How to use Reconstruction in a sentence
The decisive year of the Reconstruction Period was 1876.
The bonded debt was incurred during the Reconstruction Period (1865-1875).
There were, however, but few prisons in France adapted for the cellular system, and the process of reconstruction has been slow, In 1898 the old Paris prisons of Grande-Roquette, Saint-Plagie and Mazas were demolished, and to replace them a large prison with 1500 cells was erected at Fresnes-ls-Rungis.
Reconstruction was a costly experience here as in other Southern states.
Strictly, however, it is contrasted with "perception," and implies the mental reconstruction and combination of sensegiven data.Advertisement
After the signature of the articles of peace the work of reconstruction was accelerated.
The walls are well preserved, but of late Roman or Byzantine reconstruction.
Caesar, in return, accused him of embezzling public money during the reconstruction of the temple on the Capitol, and proposed to obliterate his name from the inscription and deprive him of the office of commissioner for its restoration.
For the tasks of Reconstruction he showed little aptitude.
The criticism was, however, preparatory to a reconstruction.Advertisement
The church of St Andrew retains some ornate Norman work, but is mainly a Perpendicular reconstruction.
A figure of Athena still occupies the centre of each pediment, but is set farther forward than in the old reconstruction.
Toffteen, In either case the history of separate sections of people may have been extended to Israel as a whole, but there is no evidence for any adequate reconstruction.
But the problems are admittedly complicated, and since one is necessarily dependent upon scanty narratives arranged and rearranged by later hands in accordance with their own historical theories, it is difficult to lay stress upon internal evidence which appears to be conclusive for this or that reconstruction.
Progress is the result of adaptation, rather than reconstruction.Advertisement
After the departure of the Persians the first necessity was the reconstruction of the defences of the city and the citadel.
The reconstruction of the city after its demolition by the Persians was not carried out on the lines of a definite plan like that of the Peiraeus.
In 1919 the city's outstanding bonds amounted to $19,884,000, to which in 1920 was added $5,500,000 for removal of railway grade crossings, for a municipal farm to afford better treatment of the tubercular and insane, for new engine houses and reconstruction of streets and for municipal lighting equipment.
While this work of reconstruction was in progress domestic politics in England were convulsed by the tariff reform movement and Mr Chamberlain's resignation.
That of 1879 showed a profound distrust of legislative action, bred of reconstruction experiences.Advertisement
War and reconstruction threw upon them the new burden of the black children.
But in 1864 the opposition of Congress to presidential reconstruction had clearly developed, so that the electoral votes of Louisiana (like those of Tennessee) for president were not counted.
For the Reconstruction period see bibliography under United States.
In the present article Bury's reconstruction of the saint's life has been chiefly followed.
Cumont's interpretation of the main relief and its smaller companions involves the reconstruction of a Mithraic theology, a Mithraic legend, and a Mithraic symbolism.Advertisement
The cathedral of St Jean, the chief of the numerous churches of the town, was founded in the 4th century but has often undergone reconstruction and restoration; it resembles the Rhenish churches of Germany in the possession of apses at each of its extremities.
Owen not only occupied himself with the dissection of rare animals, such as the Pearly Nautilus, Lingula, Limulus, Protopterus, Apteryx, &c., and with the description and reconstruction of extinct reptiles, birds and mammals - following the Cuvierian tradition - but gave precision and currency to the morphological doctrines which had taken their rise in the beginning of the century by the introduction of two terms, " homology " and " analogy," which were defined so as to express two different kinds of agreement in animal structures, which, owing to the want of such " counters of thought," had been hitherto continually confused.
The immediate result was, as pointed out above, a reconstruction of the classification of animals upon a genealogical basis, and an investigation of the individual development of animals in relation to the steps of their gradual building up by cell-division, with a view to obtaining evidence of their genetic relationships.
This work of reconstruction was carried out in face of many difficulties other than those inherent to the undertaking.
Milner, anxious above everything else to obtain sufficient revenue to carry on his work of reconstruction, gave his consent to the experiment.Advertisement
Only white children were regarded by the laws before Reconstruction days.
He wrote Destruction and Reconstruction (1879).
These new conceptions of the multiplicity in unity of disease, and of the fluidity and continuity of morbid processes, might have led to vagueness and over-boldness in speculation and reconstruction, had not the experimental method been at hand with clues and tests for the several series.
By the genius of Rene Theophile Laennec (1781-1826), diseases of the lungs and heart were laid on a foundation so broad that his successors have been occupied in detail and refinement rather than in reconstruction.
It is interesting to find that, with all this activity in the present reformed methods of research and verification are not confined to the work of the passing day; in the brilliant achievements of modern research and reconstruction the maxim that "Truth is the daughter of Time" has not been forgotten.Advertisement
The complete reconstruction of Vauxhall Bridge was undertaken in 1902, and the new bridge was opened in 1906.
The passage, thus interpreted, lends additional weight to the correctness of Dr Ethe's reconstruction of the date of the Rushanainama, viz.
His reconstruction of the True Discourse of Celsus (1753), from Origen's reply to it, is a competent and learned piece of work.
