Manufacturing industry is confined to a few articles and commodities, such as cement, tea, tin cans (for oil), cotton goods, oil refineries, tobacco factories, flour-mills, silk-winding mills (especially at Shusha and Jebrail in the south of Elisavetpol), distilleries and breweries.
Two large refineries, one on Newtown Creek, Long Island, and another in South Brooklyn, also on Long Island, were in successful operation when the abundant pr oduction of petroleum, which immediately followed the completion of the Drake well, placed at the disposal of the refiner a material which could be worked more profitably than bituminous shale.
In the earlier refineries the stills, the capacity of which varied from 25 to 80 barrels, usually consisted of a vertical cylinder, constructed of castor wrought-iron, with a boiler-plate bottom and a cast-iron dome, on which the " goose-neck " was bolted.
In the American petroleum refineries it is found that sufficient cracking can be produced by slow distillation in stills of which the upper part is sufficiently cool to allow of the condensation of the vapours of the less volatile hydrocarbons, the condensed liquid thus falling back into the heated body of oil.
The principal industries are refineries for preparing whale and seal oil and saw-mills.
On some plantations making sugar for particular markets and use in refineries it is the custom to make only one class of sugar, by boiling the molasses produced by the purging of one strike with the sugar in the next strike.
It is now rarely practised, although in some refineries both the nitric acid and the sulphuric acid processes are combined, the alloy being first treated with nitric acid.
Czechoslovakia manufactures and exports agricultural machinery, plant for sugar refineries and distilleries, locomotives, railway carriages and trucks and other rolling-stock, motor-cars, tractors.
Sugar refineries are projected.
The leading industry of Udine is silk-spinning, but it also possesses manufactures of linen, cotton, hats and paper, tanneries and sugar refineries, and has a considerable trade in flax, hemp, &c. Branch railways lead to Cividale del Friuli and S.
Besides the petroleum refineries the town possesses oil-works (for fuel), flour-mills, sulphuric acid works and tobacco factories.
Meissen also contains iron foundries, factories for making earthenware stoves and pottery, sugar refineries, breweries and tanneries.
There are several large tobacco factories, flour mills, boot factories, sugar refineries, tanneries, tallow works, meat-preserving, glue and kerosene-oil factories and soap works.
Other principal branches of industry are: tobacco manufactories, belonging to the state, tobacco being a government monopoly; iron foundries, mostly in the mining region; agricultural machinery and implements, notably at Budapest; leather manufactures; paper-mills, the largest at Fiume; glass (only the more common sort) and earthenwares; chemicals; wooden products; petroleum-refineries; woollen yarns and cloth manufactories, as well as several establishments of knitting and weaving.
Brewing, distilling, cooperage, iron-founding, hatmaking and machine construction are carried on, and there are flour-mills, brick-works, saw-mills, sulphur refineries and leather and paper works.
When Cuba was the chief sugar-producing country making clayed sugars it was the custom (followed in refineries and found advantageous in general practice) to discharge the strike of crystallized sugar from the vacuum pan into a receiver heated below by steam, and to stir the mass for a certain time, and then distribute it into the moulds in which it was afterwards clayed.
When centrifugals were adopted for purging the whole crop (they had long been used for curing the second or third sugars), the system then obtaining of running the sugar into wagons or coolers, which was necessary for the second and third sugars' cooked only to string point, was continued, but latterly " crystallization in movement, a development of the system which forty years ago or more existed in refineries and in Cuba, has come into general use, and with great advantage, especially where proprietors have been able to erect appropriate buildings and machinery for carrying out the system efficiently.
In a process employed with great success in some refineries the raw sugars are washed before being melted, and thus a purer article is obtained for subsequent treatment.
In some refineries the travelling cranes are now run by electricity, which still further facilitates the work.
A small pipe entering below the false bottom allows the air in the cistern to escape as it is displaced by the water or syrup. In some refineries this pipe, which is carried up to a higher level than the top of the cistern, is fitted with a whistle which sounds as long as the air escapes.
