Nor was the theory of reflex action confined to the more "mechanical" functions.
His restless life was the reflex of a mental history disturbed by prolonged agitation.
This reflex activity with "paralysis of will" is characteristic of the somnambulistic state.
The brevity of the interval between the tap on the knee and the beginning of the resultant contraction of the muscle seems such as to exclude the possibility of reflex development.
Since, however, the evidence of ordinary consciousness almost always goes to prove that the individual, especially in relation to future acts, regards himself as being free within certain limitations to make his own choice of alternatives, many determinists go so far as to admit that there may be in any action which is neither reflex nor determined by external causes solely an element of freedom.
It forms small crystals, showing a brilliant green reflex, and is soluble in water and alcohol with formation of a deep red solution.
In the same way, the reflex act of coughing is useful in removing either foreign bodies or excessive secretion from the air passages; but when the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract is irritated and inflamed, it produces a feeling of tickling and a desire to cough sometimes very violently; yet the coughing simply tends to exhaust the patient, because there is really little or nothing to bring up. The same is the case in inflammation of the lung substance itself.
General theory never has been, and in the nature of things never can be, the actual reflex of the life and movement of the economic world.
In 1848 Airy invented the reflex zenith tube to replace the zenith sector previously employed.
If we assume that there is a material process at the basis of ideation, we may take the analogy of the concomitance between a spinal reflex movement and a skin sensation.
It excites the motor areas of the spinal cord and increases their reflex irritability.
brandy) produces very valuable reflex effects, the heart beating more rapidly and forcibly, and the blood-pressure rising.
The attitude may be described as due to prolonged, not very intense, discharge from reflex centres that regulate posture and are probably intimately connected with the cerebellum.
In all probability the actions of ants are for the most part instinctive or reflex, and some observers, such as A.
There are no tides, and usually only a slight current towards the outlet, though powerful currents are temporarily produced by the rapid return of waters after a storm, and during the height of a westerly gale there is invariably a reflex current into the west end of the lake.
Later the affected muscles become exquisitely tender, and then atrophy, while the knee-jerk or other reflex is lost.
Such is the reflex and mechanical movement independent of the mind.
The work of the last has some independent merit; but all are interesting as showing a fusion of Greek and Arabian medicine, the latter having begun to exercise even in the 11th century a reflex influence on the schools of Byzantium.
But in the decapitated animal we have good arguments for belief that we get the reflex movement alone as response; the psychical touch drops out.
He holds that we pass without break from the phenomena of bodily life to the phenomena of mental life, that consciousness arises in the course of the living being's adaptation to its environment, and that there is a continuous evolution from reflex action through instinct and memory up to reason.
The receptive organs of the muscular sense and of the semicircular canals are to be regarded as the sites of origin of this reflex tonus of the skeletal muscles.
Only a small fraction of Goethe's work was written in an impersonal and objective spirit, and sprang from what might be called a conscious artistic impulse; by far the larger - and the better - part is the immediate reflex of his feelings and experiences.
It is believed that from the nature of the cell in which she is ovipositing, the queen derives a reflex impulse to lay the appropriate egg - fertilized in the queen or worker cell, unfertilized in the drone cell, as previously mentioned.
The physical "touch" that initiates the psychical "touch" initiates, through the very same nerve channels, a reflex movement responsive to the physical "touch," just as the psychical "touch" may be considered also a response to the same physical event.
To such fields may be added the yet more complicated problems of those reflex waves which flowed backwards from India into the border highlands.
The alkaloid calabarine is, on the other hand, a stimulant of the motor and reflex functions of the cord, so that only the pure alkaloid physostigmine and not any preparation of Calabar bean itself should be used when it is desired to obtain this action.
The infinite God is the all; the world of independent objects is the result of reflection or self-consciousness, by which the infinite unity is broken up. God is thus over and above the distinction of subject and object; our knowledge is but a reflex or picture of the infinite essence.
This" communion of the body and blood of Christ,"which in early writings is clearly distinguished from the thankoffering which preceded it, and which furnished the materials for it, gradually came to supersede the thank-offering in importance, and to exercise a reflex influence upon it.
There appears also to be a specific action of lowering the reflex excitability of the spinal cord.
