She had reduced him to nothing more than a fix for her troubles.
His income would be reduced by three fourths, but he felt it must be done.
For the quantitative determination of cobalt, it is either weighed as the oxide, C0304, obtained by ignition of the precipitated monoxide, or it is reduced in a current of hydrogen and weighed as metal.
The value of the ore reduced annually is about $10,000,000.
The rest was reduced to firewood long ago.
Indeed, the Tophetic weather has reduced us all to a semi-liquid state.
The revolutionary and imperial epoch had seen a great development of Italian patriotism, and Santarosa was aggrieved by the great extension given to the Austrian power in Italy in 1815, which reduced his own country to a position of inferiority.
And he sat down again, paying no more attention to his daughter, who was reduced to tears.
Silbermann's great organ in Strasburg minster (1713-1716), the pitch of which, taken in 1880 and reduced to J9° Fahr.
A six-footer, like David Dean was a veritable giant from her reduced point of reference.
When one man has reduced a fact of the imagination to be a fact to his understanding, I foresee that all men at length establish their lives on that basis.
Cade and Claudette might never be close, but they had certainly reduced the gap.
Robert Napier says that these results would have been reduced to order and demonstrated consecutively but for his father's death.
From Moscow to Vyazma the French army of seventy-three thousand men not reckoning the Guards (who did nothing during the whole war but pillage) was reduced to thirty-six thousand, though not more than five thousand had fallen in battle.
She endeavoured unsuccessfully to eke out her irregularly paid allowance by those expedients to which reduced gentlewomen are driven - fancywork and painting fans and snuff-boxes; she lived in a garret and was often unable to allow herself the luxury of a fire.
He began with Peter of Lombardy (who had reduced to theological order, in his famous book on the Sentences, the various authoritative statements of the church upon doctrine) in his In Quatuor Sententiarum P. Lombardi libros.
In a subsequent battle he retrieved this disaster, and after a long blockade reduced the town itself.
As an independent measure of economy, the stipend paid to the titular nawab of Bengal, who was then a minor, was reduced by one-half - to sixteen lakhs a year (say 160,000).
Hastings was reduced to the position of a cipher at their meetings.
Such a reduced and impoverished star is a planet; and the several planets of our solar system are the several vortices which from time to time have been swept up by the central sun-vortex.
In 1478 Kroia, which the Venetians had occupied after Scanderbeg's death, surrendered to Mahommed II., and in 1479 Scutari, after a memorable defence by the Venetians and their Montenegrin allies, was reduced by blockade.
Dean's suggestion of placing the little fellow out of doors in the trash was overruled by his more compassionate wife who pointed out the resulting reduced chances of January survival.
"If everyone is reduced to the same level, it might help people remember we're all the same," Kelli added.
The council was reduced to four members with a governor-general, who were to exercise certain indefinite powers of control over the presidencies of Madras and Bombay.
At last, when he was reduced to actual destitution, it was arranged that the East India Company should grant him an annuity of 4000 for a term of years, with 90,000 paid down in advance.
The thirteen lords were assisted by twelve other inhabitants chosen by the freeholders, and when the number of lords was reduced to six, seven others were chosen from the assistants.
If the errors of the rectangular co-ordinates of these lines are known, the problem of determining the co-ordinates of any star-image on the plate becomes reduced to the comparatively simple one of interpolating the co-ordinates of the star relative to the sides of the 5 mm.
In 938 it was given by the German king, Otto I., the Great, to Arnulf's brother, Bertold I., with greatly reduced privileges.
The books give a number of their "cities" reduced by Alexander - walled mountain villages which can in some cases be identified more or less certainly with places where the clans are established to-day.
Though tattered, hungry, worn out, and reduced to a third of their original number, the French entered Moscow in good marching order.
They might have long been a bulwark between Rome and the wild hordes of the desert but for the shortsighted cupidity of Trajan, who reduced Petra and broke up the Nabataean nationality (105 A.D.).
You told me to remind you of the officer Dolokhov, reduced to the ranks in this regiment.
Natasha's unwontedly brilliant eyes, continually glancing at him with a more than cordial look, had reduced him to this condition.
Monday was cleaning day, but since smiling Maria had joined the staff, the Deans' chores were reduced considerably.
Her apprehension was assuming a reduced priority.
Her presence reduced Cynthia's domestic chores and eliminated the need for Dean and Fred to pick up more than the occasional dust rag.
She didn't want to imagine a ten year old living in the slums, knowing his mother was reduced to prostitution to keep them alive.
The last representative of the line, Idris IV., "El Wathik," was reduced to the possession of Marrakesh, where he was murdered by a slave in 1269.
Daniel Brennan came calling and the county was reduced of fish by his visit.
The tomato plants were drooping, their crop reduced to small discolored fruit.
The hinge was oiled and didn't squeak because the friction had been reduced.
The inhabitants of the last-named islands were noted pirates until reduced to order by the French.
The expedition, which originally numbered 2500 men, was reduced by deaths at the hands of the Indians, by disease and privation, within a year to less than Soo men.
I In 1894 the rentes then standing at 43/4% were reduced to 33/4%, and in 1902 to 3%.
Equally indecisive is the further exploration as to evidence for the opinion held by other naturalists that the endemic species of the different islands have resulted from subsidences, through volcanic action, which have reduced one large island mass into a number of islets, wherein the separated species became differentiated during their isolation.
Fore feet with the functional toes reduced to two, the second and third, of equal length, with closely united metacarpals and short, sharp, slightly curved, compressed claws.
those of any other burrowing mammal, the retina being reduced to a mass of simple cells, and the cornea and sclerotic ("white") to a pearshaped fibrous capsule enclosing a ball of pigment.
The functional teeth are reduced to one From Flower, Quart.
A number of the principal inhabitants were carried captive to Babylon, and Jerusalem was reduced to the position of an insignificant town.
3 it has been reduced to twenty; but in i Chron.
The whole moral world is reduced to a point.
This was the first Canaanite city to be attacked and reduced by the victorious Israelites.
The range is here called the Muniong, but farther north it receives the name of Monaro Range; the latter has a much reduced altitude, its average being only about 2000 feet.
The result was a defeat, their numbers being reduced from 35 to 19; but a signal triumph was won for solidarity.
Very few of the members who refused to take the pledge were returnca, and the adherents of the united party were able to accomplish more with their reduced number than under the old conditions.
Thus, 1 - x would represent the operation of selecting all things in the world except horned things, that is, all not horned things, and (1 - x) (1 - y) would give us all things neither horned nor sheep. By the use of such symbols propositions could be reduced to the form of equations, and the syllogistic conclusion from two premises was obtained by eliminating the middle term according to ordinary algebraic rules.
Phocaea continued to exist under the Persian government, but greatly reduced in population and commerce.
The salient event of Bela's reign was the terrible Tatar invasion which reduced three-quarters of Hungary to ashes.
He died before it was completed, but it was finished by Sargon, who reduced the city, deported its inhabitants, and established within it a mixed multitude of settlers (who were the ancestors of the modern Samaritans).
It took, however, an important part in the rebellion of 295, and was reduced, with Vulsinii and Arretium, to seek for peace in the following year.
Antonius took refuge there, and was reduced by Octavian after a long siege.
Rumford then turned up a hollow cylinder which was cast in one piece with a brass six-pounder, and having reduced the connexion between the cylinder and cannon to a narrow neck of metal, he caused a blunt borer to press against the hollow of the cylinder with a force equal to the weight of about ro,000 lb, while the casting was made to rotate in a lathe.
Suppose the current to be thus reduced to C'.
von Jacobi showed that for a given electromotive force in the battery the horse-power is greatest when the current is reduced to one-half of what it would be if the engine were at rest.
In some cases (many species of Ascaris) the metamorphosis is reduced to a simple process of growth.
Sometimes, especially in the case of overhead travelling cranes for very heavy loads, the chain is a special pitch chain, formed of flat links pinned together, and the barrel is reduced to a wheel provided with teeth, or " sprockets," which engage in the links.
The toothed wheels give a slightly better efficiency, but the worm gear is somewhat smoother in its action and entirely silent; the noise of gearing can, however, be considerably reduced by careful machining of the teeth, as is now always done, and also by the use of pinions made of rawhide leather or other non-resonant material.
