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reducing

reducing Sentence Examples

  • While my relationship with Martha LeBlanc, nee Rossi, dated back to our play pen years and kindergarten days, lately we've hiked different paths, reducing our contact to Christmas cards and once a month phone calls.

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  • a dark grey powder by reducing the chloride with potassium,.

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  • The molybdates may be recognized by the fact that they give a white precipitate on the addition of hydrochloric or nitric acids to their solutions, and that with reducing agents (zinc and sulphuric acid) they give generally a blue coloration which turns to a green and finally to a brown colour.

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  • The improvements introduced in 1890 and 1891, whereby this state of affairs was put an end to, consisted in the introduction of the principle of supply by meter, and the adoption of a comprehensive system of reducing the initial pressure of the gas, so as to diminish loss by leakage.

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  • m., a wide delta is thrust out into the lake, reducing its width to 20 m.

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  • He was back in Rome early in 1503, and took part in reducing the last rebel Orsinis.

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  • might have experienced much difficulty in reducing it, had it not been for the pusillanimous conduct of David, the last emperor, who surrendered the place almost unconditionally.

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  • Certain yeasts exercise a reducing action, forming sulphuretted hydrogen, when sulphur is present.

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  • Each problem was something unique; the elements of transition from one to another were wanting; and the next step which mathematics had to make was to find some method of reducing, for instance, all curves to a common notation.

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  • This large influx of Europeans, however, is modifying the population by reducing the Indian and mestizo elements to a minority, although they are still numerous in the mesopotamian, northern and north-western provinces.

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  • He continued to reside at Avignon despite the arguments of envoys and the verses of Petrarch, but threw a sop to the Romans by reducing the Jubilee term from one hundred years to fifty.

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  • The elections were controlled for a few years, and violence was checked, but the Ku Klux movement went on until it accomplished its object by giving protection to the whites, reducing the blacks to order, replacing the whites in control of society and state, expelling the worst of the carpet-baggers and scalawags, and nullifying those laws of Congress which had resulted in placing the Southern whites under the control of a party composed principally of ex-slaves.

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  • This, besides reducing the efficiency of the furnace, introduces the danger of fire to crops and buildings near the line.

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  • Assisted no doubt by their judicial control, the Eupatridae also tended to become sole owners of the land, reducing the original freeholders or tenants to the position of serfs.

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  • It is frequently used as a reducing agent: in acid solutions it reduces ferric to ferrous salts, arsenates to arsenites, permanganates to manganous salts, &c., whilst in alkaline solution it converts many organic nitro compounds into the corresponding amino derivatives.

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  • The peculiar action of electric sparks and waves in reducing the resistance of discontinuous conductors was rediscovered and investigated by Calzecchi Onesti,' by Branly, 2 Dawson Turner, 3 Minchin, Lodge, 4 and many others.

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  • By reducing terephthalic acid with sodium amalgam, care being taken to neutralize the caustic soda simultaneously formed by passing in carbon dioxide, A" dihydroterephthalic acid is obtained; this results from the splitting of a Para-linkage.

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  • The stronger argument against the ethylenoid linkages demanded by Kekule's formula is provided by the remarkable stability towards oxidizing and reducing agents which characterizes all benzenoid compounds.

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  • Heat the substance on a piece of charcoal in the reducing flame of the blowpipe.

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  • If the bead is coloured we may have present: cobalt, blue to violet; copper, green, blue on cooling; in the reducing flame, red when cold; chromium, green, unaltered in the reducing flame; iron, brownish-red, light-yellow or colourless on cooling; in the reducing flame, red while hot, yellow on cooling, greenish when cold; nickel, reddish to brownish-red, yellow to reddish-yellow or colourless on cooling, unaltered in the reducing flame; bismuth, yellowish-brown, light-yellow or colourless on cooling; in the reducing flame, almost colourless, blackish-grey when cold; silver, light yellowish to opal, somewhat opaque when cold; whitish-grey in the reducing flame; manganese, amethyst red, colourless in the reducing flame.

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  • It is susceptible of wider application by mixing reducing agents with the soda-lime; thus Goldberg (Ber.

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  • Normal butyl alcohol, CH 3 (CH 2) 2 CH 2 OH, is a colourless liquid, boiling at 116.8°, and formed by reducing normal butyl aldehyde with sodium, or by a peculiar fermentation of glycerin, brought about by a schizomycete.

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  • Cesare then returned to Rome, where his father wished him to assist Giuffre in reducing the last Orsini strongholds; this for some reason he was unwilling to do, much to Alexander's annoyance, but he eventually marched out, captured Ceri and made peace with Giulio Orsini, who surrendered Bracciano.

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  • Photographic processes have been utilized not only in reducing maps to a smaller scale, but also for producing stones and plates from which they may be printed.

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  • tower, reducing it to a mere shell.

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  • It behaves as a powerful reducing agent, and on hydrolysis with dilute mineral acids is decomposed into formaldehyde and hydroxylamine, together with some formic acid and ammonia, the amount of each product formed varying with temperature, time of reaction, amount of water present, &c. This latter reaction is probably due to some of the oxime existing in the form of the isomeric formamide HCO NH 2.

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  • Priestley, who obtained it by reducing nitrogen peroxide with iron, may be prepared by heating ammonium nitrate at 170-260° C., or by reducing a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acid with zinc. It is a colourless gas, which is practically odourless, but possesses a sweetish taste.

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  • In some instances it reacts as a reducing agent, e.g.

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  • News, 23, p. 206) by reducing a solution of potassium nitrite with sodium amalgam, and subsequent precipitation as silver salt.

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  • In aqueous solution the free acid acts as an oxidizing agent, bleaching indigo and liberating iodine from potassium iodide, or it may act as a reducing agent since it readily tends to pass into nitric acid: consequently it discharges the colour of acid solutions of permanganates and chromates.

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  • On reduction it gives a strongly reducing substance, probably hydrazine.

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  • Sultan Abd-ulHamid, on the other hand, pursued a settled policy of reducing the fleet to impotency, owing to his fear that it might turn against him as it had turned against Abd-ul-Aziz.

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  • So great were its losses that in the year1887-1888it was obliged to write them off by reducing its capital from £2,000,000 to £1,600,000.

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  • Most of the latter were reinstated, with the object of reducing the Turkish power.

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  • The Porte also sent an army against Pasvan Oglu, but after reducing him to submission reinstated him in his government.

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  • In 1847 a recruiting law was promulgated, reducing the period of service (until then unlimited in point of time), to five years.

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  • In 1884 another treaty was signed by the king, confirming and extending French influence, and reducing the royal authority to a shadow, but in view of the discontent aroused by it, its provisions were not put in force till several years later.

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  • The point of this leading shoot is subsequently pinched off, that it may not draw away too much of the sap. If the fruit sets too abundantly, it must be thinned, first when as large as peas, reducing the clusters, and then when as large as nuts to distribute the crop equally; the extent of the thinning must depend on the vigour of the tree, but one or two fruits ultimately left to each square foot of wall is a full average crop. The final thinning should take place after stoning.

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  • by determining the rotation of the plane of polarization of a solution, or, chemically, by taking advantage of its property of reducing alkaline copper solutions.

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  • His men were actively employed in burning the Greek villages, and reducing the inhabitants to slavery.

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  • Although the cost of transport from the remote forest regions of some districts is a serious consideration, this is not likely to be operative in reducing production until there has been a considerable and permanent fall in price, by which time new areas in those countries in which planting is now taking place will probably have come into bearing.

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  • This was reducing the administration of taxation to its simplest form.

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  • He first divides by the factor x -x', reducing it to the degree m - I in both x and x' where m>n; he then forms m equations by equating to zero the coefficients of the various powers of x'; these equations involve the m powers xo, x, - of x, and regarding these as the unknowns of a system of linear equations the resultant is reached in the form of a determinant of order m.

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  • The identities are, in particular, of service in reducing symbolic products to standard forms. A symbolical expression may be always so transformed that the power of any determinant factor (ab) is even.

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  • It puts through 9-12 tons of ore in twenty-four hours, reducing the percentage of sulphur to 2-4%, and requires four to six men and about 2 tons of coal.

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  • The lead produced in the reverberatory furnace and the ore-hearth is of a higher grade than that produced in the blast-furnace, as the ores treated are purer and richer, and the reducing action is less powerful.

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  • When mixed with sodium carbonate and heated on charcoal in the reducing flame lead salts yield malleable globules of metal and a yellow oxide-ring.

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  • The application of an infusion of violet leaves was at one time believed to have the power of reducing the size of cancerous growths, but its use is now discredited.

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  • In order to save arithmetical labour it is convenient to be provided with conversion factors for reducing variously expressed results to the standard form.

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  • Taking the density of iron to be 7.7, the factor for reducing the loss in ergs per c.cm.

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  • Since t horse-power= 746 watts, and r ton = 2 240 lb, the factor for reducing horse-power per ton to watts per lb is 746/2240, or just 1/3.

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  • Some experiments were next undertaken with the view of ascertaining how far magnetic changes of length in iron were dependent upon the hardness of the metal, and the unexpected result was arrived at that softening produces the same effect as tensile stress; it depresses the elongation curve, diminishing the maximum extension, and reducing the " critical value " of the magnetizing force.

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  • They act as reducing agents, silver nitrate in the presence of ammonia being rapidly reduced to the condition of metallic silver.

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  • 1866, 97, p. 37) by reducing the chloride with hydrogen; it has more recently been prepared by H.

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  • Moissan by reducing the oxide with carbon in the electric furnace (the product obtained always contains from 2-3% of combined carbon), and by H.

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  • Industry, 1898, 1 9, p. 543) by reducing the oxide with aluminium powder.

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  • The gold and currency receipts and expenditures for the six years 1900 to 1905, inclusive, according to official returns, were as follows: - Reducing gold to a currency basis at 15d.

