Red-heat sentence example

red-heat
  • Jacquerod and Perrot have found that quartz-glass is freely permeable to helium below a red-heat (Comet.
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  • It does not react with the alkali metals, but combines with magnesium at a low red heat to form a boride, and with other metals at more or less elevated temperatures.
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  • It reduces many metallic oxides, such as lead monoxide and cupric oxide, and decomposes water at a red heat.
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  • It is a white powder, which turns pale yellow on heating, and melts at a red heat.
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  • The pyrites is subjected to dry distillation from out of iron or fire-clay tubular retorts at a bright red heat.
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  • If the substance does not melt but changes colour, we may have present: zinc oxide - from white to yellow, becoming white on cooling; stannic oxide - white to yellowish brown, dirty white on cooling; lead oxide - from white or yellowish-red to brownish-red, yellow on cooling; bismuth oxide - from white or pale yellow to orange-yellow or reddish-brown, pale yellow on cooling; manganese oxide - from white or yellowish white to dark brown, remaining dark brown on cooling (if it changes on cooling to a bright reddishbrown, it indicates cadmium oxide); copper oxide - from bright blue or green to black; ferrous oxide - from greyish-white to black; ferric oxide - from brownish-red to black, brownish-red on cooling; potassium chromate - yellow to dark orange, fusing at a red heat.
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  • Some preliminary experiments showed the striking difference in the effects of annealing at a red heat (840° C.) and at a low white heat (1'50° C.).
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  • When heated to nearly a red heat it gives a porous friable mass which is known as "burnt alum."
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  • Metallic uranium, as shown by Peligot, can be obtained by the reduction of a mixture of dry chloride of potassium and dry uranous chloride, UC1 4, with sodium at a red heat.
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  • Uranyl chloride, UO 2 C1 2, is a yellow crystalline mass formed when chlorine is passed over uranium dioxide at a red heat.
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  • Tin fuses at about 230° C.; at a red heat it begins to volatilize slowly; at 1600° to 1800° C. it boils.
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  • (2) A similar oxide (flores jovis) is produced by burning tin in air at high temperatures or exposing any of the hydrates to a strong red heat.
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  • It is a white solid, fusing at 250° C. to an oily liquid which boils at 606°, and volatilizing at a red heat in nitrogen, a vacuum or hydrochloric acid, without decomposition.
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  • The empty crucible, having first been gradually dried and heated to a bright red heat in a subsidiary furnace, is taken up by means of massive iron tongs and introduced into the previously heated furnace, the temperature of which is then gradually raised.
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  • In the next stage of the process, the glass is raised to a high temperature in order to render it sufficiently fluid to allow of the complete elimination of these bubbles; the actual temperature required varies with the chemical composition of the glass, a bright red heat sufficing for the most fusible glasses, while with others the utmost capacity of the best furnaces is required to attain the necessary temperature.
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  • Silicon sulphide, SiS 2, is formed by the direct union of silicon with sulphur; by the action of sulphuretted hydrogen on crystallized silicon at red heat (P. Sabatier, Comptes rendus, 1880, 90, p. 819); or by passing the vapour of carbon bisulphide over a heated mixture of silica and carbon.
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  • The alkaline carbonates undergo only a very slight decomposition, even at a very bright red heat.
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  • At a red heat it evolves oxygen with the formation of potassium nitrite, which, in turn, decomposes at a higher temperature.
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  • At a red heat rutile is produced, at the boiling point of zinc brookite, and of cadmium anatase.
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  • In the last case it becomes coated with a greyish-black layer of an oxide (dioxide (?)), at a red heat the layer consists of the trioxide (B1203), and is yellow or green in the case of pure bismuth, and violet or blue if impure; at a bright red heat it burns with a bluish flame to the trioxide.
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  • A brittle potassium alloy of silver-white colour and lamellar fracture is obtained by calcining 20 parts of bismuth with 16 of cream of tartar at a strong red heat.
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  • At a red heat it absorbs large volumes of hydrogen and nitrogen, the last traces of which can only be removed by fusion in the electric furnace.
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  • Sahlbom (Ber., 1906, 39, p. 2600) obtained 179.8 (H =1) by converting the metal into pentoxide at a dull red heat.
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  • Caesium hydroxide, Cs(OH) 2, obtained by the decomposition of the sulphate with baryta water,is a greyish-white deliquescent solid,which melts at a red heat and absorbs carbon dioxide rapidly.