Slaves were often adopted and if they proved unfilial were reduced to slavery again.
Owing to the experience gained with many thousands of miles of cable in all depths and under varying conditions of weather and climate, the risk, and consequently the cost, of laying has been greatly reduced.
By this method of transmission the battery is always to the line for the same interval of time, and alternately with opposite poles, so that the effect of electrostatic induction is reduced to a minimum.
The working expenses were reduced in a progressively larger ratio, e.g.
In that year the Swiss government reduced the rate for inland telegrams by one-half, and the traffic immediately doubled, but the cost of carrying on the service increased in a larger ratio.
This involved a large extension of wires to cope with increased traffic. The reduced rate took effect as from the 1st of October 1886.
The following year the rates to and from East and South Africa were reduced, by negotiation, from charges varying from 7s.
He discovered a fact subsequently rediscovered by others, that a tube of metallic filings, loosely packed, was sensitive to electric sparks made in its vicinity, its electrical resistance being reduced, and he was able to detect effects on such a tube connected to a battery and telephone at a distance of 500 yds.'
The impedance of the primary or alternator circuit is so adjusted that when both the chokers are in circuit the current flowing is not sufficient to charge the condensers; but when one choker is short-circuited the impedance is reduced so that the condenser is charged, but the alternating arc is not formed.
It does not melt at a white heat, and is easily reduced to the metal by heating in a current of hydrogen or with carbon.
As a result the time occupied by an operator per call was reduced from 50.77 seconds to 16.63 seconds.
The subscriber pays a fixed annual rent which covers a certain number of free out - ward calls, say boo; additional calls he purchases in advance in blocks of several hundred at so much per hundred, the price being reduced as the number increases.
The mandamenti or administrative divisions no longer correspond to the judicial divisions (mandamenti giudiziarii) which in November 1891 were reduced from 1806 to 1535 by a law which provided that judicial reform should not modify existing administrative and electoral divisions.
The number has been reduced to less than half since 1897 by the suppression of smaller factories, while the production has increased from 47,690 millions to 59,741 millions.
The army is always maintained at a low peace effective (about one-quarter of war establishment) and even this was reduced, by the absence of the recruits, until there were often only i~ rank and file with a company, whose war strength is about 230.
2 This may be reduced, in consequence of the adoption of the new Q.F.
and 27,560,000 in 1899-1900; but had been reduced to ~23,I00,409 by the 30th of June 1906.
In July 1906 the 5% gross (4% net), and 4% net rente were successfully converted into 33/4% stock (to be reduced to 33/4% after five years), to a total amount of 324,017,393.
The great beauty and fertility of the country, as well as the charm of its climate, undoubtedly attracted, even in early ages, successive swarms of invaders from the north, who sometimes drove out the previous occupants of the most favored districts, at others reduced them to a state of serfdom, or settled down in the midst of them, until the two races gradually coalesced.
A fourth humiliating episode in this period was the invasion of the Magyar barbarians, who overran the north of Italy, and reduced its fairest provinces to the condition of a wilderness.
Their generals substituted heavy-armed cavalry for the old militia, and introduced systems of campaigning which reduced the art of war to a game of skill.
Philips Austrian successors reduced it to the rank of a secondary European power.
The system of setting nations by the ears with the view of settling the quarrels of a few reigning houses was reduced to absurdity when the people, as in these cases, came to be partitioned and exchanged without the assertion or negation of a single principle affecting their interests or rousing their emotions.
The French system of taxation was maintained because it brought in ampler revenues; but feudalism, the antiquated legislation and bureaucracy were revived, and all the officers and officials still living who had served the state before the Revolution, many of them now in their dotage, were restored to their posts; only nobles were eligible for the higher government appointments; all who had served under the French administration were dismissed pr reduced in rank, and in the army beardless scions of the aristocracy were placed over the, heads of war-worn veterans who had commanded regiments in Spain and Russia.
Through Anglo-French mediation Piedmonts war indemnity was reduced from 230,000,000 to 75,000,000 lire, but the question of the amnesty remained.
Taxation was somewhat reduced, the censorship was made less severe, political amnesties were granted, humaner officials were appointed and the Congregations (a sort of shadowy consultative assembly) were revived.
By economies and new taxes Sella had reduced the deficit to less than 2,000,000 in 1871, but for 1872 he found himself confronted with a total expenditure of 8,ooo,ooo in excess of revenue.
The civil list, which the law of the 10th of August 1862 had fixed at 650,000 a year, but which had been voluntarily reduced by the king to 530,000 in 1864, and to 490,000 in 1867, was thus raised to 570,000 a year.
Reduced in number to less than one hundred, and radically changed in spirit and composition, the Right gave way, if not to despair, at least to a despondency unsuited to an opposition party.
The new law forbade the state banks to lend money on real estate, limited their powers of discounting bills and securities, and reduced the maximum of their paper currency.
When the Crispi cabinet fell in March 1896 Sonnino had the satisfaction of seeing revenue increased by ~3, 400,000, expenditure diminished by 2,800,000, the gold premium reduced from 16 to 5%, consolidated stock at 95 instead of 72, and, notwithstanding the expenditure necessitated by the Abyssinian War, financial equilibrium practically restored.
The corn duty was reduced to meet the emergency, but the disturbed area extended to Naples, Foggia, Ban, MinervinoRiots of Murge, Molfetta and thence along the line of railway 1898.
In October 1904, after the September strikes, the Chamber was dissolved, and at the general elections in November a ministerial majority was returned, while the deputies of the Extreme Left (Socialists, Republicans and Radicals) were reduced from 107 to 94, and a few mild clericals elected.
A motion presented by the Socialists in the Chamber for the immediate discussion of a bill to prevent the massacres of the proletariate having been rejected by an enormous majority, the 28 Socialist deputies resigned their seats; on presenting themselves for re-election their number was reduced to 25.
Certainly history shows that theism has generally been associated with some reduced or limited form of philosophy, usually with the intuitionalist scheme.
Pain and sin must have been reduced to a minimum by God; though they are so ingrained in the finite that we have to make up our minds even to the endless sin and endless punishments of hell.
With the exception of these forms, reduced for the most part in correlation with a semi-parasitic mode of life, the tentacles are usually numerous.
the gastrozoids (gz), have the tentacles reduced or absent, but have the mouth and stomach enlarged.
Podocoryne have 13 been interpreted by some authors as reduced polyps.
Cladonema still has the typical medusan structure, and is able to swim about, but in Clavatella the umbrella is so much reduced that swimming is no longer possible.
It has been maintained that the gonads of Hydra represent sporosacs or gonophores greatly reduced, with the last traces of medusoid structure completely obliterated.
- Modifications of the method of becomes reduced budding shown in fig.
The entocodon is to be regarded, therefore, not as primarily an ingrowth of ectoderm, but rather as an upgrowth of both bodylayers, in the form of a circular rim (IVa), representing the umbrellar margin; it is comparable to the bulging that forms the umbrella in the direct method of budding, but takes place before a manubrium is formed, and is greatly reduced in size, so as to become a little pit.
In many Calyptoblastea there occur also reduced defensive polyps or dactylozoids, which the special name of sarcostyles.
The medusa-buds, as already stated, are always produced from blastostyles, reduced non-nutritive polyps without mouth or tentacles.
- The gonophores are reduced in varying degree, it may be to sporosacs; they are budded successively from the blastostyle, and each in turn, when ripe, protrudes the spadix.
In both cases the hydranth is extremely reduced and has no tentacles, and the polyp forms a colony by budding from the base.
By coalescence of the endoderm-layers, the coelenteron may be reduced to vessels, usually eight in number, opening into a ring-sinus surrounding the pore.
The loss of their political independence has been followed by that of the greater part of their territory, which has been divided up into the Chilean provinces of Arauco, Bio-bio, Malleco and Cautin, and the Indians, much reduced in number, now live in the wooded recesses of the three provinces last named.
The subject matter of ecclesiastical jurisdiction has been gradually reduced in England, &c., by various causes.
How severely strict medieval abstinence was may be gauged from the fact that armies and garrisons were sometimes, in default of dispensations, as in the case of the siege of Orleans in 1429, reduced to starvation for want of Lenten food, though in full possession of meat and other supplies.
von Soden (1885), with well-considered principles of criticism, made a similar examination and found a much larger nucleus, and later still, (1893), in his commentary, reduced the non-Pauline material to a negligible minimum.