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  • The coffee producers of Sao Paulo and other states found that the appreciation in value of the milreis was reducing their profits, and they advocated this measure (at first with a valuation of 12d.) to check the upward movement in exchange.

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  • President Campos Salles entered upon his tenure of office on the 15th of November 1898, and at once proceeded to initiate fiscal legislation for the purpose of reducing expenditure and increasing the revenue.

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  • William had therefore no difficulty in reducing the country, even though Le Mans was assisted by Fulk of Anjou (1073).

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  • Ruff (Ber., 18 9 8, 3 1, p. 457) from nitro-di-isobutyl by reducing it to the corresponding hydroxylamino compound with aluminium amalgam and oxidizing this with chromic acid mixture.

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  • The device known as the method of least squares, for reducing numerous equations of condition to the number of unknown quantities to be determined, had been adopted as a practically convenient rule by Gauss and Legendre; but Laplace first treated it as a problem in probabilities, and proved by an intricate and difficult course of reasoning that it was also the most advantageous, the mean of the probabilities of error in the determination of the elements being thereby reduced to a minimum.

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  • In the course of reducing such expressions as (AB)C, (AB){C(DE)} and the like, where a chain of multiplications has to be performed in a certain order, the multiplications may be all progressive, or all regressive, or partly, one, partly the other.

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  • In the body of the work he displays considerable ingenuity in reducing his problems to simple equations, which admit either of direct solution, or fall into the class known as indeterminate equations.

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  • By reducing the oxide with charcoal at a high temperature, he obtained a product which he took to be metallic uranium.

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  • Analysis.-A borax bead dissolves uranium oxides in the reducing flame with a green, in the oxidizing flame with a yellow, colour.

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  • Instead of reducing chaos to order and concentrating his attention, as Brand had done in the Free State, on establishing security and promoting industry, he took up, with all its entanglements, the policy of intrigues with native chiefs beyond the border and the dream of indefinite expansion.

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  • It was therefore only made possible at all by reducing the rations of the fighting men to a minimum and by undertaking the risks of changing the line of communication three times.

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  • June brought little of, moment, though the Boers scored two minor successes, Kritzinger capturing the village of Jamestown in Cape Colony, and Muller reducing a force of Victorians at Wilmansrust, south of Middelburg.

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  • In the meantime, the concentration camps were becoming filled to overflowing, and a steady stream of captures and surrenders were reducing the hostile power of the republics.

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  • Stannous chloride is largely used in the laboratory as a reducing agent, in dyeing as a mordant.

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  • Tin compounds when heated on charcoal with sodium carbonate or potassium cyanide in the reducing blowpipe flame yield the metal and a scanty ring of white Sn02.

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  • Certain peculiar substances, probably degenerative products, some of them reducing copper, are occasionally met with.

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  • For some of these, as redwater (pyrosoma), antidotes are already found; for others, as for Texas fever - of which the parasite is unknown, but the mode of its transmission, by the mosquito, discovered (Finlay-Reed) - preventive measures are reducing the prevalence.

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  • Y g g The air passes through a reducing valve from the main to an auxiliary tank, in which the pressure is, say, 125 lb, and thence to the driving cylinders.

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  • While in some cases these laws are unnecessarily stringent and tend to restrict the business of mining yet on the whole they have had the effect of reducing greatly the loss of life and injuries of miners where they have been well enforced.

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  • In 1774 Sin-byu-shin was engaged in reducing the marauding tribes.

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  • If oxide of copper is added to a glass mixture containing a strong reducing agent, a glass is produced which when first taken from the crucible is colourless but on being reheated develops a deep crimson - ruby colour.

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  • A certain proportion of soda ash (carbonate of soda) is also used in some works in sheet-glass mixtures, while " decolorizers " (substances intended to remove or reduce the colour of the glass) are also sometimes added, those most generally used being manganese dioxide and arsenic. Another essential ingredient of all glass mixtures containing sulphate of soda is some form of carbon, which is added either as coke, charcoal or anthracite coal; the carbon so introduced aids the reducing substances contained in the atmosphere of the furnace in bringing about the reduction of the sulphate of soda to a condition in which it combines more readily with the silicic acid of the sand.

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  • It behaves as a reducing agent.

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  • This line is to link up with the Benguella railway and put Katanga in direct communication with Lobito Bay, thus reducing the distance to Europe, compared with the Beira route, by over 3,000 miles.

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  • dp dpu dpv dpw -z)' reducing to the first line, the second line vanishing in consequence of the equation of continuity; and so the equation of motion may be written in the more usual form du du du du d dt +udx+vdy +wdz =X -n dx' with the two others dv dv dv dv i dp dt +u dx +v dy +w dz - Y -P d y' dw dw dw Z w dw i d p dt +u dx +v dy +wd - -P dz.

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  • With #=o, the stream is parallel to xo, and 4)=m ch (n-a)cos = - Uc ch (n-a) sh n cos /sh (n-a) (22) over the cylinder n, and as in (12) § 29, =-Ux =-Uc ch n cos t, (23) for liquid filling the cylinder; and _ th n (14) 01 th (7 7 - a) ' over the surface of n; so that parallel to Ox, the effective inertia of the cylinder n, displacing M' liquid, is increased by M'thn/th(n-a), reducing when a= oo to /If' th n = M' (b/a).

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  • ZUy2BB0 Bll; reducing, when the liquid extends to infinity and B 3 =0, to = xA o' _ - zUy 2B o so that in the relative motion past the body, as when fixed in the current U parallel to xO, A 4)'=ZUx(I+Bo), 4)'= zUy2(I-B o) (6) Changing the origin from the centre to the focus of a prolate spheroid, then putting b 2 =pa, A = A'a, and proceeding to the limit where a = oo, we find for a paraboloid of revolution P B - p (7) B = 2p +A/' Bo p+A y2 i =p+A'- 2x, (8) p+?

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  • The Assyrian forces became a standing army, which, by successive improvements and careful discipline, was moulded into an irresistible fighting machine, and Assyrian policy was directed towards the definite object of reducing the whole civilized world into a single empire and thereby throwing its trade and wealth into Assyrian hands.

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  • 8 In 1897 Rost followed up Peiser's suggestion by reducing the figure still further, but he counteracted to some extent the effects of this additional reduction by emending Sennacherib's date for Marduknadin-akhe's defeat of Tiglath-pileser I.

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  • In his first system, published in 1886,' Hommel, mainly with the object of reducing Khammurabi's date, reversed the order of the first two dynasties of the Kings' List, placing Dynasty II.

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  • Lehmann-Haupt .uggested an emendation of the text, reducing the number by a thousand years; 14 while Winckler has regarded the statement of Nabonidus as an uncritical exaggeration.

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  • Arabia, and reducing that country to a state of vassalage: the king is styled in Ethiopian chronicles Caleb (Kaleb), in Greek and Arabic documents El-Esbaha.

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  • A ketose may also be obtained by reducing the osazone with zinc and acetic to an osamine, which with nitrous acid gives the ketose: R R R C :N NHPh.

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  • These reactions permit the transformation of an aldose into a ketose; the reverse change can only be brought about by reducing the ketose to an alcohol, and oxidizing this compound to an aldehyde.

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  • The starting point was ordinary(d)mannite (mannitol),C 6 H 14 0 61 a naturally occurring hexahydric alcohol, which only differed from a-acritol, the alcohol obtained by reducing a-acrose, with regard to optical activity.

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  • On mixing the eslactones and reducing (d + l)-mnanitol was obtained, identical with a-acritol.

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  • It was then found that on reducing the lactone of the acid obtained from d-mannonic acid, ordinary glucose resulted.

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  • The ketone, dihydroxyacetone, CH 2 OH CO CH 2 OH, was obtained by Piloty by condensing formaldehyde with nitromethane, reducing to a hydroxylamino compound, which is oxidized to the oxime of dihydroxyacetone; the ketone is liberated by oxidation with bromine water: 3H CHO + CH 3 NO 2 -- (CH 2 OH) 3 C NO 2 - (CH 2 OH) 3 C NH OH -- (CH 2 OH) 2 C: NOH - > (CH20H)2CO.

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  • Other forms are: d- and l-gulose, prepared from the lactones of the corresponding gulonic acids, which are obtained from d- and /-glucose by oxidation and inversion; d- and l-idose, obtained by inverting with pyridine d- and l-gulonic acids, and reducing the resulting idionic acids; d- and l-galactose, the first being obtained by hydrolysing milk sugar with dilute sulphuric acid, and the second by fermenting inactive galactose (from the reduction of the lactone of d, l-galactonic acid) with yeast; and d- and l-talose obtained by inverting the galactonic acids by pyridine into d- and l-talonic acids and reduction.

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  • On reducing the lactone prepared from the inactive acid an inactive galactose is obtained from which l-galactose may be separated by fermentation.

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  • Cane sugar has no reducing power and does not form an hydrazone or osazone; the other varieties, however, reduce Fehling's solution and form hydrazones and osazones, behaving as aldoses, i.e.

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  • It is found that in reducing the juice of these two qualities to syrup, fit to pass to the vacuum pans for cooking to crystals, the total amount of evaporation from the degraded j uice is about half that required from the normal juice produced by double crushing.

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  • It also results on condensing acetylene, and on reducing phenylacetylene by zinc dust and acetic acid.

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  • These " weathering " agents not only act upon stones of buildings, but upon rocks of all kinds, reducing them sooner or later into a more or less fine powder.

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  • in dry weather, since it promotes capillary action by reducing the soil spaces.

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  • The disease is checked by raising the temperature above 110° F., and reducing the humidity of the barn.

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  • Oxide of zinc, like most heavy metallic oxides, is easily reduced to the metallic state by heating it to redness with charcoal; pure red zinc ore may be treated directly; and the same might be done with pure calamine of any kind, because the carbon dioxide of the zinc carbonate goes off below redness and the silica of zinc silicate only retards, but does not prevent, the reducing action of the charcoal.

