A charge for refining is made in all cases.
1864), and the refining of petroleum in that country may be said to date from about the year 1855, when Samuel M.
Sugar refining and shipbuilding are carried on.
Soap may be framed and finished in this state, but almost invariably it receives a further treatment called " refining " or " fitting," in which by remelting with water, with or without the subsequent addition of other agents to harden the finished product, the soap may be made to contain from 60 to 70% of water and kept present a firm hard texture.
Oils which contain sulphur-compounds are subjected to a special process of refining in which cupric oxide or litharge is employed as a desulphurizing agent.
All tin, except a small quantity produced by the shaft furnace process from exceptionally pure stream tin ore, requires refining by liquation and "boiling" before it is ready for the market.
The main industries are cotton-spinning, flax-spinning, cottonprinting, tanning and sugar refining; in addition to which there are iron and copper foundries, machine-building works, breweries and factories of soap, paper, tobacco, &c. As a trading centre the city is even more important.
Crude sulphur, as obtained from kilns, contains about 3% of earthy impurities, and consequently needs refining.
Parkersburg is the see of a Protestant Episcopal bishop. Oil, coal, natural gas and fire-clay abound in the neighbouring region, and the city is engaged in the refining of oil and the manufacture of pottery, brick and tile, glass, lumber, furniture, flour, steel, and foundry and machine-shop products.
There are large slaughtering establishments, and factories for the refining of sugar and for the manufacture of tobacco goods, soap and perfumery, lead pencils, iron and steel, railway cars, chemicals, rubber goods, silk goods, dressed lumber, and malt liquors.
The value of the city's manufactured products increased from $37,376,322 in 1890 to $77,225,116 in 1900, or 106.6%; in 1905 the factory product alone was valued at $75,740,934, an increase of only 3.9% over the factory product in 1900, this small rate of increase being due very largely to a decline in the value of the products of the sugar and molasses refining industry.
Metallurgical operations, such as smelting, roasting, and refining, were scientifically investigated, and in some degree explained, by Georg Agricola and Carlo Biringuiccio; ceramics was studied by Bernard Palissy, who is also to be remembered as an early worker in agricultural chemistry, having made experiments on the effect of manures on soils and crops; while general technical chemistry was enriched by Johann Rudolf Glauber.1
Manufacturing industries are for the most part closely related to the products of the soil, about two-thirds of the value of all manufactures in Igoo and in 1905 being represented by sugar and molasses refining, lumber and timber products, cotton-seed oil and cake, and rice cleaned and polished.
Ingalls, Lead Smelting and Refining (1906); A.
Betts, Lead Refining by Electrolysis (1908); M.
The operations in the metallurgy of tin may be enumerated as: (1) mining and dressing, (2) smelting, (3) refining.
The vast works for the refining of sulphur in the volcanic district of Solfatara were erected under his direction.
Ken's step-sister, Anne, was married to Izaak Walton in 1646, a connexion which brought Ken from his boyhood under the refining influence of this gentle and devout man.
The principal industries are the manufacture of paper, leather, chemicals and tobacco, sugar refining, shipbuilding and salmon fishing.
" I do further declare," he added, " that although in the application of heat to the refining of sugar in my said invention or process I have stated and mentioned the temperature of about 200° F.
In some factories for refining sugar made from beet or canes this system of carbonatation is used, and enables the refiner to work with syrups distinctly alkaline and to economize a notable amount of animal charcoal.
In former days, when refining sugar or " sugar baking " was supposed to be a mystery only understood by a few of the initiated, there was a place in the refinery called the " secret room," and this name is still used in some refineries, where, however, it applies not to any room, but to a small copper cistern, constructed with five or six or more divisions or small canals, into which all the charcoal cisterns discharge their liquors by pipes led up from them to the top of the cistern.
Apart from modifications in the details of sugar refining which have come into use in late years, it should be mentioned that loaf sugar made in conical moulds, and sugars made otherwise, to resemble loaf sugar, have practically disappeared from the trade, having been replaced by cube sugar, which is found to be more economical as subject to less waste by grocers and housekeepers, and also less troublesome to buy and sell.