A blue bronze, Na2W5015, forming dark blue cubes with a red reflex, is obtained by electrolysing fused sodium paratungstate; a purple-red variety, Na2W309, and a reddish yellow form result when sodium carbonate and sodium tungstate are heated respectively with tungsten trioxide and tinfoil.
In both respects the reflex action of the Novatianist and Donatist controversies upon Catholicism was disastrous to the earlier idea of church-fellowship. Formal and technical tests of membership, such as the reception of sacraments from a duly authorized clergy, came to replace Christ's own test of character.
Could we assume that there is in the adult man reflex machinery which is of higher order than the merely spinal, which employs much more complex motor mechanisms than they, and is connected with a much wider range of sense organs; and could we assume that this reflex machinery, although usually associated in its action with memorial and volitional processes, may in certain circumstances be sundered from these latter and unattendant on them - may in fact continue in work when the higher processes are at a standstill - then we might imagine a condition resembling that of the somnambulistic and cataleptic states of hypnotism.
But this historical aspect of the myth is of late origin: it is nothing but a reflex of the great Iranian empire founded by the Achaemenids and restored by the Sassanids.
He calls it the Principle of Reflection, the Reflex Principle of Approbation, and assigns to it as its province the motives or propensions to action.
Doubtless what we have is in the main a reflex of the heuristic character of Aristotle's own work as pioneer.
Nature, e.g., is not deduced as real because rational, but being real its rationality is presumed and, very imperfectly, exhibited in a way to make it possible to conceive it as in its essence the reflex of Reason.
Wasmann considers that ants are neither miniature human beings nor mere reflex automata, and most students of their habits will probably accept this intermediate position as the most satisfactory.
They pass more readily through mucous membranes, but almost every one of these is provided not only with a coating of mucus, which obstructs their passage, but with some reflex mechanism which tends to remove them.
Like Leibnitz, he proceeds from the fact that our perceptions are sometimes conscious, sometimes unconscious, to the inconsequent conclusion, that there are beings with nothing but unconscious perceptions; and by a similar non sequitur, because there is the idea of an end in will, he argues that there must be an unconscious idea of an end in instinctive, in reflex, in all action.
The grouping of reflex "units," and the paths wherein impulses travel and become associated, have been made out by the physiologist (Sherrington and others) working on the healthy animal, as well as by the record of disease; and not of spontaneous disease alone, for the artificial institution of morbid processes in animals has led to many of these discoveries, as in the method of A.
But the influence of the alkaloid upon the spinal cord is very marked and characteristic. The reflex functions of the cord are entirely abolished, and it has been experimentally shown that this is due to a direct influence upon the cells in the anterior cornua.
If things different but similar have the same attributes, and are thereby the same, then in the first place the Kantian categories, though thoughts of mental origin and therefore confined to mind, are nevertheless applicable to things, because things, though different from, are the same as, thoughts, and have the categories of thoughts; in the second place, the Fichtian Ego of mankind is not the Absolute Reason of God, and yet is the same Absolute Reason; in the third place, the Schellingian Nature is the "other " of Spirit, and yet, being a mere reflex of the Idea of Nature, is identical with Spirit; and as this Spirit is everywhere the same in God and men, Nature is also identical with our Spirit, or rather with the Infinite Spirit, or Absolute Reason, which alone exists.
Schwartz, whose devotion and success told with such remarkable reflex influence on the Church at home.
It forms quadratic prisms, having a violet reflex and insoluble in boiling hydrochloric acid.
384), to which he says brutes, who partake as truly as men in the faculty called phantasia, never attain; the notion of God, whom he says we may imagine to be corporeal, but understand to be incorporeal; and lastly, the reflex action by which the mind makes its own phenomena and operations the objects of attention.
These rules for the individual are but the image or reflex of the political organization of the perfect or ideal state; and the man who strives to lead this life is called the solitary, not because he withdraws from society, but because, while in it, he guides himself by reference to a higher state, an ideal society.
But whilst all the organic processes in man go on mechanically, and though by reflex action he may repel attack unconsciously, still the first affirmation of the system was that man was essentially a thinking being; and, while we retain this original dictum, it must not be supposed that the mind is a mere spectator, or like the boatman in the boat.