It is readily oxidized by nitric acid, and when strongly heated_ in a current of hydrogen is reduced to the metallic condition.
The female gametophyte is extremely reduced; there is a sexual apparatus of naked cells, one of which is the egg-cell which, after fusion with a male cell, divides to form a large siispensorial cell and a terminal embryo.
In the aquatic, semi-aquatic, and xerophilous types, where the whole surface of the plant absorbs water, perpetually in the first two cases and during rain in the last, the hydrom strand is either much reduced or altogether absent.
In other cases the leaf-gaps are very broad and long, the meristeles separating them being reduced to comparatively slender strands, while there is present in each gap a network of fine vascular threads, some of which run out to the leaf, while others form cross-connections between these leaf-trace strands and also with the main cauline meristeles.
It is probable that this type of stele is a modification of a primitive protostele, in which the main mass of stelar xylem has become much reduced and incidentally separated from the leaftraces.
being reduced to a very narrow p. Surrounding narenchyrna.
In the stems of many water-plants various stages of reduction of the vascular system, especially of the xylem, are met with, and very often this reduction leads to the formation of a compact stele in which the individuality of the separate Reduced bundles may be suppressed, so that a closed cylinder lmpbost~h1c of xylem surrounds a pith.
In a few cases some of the tracheids have very thick walls and reduced cavities, functioning as mechanical rather than as waterconducting elements.
These fibre-tracheids are easily confused on superficial view with the true wood-fibres belonging to the parenchymatous system; but their pits are always bordered, though in the extreme type they are reduced to mere slits in the wall.
It may be due to insufficient illumination (Etiolation), as seen in geraniums kept in too shaded a situation, and is then accompanied by soft tissues, elongation of internodes, leaves usually reduced in size, &c. The laying of wheat is a particular case.
Switch plants, such as Retama Retam and broom (Cytisus scoparius), have reduced leaves and some assimilating tissue in their stems; and stomata occur in grooves on the stem.
The transpiring surface of xerophytes is frequently reduced.
In the vascular cryptogams and phanerogams it takes place in the spore mother cells and the reduced number is found in all the cells of the gametophyte, the full number in those of the sporophyte.
Torreya, now confined to North America and Japan, still lingered,- as did Ocotea, now profusely developed in the tropics, but in north temperate regions only existing in the Canaries: the evergreen oaks, so characteristic of the Miocene, were reduced to the existing Quercus hex.
China has no Cistus or heath, only a single Ferula, while Astragalus is reduced to 35 species.
This curve with the values reduced from metres to feet is reproduced below.
The varieties of coast-lines were reduced to an exact classification by Richthofen, who grouped them according to the height and slope of the land into cliff-coasts (Steilkiisten)- narrow beach coasts with cliffs, wide beach coasts with cliffs, and 1 Rumpf, in German, the language in which this distinction was first made.
The fundamental form-elements may be reduced to the six proposed by Professor Penck as the basis of his double system of classification by form and origin.'
The meta-nitrocompound, which is precipitated last, is then reduced, and the amino group so formed is replaced by the hydroxyl group by means of the Sandmeyer reaction.
Coprolite is reduced to powder by powerful mills of peculiar construction, furnished with granite and buhrstones, before being treated with concentrated sulphuric acid.
Between these, resting vertically upon the rostrum, appears the vomer; very variable in shape and size, often reduced to a mere trace, as in the Galli, or even absent, broken up into a pair of tiny splints in Pici.
In the cervical region the ribs are much reduced, fused with their verte brae and enclosing the transverse canal or foramen.
Sometimes the pad is reduced to a ventral semi-ring or meniscus; it retains its largest almost original shape and size in the second vertebra, the axis or epistropheus, where it forms a separately ossifying piece which connects, and coossifies with, the odontoid process (the centrum of the atlas) and the centrum of the second vertebra.
In all the Neornithes the total number of caudal vertebrae, inclusive of those which coalesce, is reduced to at least 13.
There is a well-marked processus lateralis anterior (the right and left together equivalent to the mammalian manubrium), which is the product of two or three ribs, the dorsal parts of which reduced ribs remain as cervico-dorsal ribs.
This keel is much reduced in the New.
These are reduced, in all birds, to three, but traces of the fourth have been observed in embryos.
The pollex and the third finger are as a rule reduced to one phalanx each, while the index still has two.
In Colymbus the patella is reduced to a small ossicle, its function being taken by the greatly developed pyramidal processus tibialis anterior; in Podiceps and Hesperornis the patella itself is large and pyramidal.
Of the metatarsals the fifth occurs as an embryonic vestige near the joint; the first is reduced to its distal portion, and is, with the hallux, shoved on to the inner and posterior side of the foot, at least in the majority of birds.
Normally the four toes have two, three, four and five phalanges respectively, but in Cypselus the number is reduced to three in the front toes.
We have here the interesting fact that a muscle (portion of the triceps humeri of the reptiles) has been reduced to a tendon, which in a secondary way has become connected with cutaneous muscles, which, when strongly developed, represent its belly.
the transverse commissure of the right and left pallium) is in birds reduced to a narrow flat bundle of a few white fibres; it is situated immediately above and behind the much stronger anterior commissure, i.e.
The Thalamencephalon is much reduced.
In the Steganopodes they tend to become much reduced, e.g.
The crop is modified into a large and very rugose triturating apparatus, while the gizzard, thereby relieved of its function, is reduced to the utmost.
The penis, and its much reduced vestige of the female, is developed from the ventral wall of the proctodaeum.
Reduced.) Bering Island, Phalacrocorax perspicillatus; and how long will the flightless cormorant, Ph.
Anterior limbs extremely reduced.
A few years later (704 B.C.) the combined forces of Elam and Babylonia were overthrown at Kis, and in the following year the Kassites were reduced to subjection.
The whole country was reduced to a desert, Susa was plundered and razed to the ground, the royal sepulchres were desecrated, and the images of the gods and of 32 kings "in silver, gold, bronze and alabaster," were carried away.
With the opening of the Russian railway from the Caspian to Merv, Bokhara and Samarkand in 1886-1887, Russian manufacturers were enabled to compete in Central Asia with their western rivals, and the value of European manufactures passing Meshed in transit was much reduced.
After the battle of Mycale (479 B.C.), Lampsacus joined the Athenians, but, having revolted from them in 411, was reduced by force.
By the adoption of a regular system of work, and a careful plan of reduction, he was able to keep his observations reduced practically up to date, and published them annually with a degree of punctuality which astonished his contemporaries.
At the same time the interest guaranteed to the railway companies was reduced from 7 to 32%.
In 1891 he was obliged to suspend the service of the public debt and make arrangements by which the bondholders accepted a reduced rate of interest.
It was formerly believed that the sulphur had a volcanic origin, but it is now generally held that it has either been reduced from gypsum by organic agencies, or more probably deposited from sulphur-bearing waters.
In many cases it acts as a reducing agent (when used in the presence of acids); thus, permanganates are reduced to manganous salts, iodates are reduced with liberation of iodine, &c., 2KMnO 4 + 550 2 + 2H 2 0 = K 2 SO 4 + 2MnSO 4 + 2H 2 SO 4; 2K103+ 550 2 + 4H 2 O =1 3 + 2KHSO 4 + 3H2S04.
The town was taken in 1765 by Hyder Ali, who expelled all the merchants and factors, and destroyed the cocoa-nut trees, sandal-wood and pepper vines, that the country reduced to ruin might present no temptation to the cupidity of Europeans.
In many beetles the hindwings are reduced to mere vestiges useless for flight, or are altogether absent, and in such cases the two elytra are often fused together at the suture; thus organs originally intended for flight have been transformed into an armour-like covering for the beetle's hind-body.
1, A) are of the usual insectan type, but in many families one, two, or even three of the five foot-segments may be reduced or absent.
The glands occur in groups, and lead into common ducts which open usually so much reduced that the foremost apparent ventral sclerite of the abdomen represents the third sternite.
The hind-wings, when developed, are characteristic in form, possessing a sub-costal nervure with which the reduced radial nervure usually becomes associated.
In male beetles, however, the two pairs of genital processes (paramera) belonging to the ninth abdominal segment are always present, though sometimes reduced.
