law was probably as short-lived in its effects as preceding ones had been, but a more lasting reform was the maintenance at the public cost of the children of poor parents in the towns of Italy (Aur.
Like the English administrative system, the Austrian presented a rich variety, a variety indeed so rich that it clamoured for drastic reform.
Bienerth's last act as premier in May 1911 was the appointment of a commission nominated by the Emperor, to draw up a scheme of administrative reform.
The continuous progress of society, it said, had made increased demands on the administration, that is to say, it was assumed that reform was not demanded so much by the defects of the administration but by the progress of the times, not because the administration was bad, but because life was better.
It was an attempt to reform the administration without first reforming the State on equivalent lines.
A reform commission without a programme naturally first occupied itself with reforms about which there was no controversy.
though politically of importance, did not provide any basis for reform on a large scale.
It was not till March 1918 that the Seidler Government decided upon a programme of national autonomy as a basis for administrative reform, which was, however, never carried into effect.
With the carrying through of suffrage reform the Beck Ministry, which started in June 1906, had.
In spite of the reform of the civil law in other respects (June 1 1911) these provisions remained in force until the republic. Owing to the opposition of the Christian Socialist party, they were even then not abolished; but they were relaxed by numerous dispensations in individual cases.
- Hussarek,' who was appointed prime minister on July 24, declared his programme to be parliamentary government, with reconciliations of the nationalities, and constitutional and administrative reform.
Even the reform of taxation carried out in the autumn of 1915 (modification of the inheritance and donations duty and the taxation on insurance policies and legal charges) cannot be regarded strictly as war taxes, as they had been planned a considerable time before the outbreak of the war and had only been delayed by the inability of Parliament to continue its work.
Charitable Institutions, &c. - The state maintains a school for the blind at Gary, a school for deaf mutes at Sioux Falls, a tuberculosis sanatorium at Custer, a general hospital for the insane at Yankton, a school for the feeble-minded at Redfield, a soldiers' home at Hot Springs, a reform school at Plankinton, and a penitentiary at Sioux Falls.
Its main object was ecclesiastical reform, but the provision that a copy of Magna Carta should be hung in all cathedral and collegiate churches seemed to the king a political action, and parliament declared void any action of this council touching on the royal power.
He was also concerned in the reform of the currency by the withdrawal of the debased Bolivian coins.
Stoke-upon-Trent became the railway centre and head of the parliamentary borough of Stoke-upon-Trent, comprising the whole of the Staffordshire Potteries, which was created by the Reform Bill of 1832.
She had grasped the principles of hygiene, which were then beginning to be understood, and she applied them to the reform of the hospital administration.
In the same year the first district nurse began work in Liverpool; and in 1865 the reform of the much-neglected workhouse nursing was inaugurated by Miss Agnes Jones and twelve nurses from St Thomas's, who took up the work in Liverpool.
Largely owing to friction between himself and the president, Bristow resigned his portfolio in June 1876; as secretary of the treasury he advocated the resumption of specie payments and at least a partial retirement of "greenbacks"; and he was also an advocate of civil service reform.
Zunz took no large share in Jewish reform, but never lost faith in the regenerating power of "science" as applied to the traditions and literary legacies of the ages.
On the question of the reform of the university of Oxford, he sympathized with the reformers, but felt himself prohibited, by the oaths which he had taken, from assuming any active part.
In 1866 he expressed himself favourable to the making of household suffrage the basis of representation, an expression of opinion which probably influenced the Reform Bill of the following year - in the discussions on which Palmer took a prominent part, and especially in opposition to the so-called "fancy franchises" originally proposed by its authors.
Nevertheless he was influential in effecting the reform by which in 1869 it was sought to reconcile the Empire with Liberal principles.
The state supports a hospital for the insane at Jamestown, an institution for the feeble-minded at Grafton, a home for old soldiers at Lisbon, a blind asylum at Bathgate, a reform school (opened 1902) at Mandan and a penitentiary at Bismarck.
This, there is reason to believe, was the upshot of a prehistoric reform.