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  • It forms small cubes which melt at a red heat and volatilize readily.
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  • Under the same conditions it becomes incandescent in the vapour of sulphur, yielding calcium sulphide and carbon disulphide; the vapour of phosphorus will also unite with it at a red heat.
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  • The hydroxide readily loses its water at a dull red heat and passes into anhydride with vivid incandescence.
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  • The sulphate, Zr(S04)2, is a white mass obtained by dissolving the oxide or hydroxide in sulphuric acid, evaporating and heating the mass to nearly a red heat.
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  • The crucible is at a red heat when the gold is charged in, the copper being added last, and a graphite lid put on the crucible to check loss by volatilization.
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  • They are at a dull red heat and are allowed to cool gradually in the air and become blackened by the formation on the surface of a film of oxide of copper.
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  • Heated in chlorine or with bromine, it yields carbon and calcium chloride or bromide; at a dull red heat it burns in oxygen, forming calcium carbonate, and it becomes incandescent in sulphur vapour at 500°, forming calcium sulphide and carbon disulphide.
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  • At a red heat ammonia is easily decomposed into its constituent elements, a similar decomposition being brought about by the passage of electric sparks through the gas.
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  • Trans., 1869, p. 173) by decomposing the double fluoride of hydrogen and potassium, at a red heat in a platinum retort fitted with a platinum condenser surrounded by a freezing mixture, was having a platinum receiver luted on.
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  • It forms a grey mass, which melts at a red heat and violently combines with water to give the hydroxide.
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  • It fuses considerably below and is perceptibly volatile at a red heat.
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  • It forms the acid fluoride KHF 2 when dissolved in aqueous hydrofluoric acid, a salt which at a red heat gives the normal fluoride and hydrofluoric acid.
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  • The salt crystallizes in cubes of specific gravity 1.995; it melts at about 800° and volatilizes at a bright red heat.
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  • The salt is thus obtained as a white porous mass, fusible at a red heat (838° C., Carnelley) into a colourless liquid, which solidifies into a white opaque mass.
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  • The hydrosulphide, KHS, was obtained by Gay-Lussac on heating the metal in sulphuretted hydrogen, and by Berzelius on acting with sulphuretted hydrogen on potassium carbonate at a dull red heat.
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  • 935 0 - 2 (1900)] pass ammonia over a mixture of alkali or alkaline carbonate and charcoal, first at a dull red heat and then at a bright red heat: KHO + NH 3 + C = KNC + H 2 O.
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  • The mixture of calcium and lead carbonates is filtered off and roasted at a low red heat in order to regenerate the calcium plumbate.
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  • When there is appreciable absorption as in the case of the vapours of chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulphur, selenium and arsenic, luminosity begins at a red heat.
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  • In 1808 Sir Humphry Davy, fresh from the electrolytic isolation of potassium and sodium, attempted to decompose alumina by heating it with potash in a platinum crucible and submitting the mixture to a current of electricity; in 1809, with a more powerful battery, he raised iron wire to a red heat in contact with alumina, and obtained distinct evidence of the production of an iron-aluminium alloy.
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  • Crystallized alumina is also obtained by heating the fluoride with boron trioxide; by fusing aluminium phosphate with sodium sulphate; by heating alumina to a dull redness in hydrochloric acid gas under pressure; and by heating alumina with lead oxide to a bright red heat.
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  • These include the austenitic or gamma non-magnetic manganese steel, already patented b y Robert Hadfield in 1883, the first important known substance which combined great malleableness with great hardness, and the martensitic or beta " high speed tool steel " of White and Taylor, which retains its hardness and cutting power even at a red heat.
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  • Thus, sudden cooling from a red heat leaves the carbon not in definite combination as cementite, but actually dissolved in (3and 7-allotropic iron, in the conditions known as martensite and austenite, not granitic but glass-like bodies, of which the " hardened " and " tempered " steel of our cutting tools in large part consists.
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  • The alkali metals and alkaline earth metals decompose water at ordinary temperatures; magnesium begins to react above 70° C., and zinc at a dull red heat.
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  • It diffuses very rapidly through a porous membrane, and through some metals at a red heat (T.
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  • The nodules are not prepared in any way, but simply burned at a moderate red heat.