18, 21 b); the body shortened, with the abdomen swollen, but protected with tubercles and spines, and with longish legs adapted for an active life, as in the predaceous larvae of ladybirds; the body soft-skinned, swollen and caterpillar-like, with legs well developed, but leading a sluggish underground life, as in the grub of a chafer; the body soft-skinned and whitish, and the legs greatly reduced in size, as in the wood-feeding grub of a longhorn beetle.
In many Carabidae the hind-wings are reduced or absent, and the elytra fused together along the suture.
The inner lobe (lacinia) of the first maxilla terminates in an articulated hook, while in the second maxillae (labium) both inner and outer lobes ("ligula" and "para-glossae") are much Gyrinus sulcatus reduced.
9, b) short and reduced as in most Paussidae.
The larvae are remarkable for their small head, very broad thorax, with reduced legs, and narrow elongate abdomen.
The males are very small, free-flying insects with the prothorax, mesothorax and elytra greatly reduced, the latter appearing as little, twisted strips, while the metathorax is relatively large, with its wings broad and capable of longitudinal folding.
The larvae have soft-skinned bodies sometimes protected by rows of spiny tubercles, the legs being fairly developed in some families and greatly segments to the foot, but there are really five, the fourth being greatly reduced.
reduced or absent in others.
The larvae have soft, fleshy bodies, with the head and prothorax large and broad, and the legs very much reduced.
The ventraPscleriteof the head-skeleton (gula), well developed in most families of beetles, is absent among the Rhynchophora, while the palps of the maxillae are much reduced.
been reduced to five, while the privileges granted to young men who have received various degrees of education have been slightly extended.
Russia, was reduced to a very low ebb, in consequence of the silkworm disease, and was only renewed with any vigour towards the end of the 'eighties.
About that time a thorough reform of the machinery in use was effected whereby the number of hands employed was reduced, but the yearly production doubled or trebled.
He first directed his attention to Novgorod, and by gradually undermining and then destroying the ancient republican liberties he reduced the haughty city, which had long styled itself Lord Novgorod the Great, to the rank of a provincial town.
The registered Cossacks objected to being placed under a Hetman not freely chosen by themselves, and those who were not included in the militia objected still more strongly to the prospect of being reduced to the miserable condition of Polish serfs.
The non-Russian frontier provinces (okrainas) had even before been under-represented (one member for every 350,000 inhabitants, as against one for every 250,000 in the central provinces); the members returned by Poland, the Caucasus and Siberia were now reduced from 89 to 39, those from the Central Asian steppes (23) were swept away altogether; the total number of deputies was reduced from 524 to 442.
The rate for carriage of merchandise was reduced from 5d.
Under this principle, rates are reduced where the increase of business which follows such reduction makes the change a profitable one.
It forbids a railway which has reduced its rates while in competition with a water route to raise them again when the competition has ceased, unless the Commission permits it to do so because of other changed conditions.
The roadway, tracks and rolling stock are so well maintained that those causes which lead to the worst derailments have been eliminated almost completely, and the record of serious collisions has been reduced nearly to zero by the universal use of the block system and by systematic precautions at junctions.
The use of automatic couplers for freight cars throughout the United States, introduced in 1893-1900, greatly reduced the number of deaths and injuries in coupling, and the use of air brakes on freight cars, now universal, has reduced the risk to the men by making it less necessary for them to ride on the roofs of high box-cars, while at the same time it has made it possible to run long trains with fewer men; but except in these two features the freight service in America continues to be a dangerous occupation.
On some of the earlierEnglish main lines no curves were constructed of a less radius than a mile (80 chains), except at places where the speed was likely to be low, but in later practice the radius is sometimes reduced to 40 or 30 chains, even on high-speed passenger lines.
The gauge may be regarded as reduced to its narrowest possible dimensions in mono-rail lines, where the weight of the trains is carried on a single rail.
If, however, the speed is reduced to 15 m.
It is usual to subtract these resistances from the observed pull, so as to obtain the draw-bar pull reduced to what it would be at a uniform speed on the level.
With exceptionally bad weather the load would have to be reduced or two engines would have to be employed, or an exceptionally high rate of combustion would have to be maintained in the fire-box.
A controlling valve enables the supply of steam to the low-pressure cylinders to be supplemented by boiler steam at a reduced pressure.
Cars built almost entirely of steel, in which the proportion of wood is reduced to a minimum, are used on some electric railways, in order to diminish danger from fire, and the same mode of construction is also being adopted for the rolling stock of steam railways.
(2) The second source of economy is to be sought in the reduced cost of actually making the line and cf working it when made.
On the lines actually authorized by the Board of Trade under the 1896 act the normal minimum radius of the curves has been fixed at about 600 ft.; when a still smaller radius has been necessary, the speed has been reduced to 10 m.
Cuttings are reduced to a minimum; and where the roads are sufficiently wide, the rails are laid on the margins.
But the Nazarite was equally bound to lay aside his holiness before mixing with common folk and returning to ordinary life; this he did by a sacrifice, which, with the offering of his hair upon the altar, freed him from his vow and reduced him to the same level of sanctity as ordinary men.
The wrath with which the Israelite armies believed themselves to be visited (probably an outbreak of pestilence) when the king of Moab was reduced to his last extremity, was obviously the wrath of Chemosh the god of Moab, which the king's sacrifice of his only son had awakened against the invading army (2 Kings iii.
Now when the Hebrew religion was reduced to written form it began to be a book-religion, and since the book consisted of fixed rules and enactments, religion began to acquire a stereotyped character.
Gomperz suggests that he was originally in good circumstances, but was reduced to poverty.
The active measures taken then and later reduced their numbers greatly, so that towards the end of the century they became scarce, but, as in the case of the sister island, the date of their final disappearance cannot now be ascertained.
Now, however, the use of his remaining eye had been reduced to an hour a day, divided into portions at wide intervals, and he was driven to the conclusion that whatever plans he made must be formed on the same calculations as those of a blind man.
During the early part of the 12th century the Chinese recaptured it and reduced it from the rank of a metropolis to that of a provincial city of the first grade, and called it Yen-shan Fu.
At one time of greater size, it was reduced by Nadir Shah within its present limits.
Having made the grand tour he returned to Ireland; and being employed by the parliament in a mission to the duke of Ormonde, now reduced to the last extremities, he succeeded in concluding a treaty with him on the 19th of June 1647, thus securing the country from complete subjection to the rebels.
The First Punic War having exhausted the treasury, the as was reduced to 2 OZ.
In the Second Punic War it was again reduced to half this weight, viz.
And lastly, by the Papirian law (89 B.C.) it was further reduced to the diminutive weight of half an ounce.
It appears to have been still more reduced under Octavian, Lepidus and Antony, when its value was 3 of an ounce.
At Ismailia malaria was reduced from 1551 cases in 1902 to 37 cases in 1905.
The suggested causes are (I) reduction of insects by drainage, (2) reduced population, (3) the use of quinine.
He took part in the siege of Yorktown, the battle of Fair Oaks, the seven days' battle before Richmond, and the battles of Antietam, Fredericksburg, where he was wounded, and Chancellorsville, where his brigade was reduced in numbers to less than a regiment, and General Meagher resigned his commission.
The antennae of Diptera, which are also extremely important in classification, are thread-like in the more primitive families, such as the Tipulidae (daddy-long-legs), where they consist of a considerable number of joints, all of which except the first two, and sometimes also the last two, are similar in shape; in the more specialized families, such as the Tabanidae (horse-flies), Syrphidae (hover-flies) or Muscidae (house-flies, blue-bottles and their allies), the number of antennal joints is greatly reduced by coalescence, so that the antennae appear to consist of only three joints.
On the death of Herod in 4 B.C. Archelaus kept open house for mourners as the Jewish custom, which reduced many Jews to beggary, prescribed.
Many other pogroms have occurred, and the condition of the Jews has been reduced to one of abject poverty and despair.
1,678,566 Other sources 780,967 Education and Justice 1,453,500 4,34 1, 66 7 4,026,736 The salary of the high commissioner was reduced in 1907 to 100,000 drachmae.
It is nevertheless certain that some of the old traditions were preserved by the remnants of the old population now reduced to a subject condition, and that these finally leavened the whole lump, so that once more - this time under a Hellenic guise - Crete was enabled to anticipate mainland Greece in nascent civilization.