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  • In technological chemistry it finds application as a reducing agent, e.g.

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  • This action completed the furnace-circuit, and current passed freely from the positive carbon through the fragments of metal to the negative carbon, thereby reducing the current through the shunt.

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  • By the action of sodium amalgam on an alcoholic solution of anthracene, an anthracene dihydride, C14H12, is obtained, whilst by the use of stronger reducing agents, such as hydriodic acid and amorphous phosphorus, hydrides of composition C14H16 and C14H24 are produced.

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  • Frederick retorted by announcing his intention of reducing "the clergy, especially the highest, to a state of apostolic poverty," and by ordaining the severest punishments for those priests who should obey the papal sentence.

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  • It is a powerful reducing agent.

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  • In the reducing flame the bead becomes violet, more readily on the addition of tin; in the presence of iron it becomes blood-red.

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  • Wallach, Ber., 1881, 14, P. 421); by the action of reducing agents on nitroparaffins; by the action of zinc and hydrochloric acid on aldehyde ammonias (German Patent 73,812); by the reduction of the phenylhydrazones and oximes of aldehydes and ketones with sodium amalgam in the presence of alcohol and sodium acetate (J.

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  • The primary aromatic amines may be prepared by the reduction of the nitro-hydrocarbons, the reducing agents used being either alcoholic-ammonium sulphide (N.

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  • The aromatic amine resembling the aliphatic amines is benzylamine, C 6 H 5 �CH 2 �NH 2, which may be prepared by reducing benzonitrile in alcoholic solution by means of zinc and acetic acid (0.

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  • The diamines are prepared by reducing the nitranilines or the dinitrohydrocarbons.

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  • The methods formerly employed in reducing ores were lixiviation and amalgamation with quicksilver, but modern methods are gradually coming into use.

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  • Since many substances decompose either at, or below, their boiling-points under ordinary atmospheric pressure, it is necessary to lower the boiling-point by reducing the pressure if it be desired to distil them.

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  • Instances of its application are found in the separation of orthoand para-nitrophenol, the o-compound distilling and the p- remaining behind; in the separation of aniline from the mixture obtained by reducing nitrobenzene; of the naphthols from the melts produced by fusing the naphthalene monosulphonic acids with potash; and of quinoline from the reaction between aniline, nitrobenzene, glycerin, and sulphuric acid (the product being first steam distilled to remove any aniline, nitrobenzene, or glycerin, then treated with alkali, and again steam distilled when quinoline comes over).

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  • It is a white solid, which readily decomposes water in the cold and behaves as a strong reducing agent.

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  • The last completely altered the aspect of the me, considerably reducing its height.

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  • were: combined textiles (not including flax, hemp and jute products) in 1900, $77,998,396; in 1905, $103,096, 311; foundry and machine shop products in 1900, $13,269,086; in 1905, $16,338,512; woollen goods in 1900, $5,330,550; in 1905, $8,163,167; rubber boots and shoes in 1 9 00, $8,034,417; electrical machinery, apparatus and supplies in 1900, $5,113,292; in 1905, $5,435,474; silversmithing and silverware in 1900, $4,249,190; in 1905, $5,323,264; gold and silver, reducing and refining (not from ore) in 1900, $3,484,454; in 1905, $4,260,698; cotton small wares in 1900, $2,379,500; in 1 905, $3,944, 60 7; hosiery and knit goods in 1900, $2,713,850; in 1905, $3,344,655; silk and silk goods in 1900, $1,311,333; in 1905, $2,555,986.

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  • In the year 1776, General Howe sent a detachment of his army under General Henry Clinton to seize Newport as a base of operations for reducing New England, and the city was occupied by the British on the 8th of December 1776.

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  • The government redeemed their pledge to do something for the relief of the agricultural interest by reducing the duty on malt.

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  • Hydrogen and oxygen may also be produced electrolytically as gases, and their respective reducing and oxidizing powers at the moment of deposition on the electrode are frequently used in the laboratory, and to some extent industrially, chiefly in the field of organic chemistry.

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  • The Cornhill followed the same example in 1883, reducing its price to sixpence and devoting its pages to light reading.

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  • Potassium ferrous oxalate, FeK2(C204)2 H20, is a strong reducing agent and is used as a photographic developer.

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  • In spite of strong personal opinions to the contrary, he accepted the Triennial Act (1694), the vote reducing the army to io,000 men (1697), the vote disbanding his favourite Dutch Guards (1699) and even (November 1699) a bill re- scinding the grants of forfeited Irish estates, which he had made to his favourites.

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  • Salvius Julianus was entrusted by Hadrian with the task of reducing into shape the immense mass of law which had grown up in the edicts of successive praetors - thus taking the first step towards a code.

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  • It follows that the drug is an antipyretic, and it is hence largely used in fevers as a means of reducing the temperature.

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  • He was active in completing the subjugation of the Balkan hill-country to the west and north, and in reducing the Greek cities of the coast as far as the Hebrus (Maritza).

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  • The action is not properly understood; it may be due to the reducing gases (hydrogen, hydrocarbons, &c.) which are invariably present in wood charcoal.

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  • Effects of Emigration.-There are two views with regard to emigration: one unfavourable, viz., that it is a drain on population, reducing its economic strength and disturbing social and political relations; the second looking upon it as a relief from over-population and a congested labour market.

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  • a-Naphthylamine is prepared by reducing a-nitronaphthalene with iron and hydrochloric acid at about 70° C., the reaction mixture being neutralized with milk of lime, and the naphthylamine steam-distilled.

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  • `Amr pursued the Greeks to Alexandria, but finding that it was impossible to take the place by storm, he contented himself with blockading it with the greater part of his army, and reducing the Delta to submission with the rest.

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  • But in reducing Alexandrian dates to the common era it must be observed that Julius Africanus placed the epoch of the Incarnation three years earlier than it is placed in the usual reckoning, so that the initial day of the Christian era fell in the year 5503 of the Alexandrian era.

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  • It was used largely for copying, for reducing or for enlarging existing drawings.

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  • Tantalum tetroxide, Ta 2 0 4, is a porous dark grey mass harder than glass, and is obtained by reducing the pentoxide with magnesium.

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  • in., was supplied for respiration through a reducing valve which brought it down nearly to atmospheric pressure.

    0
    0
  • A great future was expected from its use in the liquid state, since a cylinder fitted with the necessary reducing valves would supply the gas to light a house for a considerable period, the liquid occupying about T h.

    0
    0
  • The introduction of acetylene dissolved under pressure in acetone contained in cylinders filled with porous material drew attention again to this use of the gas, and by using a special construction of blowpipe an oxy-acetylene flame is produced, which is far hotter than the oxy-hydrogen flame, and at the same time is so reducing in its character that it can be used for the direct autogenous welding of steel and many minor metallurgical processes.

    0
    0
  • At the same time, continuing in this quarter also the work of his father (who in 1025 took prisoner Herbert Wake-Dog and only set him free on condition of his doing him homage), Geoffrey succeeded in reducing the countship of Maine to complete dependence on himself.

    0
    0
  • After proving that the secular rulers were free and in duty bound to correct the evils of the Church, Luther sketches a plan for preventing money from going to Italy, for reducing the number of idle, begging monks, harmful pilgrimages and excessive holidays.

    0
    0
  • " Yet in spite of this harsh talk about princes, Luther relied upon them to forward the reforms in which he was interested, and he justly claimed that he had greatly increased their powers by reducing the authority of the pope and subjecting the clergy in all things to the civil government.

    0
    0
  • For granting that it places the centre of reality outside the individual self it does so only at the price of reducing the reality of the latter to an appearance; 1 Institutes of Metaphysics (1854); Works (1866).

    0
    0
  • On the other hand, it is readily attacked by reducing agents.

    0
    0
  • Gadow has more recently treated of this family, reducing the number of both genera and species, though adding a new genus discovered since the publication of Shelley's work.

    0
    0
  • The trichloride, OsC1 3, is only known in solution and is formed by the reducing action of mercury on ammoniacal solutions of the tetroxide.

    0
    0
  • As this money was drawn from the channels of business and locked up in the public vaults, the president looked upon the condition as fraught with danger to the commercial community and he addressed himself to the task of reducing taxation.

    0
    0
  • His chief work was, however, in reducing the expenses of the armies.

    0
    0
  • Olivier introduced screw presses for striking coins, together with rolls for reducing the cast bars and machines for punching-out round disks from flattened sheets of metal, in Paris in 1553.

    0
    0
  • The Swedish, Norwegian, Ontario and Michigan mines yield ores of this kind; and though none of them can be profitably worked as a source of phosphate, yet on reducing the ore it may be retained in the slags, and thus rendered available for agriculture.

    0
    0
  • Peel on this subject in the early days of the Tory administration, and the queen talked of reducing her establishment in order that she might give away larger sums in charities.

    0
    0
  • The threatened breach with Russia had been avoided by Metternich's influence on the tsar Alexander; the death of Ali of Iannina had set free the army of Khurshid Pasha, who now, as seraskier of Rumelia, was charged with the task of reducing the Morea.

    0
    0
  • Robert now resolved to employ Roger's genius in reducing Sicily, which contained, besides the Moslems, numerous Greek Christians subject to Arab princes who had become all but independent of the sultan of Tunis.

    0
    0
  • The necessity for reducing the revenue and cutting down the continued surplus was met in this way rather than by lowering the protective duties.

    0
    0
  • They were first prepared synthetically by reducing the isonitrosoketones.

    0
    0
  • -Dimethylpyrazine, or ketine, C4H2(CH3)2N2, is obtained by reducing isonitrosoacetone, or by heating glycerin with ammonium chloride and ammonium phosphate.