The art of boiling sugar was known in Gangetic India, from which it was carried to China in the first half of the 7th century; but sugar refining cannot have then been known, for the Chinese learned the use of ashes for this purpose only in the Mongol period, from Egyptian visitors?
At Gunde-Shapur in this region " sugar was prepared with art " about the time of the Arab conquest, 3 and manufacture on a large scale was carried on at Shuster, Sus and Askar-Mokram throughout the middle ages.4 It has been plausibly conjectured that the art of sugar refining, which the farther East learned from the Arabs, was developed by the famous physicians of this region, in whose pharmacopoeia sugar had an important place.
Chemical control of the metal purchased is not nearly as common as it should be, and the refining of zinc is at best an imperfect operation.
The only other method of refining is by oxidizing and settling.
were: combined textiles (not including flax, hemp and jute products) in 1900, $77,998,396; in 1905, $103,096, 311; foundry and machine shop products in 1900, $13,269,086; in 1905, $16,338,512; woollen goods in 1900, $5,330,550; in 1905, $8,163,167; rubber boots and shoes in 1 9 00, $8,034,417; electrical machinery, apparatus and supplies in 1900, $5,113,292; in 1905, $5,435,474; silversmithing and silverware in 1900, $4,249,190; in 1905, $5,323,264; gold and silver, reducing and refining (not from ore) in 1900, $3,484,454; in 1905, $4,260,698; cotton small wares in 1900, $2,379,500; in 1 905, $3,944, 60 7; hosiery and knit goods in 1900, $2,713,850; in 1905, $3,344,655; silk and silk goods in 1900, $1,311,333; in 1905, $2,555,986.
At Hirado the ceramists affected a lighter and more delicatetone than that of the Chinese, and, in order to obtain it, subjected the choice pigment of the Middle Kingdom to refining processes of great severity.
For the theory and elemental laws of electro-deposition see Electrolysis; and for the construction and use of electric generators see Dynamo and Battery: Electric. The importance of the subject may be gauged by the fact that all the aluminium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, calcium carbide, carborundum and artificial graphite, now placed on the market, is made by electrical processes, and that the use of such processes for the refining of copper and silver, and in the manufacture of phosphorus, potassium chlorate and bleach, already pressing very heavily on the older non-electrical systems, is every year extending.
The principle usually followed in the electrolytic refining of metals is to cast the impure metal into plates, which are exposed as anodes in a suitable solvent, commonly a salt of the metal under treatment.
For further information the following books, among others, may be consulted: - Haber, Grundriss der technischen Elektrochemie (Munchen, 1898); Borchers and M`Millan, Electric Smelting and Refining (London, 1904); E.
Gold in galena or other lead ores is invariably recovered in the refining or treatment of the lead and silver obtained.
By continuing the treatment of these in the ordinary way of refining, poling and granulating, all the foreign matters other than gold, copper and silver are removed, and, by exposing the granulated metal to a high oxidizing heat for a considerable time the copper may be completely oxidized while the precious metals are unaltered.
Thus Strabo states that in his time a process was employed for refining and purifying gold in large quantities by cementing or burning it with an aluminous earth, which, by destroying the silver, left the gold in a state of purity.
Miller's chlorine process is of any importance, this method, and the wet process of refining by sulphuric acid, together with the electrolytic process, being the only ones now practised.
It used to be called " quartation " or " inquartation," from the fact that the alloy best suited for the operation of refining contained 3 parts of.silver to I of gold.
Refining by sulphuric acid, the process usually adopted for separating gold from silver, was first employed on the large scale by d'Arcet in Paris in 1802, and was introduced into the Mint refinery, London, by Mathison in 1829.
The alloy, after the preliminary refining, is granulated by being poured, while molten, in a thin stream into cold water which is kept well agitated.
A cyanide bath, as used in electroplating, would dissolve the gold, but is not suitable for refining, because other metals (silver, copper, &c.) passing with gold into the solution would deposit with it.
Bock, however, in 1880 (Bergand hiittenmannische Zeitung, 1880, p. 411) described a process used at the North German Refinery in Hamburg for the refining of gold containing platinum with a small proportion of silver, lead or bismuth, and a subsequent patent specification (1896) and a paper by Wohlwill (Zeus.