In most modern refineries the cisterns are so arranged that the spent char falls on to a travelling band and is conducted to an elevator which carries it up to the drying floor of the charcoal kiln.
In the best-appointed refineries the whole of the work in connexion with the char is performed mechanically, with the exception of packing the filter cisterns with fresh char and emptying the spent and washed char on to the carrying bands.
In former days, when refining sugar or " sugar baking " was supposed to be a mystery only understood by a few of the initiated, there was a place in the refinery called the " secret room," and this name is still used in some refineries, where, however, it applies not to any room, but to a small copper cistern, constructed with five or six or more divisions or small canals, into which all the charcoal cisterns discharge their liquors by pipes led up from them to the top of the cistern.
- Systematic feeding for the vacuum pan and systematic washing of the massecuite have been recently introduced not only into refineries, but also into sugar houses or factories on plantations of both cane and beetroot, and great advantages have resulted from their employment.
The most productive of the Piura wells are at Talara and Zorritos, where refineries have been established.
Petroleum refineries, iron-foundries, chemicals, soap-boiling, silk-spinning and the production of ships' fittings, as marine steam boilers, anchors, chains, cables, are the other principal branches of industry.
Natural gas and oil were found here in 1899, and Chanute became one of the leaders of the Kansas independent refineries in their contest with the Standard Oil Company.
Osaka possesses iron-works, sugar refineries, cotton spinning mills, ship-yards and a great variety of other manufactures.
In 1906 sugar refineries were projected at Hamilton, Kalispell, Chinook, Laurel, Missoula, Dillon and Great Falls; and in 1907 the crop was so large that 12,000 freight cars were needed to carry it and the railways had a car and coal " famine."
In 1920-1 some 715,000 tons of sugar were produced, 189 factories and refineries being engaged in the industry, and 300,000 tons were available for export.
There are several indigo factories and saltpetre refineries, and a tobacco factory.
Sugar refineries, distilleries of rum, and sawmills are worked in Mayotte by French settlers.
Other industrial establishments of importance include petroleum refineries, ship-yards, brick, stone and lime works, saddlery and harness factories, lithographing establishments, patent medicine works, chemical works, and copper smelters and refineries.
Other important branches of industry are chemicals at Hruschau and Petrowitz; sugar refineries, milling, brewing and liqueurs.
The sugar factories and refineries, situated chiefly in the governments of Warsaw, Lublin and Plock, turn out approximately one million tons of sugar in the year, the Polish sugar industry being exceeded in Russia only by that of Kiev.
The manufacture of woollens and cotton, the domestic manufacture of linen in Zealand, sugar refineries, paper mills, breweries, and distilleries may also be mentioned.
The manufactories include rice mills, saw mills, sash, door and blind factories, shingle mills, iron works, oil refineries, broom factories and a dynamite factory.
After the sinking of oil wells in 1901, Beaumont became one of the principal oil-producing places in the United States; its oil refineries are connected by pipe lines with the surrounding oil fields, and two 6-in.
There are numerous saw-mills, shipbuilding yards, engineering works, distilleries, sugar refineries, tobacco factories, linen bleacheries and stained glass, salt and white lead works.
It is the principal petroleum-distributing centre on the Atlantic seaboard, the enormous refineries and storehouses of the Standard Oil Company, among the largest in the world, being located here; there are connecting pipe lines with the Ohio and Pennsylvania oil fields, and with New York, Baltimore, Philadelphia and Washington.
Of almost equal importance are the sugar refineries and chicory factories.
Among other manufactories, all for the home market, may be mentioned: flour-mills, sugar refineries, rum distilleries, breweries, chocolate factories, a candle factory, sawmills and tanneries.
There are some small industries in the city, including a shipyard, saw-mills, foundry, sugar refineries, cotton and woollen mills, brewery, and manufactures of soap, cigars, chocolate, ice, sodawater and liqueurs.
A little to the north of the navy yard are immense refineries of sugar.