This marks them off from such reflex acts as are unconsciously performed, and from the tropisms of plants and other lowly organisms. There remains, however, the difficulty of finding any satisfactory criterion of the presence of consciousness.
Apparently there is an influence on the afferent nerves of the part which causes a reflex contraction - some authors say dilatation - of the vessels in the internal organs that are under the control of the same segment of the nervous system as that supplying the area of skin from which the exciting impulse comes.
This induces a reflex secretion from the salivary and gastric glands, which is followed or accompanied by increased vascularity of the gastric mucous membrane, and by some degree of activity on the part of the muscular wall of the stomach.
Blisters applied at some distance from inflamed parts are also sometimes useful; and probably they produce this good effect by causing a reflex contraction of the arteries in the inflamed part, and thus acting like a cold application.
Body movements may occur such as brief arm or leg movement or a startle reflex.
Many of the children had to be force fed as they had no swallow reflex.
The jaw reflex was very brisk, there was no tendon reflexes in the limbs.
Like the rooting reflex, it is inhibited by the third to fourth month.
Even the less expensive razors, such as the Philips Norelco reflex, can be run under a tap for cleaning.
When this happens, his self-protection reflex kicks in.
The golgi tendon reflex allows you to deepen a stretch and promote further flexibility and a better stretch.
To activate the golgi tendon reflex, lean into your stretch and hold it for about 10 seconds.
In 2004, she came forward to explain her behavior was due to her recent treatment for reflex sympathetic disorder, a condition related to intense join pain after an injury.
CSS Reflex: CSS Reflex designs free, colorful social bookmarking icons.
2 Probably, if we leave out of sight the very numerous and obvious cases in which fasting, originally the natural reflex result of grief, fear or other strong emotion, has come to be the usual conventional symbol of these, we shall find that the practice is generally resorted to, either as a means of somehow exalting the higher faculties at the expense of the lower, or as an act of homage to some object of worship. The axiom of the Amazulu, that " the continually stuffed body cannot see secret things," meets even now with pretty general acceptance; and if the notion that it is precisely the food which the worshipper foregoes that makes the deity more vigorous to do battle for his human friend be confined only to a few scattered tribes of savages, the general proposition that " fasting is a work of reverence toward God " may be said to be an article of the Catholic faith.3 Although fasting as a religious rite is to be met with almost everywhere, there are comparatively few religions, and those only of the more developed kind, which appoint definite public fasts, and make them binding at fixed seasons upon all the faithful.
Primary reflex Pisces: Left cuboid bone (foot ).
pupillary light reflex in normal subjects.
reflex sympathetic dystrophy or complex regional pain syndrome.
reflex tachycardia that may exacerbate angina.
reflex contraction in the opposite direction.
reflex enclosures, providing you with a lot of options.
reflex anoxic seizures (RAS) have repeated brief cardiac arrests.
1839) we find the reflex of Bolintineanu of the earlier period, in the beauty and simplicity of his lyrical poems - not yet published in complete form.
This earlier Marduk, however, was effaced by the reflex of the political development through which the Euphrates valley passed and which led to imbuing him with traits belonging to gods who at an earlier period were recognized as the heads of the pantheon.
This immediate pleasure that we take in goodness (and displeasure in its opposite) is due to a susceptibility which he calls the " reflex " or " moral " sense, and compares with our susceptibility to beauty and deformity in external things; it furnishes both an additional direct impulse to good conduct, and an additional gratification to be taken into account in the reckoning which proves the coincidence of virtue and happiness.
The discoveries of the separate paths of sensory and motor impulses in the spinal cord, and consequently of the laws of reflex action, by Charles Bell and Marshall Hall respectively, in their illumination of the phenomena of nervous function, may be compared with the discovery in the region of the vascular system of the circulation of the blood; for therein a key to large classes of normal and aberrant functions and a fertile principle of interpretation were obtained.
2 At the most critical epochs such men have ever been raised up, and the reflex influence of their lives and self-denial has told upon the Church at home, while apart from their influence the entire history of important portions of the world's surface would have been altered.
It forms small brown lamellae which dissolve slowly in water to give a fuchsine-red solution possessing a violet reflex.
In large doses it has a depressant action on the nervous system, leading even to coma and total abolition of reflex action.