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  • Thallous sulphate, T1 2 SO 4, forms rhombic prisms, soluble in water, which melt at a red heat with decomposition, sulphur dioxide being evolved.
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  • It may be obtained crystalline by heating manganese sulphate and potassium sulphate to a bright red heat (H.
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  • The anhydrous chloride, MnCl2, is obtained as a rose-red crystalline solid by passing hydrochloric acid gas over manganese carbonate, first in the cold and afterwards at a moderate red heat.
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  • L I subjected in a series of large cast-iron cylinders to the action of pyrites-burner gases and steam at a low red heat.
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  • This requires ultimately a good red heat.
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  • It is not appreciably volatilized at a red heat.
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  • It decomposes water at a red heat.
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  • A hydrated form, Ni 3 0 4 ..2H 2 O, is obtained when the monoxide is fused with sodium peroxide at a red heat and the fused mass extracted with water.
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  • The powdered metal burns at a red heat to form the trioxide; it is very slowly attacked by moist air.
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  • Tungsten dioxide, W02, formed on reducing the trioxide by hydrogen at a red heat or a mixture of the trioxide and hydrochloric acid with zinc, or by decomposing the tetrachloride with water, is a brown strongly pyrophoric powder, which must be cooled in hydrogen before being brought into contact with air.
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  • Ammonia does not react with tungsten or the dioxide, but with trioxide at a red heat a substance of the formula W 5 H 6 N 3 0 5 is obtained, which is insoluble in acids and alkalis and on ignition decomposes, evolving nitrogen, hydrogen and ammonia.
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  • It melts at below red heat to a brown mass, and its vapour density at both red and white heat corresponds to the formula Cu 2 C1 2.
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  • One part of the ore is mixed with from three to five parts of a flux of the following composition: - The mixture is charged into a clay crucible and heated for twenty minutes at a good red heat.
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  • This may be effected by mixing the dry chloridewith one-fifth of its weight of pure quicklime or one-third of its weight of dry sodium carbonate, and fusing the mixture in a, fire-clay crucible at a bright red heat.
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  • The product is then distilled from Stourbridge clay retorts, arranged in a galley furnace, previously heated to a red heat.
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  • The chemical reactions are as follows: the treatment of the calcium phosphate with the acid gives phosphoric acid, H 3 PO 4, which at a red heat loses water to give metaphosphoric acid, HP03; this at a white heat reacts with carbon to give hydrogen, carbon monoxide and phosphorus, thus: 2HP06+ 6C= H2 +6CO+P2.
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  • It boils at 338°, and at about 400 the vapour dissociates into sulphur trioxide and water; at a red heat further decomposition ensues, the sulphur trioxide dissociating into the dioxide and water.
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  • Fuming or Nordhausen Oil of Vitriol, a mixture or chemical com pound of H 2 SO 4, with more or less S03, has been made for centuries by exposing pyritic schist to the influence of atmospheric agents, collecting the solution of ferrous and ferric sulphate thus formed, boiling it down into a hard mass ("vitriolstein") and heating this to a low red heat in small earthenware retorts.
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  • Wright found, in a series of experiments, that, when four portions of the same coal were distilled at temperatures ranging from a dull red heat to the highest temperature attainable in an iron retort, he obtained the following results as to yield and illuminating power: - Composition of the Gas.
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  • It fuses at a red-heat, and volatilizes at a yellow-heat; its vapour density at 1300°-1400° corresponds to the formula FeC12.
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  • Ferric chloride, FeCl31 known in its aqueous solution to Glauber as oleum martis, may be obtained anhydrous by the action of dry chlorine on the metal at a moderate red-heat, or by passing hydrochloric acid gas over heated ferric oxide.
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  • Ferrous bromide, FeBr2, is obtained as yellowish crystals by the union of bromine and iron at a dull red-heat, or as bluish-green rhombic tables of the composition FeBr26H2O by crystallizing a solution of iron in hydrobromic acid.
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  • FeP is obtained by passing phosphorus vapour over Fe2P at a red-heat.
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  • The trioxide, V 2 0 3, is formed when the pentoxide is reduced at a red heat in a current of hydrogen, or by the action of oxalic acid on ammonium metavanadate.
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  • Vanadium dichloride, VC12, is a green crystalline solid obtained when the tetrachloride is reduced with hydrogen at a dull red heat.
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  • It is volatile at temperatures above 1oo° C. and rapidly vaporizes at a dull red heat.