The other trades are olive-oil refining, barrel-making and soap-boiling; corn, honey and fruit are largely exported.
A better process is to remelt the metal in crucibles with the addition of certain refining agents.
The wet refining process is more tedious and expensive, and is only exceptionally employed, as in the case of preparing the pure metal or its salts for pharmaceutical or chemical purposes.
Since 1876 it has been one of the most important oil centres of the state, and it has been connected by pipe lines with cities along the Atlantic coast; petroleum refining is an important industry.
The refining of sugar was begun in New York City late in the 18th century, but the growth of the industry to its present magnitude has been comparatively recent; the value of the sugar and molasses refined in 1905 was $116,438,838.
Buffalo, the second city in manufactures, shares largely with New York City the business of slaughtering and meat packing, the refining and smelting of copper, and the manufacture of foundry and machineshop products, and with New York City and Rochester the manufacture of flour and grist-mill products.
With the exception of the smelting and refining of copper, manufacturing is in Montana a decidedly minor industry.
The smelting and refining of the metal ores is also an important industry.
2 The early settlers found the bones of the bison scattered over the prairies, and after the construction of railways the gathering and shipping of these for use in sugar refining and in the manufacture of superphosphate became temporarily a profitable industry.
The manufacture of felt hats (product, 1905, $4,586,040, Newark ranking third in this industry among the cities of the United States), carriages, chairs and jewelry (an industry established about 1830; product, 1905, $9,258,095), developed rapidly early in the 19th century, and there are extensive manufactories of malt liquors (product, 1905, $10,917,003), and of clothing (product, 1905, $3,937,138), foundries and machine shops (product, 1905, $6,254,153), and large establishments for smelting and refining lead and copper, the product of the lead smelters and refining establishments being in 1905 the most valuable in the city.
In this part of the township a copper mine was worked between 1705 and 1745, and smelting and refining works were built in 1721.
An investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1909 finds that the crude Mexican oils are of low grade, but that while not equal to those found in the upper Mississippi basin for refining purposes, they furnish an excellent fuel for railway engines and other industrial purposes.
The chief industries are flax-spinning, rope-making, sugar refining, book printing, wool combing and dyeing, and it also manufactures beer, tobacco and cigars, cotton and woollen stuffs, furniture, organs and pianos; besides which there are saw, oil and grain mills, machine works, and numerous goldsmiths and silversmiths.
Next in importance come those of tobacco, snuff, cigars, the making of cigar boxes, jute-spinning, distilling, sugar refining and the shelling of rice.
The industries comprise the manufacture of machinery, liqueurs and spodium or tutty, the refining of naphtha, corn-milling and the sawing of timber.
Brooklyn's largest manufacturing industry is the refining of sugar, about one-half of the sugar consumed in the United States being refined here; in 1900 the product of the sugar and molasses refining establishments was valued at $77,942,997.
Both in 1900 and in 1905 California ranked fifth among the states of the United States in the petroleum refining industry.
Medellin, the foundation of which dates from 1674, stands in the valley of the Porce, a tributary of the Cauca, and is reputed to be one of the healthiest as well as one of the most attractive cities of the republic. It has a university, national college, school of mines and other educational institutions, assaying and refining laboratories, a public library and a mint.
Of the total product in 1905 more than four-fifths were represented by the smelting of lead, copper and zinc ores, the manufacture of iron and steel, the production of coke, and the refining of petroleum.
There are also special corporation taxes on car companies, express companies and foreign corporations producing, refining or selling petroleum or coal oil; and a system of licence-charges or business taxes.
The " English process " is made up of the following operations: (i) calcination; (2) smelting in reverberatory furnaces to form the matte; (3) roasting the matte; and (4) subsequent smelting in reverberatory furnaces to fineor white-metal; (5) treating the fine-metal in reverberatory furnaces to coarseor blistercopper, either with or without previous calcination; (6) refining of the coarse-copper.