To do this, the back of the throat is sprayed with a topical anesthetic to soothe the nerves causing the gag reflex.
Primary reflex Aquarius: Nerve system, proprioceptive system, spinal cord.
The reflex arc The three types of neurones are arranged in circuits and networks, the simplest of which is the reflex arc.
auditory neuropathy do not have an acoustic reflex.
It is a pure peripheral vasoconstrictor and reflex bradycardia, needing treatment with atropine can occur.
In other words the direct process may be going on rightly, while a full reflex cognizance thereof may be utterly impossible.
There is a gradual diminution with age in the power of some spinal reflexes, for example the knee-jerk reflex.
One rare problem is called reflex sympathetic dystrophy or complex regional pain syndrome.
These nerve endings or ' reflex points ' are related to various zones of the body.
Sound quality is ensured with integrated full range hi-fi speakers and a bass reflex port for enhanced bass performance.
A Gentle reflexology treatment massages the feet and each reflex point can be stimulated or calmed to encourage a return to health.
nerve endings or ' reflex points ' are related to various zones of the body.
To ride a vehicle implies achieving a oneness with it, operating the controls by reflex rather than through conscious thought.
shoulder girdle muscles using the H reflex.
The only legal standpipes for use in our area are supplied by Reflex Plant.
swallowing reflex the use of combined sedation with oropharyngeal LA was probably contraindicated.
These drugs reduce blood pressure, resulting in a reflex tachycardia that may exacerbate angina.
Primary reflex Taurus: Third and fourth cervical nerves.
We are in the realm of human volition, not biological reflex.
Many points in the development and mechanism of the nematocyst are disputed, but it is tolerably certain (I) that the cnidocil is of sensory nature, and that stimulation, by contact with prey or in other ways, causes a reflex discharge of the nematocyst; (2) that the discharge is an explosive change whereby the in-turned thread is suddenly everted and turned inside out, being thus shot through the opening in the outer wall of the capsule, and forced violently into the tissues of the prey, or, it may be, of an enemy; (3) that the thread inflicts not merely a mechanical wound, but instils an irritant poison, numbing and paralysing in its action.
The commercial policy of a state is merely the reflex of its system of public finance (see e.g.English Finance).
Lewes and others the doctrine of "cerebral reflex" was suggested, whereby actions, at first achieved only by incessant attention, became organized as conscious or subconscious habits; as for instance in the playing on musical or other instruments, when acts even of a very elaborate kind may directly follow the impulses of sensations, conscious adaptation and the deliberate choice of means being thus economized.
Ellis C J K The pupillary light reflex in normal subjects.
The iris is a good example of a reflex arc.
The head is violently displaced followed by reflex contraction in the opposite direction.
Built-in Amp and Speakers The CR-4 comes equipped with two speakers in bass reflex enclosures, providing you with a lot of options.
Children suffering from reflex anoxic seizures (RAS) have repeated brief cardiac arrests.
An investigation into the effect of tape on reflex activity in the shoulder girdle muscles using the H reflex.
For a patient of this age and comorbidity with obtunded swallowing reflex the use of combined sedation with oropharyngeal LA was probably contraindicated.
Primary reflex TAURUS: Third and fourth cervical nerves.
An example is the ' knee-jerk ' reflex, which involves a sudden twitch of a limb muscle caused by tapping the tendon.
Reflex response-No reflex response when given stimulation would receive a zero.
Reflexes-A common examination will be given to check your infant's Moro reflex, which is the reflex that is caused by a fear of falling.
To do this, the doctor will allow your infant's head to fall a short (and safe) distance and then watch for the Moro reflex, in which she should fling out her arms and legs.
The Moro reflex: Also known as the "startle" reflex, this happens when an infant hears a sudden loud noise or feels that he's falling.
Stepping reflex: Although it may appear an infant is trying to walk when he's held in a standing position and his feet touch a surface, this stepping reflex is short-lived and usually disappears by the time he's two months-old.
Semi-professional. They kind of cameras are often called SLRs, which means Single Lens Reflex.
The dental dam can cause patients with a strong gag reflex some difficulty.
In May of 1991, Kodak introduced its DCS 100, the world's first commercially available DSLR (digital single lens reflex) camera.