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  • H2O (below 15° C.), which on being heated to a dark red heat loses its water of crystallization and leaves a white vitreous mass of the pentoxide.
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  • Again, a system of rings, similar to those of an uniaxal plate perpendicular to the axis, may be produced with a glass cylinder by transmitting heat from its surface to its axes by immersion in heated oil, and glass that has been raised to a red heat and then cooled rapidly at its edges gives in polarized light an interference pattern of a regular form dependent upon the shape of the contour.
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  • The explanation of this phenomenon is that the metal is trans formed at a red heat into another modification, as is proved by simultaneous changes in its magnetic and electrical properties.
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  • Decomposition of metal hydroxides: The Group 1 Alkali Metal hydroxides do not readily decompose on heating ' up to red heat ' .
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  • It is also prepared by heating ammonium nitrite (or a mixture of sodium nitrite and ammonium chloride): NH 4 NO 2 =2H20+N21 by heating a mixture of ammonium nitrate and chloride (the chlorine which is simultaneously produced being absorbed by milk of lime or by a solution of sodium hydroxide): 4NH4N03+2NH4C1=5N2 +C1 2 +12H 2 O; by heating ammonium dichromate (or a mixture of ammonium chloride and potassium dichromate): (NH4)2Cr207 = Cr203+4H20+ N2; by passing chlorine into a concentrated solution of ammonia (which should be present in considerable excess): 8NH3+3C12=6NH4C1-F-N2; by the action of hypochlorites or hypobromites on ammonia: 3NaOBr-+2NH 3 =3NaBr+3H 2 OH-N 2; and by the action of manganese dioxide on ammonium nitrate at 180-20o° C. It is also formed by the reduction of nitric and nitrous oxides with hydrogen in the presence of platinized asbestos at a red heat (G.
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  • Some preliminary experiments showed the striking difference in the effects of annealing at a red heat (840° C.) and at a low white heat (1'50° C.).
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  • Tin fuses at about 230° C.; at a red heat it begins to volatilize slowly; at 1600° to 1800° C. it boils.
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  • It is a white solid, fusing at 250° C. to an oily liquid which boils at 606°, and volatilizing at a red heat in nitrogen, a vacuum or hydrochloric acid, without decomposition.
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  • The glass, now in its approximate form, is placed in a heated chamber where it is allowed to cool very gradually - the minimum time of cooling from a dull red heat being six days, while for " fine annealing " a much longer period is required (see above).
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  • Heated in chlorine or with bromine, it yields carbon and calcium chloride or bromide; at a dull red heat it burns in oxygen, forming calcium carbonate, and it becomes incandescent in sulphur vapour at 500°, forming calcium sulphide and carbon disulphide.
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  • The salt crystallizes in cubes of specific gravity 1.995; it melts at about 800° and volatilizes at a bright red heat.
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  • The salt is thus obtained as a white porous mass, fusible at a red heat (838° C., Carnelley) into a colourless liquid, which solidifies into a white opaque mass.
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  • The operation is conducted at a dull red heat (about 760° C. or 1400° F.), the current density being about 0.64 amperes per sq.
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  • The fuel, wood or charcoal, which served both to heat and to deoxidize the ore, has so strong a carburizing action that it would turn some of the resultant metal into " natural steel," which differs from wrought iron only in containing so much carbon that it is relatively hard and brittle in its natural state, and that it becomes intensely hard when quenched from a red heat in water.
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  • The alkali metals and alkaline earth metals decompose water at ordinary temperatures; magnesium begins to react above 70° C., and zinc at a dull red heat.
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  • soc. chim., 1902, 27, p. 1141); calcium and strontium similarly form hydrides CaH 2, SrH 2 at a dull red heat (A.
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  • It boils at 338°, and at about 400 the vapour dissociates into sulphur trioxide and water; at a red heat further decomposition ensues, the sulphur trioxide dissociating into the dioxide and water.
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  • It fuses at a red-heat, and volatilizes at a yellow-heat; its vapour density at 1300°-1400° corresponds to the formula FeC12.
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  • It is volatile at temperatures above 1oo° C. and rapidly vaporizes at a dull red heat.
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  • H2O (below 15° C.), which on being heated to a dark red heat loses its water of crystallization and leaves a white vitreous mass of the pentoxide.
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  • Ok, what's hotter than searing red heat?
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