It is made up of the following operations: (z) calcination, (2) smelting in blast-furnaces to form the matte, (3) roasting the matte, (4) smelting in blast-furnaces with coke and fluxes to " black- " or " coarse-metal," (5) refining the coarse-metal.
" Tile " copper is an impure copper, and is obtained by refining the first tappings.
Nicholls and James have applied, very ingeniously, well-known reactions to the refining of copper, raised to the grade of white metal.
The methods by which such results are to be obtained cannot, however, as yet be practised economically on a working scale; one great difficulty in applying them to the refining of metals is that the jets of liquid would be liable to carry with them articles of anode mud, and Swan has shown that the presence of solid particles in the electrolyte is one of the most fruitful causes of the well-known nodular growths on electrodeposited copper.
The chief differences between the commercial systems of refining lie in the arrangement of the baths, in the disposition and manner of supporting the electrodes in each, in the method of circulating the solution, and in the current-density employed.
Kroupa has calculated that the cost of refining is 8s.
In practice the expenditure is somewhat greater than this; in large works the gross horse-power required for the refining itself and for power and lighting in the factory may not exceed 0.19 to 0.2 (or in smaller works 0.25) horse-power hours per pound of copper refined.
Modern methods in copper smelting and refining have effected enormous economy in time, space, and labour, and have consequently increased the world's output.
The recovery of these valuable metals has contributed in no small degree to the expansion of electrolytic refining.
The industries include cotton and silk weaving, sugar refining, brewing, the manufacture of leather and the making of rosoglio.
There is one large refinery at Villa del Mar, however, which imports raw cane sugar from Peru for refining.
After oxidation, the product is reduced by heating with carbon, care being taken to prevent any loss through volatilization, by covering the mass with a layer of some protective substance such as potash, soda or glauber salt, which also aids the refining.
The leading products and their value in 1905, where given, were: sugar and molasses refining; printing and publishing, $9,424,494 (of which $5,575,035 was for newspapers and periodicals); slaughtering and meat packing (wholesale), $8,994,992; shipbuilding; foundry and machine-shop products, $8,991,449 clothing, $4,898,095; canning and preserving, $4,151,414; liquors (malt, $4,106,034; vinous, $53,5 11); coffee and spice roasting and grinding, $3,979, 86 5; flour and gristmill products, $3,422,672; lumber, planing and mill products, including sash, doors and blinds, $2,981,552; leather, tanning and finishing, $2,717,542; bags, $2,473,170; paints, $2,c48,250.
Of the total product in 1905 the product of the principal industry, the smelting and refining of copper ($22,761,981), represented 81.1%; it was 9.4% of all the smelting and refining of copper done in the United States in that year.
Owing to the improvements in refining, Bohemia has become an important centre of the iron industry.
Sugar refining is another industry, which, although of recent date, has had a very great development, and the breweries produce a beer which is appreciated all over the world.
Treacle and molasses are syrups obtained in the earlier stages of refining.
The leading single industry in the state in 1905, as determined by the value of its products, was the smelting and refining of copper.
In the smelting and refining of platinum, nickel!
The values of the other leading manufactures in 1905 were as follows: products of foundry and machine shops, $49,425,385; iron and steel 2 (including products of blast furnaces and rolling mills), $23,667,483; wire (exclusive of copper wire), $11,103,959; petroleum refining, $46,608,984; tanned, curried and finished leather, $21,495,329 (5th in the United States in 1900 and 1905); malt liquors, $ 1 7,44 6, 447; slaughter-house products and packed meats, $17,238,076; electrical machinery, supplies and apparatus, $13,803,476 (5th in the United States in 1900 and in 1905); chemicals, $13,023,629; rubber belting and hose, $9,915,742; jewelry, $9,303,646 (4th in the United States in 1900 and in 1905); tobacco, cigars and cigarettes, $8,331,611.
The staple industries are shipbuilding (established in 1760) and sugar refining (1765).
This predominance was largely due to the smelting and refining industry, the smelters being chiefly in the rural districts.
The town is among the first twelve manufacturing centres of Sweden in value of output, the principal industries being tanning and sugar manufacture and refining from beetroot.