The industries which it has been the principal aim to foster and further develop are shipbuilding (naval and marine), steel foundries and rolling mills, sugar refineries, flour and oil mills, and distilleries.
The industries include ironfoundries, saw-mills, sugar-refineries, breweries and printingworks.
Its sugar refineries are among the largest in Germany.
In1903-1904the cultivation of sugar beets and the manufacture of beet sugar were undertaken, and manufacturing establishments for that purpose were installed at Idaho Falls and Blackfoot (Bingham county), at Sugar, or Sugar City (Fremont county), a place built up about the sugar refineries, and at Nampa, Canyon county.
Oil and natural gas abound in the vicinity; there are oil refineries in the city; and in Boulder county, especially at Nederland, 18 m.
The town contains flour, paper and sawmills, sugar and petroleum refineries, tanneries, distilleries and soap works; it has also a large agricultural trade and is visited in summer for sea-bathing.
The beet sugar industry is one of growing importance in Utah: there were in 2900 3 refineries, having a daily total capacity of 1100 tons of beets; in 1905, 4, with a daily total capacity of 2850 tons; and in 1909,' 5, which treated 455,064 tons of beets and produced 48,884 tons of sugar.
Other industries include sugar refineries, soap, oil, glass, iron, dye and chemical works; distilleries, breweries, tanneries; tobacco and snuff factories; shipbuilding and the manufacture of machinery and stearine candles.
These include petroleum refineries, iron foundries, distilleries, flour mills, sugar refineries, sawmills, paper mills, chemical works, glass works, soap and candle works, &c. A law passed in 1887 provided that any one undertaking to found an industrial establishment with a capital of at least £2000, or employing at least 25 workmen (of whom two-thirds should be Rumanians), should be granted 12 acres of state land, exemption for a term of years from all direct taxes, freedom from customs dues for machinery and raw material imported, exemption from road taxes, reduction in cost of carriage of materials on the state railways, and preferential rights to the supply of manufactured articles to the state.
The local industries are unimportant, consisting of saw-mills, rope-yards, salt refineries, and sail-cloth and margarine factories.
The industrial development has been rather slow: sugar-refineries, tea-packing, oil-mills, tanneries, steam flour-mills, iron and mechanical works, factories of jute sacks, chemical works, tin-plate works, paper-factories are the chief.
Then follow the petroleum refineries and kindred industries, saw-mills and the fabrication of various wood articles, paper and milling.
Besides large tobacco, glass and porcelain factories, Gijon possesses iron foundries and petroleum refineries; while its minor industries include fisheries, and the manufacture of preserved foods, soap, chocolate, candles and liqueurs.
It contains iron foundries, shipbuilding yards, refineries, and other industrial establishments, and enjoys a considerable river trade in grain and coal.
In the vicinity of Cairns are extensive sugar plantations, with sugar mills and refineries; the culture of coffee and tobacco has rapidly extended; bananas, pine-apples and other fruits are exported in considerable quantities and there is a large industry in cedar.
Cleveland is the headquarters of the largest shoddy mills in the country (value of product, 1905, $ 1, 0 84,594), makes much clothing (1905, $ 10, 4 26, 535), manu factures a large portion of the chewing gum made in the United States, and is the site of one of the largest refineries of the Standard Oil Company.
The city is situated in an agricultural and cotton-raising region, and has cotton compresses and gins, cotton mills, cotton-seed oil refineries, foundries and machine shops, and furniture and wagon factories.
Besides the foregoing there are cocoa, chocolate, confectionery and baking-powder factories, coffee-roasting and ham-curing and smoking establishments, lard refineries, margarine manufactories and fish-curing, preserving and packing factories.
The industries include the spinning of jute, flax, hemp and cotton, iron-founding, brewing, and the manufacture of machinery, fishing-nets, sailcloth, sacks, casks, and soap. There are also saw-and flour-mills, petroleum refineries and oil-works.
Petroleum, or rather the heavy oils obtained in tar refineries, having an equal or superior heating power to coal-gas, may also be used in laboratories for producing high temperatures.