Digital single lens reflex cameras, or DSLR cameras, contain more professional features and allow for more artistic control.
This will mean choosing between a point and shoot camera or a digital single lens reflex camera.
The single lens reflex digital camera works in the same fashion as its older film-based cousins.
There are three broad categories of cameras: Point-and-shoot, single lens reflex, and a hybrid of the two.
A single lens reflex (SLR) digital camera uses a single lens to create the image.
Single lens reflex cameras perform well in regards to response time, with a near instantaneous response.
Having a single lens reflex (SLR) camera will go a long way to help you capture details of the moon's surface that you would not be able to with a basic point-and-shoot camera.
As technology advances, Polaroid creates the SX-70, which is the first SLR (single lens reflex) instant camera.
It causes your body to release hormones for the "flight or fight" reflex.
Is this some sort of reflex, or is it their way of showing that they like it?
The reaction is initially a voluntary reflex and a sign that the dog likes the stimulation.
At that point, agonal breathing usually takes over with perhaps just an occasional breathing reflex noticed over a 15 to 30 minute period.
A person who is drunk has an impaired gag reflex and may choke if you do this.
Other less common signs or symptoms of unprotected exposure to UV rays may include chronic headaches and wrinkling of the skin around the eye caused by the constant reflex squinting to try to decrease the amount of UV rays entering the eye.
Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare takes place in current times and is actually named Call of Duty: Modern Warfare Reflex and was released with Modern Warfare 2 in November 2009.
In some cases, children develop their visual reflex later than normal.
In response to suckling, the hormone oxytocin causes the milk ejection reflex or "let-down" reflex to occur.
For example, a hyperactive grasp reflex may cause the hand to stay clenched in a tight fist.
The latter may be performed with instruments, such as lights and reflex hammers, and usually does not cause any pain to the child.
An infant who is not moving a fractured arm because of the pain will still exhibit a Moro reflex.
Moro reflex-A startle response in a newborn, characterized by spreading the arms with the palms up and fingers flexed; the reflex usually disappears by two months of age.
A component of this temporary deficit is inadequate control of their breathing reflex.
Babies born before 34 weeks of gestation do not have a fully developed central nervous system, and they often do not have adequate control of the breathing reflex.
While people can generally cough voluntarily, a true cough is usually a reflex triggered when an irritant stimulates one or more of the cough receptors found at different points in the respiratory system.
The newborn receives a total score (Apgar score) that ranges from 0 to 10 based on rating color, heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, and reflex irritability.
The Moro reflex (or startle reflex) occurs when an infant is lying in a supine position and is stimulated by a sudden loud noise that causes rapid or sudden movement of the infant's head.
Inhibition of this reflex occurs from the third to the sixth month.
An asymmetrical response with this reflex may indicate a fractured clavicle or a birth injury to the nerves of the arm.
Absence of this reflex in the neonate is an ominous implication of underlying neurological damage.
Asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (sometimes called the tonic labyrinthine reflex) is activated as a result of turning the head to one side.
The reflex should be inhibited by six months of age in the waking state.
If this reflex is still present at eight to nine months of age, the baby will not be able to support its weight by straightening its arms and bringing its knees beneath its body.
Symmetrical tonic neck reflex occurs with either the extension or flexion of the infant's head.
This reflex becomes inhibited by the sixth month to enable crawling.
Grasping reflex occurs as the palmar reflex when a finger is placed in the neonate's palm and the neonate grasps the finger.
The palmar reflex disappears around the sixth month.
Similarly, the plantar reflex occurs by placing a finger against the base of the neonate's toes and the toes curl downward to grasp the finger.
This reflex becomes inhibited around the ninth to tenth month.
Rooting reflex is stimulated by touching a finger to the infant's cheek or the corner of the mouth.
This is a necessary reflex triggered by the mother's nipple during breastfeeding.
Sucking reflex is triggered by placing a finger or the mother's nipple in the infant's mouth.
Babinski or plantar reflex is triggered by stroking one side of the infant's foot upward from the heel and across the ball of the foot.
Blink reflex is stimulated by momentarily shining a bright light directly into the neonate's eyes causing him or her to blink.
This reflex should not become inhibited.
Pupillary reflex occurs with darkening the room and shining a penlight directly into the neonate's eye for several seconds.