Antiquated refining processes are also used in the manufacture of an inferior white sugar, but the quantity produced is small, and it is unable to compete with beet-sugar from Germany.
Medellin, the capital of Antioquia, is provided with an electrolytic refining establishment, several assaying laboratories, and a mint.
Fishing and olive-oil refining are the main industries.
The city is a headquarters of the Standard Oil Company, and the refining of petroleum is one of the principal industries.
Lesser manufacturing interests are railway shop construction (value in 1905, $11,521,144); zinc smelting and refining (value in 1905, $10,999,468); the manufacture of cheese, butter and condensed milk (value in 1905, $3,94 6, 349); and of foundry and machine shop products (value in 1905, $3,756,825).
He offered to relieve the shipping interest by transferring some of the cost of lighting the coasts to the Consolidated Fund; the West Indja interest by sanctioning the refining of sugar in bond; and the landed classes by reducing the malt tax by one-half, and by repealing the old war duty on hops.
The leading industries are the refining of sugar, fishing, trade, the weaving of jusi cloth, the making of cigars, and the cultivation of ilang-ilang-trees (Cananga odorata) for their flowers, from which a fine perfume is distilled; ilang-ilang is one of the principal exports, mostly to France.
It is used for producing red fire in pyrotechny and for refining sugar.
Since the methods of preparing the vegetable and animal fats are comparatively crude ones, they usually contain certain impurities of one kind or another, such as colouring and mucilaginous matter, remnants of vegetable and animal tissues, &c. For the most part these foreign substances can be removed by processes of refining, but even after this purification they still retain small quantities of foreign substances, such as traces of colouring matters, albuminoid and (or) resinous substances, and other foreign substances, which remain dissolved in the oils and fats, and can only be isolated after saponification of the fat.
Refining and Bleaching.
Similar methods are employed in the production of lard oil, edible cotton-seed oil, &c. For refining oils and fats intended for edible purposes only the foregoing methods, which may be summarized by the name of physical methods, can be used; the only' chemicals permissible are alkalis or alkaline earths to remove free fatty acids present.
Therefore all bleaching and refining processes involving other means than those enumerated can only be used for technical oils and fats, such as lubricating oils, burning oils, paint oils, soap-making oils, &c.
This method is chiefly used in the refining of linseed and rape oils.
The former have a very extended application in many branches of industry, being used by both founders and smelters in the fusion of metals; in the concentration of poor metallic compounds by fusion into regulus; in the reduction of lead and tin ores; for refining copper and silver; and for making malleable iron by the puddling processes and welding.
With reverberatory calciners, however, where the work is done upon a horizontal bed, a considerable amount of hand labour is expended in raking out the charge when finished, and in drawing slags from fusion furnaces; and more particularly in the puddling process of refining iron the amount of manual exertion required is very much greater.
beet sugar processors moving into cane sugar refining?
cane sugar refining in the UK?
extraction of ores from their mineral sources to their refining and fabrication into finished products.
fibres is where the cellulose fibers pass through a refining process which is vital in the art of papermaking.
The system of refining drafts between DH and the ACDP Working Group, which met only infrequently, proved hopeless.
The computational cost of refining these n-m guesses will rapidly become large as the dimensions of the space increase.
We found pestle and mortars for grinding spices and herbs, decorated stones and a beautiful bowl and stone for refining other natural herbs.
poppy Company grew the poppies in Bengal, refining them there to suit Chinese tastes.
refinehe time of our second report, ONS was working on refining the methodology used to provide estimates of numbers in low pay.
refinery plants with a total refining capacity of 770,000 barrels per day.
such self-denial is merely a process of refining the ideology of imperial discourse.
sticky co-product of cane sugar refining and vegetable oils.
A few years later the building became a sugar refinery, sugar refinery, sugar and its refining being a major industry in Bristol for some time.
When refining TLS parameters there is a list of the refined TLS groups with the derived anisotropic tensor for each atom in the group.
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Matvyeev remained paramount to the end of the reign and introduced play-acting and all sorts of refining western novelties into Muscovy.