The island was now reduced to a Roman province, and subsequently united for administrative purposes with the district of Cyrenaica or the Pentapolis, on the opposite coast of Africa.
It was not till 1645 that the Turks made any serious attempt to effect the conquest of the island; but in that year they landed with an army of 50,000 men, and speedily reduced the important city of Canea.
The mode of election to the assembly was altered, the number of its members reduced, and the customs revenue, which had hitherto been shared with the island, was appropriated by the Turkish treasury.
For some time after his arrival complete tranquillity prevailed in the island, but the Moslem population, reduced to great distress by the prolonged insurrection, emigrated in large numbers.
From 1585 two members were regularly returned; the number was reduced to one in 1867, and in 1885 the representation was merged in that of the county.
The Gulfport project reduced freight rates between Gulfport and the Atlantic seaboard cities and promoted the trade of Gulfport, which is the port of entry for the Pearl River customs district.
The number of senators was reduced to 50, the number of commoners to 120, and the manner of choosing senators and commoners was changed as directed in the act providing for the convention.
The union which sound religious teaching represents as realized in the submission of the will and the ethical harmony of the whole life is then reduced to a, passive experience, to something which comes and goes in time, and which may be of only momentary duration.
But there are several subfamilies of ants whose females have the lancets of the sting useless for piercing, although the poison-glands are functional, their secretion being ejected by the insect, when occasion may arise, from the greatly enlarged reservoir, the reduced sting acting as a squirt.
In southern Asia, and particularly near the sea, the variation between the hottest and coldest monthly means is very much less, and under the equatorit is reduced to about 5°.
In northern China, at Peking, it is 55°, reduced to 30° at Canton, and to 20° at Manila.
On the east coast the fall is far less, nowhere rising to 50 in., and towards the southern apex of the peninsula being reduced to 25 or 30 in.
It is to the greatly reduced fall of snow on the northern faces of the highest ranges of the Himalaya that is to be attributed the higher level of the snow-line, a phenomenon which was long a cause of discussion.
The absence of the ordinary bright green colours of vegetation is another peculiarity of this flora, almost all the plants having glaucous or whitened stems. Foliage is reduced to a minimum, the moisture of the plant being stored up in massive or fleshy stems against the long-continued drought.
(iii.) The Khmers or Cambodians, whose languages appear to belong to the Man-Annam group, form a relatively ancient kingdom, much reduced in the last few centuries by the advance of the Siamese and now a French protectorate.
In 1780 and 1781 he took an active part in opposition to Lord North's American policy, and it was largely as the result of his motion on the 22nd of February in the latter year, demanding the cessation of the war against the colonies, when the ministerial majority was reduced to one, that Lord North resigned office.
They are disposed in two groups on either side, corresponding in the Polychaeta to the parapodia; the two bundles are commonly reduced among the earthworms to two pairs of setae or even to a single seta.
In the smaller and simpler forms the capillary networks are much reduced, but the dorsal and ventral vessels are usually present.
They are considerably reduced in number in certain Polychaeta.
Frequently reduced in number of pairs; rarely (Capitellidae) more than one pair per segment.
The notopodium may be rudimentary or absent and the entire parapodium reduced to the merest ridge or even completely unrepresented.
In Lanice conchilega the posterior series of nephridia are connected by a thick longitudinal duct, which seems to be seen in its most reduced form in Owenia, where a duct on each side runs in the epidermis, being in parts a groove, and receives one short tubular nephridium only and occupies only one segment.
The oviducts are always short trumpet-shaped tubes and are sometimes reduced (Enchytraeidae) to merely the external orifices.
The appendages of the body are reduced to branchiae, present in certain forms. A clitellum is present.
Coelom generally reduced to a system of tubes, sometimes communicating with vascular system; in Acanthobdella and Ozobranchus a series of metamerically arranged chambers as in Oligochaeta.
From 1555 to 1867 the town returned two members to parliament, but in the latter year the number was reduced to one, and in 1885 the representation was merged in that of the West Riding.
Grimsby returned two members to the parliament of 1298, but in 1833 the number was reduced to one.
The population was greatly reduced in numbers, and much of the land was left uncultivated.
The first disease investigated by Pasteur was that of chicken cholera, an epidemic which destroyed io% of the French fowls; after the application of the preventive method the death-rate was reduced to below i %.
Many millions of sheep and oxen all over the world have thus been treated, and the rate of mortality reduced from io to less than %.
Thousands of people suffering from bites from rabid animals, from all lands, have been treated in this institute, and the death-rate from this most horrible of all diseases has been reduced to less than i %.
Devorgilla's bridge, below it, built of stone in 1280, originally consisted of nine arches (now reduced to three), and is reserved in spite of its massive appearance for foot passengers only, as is also the suspension bridge opened in 1875.
Anton von Schiefner, Zagursky, and others have greatly reduced this number; but even then there are not less than fifty represented.
A few months later the Lesghians in Daghestan, who had risen in revolt, were defeated and their country once more reduced to obedience.
With declining prices for farm produce came that year of unhappy memory, 1879, when persistent rains and an almost sunless summer ruined the crops and reduced many farmers to a state of destitution.
Whereas formerly the farmer was to some extent compensated by a higher price for a smaller yield, in recent years he had had to compete with an unusually large supply at greatly reduced prices.
In the majority report it was stated " that, in order to place agricultural lands in their right position as compared with other ratable properties, it is essential that they should be assessed to all local rates in a reduced proportion of their ratable value."
animals three to four years old, was abolished, the maximum age at which steers were allowed to compete for prizes being reduced to three years.
He crushed the rebellion of Timarchus in Media and reduced Judaea to new subjection.
These four conditions can be reduced to two.
In the campaign of 1304, when Edward renewed his attempt on Scotland and reduced Stirling, Bruce supported the English king, who in one of his letters to him says, "If you complete that which you have begun, we shall hold the war ended by your deed and all the land of Scotland gained."
Previous to these two latter successes the king had made two raids into the north of England; after which Buittle, Dalswinton and Dumfries were reduced, and Berwick was threatened.
A, branch bearing male cones, reduced; B, single male cone, enlarged; C, single stamen, enlarged.
A, Branch bearing (a) young female cones, (b) ripe cones, reduced.
Spengel has, however, in a most ingenious way shown that these bodies are the representatives of the typical pair of ctenidia, here reduced to a mere rudiment.
Spire of shell much reduced; two bipectinate ctenidia, the right being the smaller; no operculum.
Spire of shell much reduced; a single ctenidium.
Mucronalia, foot reduced, but still operculate, eyes present, animal fixed by its very long proboscis which is deeply buried in the tissues of an Echinoderm, no pseudopallium.
In other cases (Tectibranchs) the reduced shell is enclosed by upgrowths of the edge of the mantle and becomes internal, as in many Cephalopods.
A few Euthyneura in which the shell is not much reduced retain an operculum in the adult state, e.g.
(From Owen.) of the liver or great digestive gland is found in the scorpions, where the axial portion of the digestive canal is short and straight, and the lateral ducts sufficiently wide to admit food into the ramifications of the gland there to be digested; whilst in the spiders the gland is reduced to a series of simple caeca.
Cephalic shield short, truncated posteriorly; eyes deeply embedded; three calcareous stomachal plates; shell external, with reduced spire.
Margins of foot well developed; eyes superficial; three chitinous stomachal plates; shell external, with reduced spire.
Shell more or less internal, much reduced or absent.
Visceral commissure reduced; nervous system concentrated on dorsal side of oesophagus.
Mantle-border projecting; frontal veil reduced, and often covered by the anterior border of the mantle.
Body elongated; visceral mass marked off from foot posteriorly; dorsal appendages absent, or reduced to a single pair; spicules in the integument.
There is a veliger stage in development, but the velum is reduced.
Anterior tentacles much reduced; male and female apertures contiguous but distinct; shell thin,.
On the 17th of July Napoleon signed at Paris a decree that reduced to subservience the Germanic System, the chaotic weakness of which he had in 1797 foreseen to be highly favourable to France.
On his return, he outlined to Parliament a scheme by which the cost might be greatly reduced, mainly through the transference of authority to Arab chiefs.
But just as he ernbarked that commission concluded the desired treaty of alliance, and soon after his arrival he advised that the number of commissioners be reduced to one.