    0
    0
  • above), also known as diethylene diamine, may be prepared by reducing pyrazine, or, better, by combining aniline and ethylene bromide to form diphenyl diethylene diamine, the dinitroso compound of which hydrolyses to para-dinitrosophenol and pipera zine.

    0
    0
  • Charcoal is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent in metallurgical processes.

    0
    0
  • It is a powerful reducing agent, especially at high temperatures.

    0
    0
  • They are crystalline solids which are readily converted into para-alkylated phenols by reducing agents.

    0
    0
  • Reducing the figures to a three years' average, the North furnished about 45% of her military population, the South not less than 90% for that term.

    0
    0
  • Sherman, like Sheridan, was much criticized for his methods of reducing opposition, but it does not seem that his "bummers" were guilty of wanton cruelty and destructiveness, at least in general, though the cavalry naturally gave more ground for the accusation than the main body of the army.

    0
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  • 40, " The sojourning of the children of Israel in the land of Egypt, and in the land of Canaan, was 430 years," reducing the period of the sojourn in Egypt to half of that stated in the Hebrew text, viz.

    0
    0
  • More usually each cathamma is a wide triangular area, reducing the peripheral portion of the coelenteron to the four narrow radial canals and the ring-canal above described.

    0
    0
  • The earthquake shocks of the 30th and 31st of July 1909 were unusually severe throughout southern Mexico, reducing Acapulco and Chilpancingo to ruins and shaking the city of Mexico severely.

    0
    0
  • After 1896 substantial annual surpluses were spent in reducing taxation and in the extinction of debt.

    0
    0
  • The revolutions of 1830 strengthened Frederick William in his reactionary tendencies; the question of the constitution was indefinitely shelved; and in 1831 Prussian troops concentrated on the frontier helped the task of the Russians in reducing the military rising in Poland.

    0
    0
  • Self-control in the choice of pleasures with a view to reducing pain to a minimum is indispensable.

    0
    0
  • It is a powerful reducing agent, and is frequently employed for this purpose in organic chemistry; thus hydroxy acids are readily reduced on heating with the concentrated acid, and nitro compounds are reduced to amino compounds, &c. It is preferable to use the acid in the presence of amorphous phosphorus, for the iodine liberated during the reduction is then utilized in forming more hydriodic acid, and consequently the original amount of acid goes much further.

    0
    0
  • The cyanides are usually reducing agents.

    0
    0
  • It is stable ir, dry air, but is easily oxidized when fused, in which condition it is a powerful reducing agent.

    0
    0
  • Potassium ferrocyanide may be estimated quantitatively in acid solution by oxidation to ferricyanide by potassium permanganate (in absence of other reducing agents): 5K 4 Fe(NC)s + KMnO 4 + 4H2S04= 5K 3 Fe(NC)s + 3K2S04+MnS04+4H20.

    0
    0
  • It is distinguished from the other members of the series by certain characteristic properties; for example, it shows an aldehydic character in reducing silver salts to metallic silver, and it does not form an acid chloride or an acid anhydride.

    0
    0
  • Moreover, the sea has worked on the shore line thus originated, reducing the size of the more exposed islands farther east, and even consuming some islands which are now represented by the Nantucket shoals.

    0
    0
  • The Tenth Census put it beyond doubt that economic and social forces had been at work, reducing the rate of multiplication.

    0
    0
  • Early in the I 8th century the industry began to extend over New England and into New Jersey, the German bloomery forge being employed for reducing the ore directly to bar iron, and by the middle of that century it had taken a pretty firm hold in the Atlantic colonies.

    0
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  • Large changes are made both by way of increasing and reducing his estimates.

    0
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  • Only after years of conflict, however, did he succeed in reducing these unruly desperadoes to something like obedience.

    0
    0
  • This has been a means of reducing the ocean freight per ton.

    0
    0
  • Speusippus as president of the Academy from 347 to 339 taught that the one and the many are principles, while abolishing forms and reducing the good from cause to effect.

    0
    0
  • Lastly, the two works agree in reducing the Categories to substance and its belongings (inrapxovra).

    0
    0
  • The line on the scale marked "concentration" indicates the diminution in volume consequent upon reducing the sample to proof strength (if it is over proof, O.P.) or upon reducing proof spirit to the strength of the sample (if it is under proof, U.P.).

    0
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  • To obtain a good reducing flame (in which the combustible matter, very hot, but not yet burned, is disposed to take oxygen from any compound containing it), the nozzle, with smaller orifice, should just touch the flame at a point higher above the wick, and a somewhat weaker current of air should be blown.

    0
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  • The substance to be reduced is brought into the luminous portion, where the reducing power is strongest.

    0
    0
  • Charcoal is valuable for its infusibility and low conductivity for heat (allowing substances to be strongly heated upon it), and for its powerful reducing properties; so that it is chiefly employed in testing the fusibility of minerals and in reduction.

    0
    0
  • Ostwald (ibid., 1900, 35, pp. 33, 204) has observed that on dissolving chromium in dilute acids, the rate of solution as measured by the evolution of gas is not continuous but periodic. It is largely made as ferro-chrome, an alloy containing about 60-70% of chromium, by reducing chromite in the electric furnace or by aluminium.

    0
    0
  • Reducing agents, such as sulphurous acid and sulphuretted hydrogen, convert the chromates into chromic salts.

    0
    0
  • Chromous chloride, CrC1 2, is prepared by reducing chromic chloride in hydrogen; it forms white silky needles, which dissolve in water giving a deep blue solution, which rapidly absorbs oxygen, forming basic chromic salts, and acts as a very strong reducing agent.

    0
    0
  • They may be prepared by the reduction of nitro compounds in alkaline solution (using zinc dust and alkali, or a solution of an alkaline stannite as a reducing agent); by oxidation of hydrazo compounds; or by the coupling of a diazotized amine and any compound of a phenolic or aminic type, provided that there is a free para position in the amine or phenol.

    0
    0
  • By oxidizing agents they are converted into azoxy compounds, and by reducing agents into hydrazo compounds or amines.

    0
    0
  • Mitscherlich in 1834, may be prepared by reducing nitrobenzene in alcoholic solution with zinc dust and caustic soda; by the condensation of nitrosobenzene with aniline in hot glacial acetic acid solution; or by the oxidation of aniline with sodium hypobromite.

    0
    0
  • Amino-azo-benzene, C6H5 N2 C 6 H 4 NH 2, crystallizes in yellow plates or needles and melts at 126° C. Its constitution is determined by the facts that it may be prepared by reducing nitro-azo-benzene by ammonium sulphide and that by reduction with stannous chloride it yields aniline and.

    0
    0
  • In the same way the federation of Swiss cantons, of the states of the North American Union and of the present German Empire have served as means of reducing the number of possible parties to war, and consequently that of its possible occasions.

    0
    0
  • The most complete hydrogen spectrum is that measured by Evershed 8 in the flash spectrum observed during a total solar eclipse, and contains thirty-one lines, all of which agree with considerable accuracy with the formula, if the frequency number n is calculated correctly by reducing the wave-length to vacuo.9 It is a characteristic of Balmer's formula that the frequency approaches a definite limit as s is increased, and it was soon discovered that in several other spectra besides hydrogen, series of lines could be found, which gradually come nearer and nearer to each other as they become fainter, and approach a definite limit.

    0
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  • It possesses all the characteristic properties of an aldehyde; being readily oxidized to benzoic acid; reducing solutions of silver salts; forming addition products with hydrogen, hydrocyanic acid and sodium bisulphite; and giving an oxime and a hydrazone.

    0
    0
  • This provision has been successful in reducing the number of Japanese coming to the mainland from Hawaii.

    0
    0
  • Finding the language of the two groups nearly the same, Mr Ellis, who had spent several years in the southern islands, was able to assist the American missionaries in reducing the Hawaiian language to a written form.

    0
    0
  • A salt MgCO 3.3H 2 O or Mg(CO 3 H)(OH) 2H 2 O may be prepared from the carbonate by dissolving it in water charged with carbon dioxide, and then reducing the pressure (W.

    0
    0
  • But, in spite of these materialistic tendencies, he followed Hume in reducing matter and everything knowable to phenomena of consciousness; and, supposing that nothing is knowable beyond phenomena, concluded that we can neither affirm nor deny that anything exists beyond, but ought to take up an attitude which the ancient sceptics called Aphasia, but he dubbed by the new name of Agnosticism.

    0
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  • In reducing the thing in itself to a thought he projected the neo-Kantism of Lange and Cohen.

    0
    0
  • Schelling perceived that Hegel, in reducing everything to infinite mind, absorbed man's free but finite personality in God, and, in declaring that everything real is rational, failed to explain evil and sin: indeed, the English reader of T.

    0
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  • (d) Hence, first inductively and then deductively, the third law was originally discovered only as a law of collision or impact between bodies of ascertained weights and therefore masses, impressing on one another equal and opposite changes of momentum, and always reducing one another to a joint mass with a common velocity to begin with, apart from the subsequent effects of elasticity.

    0
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  • It shows that the bodies impress on one another opposite changes of velocity inversely as their weights or masses; and that in doing so they always begin by reducing one another to a joint mass with a common velocity, whatever they may do afterwards in consequence of their elasticities.

    0
    0
  • The chief results we have found against idealism are that bodies have not been successfully analysed except into bodies, as real matter; and that bodies are known to exert reciprocal pressure in reducing one another to a joint mass with a common velocity by being mutually impenetrable, as real forces.

    0
    0
  • The understanding, however, between the two contracting parties was very far from being clear and complete, as each party still sought to attain its own aim by spreading in the Christian world divergent interpretations of the concordat and widely-differing plans for reducing it to its final form.

    0
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  • His reputation for sacrilege, increased five years later by the abolition of many monasteries, became notorious when the formation of the kingdom of Italy (1861) took away all the dominions of the pope except the patrimony of Peter, thereby reducing the papal provinces from twenty to five, and their population from over 3,000,000 to about 685,000.