The existing refineries were accordingly altered so as to adapt them for the refining of petroleum; but in the manufacture of burning oil from petroleum the small stills which had been in use in the distillation of shale-oil were at first employed.
" I do further declare," he added, " that although in the application of heat to the refining of sugar in my said invention or process I have stated and mentioned the temperature of about 200Ã‚° F.
From these and other considerations it is obvious that (I) the electrolyte must be such as will freely dissolve the metal to be refined; (2) the electrolyte must be able to dissolve the major portion of the anode, otherwise the mass of insoluble matter on the outer layer will prevent access of electrolyte to the core, which will thus escape refining; (3) the electrolyte should, if possible, be incapable of dissolving metals more electro-negative than that to be refined; (4) the proportion of soluble electro-positive impurities must not be excessive, or these substances will accumulate too rapidly in the solution and necessitate its frequent purification; (5) the current density must be so adjusted to the strength of the solution and to other conditions that no relatively electro-positive metal is deposited, and that the cathode deposit is physically suitable for subsequent treatment; (6) the current density should be as high as is consistent with the production of a pure and sound deposit, without undue expense of voltage, so that the operation may be rapid and the "turnover" large; (7) the electrolyte should be as good a conductor of electricity as possible, and should not, ordinarily, be altered chemically by exposure to air; and (8) the use of porous partitions should be avoided, as they increase the resistance and usually require frequent renewal.
The literature of the later republic reflects the sympathies and prejudices of an aristocratic class, sharing in the conduct of national affairs and living on terms of equality with one another; that of the Augustan age, first in its early serious enthusiasm, and then in the licence and levity of its later development, represents the hopes and aspirations with which the new monarchy was ushered into the world, and the pursuit of pleasure and amusement, which becomes the chief interest of a class cut off from the higher energies of practical life, and moving in the refining and enervating atmosphere of an imperial court.
Lead smelting and refining (by one establishment) was the most important industry in 1905; lumber, timber and planing mill products, valued at $3,407,951, were produced in that year, and flour and grist mill products, valued at $2,293,587.
The leading ones in order of importance and the value of product in millions of dollars were: the manufacture of railway, foundry, and machine shop products (19.6 million dollars), lumber and timber industries (18.57), sugar and molasses refining (15.91), beef slaughtering (15.72), canning and preserving (13.08), flour and grist milling (13.10), the manufacture of malt, vinous and distilled liquors (9.26), leather industries (7.40), printing and publishing (6.86).
The cost derives from the application of huge amounts of energy, intelligence, and technology to obtain and process the raw materials: digging and smelting to create high-grade steel, harvesting and refining and molding to make rubber parts, and so on.
Again, the materials to build the car are abundant; their cost is high because of technology deficiencies around retrieving and refining them, not an underlying rarity.
Different techniques could be applied to different plants side by side to constantly be refining agricultural processes.
At the time of our second report, ONS was working on refining the methodology used to provide estimates of numbers in low pay.
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The CPC operates three oil refinery plants with a total refining capacity of 770,000 barrels per day.
Such self-denial is merely a process of refining the ideology of imperial discourse.
This is a specialist blend of molasses, the black sticky co-product of cane sugar refining and vegetable oils.
A few years later the building became a sugar refinery, sugar and its refining being a major industry in Bristol for some time.
Keep refining your search until you find what you want.
Propane is a byproduct in the production of gas and the refining of crude oil.
Clean coal technology is the process of refining coal to create cleaner, more efficient energy.
Just keep refining your quote, and it will be the perfect funny statement.
Mikimoto persisted with his dream through years of trial and error, learning more about pearl development and refining his seeding techniques until at last he had created a single "cultured" pearl.
Many people are interested in refining and improving shopping strategies and working toward saving more money on groceries.
Over two and a half years in the making and with a budget of $700,000 (more than seven times the norm), Bookworm Adventures is the result of countless hours of brainstorming, tweaking and refining.
Konami obviously spent a lot of time refining the control scheme in Elebits.
Nonetheless, after a number of years of refining the techniques in mice, researchers began human trials in 1998.
Although Modern dance is usually credited as an American development, German choreographers, as mentioned above, were hard at work refining their own version of the dance.