On the other hand, the number of segments may be reduced, certain of them often becoming highly modified in form.
2, II), while in moths and caddis-flies they are reduced to mere vestiges or altogether suppressed.
In specialized biting insects, such as beetles (Coleo C ptera), the labium tends to become a hard transverse plate bearing the pair of palps, a median structure - known as the ligula - formed of the conjoined laciniae, and a pair of small rounded processes - the reduced galeae - often called the " paraglossae," a term better avoided since it has been applied also to the maxillulae of Aptera, entirety different structures.
The first and second abdominal sterna are often suppressed or reduced, on account of the strong development of the hind-legs.
Doncaster (1906-1907) on the eggs of sawflies, the number of chromosomes is not reduced in parthenogenetic egg-nuclei, while, in eggs capable of fertilization, the usual reduction-divisions occur.
boring grub of a longhorn-beetle or of the saw-fly Sires, with its stumpy vestiges of thoracic legs; the large-headed but entirely legless, fleshy grub of a weevil; and the legless larva, with greatly reduced head, of a bee.
Tracheal system reduced or absent.
Piercing jaws modified and reduced, a tubular, protrusible suckingtrunk being developed; mouth with hooks.
Fore-wings well developed; hind-wings reduced to stalked knobs (" halteres ").
Cerci present but usually reduced.
In this the large plates were reduced by means of the camera lucida, the text was revised, and the whole systematically arranged.
2 Herein are contained more than nine hundred coloured and more than one hundred uncoloured plates, which are crowded with the figures of birds, a large proportion of them reduced copies from other works, and especially those of Gould.
Instead of recognizing, as before, a subclass in the Ratitae of Merrem, Nitzsch now reduced them to the rank of an order under the name " Platysternae," placing them between the " Gallinaceae " and " Grallae," though admitting that in their pterylosis they differ from all other birds, in ways that he is at great pains to describe, in each of the four genera examined by him - Struthio, Rhea, Dromaeus and Casuarius.
The first of them, Accipitres, comprehending all the birds-of-prey, were separated into 4 " cohorts " in his original work, but these were reduced in his appendix to two - Nyctharpages or owls with 4 families divided into 2 series, and Hemeroharpages containing all the rest, and comprising io families (the last of which is the seriema, Dicholophus) divided into 2 groups as Rapaces and Saprophagi - the latter including the vultures.
The funded debt was then gradually reduced until the last installment was paid in 1903.
Further, it was a blow to the fair-play of party politics; the defeated party, having no leader, was reduced to desperate measures, such as the assassination of Ephialtes.
It provided for municipal elections in January; for the election of a mayor for four years; for his recall at the end of two years if a majority of the registered voters so vote in the state election in November in the second year of his term; for the summary removal for cause by the mayor of any department head or other of his appointees; for a city council of one chamber of nine members, elected at large each for three years; for nomination by petition; for a permanent finance commission appointed by the governor; for the confirmation of the mayor's appointments by the state civil service commission; for the mayor's preparation of the annual budget (in which items may be reduced but not increased by the council), and for his absolute veto of appropriations except for school use.
The number of members of the school-board was in 1905 reduced from twenty-four to five, elected by the city at large, or serving for one, two or three years; at the same time power was centralized in the hands of the superintendent of schools.
He approached by way of Cappadocia, where he reduced the Palmyrene garrisons, and thence through Cilicia he entered Syria.
where a house is burnt down, or a farm is reduced to " sterility " by flood or hurricane, discharges the tenant from the obligation to pay rent.
When this has been accomplished the weight of the crop is reduced to about one-third, each 100 lb of seed cotton as picked yielding after ginning some 33 lb of lint and 66 lb of cotton seed.
The annual damage was in 1906 reduced to £r,000,000 to £ 2,000,000, and this on a larger area devoted to cotton than in the case of the estimate given above.
In Jamaica, on the other hand, it was reduced from 1500 to 300 acres.
The information at the disposal of dealers has steadily enlarged in volume and improved in trustworthiness, though some of it is not yet invariably above suspicion, and the time elapsing between an event and the knowledge of it becoming common property has been reduced to a fraction of what it used to be, in consequence chiefly of the telegraph and cables.
Citric acid is also distinguished from tartaric acid by the fact that an ammonia solution of silver tartrate produces a brilliant silver mirror when boiled, whereas silver citrate is reduced only after prolonged ebullition.
An attempt is made to get rid of the distinctive nature of miracle when the exceptionalness of the events so regarded is reduced to a new subjective mode of regarding natural phenomena.
The bore is then reduced to 5Z-in., and a bevelled shoulder being made in the rock, a 5$-in.
Such are known as " reduced oils."
The process of distillation of lubricating oils under reduced atmospheric pressure is now in very general use, especially for obtaining the heavier products.
One tribe, living in the Maluti mountains, was reduced to cannibalism.
In certain cases, however, the walls of the oesophagus appear to be very closely applied to the muscular body-wall and this vascular space thereby considerably reduced.
In accordance with these more sedentary habits during the first phases of life, the characteristic pilidium larva, which is so eminently adapted for a pelagic existence, appears to have been reduced to a close-fitting exterior layer of cells, which is stripped off after the definite body-wall of the Nemertine has similarly originated out of four ingrowths from the primary epiblast.
To this reduced and sedentary pilidium the name of " larva of Desor " has been given.
He had submitted the doctrine of transubstantiation (already generally received both by priests and people, although in the west it had been first unequivocally taught and reduced to a regular theory by Paschasius Radbert in 831) to an independent examination, and had come to the conclusion that it was contrary to reason, unwarranted by Scripture, and inconsistent with the teaching of men like Ambrose, Jerome and Augustine.
The bonded debt was thus reduced to $884,500; and on the 1st of January 1909 the debt, consisting of refunding bonds held as educational funds, amounted to $601,567.
In 1527 he sailed from Cuba with about 600 men (soon reduced to less than 400), landed (early in 1528) probably at the present site of Pensacola, and for six months remained in the country, he and his men suffering terribly from exposure, hunger and fierce Indian attacks.
He had lost his hold upon Pennsylvania and his support in the house, while a cabal in the senate, bitterly and personally hostile to the treasury, crippled the administration and reduced every government measure to mere inanity.
Henry on his side looked to find in Becket the archbishop a coadjutor as loyal as Becket the archdeacon; and anticipated that the Church would once more be reduced to that state of dependence in which she had stood during the latter years of Henry I.
This is then dissolved in water, reduced by alcohol and ignited in oxygen.
It is readily reduced.
The principal local government is that of the municipalities or municipal districts, but for the Spanish municipal government the insular legislature has substituted one resembling that of small towns in the United States, and it has reduced the number of districts from 66 to 47.
The tax was increased no fewer than six times between 1747 and 1808, but was reduced in 1823.
690) from the ruins of Justinian's church of St Mary on Mount Sion, and the central avenue or nave built with them presents the appearance of a Christian church; it however runs north and south, the Mecca niche being at the south end; originally there were seven aisles on each side, now reduced to three.
was primarily based upon certain experiments on combustion and calcination, and in effect reduced the number of the alchemical principles, while setting up a new one, a principle of combustibility, named phlogiston (from (PXoyun-6s, burnt).
Of recent years the introduction of various organic compounds as precipitants or reagents has reduced the labour of the process; and advantage has also been taken of the fairly complex double salts which these metals form with compounds.
and >- CH, the first characterizing the polymethylene and reduced heterocyclic compounds, the second true aromatic compounds.
Hitherto we have generally restricted ourselves to syntheses which result in the production of a true benzene ring; but there are many reactions by which reduced benzene rings are synthesized, and from the compounds so obtained true benzenoid compounds may be prepared.
von Baeyer's researches (commenced in 1886) on the reduced phthalic acids.
Baeyer pointed out that although benzene derivatives were obtainable from hexamethylene compounds, yet it by no means follows that only hexamethylene compounds need result when benzene compounds are reduced.
To follow Baeyer's results we must explain his nomenclature of the reduced benzene derivatives.
From the fact that reduction products containing either one or two double linkages behave exactly as unsaturated aliphatic compounds, being readily reduced or oxidized, and combining with the halogen elements and haloid acids, it seems probable that in benzenoid compounds the fourth valencies are symmetrically distributed in such a manner as to induce a peculiar stability in the molecule.