    0
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  • Believing protective tariff duties to be unconstitutional, he voted against the "tariff of abominations" in 1828, and also against the tariff of 1832, since the latter measure, though reducing duties, showed no abandonment of the protective principle.

    0
    0
  • They may be recognized by the fact that on the addition of a solution of ferrous sulphate, followed by that of concentrated sulphuric acid (the mixture being kept quite cold), the ferrous sulphate solution becomes of a deep brown colour, owing to the reducing action of the ferrous sulphate on the nitric acid which is liberated by the action of the sulphuric acid on the nitrate.

    0
    0
  • The wind, which had died away, shifted to the southward, greatly reducing the efficiency of the screen.

    0
    0
  • Wdhler repeated the experiment at Göttingen in 1827, employing potassium alone as the reducing agent, he obtained it in the metallic state for the first time.

    0
    0
  • His attention was at first divided between two processes - the chemical method of reducing the chloride with potassium, and an electrolytic method of decomposing it with a carbon anode and a platinum cathode, which was simultaneously imagined by himself and R.

    0
    0
  • It consisted simply in reducing cryolite with metallic sodium exactly as in Deville's chloride method, and it was claimed to possess various mythical advantages over its rival.

    0
    0
  • Seeing that sodium was the only possible reducing agent, he set himself to cheapen its cost, and deliberately rejecting sodium carbonate for the more expensive sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), and replacing carbon by a mixture of iron and carbon - the so-called carbide of iron - he invented the highly scientific method of winning the alkali metal which has remained in existence almost to the present day.

    0
    0
  • Grabau patented a method of reducing the simple fluoride of aluminium with sodium, and his process was operated at Trotha in Germany.

    0
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  • By 1888 Hall was at work on a commercial scale at Pittsburg, reducing German alumina; in 1891 the plant was removed to New Kensington for economy in fuel, and was gradually enlarged to 150o h.p.; in 1894 a factory driven by water was erected at Niagara Falls, and subsequently works were established at Shawenegan in Canada and at Massena in the United States.

    0
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  • The conidia are fragrant and are carried by bees to the stigma of the bilberry; here they germinate with the pollen and the hyphae pass with the pollen tubes down the style; the former infect the ovules and produce sclerotia, therein reducing the fruits to a mummified condition.

    0
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  • But if we rely on this means we have difficulty in reducing the sulphur content of the metal to 0.03% and very great difficulty in reducing it to 0.02%, whereas with the calcium sulphide of the electric furnaces we can readily reduce it to less than 0.01%.

    0
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  • 33, while the vertical component of the motion of the rear part JJ of the rolls forces the plastic metal of that part of " the piece " with which they are in contact backwards and centrewards, reducing its area and simultaneously lengthening it proportionally, here again as in drawing through a die.

    0
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  • Hydrogen is a very powerful reducing agent; the gas occluded by palladium being very active in this respect, readily reducing ferric salts to ferrous salts, nitrates to nitrites and ammonia, chlorates to chlorides, &c.

    0
    0
  • Hydrogen peroxide can also react as a reducing agent, thus silver oxide is reduced with, a rapid evolution of oxygen.

    0
    0
  • the product of reflection upon experience, thus reducing the valiuity of the historical argument to that of the theoretical proofs.

    0
    0
  • Near the town is a station for reducing the voltage, and current is distributed at 125 volts for lighting purposes and at 500 volts for use on the tramways and for other power purposes.

    0
    0
  • Sodium and potassium carbonates are valuable for fluxing off silica; mixed with potassium nitrate sodium carbonate forms a valuable oxidizing fusion mixture; "black flux" is a reducing flux composed of finely divided carbon and potassium carbonate, and formed by deflagrating a mixture of argol with 4 to 2 its weight of nitre.

    0
    0
  • The first compound, containing a group COH, or more explicitly 0 = CH, is an aldehyde, having a pronounced reducing power, producing silver from the oxide, and is therefore called propylaldehyde; the second compound containing the group - C CO C - behaves differently but just as characteristically, and is a ketone, it is therefore denominated propylketone (also acetone or dimethyl ketone).

    0
    0
  • They increased their power considerably by reducing the voting qualification for electors to provincial councils to 20 frs., and to communal councils to 10 frs., and also by recognizing the importance of what was styled " the Flemish Movement."

    0
    0
  • Diamond may break with a conchoidal fracture, but the crystals always cleave readily along planes parallel to the octahedron faces: of this property the diamond cutters avail themselves when reducing the stone to the most convenient form for cutting; a sawing process, has, however, now been introduced, which is preferable to that of cleavage.

    0
    0
  • Such a contention, however, clearly defeats its own object by reducing all action to chance.

    0
    0
  • It doubtless arose from the necessity of reducing bulk to a minimum for conveyance by caravan across the great trade routes of Asia, and now B r cks a ad that the railway and the steamship have supplemented tablets.

    0
    0
  • Debray prepared it, in a compact state, by reducing the volatilized chloride with melted sodium, in an atmosphere of hydrogen.

    0
    0
  • of France, together with other international mt mat complications, prevented the emperor from following affairs of up his victory over the Turks, or from reducing the GerWany.

    0
    0
  • After the union of Castile and Leon in that year he began the series of campaigns which ended by reducing the Mahommedan dominions in Spain to Granada.

    0
    0
  • The Scandinavian data, from the wealth of observations, are probably the most representative, and even in the most northern district of Scandinavia the smallness of the excess of the frequencies in December and January over those in March and October suggests that some influence tending to create maxima at the equinoxes has largely counterbalanced the influence of sunlight and twilight in reducing the frequency at these seasons.

    0
    0
  • The Coalition gained an absolute majority and the Independence party became the strongest political group. Nevertheless the various adherents of the dual system retained an actual majority in the Chamber and prevented the Independence party from attempting to realize its programme of reducing the ties between Hungary and Austria to the person of the joint ruler.

    0
    0
  • For removing rock in reducing a surface to a level, or in quarrying, cuts were made with a pick, forming straight trenches, and the blocks were then broken out between these.

    0
    0
  • The interval was spent by him in founding the city Fostat (Fustat), near the modern Cairo, and called after the camp (Fossatum) occupied by him while besieging Babylon.; and in reducing those coast towns that still offered resistance.

    0
    0
  • By 875 he found himself strong enough to refuse to send tribute to Bagdad, preferring to spend the revenues of Egypt on the maintenance of his army and the erection of great buildings, such as his famous mosque; and though Mowaffaq advanced against him with an army, the project of reducing Abmad to submission had to be abandoned for want of means.

    0
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  • The effect of thus reducing the excitant action of the environment is to give consciousness over more to mere revivals by memory, and gradually consciousness lapses.

    0
    0
  • (1319-1331) was constrained to grant another charter considerably reducing the prerogative, increasing the privileges of the upper classes, and at the same time reducing the burden of taxation.

    0
    0
  • It was therefore clearly necessary with regard to both the older and the newer law to take some steps to collect into one or more bodies or masses so much of the law as was to be regarded as binding, reducing it within a reasonable compass, and purging away the contradictions or inconsistencies which it contained.

    0
    0
  • An endeavour had been made by the emperor Leo the Isaurian to remedy this evil, but his attempted reform of the law had been rather calculated to increase its uncertainty; and it was reserved for Basil the Macedonian to show himself worthy of the throne, which he had usurped, by purifying the administration of justice and once more reducing the law into an intelligible code.

    0
    0
  • It may also be obtained by reducing nitrourea in acid solution with zinc dust.

    0
    0
  • phys., 1807, 3, p. 452) obtained an impure metal by reducing the carbonate at a high temperature with charcoal, mixed with a small quantity of oil.

    0
    0
  • Wahl [German patent 70773 (1893)] prepare a 97% manganese from pyrolusite by heating it with 30% sulphuric acid, the product being then converted into manganous oxide by heating in a current of reducing gas at a dull red heat, cooled in a reducing atmosphere, and finally reduced by heating with granulated aluminium in a magnesia crucible with lime and fluorspar as a flux.

    0
    0
  • A purer metal is obtained by reducing manganese amalgam by hydrogen (0.

    0
    0
  • Ann., 1830, 21, p. 584); or by reducing the higher oxides with hydrogen or carbon monoxide.

    0
    0
  • The general terms of language simplify the universe by reducing its variety of individuals to a few forms, none of which exists simply and perfectly.

    0
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  • 5, 6), show that, in defending these propositions, Gorgias availed himself of the arguments which Zeno had used to discredit the popular belief in the existence of the Many; in other words, that Gorgias turned the destructive logic of Zeno against the constructive ontology of Parmenides, thereby not only reducing Eleaticism to nothingness, but also, until such time as a better logic than that of Zeno should be provided, precluding all philosophical inquiry whatsoever.

    0
    0
  • Thus the stout Aryans spread eastwards through northern India, pushed on from behind by later arrivals of their own stock, and driving before them, or reducing to bondage, the earlier " black-skinned " races.

    0
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  • regent and tutor to her son; the pope's authority was contested by various nobles, but in 1209 Frederick married Costanza, daughter of the king of Aragon, with whose help he succeeded in reducing a large part of Sicily to obedience.

    0
    0
  • At the close of the Mahratta War, in 1804, and again in 1805, he negotiated important treaties with Sindhia and Holkar, and in 1806, besides seeing the arrangements arising out of these alliances carried out, he directed the difficult work of reducing the immense body of irregular native troops.

    0
    0
  • Schuster in 1895, which had the effect of reducing the above figure to 4.173.