Competition gives your dancing an edge it otherwise wouldn't have, and you will find yourself more motivated to put in hours at the studio, while refining technique and balance in ways you never did before.
Since oil needs to travel great distances to reach refining plants, there is a large need for pipeline workers in this area.
Whether a candle maker is using ready prepared beeswax or refining their own, the end result will be very special.
Not all candle makers want to go to the bother of refining their own beeswax or blending scents at home.
Selecting and refining a specific set of questions before you get started on your free spread is a great way to make more sense of the answer you'll eventually receive.
More than just the cost of drilling, producing and refining crude oil goes into the cost of gasoline.
The rest of the cost percentage is to cover the remaining cost of production such as refining, marketing, and taxes (U.S.
Simply refining a traditional tribal tat isn't your only option.
The Gulf Coast contains the majority of oil refining capacity in the U.
As a result, they began experimenting and refining the program to develop the Protein Power Diet.
Whole grains such as whole wheat, brown rice, quinoa and other grains contain the nutritious part of the grain that is stripped out during refining and processing that creates white flour and white pasta.
Following his personal success, Atkins began treating several of his patients with the diet, refining it until he developed the low-carbohydrate version of the Atkins diet.
Today, these refining and renewing products are easier on the skin and simpler to use.
Refining Toner: This gentle toner is rich in alpha-hydroxy acids, which balance the skin and remove excess oils.
Total Effects - Products in this line are meant to fight aging seven ways: by firming skin, exfoliating, refining pores, enhancing skin tone, moisturizing, diminishing wrinkles and neutralizing free radicals.
For picture-perfect skin, consider adding a skin refining mask to your skin care routine.
A skin refining mask is better suited to oily and normal-to-oily skin and its unique properties.
Regular use of refining masks may make pores appear smaller.
Make skin feel smooth - Your skin should feel smooth and clean after using a refining mask.
Some refining masks apply in a clear, light layer and peel off in one piece after drying.
If you already have a favorite cosmetics brand, you'll probably want to select a skin refining mask from that particular line.
Look for words like "refining," "clarifying" or "purifying" when choosing which one to buy.
Anyone who has oily skin and is looking for additional ways to reduce the oily appearance and the number of breakouts she suffers may find that a refining mask is a good solution to her complexion problems.
This includes moisturizers, foundations, makeup, blemish creams, refining masks, and more.
All of the Proactiv systems include a few free gifts, such as the refining mask, a travel-size green tea moisturizer, a skincare guide, and member benefits.
The principal industry is the smelting and refining of lead, and the smelting works are among the most interesting sights of the city.
Among the industrial establishments of the city are stove and range factories, flour mills, rolling mills, distilleries, breweries, shoe factories, copper refining works, nail and tack factories, glass works and agricultural implement factories.
The industries are equal in importance to the transit trade, and embrace metalworking, ironfounding and machine building, the manufacture of electric plant, celluloid, automobiles, furniture, cables and chemicals, sugar refining, cigar and tobacco making, and brewing.
Among the leading and more distinctive items were printing and publishing ($21,023,855 in 1905); sugar and molasses refining ($ 1 5,74 6, 547 in 1900; figures not published in 1905 because of the industry being in the hands of a single owner); men's clothing (in 1900, $8,609,475, in 1905, $11,246,004); women's clothing (in 1900, $3,258,483, in 1905, $5,705,470); boots and shoes (in 1900, $3,882,655, in 1905, $5,575,927); boot and shoe cut stock (in 1905, $5, 211, 445); malt liquors (in 1900, $7,518,668, in 1905, $6,715,215); confectionery (in 1900, $4,455,184, in 1905, $6,210,023); tobacco products (in 1900, $3,504,603, in 1905, $4,59 2, 698); pianos and organs ($3,670,771 in 1905); other musical instruments and materials (in 1905, $231,780); rubber and elastic goods (in 1900, $3,139,783, in 1905, $2,887,323); steam fittings and heating apparatus (in 1900, $2,876,327, in 1905, $3,354, 020); bottling, furniture, &c. Art tiles and pottery are manufactured in Chelsea.
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