If s-naphthylamine and 0-naphthol be reduced, tetrahydro products are obtained in which the aminoor oxy-bearing half of the molecule becomes aliphatic in character.
If a-naphthylamine and a-naphthol be reduced, the hydrogen atoms attach themselves to the non-substituted half of the molecule, and the compounds so obtained resemble aminodiethylbenzene, C 6 H 3 NH 2 (C 2 H 5) 21 and oxydiethylbenzene, C 6 H 3.
Bamberger's observations on reduced quinoline derivatives point to the same conclusion, that condensed nuclei are not benzenoid, but possess an individual character, which breaks down, however, when the molecule is reduced.
After having previously roasted the tube and copper oxide, and reduced the copper spiral a, the weighed calcium chloride tube and potash bulbs are put in position, the boat containing the substance is inserted (in the case of a difficultly combustible substance it is desirable to mix it with cupric oxide or lead chromate), the copper spiral (d) replaced, and the air and oxygen supply connected up. The apparatus is then tested for leaks.
The magnesite (a) serves for the generation of carbon dioxide which clears the tube of air before the compound (mixed with fine copper oxide (b)) is burned, and afterwards sweeps the liberated nitrogen into the receiving vessel (e), which contains a strong potash solution; c is coarse copper oxide; and d a reduced copper gauze spiral, heated in order to decompose any nitrogen oxides.
With iodine compounds, iodic acid is likely to be formed, and hence the solution must be reduced with sulphurous acid before precipitation with silver nitrate.
According to the law of Avogadro, equal volumes of different gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules; therefore, since the density depends upon the number of molecules present in unit volume, it follows that for a comparison of the densities of gases, the determinations must be made under coincident conditions, or the observations reduced or re-computed for coincident conditions.
If we express the pressure, volume and temperature as fractions of the critical constants, then, calling these fractions the " reduced " pressure, volume and temperature, and denoting them by 7r, 0 and 0 respectively, the characteristic equation becomes (7+3/0 2)(30-i) =80; which has the same form for all substances.
The chlorine atom in this compound is replaced by the cyano-group, which is then reduced to the CH 2 NH 2.
For not only has the weight been more than quadrupled in some of the larger breeds, and the structure of the skull and other parts of the skeleton greatly altered, but the proportionate size of the brain has been reduced and the colour and texture of the fur altered in a remarkable manner.
Owing to the great number of tribes, sub-tribes and clans of the Kachins, the part of the Kachin hills which has been taken under administration in the Myitkyina and Bhamo districts was divided into 40 Kachin hill tracts (recently reduced to five).
MAP, a representation, on a plane and a reduced scale, of part or the whole of the earth's surface.
XWpa, country or region) and general maps are either reduced from topographical maps or compiled from such miscellaneous sources as are available.
Among geographers should be mentioned Posidonius (13-551), the head of the Stoic school of Rhodes, who is stated to be responsible for having reduced the length of a degree to 500 stadia; Artemidorus of Ephesus, whose " Geographumena " (c. Ioo B.C.) are based upon his own travels and a study of itineraries, and above all, Strabo, who has already been referred to.
Si-ngan-fu), the capital of China, was equal to 225 °, which Ptolemy reduced to 177°, but which in reality only amount to 126°.
Of its character the reduced copy of one of its 12 sections (fig.
13 shows his map of the world reduced from a MS. at Wolfenbiittel, to which is added a diagram of the zones from a MS. at Ghent, which illustrates Macrobius' commentary on Cicero's Somnium Scipionis.
io08), Zarkala (Azarchel), who determined the meridian distance between his observatory in Toledo and Bagdad to amount to 51° 30', an error of 3° only, as compared with Ptolemy's error of 18°, and Abul Hassan (1230) who reduced the great axis of the Mediterranean to 44°.
The Strassburg Ptolemy of 1522 contains Waldseemiiller's maps,' edited on a reduced scale by Laurentius Frisius, together with three additional ones.
Glockedon, the author of an interesting road-map of central Europe (1soi), Sebastian Munster (1489-1552), Elias Camerarius, whose map of the mark of Brandenburg won the praise of Mercator; Wolfgang Latz von Lazius, to whom we are indebted for maps of Austria and Hungary (1561), and Philip Apianus, who made a survey of Bavaria (1553-1563), which was published 1568 on the reduced scale of 1:144,000, and is fairly described as the topographical masterpiece of the 16th century.
At the same time the cadastral plans, reduced to a scale of 1:25,000, are being published in photo-lithography.
Kilham's wife (Hannah Spurr, 1 77418 3 2), whom he married only a few months before his death, became a Quaker, and worked as a missionary in the Gambia and at Sierra Leone; she reduced to writing several West African vernaculars.
Once, but only once (in the Gospel of Nicodemus), the time is reduced to five hundred years.
He reduced Vectis (Isle of Wight) and penetrated to the borders of Somersetshire.
In July 1899 the Acreanos declared their independence and set up a republic of their own, but in the following March they were reduced to submission by Brazil.
He turned first against the Byzantines, who were defeated several times; he took Cordova and chastised the Suevi; and then by stern measures he destroyed the power of those unruly and rebellious chieftains who had reduced former kings to the position of ciphers.
Not only Asiatics and Thracians thus became slaves, but in the many wars between Grecian states, continental or colonial, Greeks were reduced to slavery by men of their own race.
If the freedman violated his duties to his patron he was subject to an action at law, and if the decision were against him he was again reduced to slavery.
Certain offences reduced the guilty persons to slavery (servi poenae), and they were employed in public work in the quarries or the mines.
(I) As Gibbon observes, the completion of the Roman system of conquest reduced the supply of slaves.
This system, by diminishing the freeman's mastery over himself and his power to determine his occupation, reduced the interval between him and the slave; and the latter on the one hand, the free domestic servant and workshop labourer on the other, both passed insensibly into the common condition of serfdom.
declared his 'The Spaniards, in the space of fifteen years subsequent to the discovery of the West Indies, had, as Robertson mentions, reduced the natives of Haiti from a million to 60,000.
In 1807 there were in the West Indies 800,000; in 1830 they were reduced to 700,000.
The flowers are regular as in Viburnum Flowering shoot of Lonicera Caprifolium, slightly reduced.
1, Fruit slightly reduced; 2, horizontal plan of arrangement of flower.
And further, since the Exalted One was born in it, he reduced taxation in the village of Lumbini, and established the dues at one-eighth part (of the crop)."
When adjacent burial areas belonged to members of the same Christian confraternity, or by gift or purchase fell into the same hands, communications were opened between the respective cemeteries, which thus spread laterally, and gradually acquired that enormous extent which, " even when their fabulous dimensions are reduced to their right measure, form an immense work."' This could only be executed by a large and powerful Christian community unimpeded by legal enactments or police regulations, " a living witness of its immense development corresponding to the importance of the capital."
On the formation of the kingdom of Italy in 1860 they were reduced to the Comarca of Rome, the legation of Velletri, and the three delegations of Viterbo, Civita Vecchia and Frosinone; and in 1870 they disappeared from the political map of Europe.
In the Tapiridae the dentition may be reduced below the typical 44 by the loss of the first lower premolar.
The facial portion of the skull is generally shorter than the cranial; the orbit is freely open behind; and the premaxillae tend to be reduced and fused with the nasals.
sibircum of the Siberian Pleistocene, in which the premolars were reduced to while front-teeth were probably wanting, and the cheek teeth developed tall crowns, without roots, but with cement in the valleys, and the enamel of the central parts curiously crimped.
(5) Every letter of a word is reduced to its numerical value, and the word is explained by another of the same quantity.
In 1790 the interest was reduced to 3%, and as the treasury had again become exhausted, a further issue was decided upon; it was also decreed that the assignats were to be accepted as legal tender, all public departments being instructed to receive them as the equivalent of metallic money.
The assignats had now become totally valueless - the abolition of the "maximum" the previous year (1795) had produced no effect, and, though, by various payments into the treasury, the total number had been reduced to about 24,000,000,000 francs, their face-value was about 3 o to I of coin.
These lakes are much larger at flood season than at other times, and have been much reduced in size by the cutting of a channel through the raft.
