A coral reef lies across the entrance.
The channel between the reef and the coast is in places 70 m.
- For Physical Geography: Barton, Australian Physiography (Brisbane, 1895); Wall, Physical Geography of Australia (Melbourne, 1883); Taylor, Geography of New South Wales (Sydney, 1898); Saville Kent, The Great Barrier Reef of Australia (London, 1893); A.
Deep. There are a few clear openings in the outer rampart which the reef presents to the ocean.
In large vessels it is usual to pass a ligature round the vessel and tie it with a reef-knot.
The Great Barrier Reef of Australia can be traced more or less continuously round the Gulf of Papua and along the south-east coast to the extremity of the Louisiades.
Gold-mining went through the usual stages of alluvial washing, deep sinking and quartz-reef working.
The association and distribution of gold may be considered under two different heads, namely, as it occurs in mineral veins - " reef gold," and in alluvial or other superficial deposits which are derived from the waste of the former - " alluvial gold."
Ongtong Java, a coral reef of many islets, lies considerably north of the main group to which, geographically, it can hardly be said to belong.'
The " Pandora," under Captain Edwards, was sent out in search of the " Bounty," and discovered the islands of Cherry and Mitre, east of the Santa Cruz group, but she was eventually lost on a reef in Torres Strait.
It is not at all certain that the masses on which coral reefs are built consist entirely of the remains of the skeletons of reef-forming organisms and it is probable that chemically precipitated carbonate of lime predominates.
Deep. In the Transvaal gold region (South Africa), a number of shafts have been sunk to strike the reef at about 4000 ft.
- This method is employed to extract gold from both alluvial and reef deposits: in the first case it is combined with " hydraulic mining," i.e.
Evidence of slight upheaval is occasionally afforded by an elevated coral-reef along the shore, and evidence of the subsidence of the S.
The port is formed by a stone reef running parallel with and a half-mile from the shore line, within which vessels of light draft find a safe anchorage, except from southerly gales.
The main reef, continuously traced, measures about 62 m.
An almost unbroken barrier reef skirts the west shore at about 5 m.
This was a conservative estimate, and was made before the full extent of the reefs was known; in 1904 Lionel Phillips stated that the main reef series had been proved for 61 m., and he estimated the gold remaining to be mined to be worth £2,500,000,000.
The Devonian system is well exposed in the Reef ton mining field.
The French headquarters are on the islet of Zaudzi, which lies within the reef in 12° 46' S., 45° 20' E.
BELL or INCHCAPE Rock, a sandstone reef in the North Sea, II m.
They lie within a coral barrier reef, and in the south the islands are of coral, but in the north of volcanic rocks.
Two other United States warships, "Trenton" and "Vandalia," were beaten to pieces on the coral reef; and the German warships "Olga" and "Eber" were wrecked with great loss of life.
Another group of islands consists of elevated masses of submarine volcanic deposits, upon some of which coral-reef limestone forms a more or less complete covering; such are Tonumeia and the Nomuka group (Mango, Tonua, Nomuka-iki).
Conglomerate beds occur in belts forming in descending order the Elsburg series, Kimberley series, Bird Reef series, Livingstone Reef series, Main Reef series.
The richest in gold are to be found among the Main Reef series, which yields by far the greater part of the total output of gold from the Transvaal.
In 1883 the discovery of Moodie's Reef near the Kaap Valley led to a considerable influx of diggers and prospectors from the colonies and Europe, and by 1884 the Sheba Mine had been opened up, and Barberton, with a population of 5000 inhabitants, sprung into existence.
Four distinct types of reef gold deposits may be distinguished: (I) Gold may occur disseminated through metalliferous veins, generally with sulphides and more particularly with pyrites.
The surveys and reports of Captain Moresby in 1874 brought home to Queensland (and Australia generally) the dangers possible to her commerce were the coasts opposite to Torres Strait and the entrance to the splendid waterway inside the Barrier Reef to fall into the possession of a foreign power.
According to tradition an abbot of Aberbrothock (Arbroath) had ordered a bell - whence the name of the rock - to be fastened to the reef in such a way that it should respond to the movements of the waves, and thus always ring out a warning to mariners.
Pelsert struck on a reef called " Houtman's Abrolhos " on the 4th of June 1629.
See Geographical Journal, passim; and Atoll of Funafuti: Borings into a Coral Reef (Report of Coral Reef Committee of Royal Society, London, 1904).
In 1886 there was a serious volcanic eruption in the outlying island of Nivafoou, and at the same time Falcon Reef, normally awash at high water, discharged sufficient scoriae and pumice to form a new island 50 ft.
In 1770 Captain Cook here beached his ship the "Endeavour," to repair the damage caused by her striking a reef in the neighbourhood of the estuary, which he could only clear by throwing his guns overboard.
It is not a coral reef, as is sometimes stated, but is a consolidated ancient beach, now as hard and firm as stone.'
The Black Reef Series is composed of quartzites, sandstone, slates and conglomerate.
One is a red granite intruded subsequently to the Waterberg sandstones; another is a grey variety considered to be older than the Black Reef series and possibly older than the Witwatersrand series.
In many places the main reef lies at a great depth and some bore-holes are over 5500 ft.
The town, named after Johannes Rissik, then surveyor-general of the Transvaal, was founded in September 1886, the first buildings being erected on the part of the reef where are now the Ferreira and Wemmer mines.