    0
    0
  • 18 95, p. 945) has obtained metallic nickel from the Canadian mattes by first roasting them and then eliminating copper by the action of sulphuric acid, the product so obtained being then exposed to the reducing action of producer gas at about 350° C. The reduced metal is then passed into a "volatilizer" and exposed to the action of carbon monoxide at about 80° C., the nickel carbonyl so formed being received in a chamber heated to 180-200° C., where it decomposes, the nickel being deposited and the carbon monoxide returned to the volatilizer.

    0
    0
  • Dewar and Jones suggest that in the latter reaction it is the metallic nickel which is probably the reducing agent effecting the change, since it is only dissolved in any quantity when the anthracene hydrocarbon is produced.

    0
    0
  • Instead of requiring from its population all kinds of work and reducing its ordinary occupations to a hard-and-fast routine meeting in a slow and unskilled manner all possible contingencies, the local group began to move, to call in workmen from abroad for tasks of a special nature, and to send its own workmen to look out for profitable employment in other places.

    0
    0
  • The symbolic logic, which confuses " is " with " is equal to," having introduced a particular kind of predicate into the copula, falls into the mistake of reducing all predication to the one category of the quantitative; whereas it is more often in the substantial, e.g.

    0
    0
  • Induction, in fact, is no species of deduction; they are opposite processes, as Aristotle regarded them except in the one passage where he was reducing the former to the latter, and as Bacon always regarded them.

    0
    0
  • The metal is prepared by distilling the carbonate with carbon (an explosive compound similar to that obtained from potassium and carbon monoxide is liable to be formed simultaneously); by reducing the hydroxide with aluminium: 4RbOH+2A1=Rb 2 O Al203+2Rb+2H2 (N.

    0
    0
  • On a small scale it is obtained by reducing the trioxide in a current of hydrogen, or the chloride by sodium vapour, or the oxide with carbon in the electric furnace; in the last case the product is porous and can be welded like iron.

    0
    0
  • In the form of a powder, it is obtained by reducing the oxide with zinc and extracting with soda, or by dissolving out the manganese from its alloys with tungsten.

    0
    0
  • Tungsten dioxide, W02, formed on reducing the trioxide by hydrogen at a red heat or a mixture of the trioxide and hydrochloric acid with zinc, or by decomposing the tetrachloride with water, is a brown strongly pyrophoric powder, which must be cooled in hydrogen before being brought into contact with air.

    0
    0
  • The sodium compound was first obtained by Wohler on reducing sodium tungstate with hydrogen; coal-gas, zinc, iron or tin also effect the reduction.

    0
    0
  • The dichloride, WC1 2, is an amorphous grey powder obtained by reducing the hexachloride at a high temperature in hydrogen, or, better, by heating the tetrachloride in a current of carbon dioxide.

    0
    0
  • The dibromide, WBr 2, is a non-volatile bluishblack powder obtained by reducing the pentabromide with hydrogen.

    0
    0
  • Both cities, along with Venice, but especially the Genoese, also did excellent service in reducing the Syrian coast towns still in the hands of the Turks in the reigns of Kings Baldwin I.

    0
    0
  • When the clergy, refusing to acknowledge the authority of the Burgesses in reducing their stipends, and, appealing to the king against the Assembly, entered the courts to recover damages from the vestries, Patrick Henry at Hanover court in 1763 easily convinced the jury and the people that the old church was wellnigh worthless.

    0
    0
  • Synthetically it may ba obtained by reducing malic or tartaric acids with hydriodic acid (R.

    0
    0
  • Dessaignes, ibid., 1860, 115, p. 120; by reducing fumaric and maleic acids with sodium amalgam; by heating bromacetic acid with silver to 130° C.; in small quantity by the oxidation of acetic acid with potassium persulphate (C. Moritz and R.

    0
    0
  • Naturally, therefore, he did not participate in debate; and he seems to have spoken but once, and then to favour an amendment reducing from 40,000 to 30,000 the minimum population required as a basis of representation in the House.

    0
    0
  • Congress passed an act gradually reducing the duties to a revenue basis, and South Carolina repealed her nullification measures.

    0
    0
  • The city's industrial establishments include smelting works and a large number of reduction works, among which are some of the largest and most important in the republic. It was here that Bartolome de Medina discovered the "patio" process of reducing silver ores with quicksilver in 1 557, and his old hacienda de beneficio is still to be seen.

    0
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  • One of the most important of his investigations had to do with the manufacture of guncotton, and he developed a process, consisting essentially of reducing the nitrated cotton to fine pulp, which enabled it to be prepared with practically no danger and at the same time yielded the product in a form that increased its usefulness.

    0
    0
  • As it overswelled the revenue, in 1832 he vigorously favoured reducing tariff rates on all articles not competing with American products.

    0
    0
  • His speech in behalf of the measure was for years a protection text-book; but the measure itself reduced the revenue so little and provoked such serious threats of nullification and secession in South Carolina, that, to prevent bloodshed and to forestall a free trade measure from the next Congress, Clay brought forward in 1833 a compromise gradually reducing the tariff rates to an average of 20%.

    0
    0
  • Oliver Heaviside after 1880 rendered much assistance by reducing Maxwell's mathematical analysis to more compact form and by introducing greater precision into terminology (see his Electrical Papers, 1892).

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  • He also invented a device which allowed the bed on which the type pages were placed to run in and out more readily, thus reducing the great labour involved in that part of the work of the older form of press, and he also used a new kind of iron lever or handle to turn the screw which applied the necessary pressure.

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  • When using iron as the precipitant, it is desirable that the solution should be as neutral as possible, and the quantity of ferric salts present should be reduced to a minimum; otherwise, a certain amount of iron would be used up by the free acid and in reducing the ferric salts.

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  • It is obtained as a fine red crystalline precipitate by reducing an alkaline copper solution with sugar.

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  • It is a strong reducing agent.

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  • R CH R Ciohc R They are weak bases, and the ring system is readily split by evaporation with hydrochloric acid, or by the action of reducing and oxidizing agents.

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  • In the intervals of these journeys he governed Tours with great firmness, repressing disorders and reducing the monks and nuns to obedience.

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  • He at once applied himself to moral and administrative reform; declared against nepotism, introduced economy, abolished sinecures, wiped out the deficit (at the same time reducing rents), closed the gaming-houses, and issued a number of sumptuary ordinances.

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  • The Caps succeeded in transferring L250,000 from the pockets of the rich to the empty exchequer, reducing the national debt by L575,179, and establishing some sort of equilibrium between revenue and expenditure.

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  • from it and traversing the system is made infinitely narrow by reducing me aperture stop; such a pencil consists of the rays which can pass from the object point through the now infinitely small entrance pupil.

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  • On the other hand, if the estimated revenue shows a large surplus over the estimated expenditure, there is room for remitting or reducing some tax or taxes, and the extent of this relief is generally limited to the amount of surplus realized in the previous year.

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  • Thus free purgation, and especially purgation by cholagogues and salines, has long been recognized as a useful means of reducing the inflammatory process.

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  • In short, its aim was to bring about the best conditions for an ideal civilization, reducing to a minimum the labour necessary for mere existence, and by this and by the simplicity of its social machinery saving the !maximum of time for mental and spiritual education and development.

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  • Antimony compounds when heated on charcoal with sodium carbonate in the reducing flame give brittle beads of metallic antimony, and a white incrustation of the oxide.

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  • John, and sought to conciliate the Portuguese by reducing the requisition demanded by Napoleon from 40,000,000 francs to 20,000,000.

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  • It is found that if the inoculation be made deep down in a solid medium, growth of an anaerobic organism will take place, especially if the medium contains some reducing agent such as glucose.

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  • It is reduced by sodium amalgam to benzhydrol or diphenyl carbinol C 6 H 5 [[Choh C 6 H]] 5; a stronger reducing agent, such as hydriodic acid in the presence of amorphous phosphorus converts it into diphenylmethane (C6H5)2.

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  • Calpurnius Piso, tribune in 149 B.C. and consul in 133 B.C., prided himself on reducing the old legends to the level of common sense, and importing into them valuable moral lessons for his own generation.

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  • Crowned in St Peter's on the 31st of August at the age of sixty-three, he entered upon the lonely path of the reformer_ His programme was to attack notorious abuses one by one; but in his attempt to improve the system of granting indulgences he was hampered by his cardinals; and reducing the number of matrimonial dispensations was impossible, for the income had.

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  • Colloidal silver is the name given by Carey Lea to the precipitates obtained by adding reducing solutions, such as ferrous sulphate, tartrates, citrates, tannin, &c., or to silver solutions.

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  • During the 18th century the Indian title to the soil was rapidly extinguished, and at the same time the vices and diseases of the stronger race were gradually reducing their numbers.

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  • The amorphous variety, which only differs from the vitreous form in its state of aggregation, is obtained by reducing solutions of selenious acid with sulphur dioxide.

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  • A colloidal selenium was obtained by C. Paal and C. Koch (Ber., 1905, 38, p. 526) by reducing selenious acid dissolved in an aqueous solution of sodium protalbate with hydrazine hydrate and hydrochloric acid, the precipitate obtained being then dissolved in sodium carbonate.

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  • It is decomposed by heat, burns with a blue flame, and behaves as a reducing agent.

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  • Oxidizing agents readily convert it into selenic acid, whilst reducing agents transform it into selenium.

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  • The advantages that led to the very rapid introduction of this system were not only the power of greatly reducing the size of the piers, but the enormous facility afforded for quick construction, the small amount of materials relatively used and the proportionately small load upon the foundations, and the fact that as the walls are supported at each storey directly from the cage, the masonry can be begun at any storey independently of the masonry below it.

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  • By reducing agents such, for example, as sulphuretted hydrogen and sulphur-dioxide, it is rapidly converted into hydrobromic acid.

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  • It oxidizes slowly in air, and is a reducing agent.

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  • They react as reducing agents.

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  • It is an energetic reducing agent; for example, when boiled with copper sulphate metallic copper is precipitated and hydrogen evolved.