Sanitary institutes are held by the state board at various towns each year for the instruction of the public. Boards of appraisers and equalization oversee the administration of the tax system; the cost of collection, owing to the fee system for payment of collectors, was higher than in any other state of the Union until 1907, when the fees were greatly reduced.
But his unfettered powers in this respect have been reduced under the third Republic. This has chiefly been the effect of the law of the 10th of August 1871, which has led to decentralization, by increasing the powers of the conseils generaux.
In 1908, by the opening of a railway along the Florida Keys, the time of passage by water between Cuba and the United States was reduced to a few hours.
The character of this body was altered in 1890, and in 1898, in which latter year its functions were reduced to the essentially judicial.
Lassalle attached himself to the cause of the countess, whom he believed to have been outrageously wronged, made special study of law, and, after bringing the case before thirty-six tribunals, reduced the powerful count to a compromise on terms most favourable to his client.
silver oxide is reduced to metallic silver at 170° C., lead dioxide to the monoxide and manganese dioxide to sesquioxide.
It converts many metallic oxides into mixtures of nitrates and nitrites, and attacks many metals, forming nitrates and being itself reduced to nitric oxide.
The hurricane, too, was followed by repeated droughts, and the inhabitants of the out-islands were reduced to indigence and want, a condition which is still, in some measure, in evidence.
Turkey in Africa has gradually been reduced to Tripoli and Barca.
Partial relief was sought in the continual issue of debased currency (beshlik, altilik and their subdivisions), of which the excess of nominal value over intrinsic value ranged between 33 and 97%, and finally paper money (kaime) which was first issued in 1839, bearing an interest of 8%, reduced in 1842 to 6%, such interest being paid on notes of 500 piastres, but not on notes of 20 or 10 piastres, which were issued simultaneously.
The rates on these advances have now been generally reduced to 6% with the exception of that on the advances from the lighthouse administration, which refused to allow any reduction below 7%.
In the year1910-1911the outstanding advances were to be so far paid off that the credits to be opened under this head would be still further reduced by £T500,000.
The civil list has been reduced to the definite amount of £T443,880, which, without the consent of parliament, cannot be increased.
It is not expected that military expenditure can be much reduced, except in the direction of supply contracts, which have been the cause in the past of iniquitous waste of means.
On this reduced capital a minimum interest of% was to be paid, the rate of interest to be increased by quarters per cent.
as the revenues set aside for the service of the reduced debt permitted.
containing the 1858 and 1862 loans, with a reduced nominal capital of £T7,902,259; group ii.
the 1860, 1863, 1864 and 1872 loans, with a reduced nominal capital of £T11,265,153; group iii.
the 1865, 1869 and 1873 loans, with a reduced nominal capital of £T33,915,762, and group iv.
To this council, with these extended powers, was handed over the absolute administration, collection and control of the " six indirect contributions " above enumerated, for the benefit of the bondholders, and in addition, it was to encash for the same purpose bills on the customs, to be drawn half-yearly in its favour by the minister of finance, amounting annually to £T180,000, representing the tax on Tumbeki (£TSo,000) and the surplus revenue of Cyprus (£T130,000); and the Eastern Rumelian annuity, originally fixed at £T245,000, but gradually reduced by force of circumstances, until after frequent suspensions of payment it reached in 1897 the level of £T114,000, and has, since the declaration of Bulgarian independence, been definitely stopped.
There were further handed over, under the Muharrem decree, to the public debt council, the tribute of Bulgaria, the amount of which has never even been fixed, but as compensation for which the tobacco tithe up to a yearly amount of £Tioo,000 was ceded to the council in the same conditions as the " six indirect contributions "; the proportional shares (generally known as the " contributive 1 For simplicity's sake, the lottery bonds having a special treatment different from that of the rest of the loans, these groups, when the new bonds of the reduced debt were exchanged against the old bonds of the original loans, became " series " thus: Series A, group i.; series B, group ii.;.
Four-fifths of the net product of the revenues, after deduction of the first charge of £T590,000, was to be applied.to the service of the interest on the new reduced debt, and provided that the four-fifths were sufficient to allow the distribution of 1% interest, one-fifth was to be devoted to sinking fund; but this latter fifth was to be reduced, if necessary, by an amount sufficient to maintain the rate of interest at i %.
The sinking fund was to work as follows: First 4% on the whole reduced capital was to be applied to group i.; if there were any surplus this was to be applied to group ii., until that also received the same full 4%, and so on for group iii.
and group iv., until the whole sinking fund amounted to I% on the reduced capital.
As soon as the unified debt is reduced to £T16,000,000 the reserve fund is to be reduced to £Ti 3 000,000, the surplus over this last amount being paid to the government.
The heavy depreciation in silver causing large losses to the government, free coinage was suspended in 1880, and the nominal value of the mejidie was reduced by decree to 19 piastres (105.26 piastres thus = £T1), while in the same year the debased currencies were reduced, altilik, the 6-piastre piece to 5 piastres, the 3-piastre piece to 22 piastres, the 12-piastre piece to 14 piastre; beshlik, the 5-piastre piece to 22 piastres, the 22-piastre piece to 1;-piastre; metallik, the 1-piastre piece to 2 piastre, the 2-piastre piece to 4 piastre, the *-piastre piece to a piastre - these values representing approximately the intrinsic value of the silver, at mejidie standard, contained in the debased coins.
Meanwhile, again confronted by a rebellion of the prince of Karamania, Murad had crossed into Asia and reduced him to submission, granting him honourable terms, in view of the urgency of the peril in Europe.
The independent princes of Asia Minor were now completely subjugated and their territories finally absorbed into the Turkish dominions; Walachia was next reduced to the state of a tributary province.
The non-Mussulman subjects of the sultan had indeed early been reduced to such a condition of servitude that the idea of their being placed on a footing of equality with their Mussulman rulers seemed unthinkable.
Then he had stood with 420,000 men on a front of 160 m., now he had only 229,000 men on a front of 135; he had missed three great opportunities of destroying his enemy in detail, and in five weeks, during which time he had only traversed 200 m., he had seen his troops reduced numerically at least one-third, and, worse still, his army was now far from being the fighting machine it had been at the outset.
Before the end of September the French army was reduced to capitulate.
' Reduced from a large plan of the Escorial in the British Museum, Monasterio del Escorial, published at Madrid in 1876.
is supposed to be - 13° F., or reduced to sea-level 5° F.
reduced to sea-level.
The mean temperature of the warmest month, July, in the interior should be, reduced to sea-level, on the 64th parallel 32° F., and that of the coldest month, January, about - 22° F., while in North Greenland it is probably - 40° reduced to sea-level.
Siberia, which took place in the 5th century, drove them farther N., and probably reduced most of them to slavery.
The oxide dissolves slowly in acids; it is not reduced by hydrogen and is infusible.
The deep bay of Sale or Sumbawa on the north divides the island into two peninsulas, and the isthmus is further reduced by the narrower Bay of Chempi on the south.
During the early period of the Roman Empire the Thracian kings were allowed to maintain an independent sovereignty, while acknowledging the suzerainty of Rome, and it was not until the reign of Vespasian that the country was reduced to the form of a province (Kalopathakas, De Thracia, provincia romana, 1894; Mommsen, Roman Provinces, Eng.
It is reduced by nascent hydrogen to the secondary alcohol C6H5.CH.OH.CH3 phenyl-methyl-carbinol, and on oxidation forms benzoic acid.
The water in shallow seas, off the shores of islands or in lagoons, is saturated with calcium bicarbonate and if the amount of carbonic acid in solution be reduced by any means, normal carbonate must be precipitated.
This last substance may be reduced to mesoporphyrin, C34H3804N4, which by further reduction gives haemopyrrol, C 8 11 13 N, possibly methyl-propyl-pyrrol or butyl-pyrrol.
The malady causing the greatest number of deaths is that of pulmonary consumption; but better housing accommodation has of late years reduced the mortality from this disease very considerably.
Silver chloride is a very insoluble substance, and here the amount in solution is still further reduced by the presence of excess of chlorine ions of the potassium salt.
of this solution is completely reduced by o 05 grammes of hexose.
The cyanhydrin is hydrolysable to an acid, the lactone of which may be reduced by sodium amalgam to a glucoheptose, a non-fermentable sugar containing seven carbon atoms. By repeating the process a non-fermentable gluco-octose and a fermentable glucononose may be prepared.