The pupils should both constrict equally; this reflex should not disappear.
Galant reflex is stimulated by placing the infant on the stomach or lightly supporting him or her under the abdomen with a hand and, using a fingernail, gently stroking one side of the neonate's spinal column from the head to the buttocks.
This reflex can become inhibited at any time between the first and third month.
Stepping reflex is observed by holding the infant in an upright position and touching one foot lightly to a flat surface, such as the bed.
This reflex will disappear at approximately two months of age.
Prone crawl reflex can be stimulated by placing the neonate prone (face down) on a flat surface.
This reflex will be inhibited by three to four months of age.
Doll's eye reflex can be noted with the infant supine (lying on the back) and slowly turning the head to either side.
This reflex should disappear between three to four months of age.
The presence and strength of a reflex is an important indication of neurological functioning.
If a reflex is absent or abnormal in an infant, this may suggest significant neurological problems.
In normal development, the primary reflex system is inhibited or transformed in the first year of life and a secondary or postural reflex system emerges.
Absence or presence of a reflex is a symptom, not a disorder.
This implies that the actual rehearsal and repetition of primary reflex movements play a role in the inhibition process itself.
The Role of the Primitive Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex (ATNR) in Balance, Co-ordination Problems and Specific Learning Difficulties, including Dyslexia.
Potassium is potentially quite toxic; however, potassium poisoning is usually prevented because of the vomiting reflex.
Spasticity means having an increased stretch reflex.
The audiologist observes startle responses and motor reflex changes in the child as various noisemakers are employed to elicit these responses.
The examiner will also assess the sensation capabilities of the pharynx, by stimulating the area with a wooden tongue depressor, causing a gag reflex.
It also is called type 2, white breath-holding, reflex anoxic seizure, or pallid infantile syncope.
A breath holding spell is an involuntary reflex because it follows exhalation rather than inhalation.
If their palms are touched, they will make a very tight fist, but this is an unconscious reflex action called the Darwinian reflex, and it disappears within two to three months.
The pediatrician will often perform a red reflex test to diagnose or confirm leukocoria.
Babies have a primitive crawling reflex at birth, which is instinctively activated when they are on their abdomens.
However, this reflex disappears during the early weeks of life, and true crawling does occur until six months, normally around the same time that an infant is able to sit up alone for extended periods of time.
Chiari II malformation: Impaired swallowing and gag reflex, loss of the breathing reflex, facial paralysis, uncontrolled eye movements (nystagmus), impaired balance and gait.
Reflex tests are simple physical tests of nervous system function.
Reflex tests measure the presence and strength of a number of reflexes.
The familiar knee-jerk reflex is an example; this reflex tests the integrity of the spinal cord in the lower back region.
Another type of reflex test is called the Babinski test, which involves gently stroking the sole of the foot to assess proper development of the spine and cerebral cortex.
When performing the Babinski reflex test, the doctor will gently stroke the outer soles of the person's feet with the mallet while checking to see whether the big toe extends out as a result.
Reflex tests are entirely safe, and no special precautions are needed.
A normal response to the Babinski reflex test depends upon the age of the person being examined.
In adults and children over the age of one-and-a-half years, the myelin sheath should be completely formed, and, as a result, all the toes will curl under (planter flexion reflex).
Parents should expect reflex tests to be included in every examination given to their children by a doctor or other healthcare provider.
Parents should only be concerned when they are told of abnormal reflex test results.
The sucking reflex is strong in all infants and should be encouraged in infants with facial clefts even if the sucking is inefficient, since the reflex seems to help the later development of speech.
Michel, V., et al. "Stuttering or reflex seizure?"
Cough suppressants act on the center in the brain that controls the cough reflex.
The milk ejection reflex or 'let down', is when the alveoli push milk out.
If your baby's sucking reflex hasn't fully developed, he will not be able to empty your breast sufficiently.
Most often, the cause of a baby's insufficient sucking reflex is prematurity.
Additionally, babies have what is called a "dive reflex," meaning that when submerged, they will hold their breath and open their eyes.
The gag reflex can interfere with the performance of this piercing procedure.
The theory behind Mudras is that each area of the hand has a reflex reaction with a specific part of the brain.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.