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  • They also act in many cases as reducing agents.

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  • In the internecine struggle that followed amongst the sons of Bayezid, Mircea espoused the cause of Musa; but, though he thus obtained for a while considerable influence in the Turkish councils, this policy eventually drew on him the vengeance of the sultan Mahomet I., who succeeded in reducing him to a tributary position.

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  • The first problem of the spectrum is to identify the effects of atmospheric absorption, especially oxygen, carbonic acid and water vapour; this is done generally by comparing the spectra of the sun at great and small zenith-distances, or by reducing the atmospheric effect by observing from a great elevation, as did P. J.

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  • The Pradera iron works, near Bogota, carry on some manufacturing (sugar boilers, agricultural implements, &c.) in connexion with their mining and reducing operations.

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  • Although not a mere grasping adventurer, he was largely responsible for reducing the internal administration of the country to an abominable system of espionage, corruption and cruelty.

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  • When the water has been drawn down by pumping to a lower level its passage through the sandstone or chalk in the neighbourhood of the borehole is further resisted by the smaller length of borehole below the water; and there are many instances in which repeated lowering and increased pumping, both from wells and boreholes, have had the result of reducing the water available, after a few years, nearly to the original quantity.

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  • As a rule such pipes were not renewed: the leakage was enormous, and the difficulty was met by the very inefficient method of reducing the period of supply still farther.

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  • In dropping it dislodges the detent of the reducing slide, and the slide springs forward and reduces the flow of the sugar.

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  • Sulphates may be detected by heating the salt mixed with sodium carbonate on charcoal in the reducing flame of the blowpipe; sodium sulphide is thus formed, and may be identified by the black stain produced if the mass be transferred to a silver coin and then moistened.

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  • "packing" the towers have been rendered more durable, and in the case of the Gay-Lussac tower the loss of nitre has been diminished by avoiding the use of a coke packing, which acts upon that substance as a reducing agent.

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  • Winkler showed that this division was best obtained by soaking asbestos with a solution of platinum chloride and reducing the platinum to the metallic state, and he described later a specially active kind of "contact substance," prepared from platinum chloride at a low temperature.

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  • Cyclo-pentane, C5H10, is obtained from cyclo-pentanone by reducing it to the corresponding secondary alcohol, converting this into the iodo-compound, which is finally reduced to the hydrocarbon (J.

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  • Quinite (cyclo-hexanediol-i 4) is prepared by reducing the corresponding ketone with sodium amalgam, cis-, and trans-modifications being obtained which may be separated by their acetyl derivatives.

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  • 3.5) is obtained by reducing an aqueous solution of phloroglucin with sodium (W.

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  • Merling (Ann., 1894, 278, p. 28) by reducing resorcin in hot alcoholic solution with sodium amalgam.

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  • The A 2 acid is formed along with the A 4 acid by reducing phthalic acid with sodium amalgam in hot solutions.

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  • The A 4 acid exists in cis- and transforms. The trans-variety is produced by reducing phthalic acid, and the cis-acid by reducing 2.4 dihydrophthalic acid.

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  • The A 2 acid is formed along with the A 4 (cis) acid by reducing isophthalic acid.

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  • The A 1.5 acid is obtained by boiling the cis- and trans-A 2.5 acids with water, which are obtained on reducing terephthalic acid with sodium amalgam in faintly alkaline solution.

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  • It should be noticed that in multiplying £3 by 20 we find the value of 20.3, but that in reducing £3 to shillings, since each £ becomes 20S., we find the value of 3.20.

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  • To refuse to submit to fasting was considered indelibly disgraceful, and was one of the things which legally degraded a man by reducing or destroying his honour-value.

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  • Gascony being, as usual, out of hand, he crossed to Bordeaux in 1286, and abode in Guienne for no less than three years, reducing the duchy to such order as it had never known before, settling all disputed border questions with the new king of France, Philip IV., founding many new towns, and issuing many useful statutes and ordinances.

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  • Leaving Bruce to gather fresh strength and to commence the tedious -process of reducing the numerous English garrisons in Scotland, he betook himself to London, and was not seen on the border again.

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  • The effect of the Reform Bill, which abolished fifty-six rotten boroughs, and by reducing the representation of others set free 143 seats, which were in part conferred on the new industrial centres, was to transfer a large share of political power from the landed aristocracy to the middle classes.

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  • They were reinforced by many Liberals, who cared very little for protection, but a great deal about the abolition of slavery, and consequently objected to reducing the duties on foreign or slave-grown sugar.

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  • He offered to relieve the shipping interest by transferring some of the cost of lighting the coasts to the Consolidated Fund; the West Indja interest by sanctioning the refining of sugar in bond; and the landed classes by reducing the malt tax by one-half, and by repealing the old war duty on hops.

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  • =o, we may start with an equation u=o, where u is a function of the order m containing a parameter 0, and for a particular value say 0=o, of the parameter reducing itself to Piaip2a2....

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  • He was continually raiding Northumbria and once almost succeeded in reducing Bamborough.

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  • The perfectly pure metal may be prepared by heating the oxide or oxalate in a current of hydrogen; when obtained at a low temperature it is a black powder which oxidizes in air with incandescence; produced at higher temperatures the metal is not pyrophoric. Peligot obtained it as minute tetragonal octahedra and cubes by reducing ferrous chloride in hydrogen.

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  • Ferrous chloride, FeC1 21 is obtained as shining scales by passing chlorine, or, better, hydrochloric acid gas, over red-hot iron, or by reducing ferric chloride in a current of hydrogen.

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  • It is a strong reducing agent, giving a precipitate of cuprous oxide from alkaline copper solutions at ordinary temperature, converting mercuric chloride to mercurous chloride, and precipitating metallic silver from solutions of silver salts.

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  • Another American influence, potent in reducing the rigid though limited supernaturalism of Belsham and his successors, was that of Theodore Parker (1810-1860).

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  • That it was forced in that direction we should say rather, looking back, for it was a time of dire distress, especially in the manufacturing districts of the north; so that in his second session Peel had to provide some relief by revising the corn laws and reducing import Poli, Y g g P dues generally.

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  • Terminal telescoping of the abdominal somites and excalation may occur in the adult, reducing the obvious abdominal somites to as few as eight.

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  • These committees, while reducing the ministers to impotence, were themselves clumsy and ineffectual.

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  • Ignoring processes of oxidation or reduction simply brought about by heat or some other form of energy, we may regard an oxidizing agent as a substance having a strong affinity for electro-positive atoms or groups, and a reducing agent as having a strong affinity for electro-negative atoms or groups; in the actual processes the oxidizing agent suffers reduction and the reducing agent oxidation.

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  • The important reducing agents include hydrogen, hydrides such as those of iodine, sulphur, phosphorus, &c., carbon, many metals, potassium, sodium, aluminium, magnesium, &c., salts of lower oxyacids, lower salts of metals and lower oxides.

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  • With regard to the transition he advocated the progressive abolition of the right of aubaine, by reducing interest, rent, &c. For the goal he professed only to give the general principles; he had no ready-made scheme, no utopia.

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  • Of their contrasted principles we may perhaps say that, while Aristippus took the most obvious logical step for reducing the teaching of Socrates to clear dogmatic unity, Antisthenes certainly drew the most natural inference from the Socratic life.

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  • This naturally suggested to a mind like Hume's, anxious to apply the experimental method to psychology, the problem of reducing these different elements of personal merit - or rather our approval of them - to some common principle.

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  • The germ of the theory of determinants is to be found in the writings of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz (1693), who incidentally discovered certain properties when reducing the eliminant of a system of linear equations.

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  • The pure metal may be obtained by reducing vanadium dichloride in hydrogen, the operation being exceedingly difficult (for details, see Roscoe's original papers).

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  • Vanadium may be detected by converting it into the pentoxide, which on passing sulphuretted hydrogen through its acid solution becomes reduced to the dioxide, the solution at the same time becoming lavender blue in colour; or if zinc be used as a reducing agent, the solution becomes at first green and ultimately blue.

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  • It is a grey powder which is insoluble in water, but dissolves in acids to give a lavenderblue solution which possesses strong reducing properties.

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  • Not less comprehensive has been the work carried out by Professor Newcomb of raising to a higher grade of perfection, and reducing to a uniform standard, all the theories and constants of the solar system.

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  • The parlement of Paris shared this dislike, and succeeded in reducing the number of Protestant members of the chambre de l'edit from six to one.

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  • After reducing the Desi, who were in alliance with the Northmen of Waterford and Limerick, in 984 he subdued Ossory and took hostages from the kings of East and West Leinster.

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  • This latter, indeed, appears to have been concocted by Gerald, an ardent champion of the English cause in Ireland, from genuine letters of Pope Alexander III., still preserved in the Black Book of the Exchequer, which do no more than commend King Henry for reducing the Irish to order and extirpating tantae abominationis spurcitiam, and exhort the Irish bishops and chiefs to be faithful to the king to whom they had sworn allegiance.'

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  • Sir William Drury in Munster hanged four hundred persons in one year, Sir Nicholas Malby in reducing the Connaught Burkes spared neither young nor old, and burned all corn and houses.

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  • When the Caroline settlement was complete it was found that the great rebellion had resulted in reducing the Catholic share of the fertile parts of Ireland from two-thirds to one-third.

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  • This was due to the action of the Congested Districts Board in buying the Dillon estate and reducing all the rents without consulting the effect upon others.

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  • No fewer than seventeen cuttings have been made, reducing the original course of the river by 75 m.

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  • In 1894, owing to the constantly increasing size of vessels frequenting the Danube, it was found necessary to deepen the entrance still further, and to construct two parallel piers between the main jetties, reducing the breadth of the river to 500 ft., and thereby increasing the scour.