The gold in this conglomerate reef is partly of detrital origin and partly of the genetic character of ordinary vein-gold.
- A reef-haunting hemipteron (Hermatobates haddonii) with excessively reduced abdomen.
The Black Reef series of quartzites and conglomerates and dolomite form a narrow outcrop resting unconformably upon the last-mentioned system.
In the central and western Pacific the northern and southern limits of the occurrence of reef-forming corals are approximately 30 N.
Often, as has been said, the atoll is divided into a number of islets, but in some smaller atolls the ring is complete, and the sea-water gains access beneath the surface of the reef to the lagoon within, where it is sometimes seen to spout up at the rise of the tide.
The greater part of the coast is surrounded by a coral reef, often half a mile wide; in several localities an old reef upheaved, sometimes 100 ft.
In some places along the coast there is a narrow strip of decomposed coral limestone; often, too, a coral reef has served to catch the sediment washed down the mountain side until a deep sedimentary soil has been deposited.
Its harbour consists of an outer and inner anchorage, the former an open roadstead, which are separated by a remarkable stone reef running parallel with the shore-line, leaving an inside passage 400 to 500 ft.
Evidence of recent elevation of the island is furnished by masses of coral reef and beach coral rock standing at heights of 40 ft.
KEY WEST (from the Spanish Cayo Hueso, " Bone Reef"), a city, port of entry, and the county-seat of Monroe county, Florida, U.S.A., situated on a small coral island (41m.
The town is the centre of the Ovens goldfields, and the district is mainly devoted to mining with both alluvial and reef working, but much of the land is under cultivation, yielding grain and fruit.
These islands form a continuation of a dangerous granite reef extending along the south coast of Finland.
The Great Barrier Reef forms the prominent feature off the north-east coast of Australia; its extent from north to south is 1200 m., and it is therefore the greatest of all coral reefs.
Agassiz, Visit to the Barrier Reef (Cambridge, Mass., 1899); J.
The attacking force was disposed in three groups: (i) the Alexandra, Sultan and Superb, outside the reef, to engage the Ras-el-Tin and the earthworks under weigh; (2) the Monarch, Invincible and Penelope, inside the harbour, to engage the Meks batteries; and (3) the Inflexible and Temeraire, to take up assigned stations outside the reef and to co-operate, with the inshore squadron.
The length of the Tetuaroa reef ring is about six miles; it bears twelve palm-covered islets, of which several are inhabited, and has one narrow boat-passage leading into the lagoon.
Harrison, "The Globigerina-marls and Basal Reef-rocks of Barbados," ibid.
Amongst these are the dome, an isolated elevation rising steeply but not coming within too fathoms of the surface; the bank, an elevation coming nearer the surface than too fathoms, but not so near as 6 fathoms; and finally the shoal or reef, which comes within 6 fathoms of the surface, and so may constitute a danger to shipping.
The shore terrace descends by a steep cliff to the sea, forming the "rise" of a submarine "tread" in the form of a reef which surrounds the island.
The island is low and fertile, and extensively planted with coco-nut palms. It is continued southwards by an extensive reef, on which stands the chief village, Chobe, the residence of a few Arabs and Ban y an traders.
Festschrift zum 70ten Geburtstage von Ernst Haeckel, 19(34) has restored the conditions existing in the lagoons and atoll reefs of the Jurassic sea of Solnhofen in Bavaria; he has traced the process of gradual accumulation of the coral mud now constituting the fine lithographic stones in the inter-reef region, and has recognized the periodic laying bare of the mud surfaces thus formed; he has determined the winds which carried the dust particles from the not far distant land and brought the insects from the adjacent Jurassic forests.
(From Photographs by C. Evans.) In a very few years, however, the open pit mining was rendered impossible by the mud rushes, by the falls of the masses of barren rock known as " reef," which were left standing in the mine, and by landslips from the sides, so that in 1883, when the pit had reached a depth of about 400 ft., mining in the Kimberley crater had become almost impossible.
The port of Pernambuco, or Recife, is formed by a stone reef lying across the entrance to a shallow bay at the mouth of two small rivers, Beberibe and Capibaribe, and is accessible to steamers of medium draught.
Corals, both reef-builders and others, flourished in the clearer waters; rugose forms are represented by Amplexoid, Zaphrentid and Cyathophyllid types, and by Lithostrotion and Phillipsastraea; common tabulate forms are Chaetetes, Chladochonus, Michelinia, &c. Amongst the echinoderms crinoids were the most numerous individually, dense submarine thickets of the long-stemmed kinds appear to have flourished in many places where their remains consolidated into thick beds of rock; prominent genera are Cyathocrinus, Woodocrinus, Actinocrinus; sea-urchins, Archaeocidaris, Palaeechinus, &c., were present; while the curious extinct Blastoids, which included the groups of Pentremitidae and Codasteridae, attained their maximum development.
The entire island is an old coral reef upheaved 200 ft., honeycombed with caves and seamed with fissures.
In the great gale of 1799 seventy sail, including the "York," 74 guns, were wrecked off the reef, and this disaster compelled the authorities to take steps to protect shipping.
The western two-thirds consists of a low plain, composed of an uplifted coral reef and matter washed down from the mountains; but on the E.