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  • These latter prudently made conces- Th M~4 sions: reducing the taille, sacrificing some of Louis XI.s Wr creatures to the rancour of the parlement, and restoring i.#&c. a certain number of offices or lands to the hostile princes (chief of whom was the duke of Orleans), and even consenting to a convocation of the states-general at Tours (1484).

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  • His government was personal, not through departments; he retained the old council though reducing its members; and his ministers, taken from every party, were nevernot even Sully anything more than mere clerks, without independent position, mere instruments of his good pleasure.

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  • Conversely a quarter-wave plate may be employed for reducing a circularly or elliptically polarized stream to a state of plane polarization.

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  • He gave the first satisfactory demonstration of equilibrium on an inclined plane, reducing it to the level by a sound and ingenious train of reasoning; while, by establishing the theory of "virtual velocities," he laid down the fundamental principle which, in the opinion of Lagrange, contains the general expression of the laws of equilibrium.

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  • A number of similar deviations at temperatures below o° C. were found by the writer in reducing the curves representing the observations of Dewar and Fleming (Phil.

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  • seems to have aimed not at expelling, but at reducing the Moors to subjection as vassal communities.

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  • The great cities in Castile and Leon succeeded finally in reducing the right of representation to a privilege of eighteen among them, with the good will of the king, who found it easier to coerce or bribe the procurators of eighteen towns than the representatives of a hundred and fifty.

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  • Instead of reducing the southern provinces of France, the Spaniards were driven from the strong fortresses that guarded the Pyrenees, and the French advanced almost to the Ebro; and at the same time the British were utilizing the war to extend their colonial power and were establishing more firmly that maritime supremacy which the Spanish government had been struggling for almost a century to overthrow.

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  • wind, raised a great conscription, and provided the means of reducing Carthagena and pushing the war against the Canlists with vigour.

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  • Nominally subjects of the khedive, they acted as free agents, reducing the country over which they terrorized to a state of abject misery.

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  • This line shortened the distance from Khartum to the nearest seaport by nearly r000 m., and by reducing the cost of carriage of merchandise enabled Sudan produce to find a profitable outlet in the markets of the world.

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  • The existing species of things having thus been transferred, with all their specialities, to the prehistoric stage, they were multiplied endlessly in number, by reducing their size through continued subdivision; at the same time each one thing is so indissolubly connected with every other that the keenest analysis can never completely sever them.

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  • Zinin found that on reducing nitrobenzene, a base was formed which he named benzidam.

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  • In addition to dyestuffs, it is a starting-product for the manufacture of many drugs, such as antipyrine, antifebrin, &c. Aniline is manufactured by reducing nitrobenzene with iron and hydrochloric acid and steam-distilling the product.

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  • - The revenue is chiefly obtained through the customhouse, but the federal tariff has had the effect of considerably reducing the receipts from this source.

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  • bruising and reducing the seeds to meal under an edge-stone, heating the meal in an open pan, and pressing out the oil in a wedge press in which the wedges were driven home by hammers.

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  • Fleuss consists of a vacuum pump capable of reducing the air pressure to a fraction of a millimetre, the suction pipe of which is connected first with a vessel containing sulphuric acid, and second with the vessel containing the water to be frozen.

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  • Tiglath-Pileser invaded Syria, and in 732 succeeded in reducing Damascus (see also Babylonia And Assyria, Chronology, § 5, and Jews, §§ ro sqq.).

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  • GLUTARIC ACID, Or [[Normal Pyrotartaric Acid, Ho 2 C Ch 2 Ch 2 Ch 2 Co 2 H]], an organic acid prepared by the reduction of a-oxyglutaric acid with hydriodic acid, by reducing glutaconic acid, HO 2 C CH 2 CH: CH.

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  • Locally their destructive and irritating effects vary a good deal, but even when very dilute they all have a marked poisonous action on bacteria, white blood corpuscles, yeast and similar organisms. After absorption most of them exercise a depressing effect upon the nervous system, and are capable of reducing high temperature.

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  • In iron-smelting the ore is laid in a heap upon the fuel (charcoal) filling up the hearth, and is gradually brought to the metallic state by the reducing action of the carbon monoxide formed at the tuyere.

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  • Owing to the conditions of the work, which require the maintenance of a sensibly reducing atmosphere, they contain a very notable proportion of carbonic oxide, and are drawn off by large wrought iron tubes near the top of the furnace and conveyed by branch pipes to the different boilers and air-heating apparatus, which are now entirely heated by the combustion of such gases, or mixed with air and exploded in gas engines.

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  • While I dared not say it for fear of being accused of insensitivity, I wondered if the death of Gladys Gillespie might enhance her credibility, reducing the number of those chasing the real Psychic Tipster.

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  • Hackneyed images risk reducing Irish history to textbook postcolonial illustrations.

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  • abundant in suitable sheltered habitats reducing in frequency as the degree of exposure increases.

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  • For example, Tylenol used for reducing headaches contains acetaminophen.

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  • If increasing the length of work intervals and reducing those of recovery intervals is a good idea, what about actual work interval intensity?

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  • adit driven from near the old reducing works on the South connects with these workings, its mouth is however choked.

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  • A shallow adit driven from near the old reducing works on the South connects with these workings, its mouth is however choked.

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  • aerated soil also absorbs water more easily, reducing the risk of soil erosion.

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  • This is seen as a possible future way of recycling waste glass and at the same time reducing the demand for quarried aggregates.

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  • The researchers found that sage was effective in managing moderate symptoms of the disease while also reducing agitation.

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  • Isolated high altitude airbursts of the chemical containers will cause the material to disperse as it descends, this lessening concentration and reducing effectiveness.

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  • It was capable of reducing its speed on landing to 59 mph enabling it to land on short airstrips.

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  • And the raft of measures was completely counter to reducing alienation and extremism.

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  • None have achieved any advance in reducing the amount of drug harm.

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  • analoguetic somatostatin analog infusion also helps in reducing the portal pressure.

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  • Medicines called antacids can also help treat the reflux and work by reducing the amount of acid released by the stomach.

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  • antacid therapy was no more effective than placebo in reducing the symptoms of non-ulcer dyspepsia.

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  • antihistamines taken by mouth may be helpful in reducing the itch.

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  • appendix h: Reducing Disk Space Requirements for Executables The program executables are big, and you may want to make them smaller.

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  • The question of disarmament has been replaced by the question of reducing armament has been replaced by the question of reducing armaments.

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  • Information: A reader succeeded in reducing her atrial arrhythmia by using natural progesterone cream.

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  • Martin said: " Education is the key to reducing arson in Shropshire.

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  • atopic eczema reducing the number of house dust mites in the home may improve the condition of the skin.

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  • baby have also made great strides in reducing the number of low birthweight babies born in the city.

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  • We were also reducing the backlog of asylum applications.

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  • Borrowing would decline - and so would the risk of default, reducing the necessity for continuing bailouts.

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  • Short stretch bandages are then applied, sometimes in several layers, to provide a graduated pressure profile, reducing from distal to proximal.

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  • Reducing the number of restrictions that are automatically imposed on undischarged bankrupts.

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  • The shroud completely supports the tubing, reducing stress on the fragile hose barb.

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  • It may also facilitate technological progress, by reducing firms ' switching costs and so lowering barriers to entry and barriers to change.

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  • They are, however, extremely beneficial in reducing the amount of waste needing to be disposed of.

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  • Despite clear evidence of their effectiveness in reducing mortality some clinicians have been reluctant to prescribe beta blockers for fear of inducing bronchoconstriction.

    0
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  • beverage cans made from steel are lighter than 10 years ago, reducing the energy required for each can.

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  • In the latter case, the value of competitive bidding in an auction system has a bigger impact in reducing trading costs.

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  • blind bidding enables speedier settlement by reducing the calendar time elapsed between first bidding and settlement rather than reducing time spent.

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  • In addition her blood pressure had so improved that her doctor could consider reducing her blood pressure medication.

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  • The ability to remotely troubleshoot, configure, and update handsets can improve the bottom line by reducing costs.

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  • Progress has been made in improving the design of cage fronts to make access better for depopulation thus reducing bone breakage.

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  • It may cause a mite buildup by reducing mite predator populations.

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  • By the midway point both Colin Shearer and James Melville had punctured reducing the chasing bunch to 4 riders.

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  • The sound is recorded digitally producing enhanced sound quality whilst reducing the ' noise ' effect often found with analog camcorder recordings.

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  • capital allowances substitute for depreciation, which can be claimed at a rate of 25% per year on a reducing balance basis.

    0
    0
  • The preparation of the reducing agent proved to be very capricious.

    0
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  • carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke exerts a negative effect on the heart by reducing the blood's ability to carry oxygen.

    0
    0
  • Reported use of fluoride toothpaste has a consistent effect in reducing dental caries across Europe using national data.

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    0
  • The engine also features a reed valve that pulls oil from the cylinder head thereby reducing oil carry-over to the air box.

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  • An Action Medical Research team has been looking at ways of reducing the incidence of hip dislocation in children with bilateral cerebral palsy.

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  • forcing chicory improves the flavor by reducing the bitterness.

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  • To achieve this standards, small amounts of a reducing agent are added where necessary to control the quantity of soluble chromium.

    0
    0
  • Neilsen suggests the following methods of reducing navigational clutter.

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  • Note Wonder is a " note browser " program that replaces paper notes, reducing desktop clutter.

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  • There are many proven technologies available today for reducing air pollutant emissions from pulverized coal fired power plant.

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  • reducing cognitive dissonance Now, here comes a second step in Elster's argument (Elster 1986, § II ).

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  • commonality of parts reducing servicing and spares holding costs.

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  • The Treasury should considering reducing the discount used in the public sector comparator from six to five per cent.

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  • Reducing crime depends on helping families, giving young people something constructive to do.

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  • She was also the only candidate to put forward constructive policies for reducing traffic on London Road near Six Ways.

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