At the same time the facts that the inscriptions are undated until a late period, that few are historical in their contents, and for the most part yield only names of gods and rulers and domestic and religious details, and that our collection is still very incomplete, have led to much serious disagreement among scholars as to the reconstruction of the history of Arabia in the pre-Christian centuries.
The failure of the bureau system and its discontinuance in the midst of reconstruction without harm to the blacks, and the intense hostility of the Southern whites to the institution caused by the irritating conduct of bureau officials, are indications that the institution was not well conceived nor wisely administered.Advertisement
After the war he denounced the Reconstruction policy of the Republicans as unconstitutional and tyrannical, but in 1870, seeing the uselessness of further opposition, he advised his party to accept the situation and adopt new issues.
His Diary, which appeared in the Atlantic Monthly (1909-1911), is extremely valuable for the study of the Civil War and Reconstruction.
He thus became associated with the enactment of all the great fiscal laws through which the strain of war and of reconstruction was sustained.
On the questions relating to political reconstruction and the policy of President Johnson, he supported his party, though opposed to its Radical leaders.
He warmly advocated the insertion in the Reconstruction Acts of a provision ensuring the early termination of military government; and he opposed the impeachment of President Johnson, though he voted for conviction on the trial.Advertisement
The reconstruction of the vessel was completed on the 5th of March 1862.
In May 1872 something was done towards alleviating the odious Reconstruction laws for dragooning the South, which had been passed by Congress in spite of the vetoes of President Johnson.
Grant and the Period of National Preservation and Reconstruction (New York, 1897) is a good succinct account.
Having received an offer of an appointment as travelling tutor and chaplain to the young prince of Eutin-Holstein, he abandoned his somewhat visionary scheme of a social reconstruction of a Russian province.
After its reconstruction (1235-1239), it was dedicated to St Bartholomew.Advertisement
This great work of reconstruction was only one feature of the literary activity which marked the I7th and 18th centuries, when, under Tokugawa rule, the blessing of long-unknown peace came to the nation.
He was a strong opponent of the reconstruction measures of President Johnson, for whose conviction he voted (on most of the specific charges) in the impeachment trial.
The tempestuous politics of the war and reconstruction period suited his aggressive nature and constructive talent.
In 1866 like his father and brother he opposed the Congressional reconstruction policy, and on that issue left the Republican party.
Zahn's reasoned argument stands in contrast to the blind reliance on tradition shown by Macdonald, The Symbol of the Apostles, and the fanciful reconstruction of the primitive creed by Baeumer, Harnack or Seeberg.
His reconstruction of the creed of Aphraates is interesting in relation to the other traces of a Syriac creed form existing prior to the 4th century.
Some reconstruction of popular beliefs was needed by many consciences.
The Civil War and Reconstruction delayed the execution of the plan, and the university of Texas was not opened until September 1883.
The extravagance of the Reconstruction governments resulted in the accumulation by 1876 of a debt of $4,792,394.
South camp is now named Stanhope Lines, after Mr Stanhope, who was secretary of state for war when the Barracks Act 1890 was passed and the reconstruction commenced in earnest.
In the great work of reconstruction of France now begun by the First Consul, Talleyrand played no unimportant part.
It was partly demolished in 1650, and in 1805 its reconstruction was begun by the marquess of Lansdowne, but was not completed.
It was not until 1789 that the French Church of the middle ages lost its vast possessions and was subjected to a fundamental reconstruction by the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1791).
Bergson's works on the other hand contain the elements of a reconstruction similar in spirit to the suggestions of the present article.
Since 1865 (at least) various parts of Cape Cod have shrunk greatly in population, agriculture and manufactures, and even in fishing interests; this reconstruction of industrial and social interests being, apparently, simply part of the general urban movement-a movement toward better opportunities.
In 1882 a critical reconstruction of this book was made by Adam Krawutzcky with marvellous accuracy, as was shown when in the very next year the Greek bishop and metropolitan, Philotheus Bryennius, published The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles from the same manuscript from which he had previously published the complete form of the Epistle of Clement.'
Undoubtedly also commercial confidence was restored by the reconstruction in 1895 of the Bank of New Zealand, and activity has been stimulated by large public loans, while more cautious banking and the systems of taxation and rating on land values, adopted in 1891 and 1896, have done something to check land speculation.
To a certain extent the leading ex-burghers co-operated with the administration in the work of reconstruction.
At the close of the war, contrary to the general feeling of his party, he urged universal amnesty and impartial suffrage as the basis of reconstruction.
In contrast to the struggle for an ideal freedom, which was at first hailed with tempestuous delight only to reveal itself as a dangerous tyranny, men became conscious of the need for a firmly established authority in the reconstruction of society.
In pursuance of its practical policy of rapprochement and economic cooperation in the reconstruction of central Europe in particular and of Europe in general, Czechoslovakia concluded a series of commercial treaties with her various neighbours and with the Allied Powers.
The article, though necessarily unsigned (in accordance with the rule of the Quarterly as it then stood), was Maine's reply to the M`Lennan brothers' attack on the historical reconstruction of the Indo-European family system put forward in Ancient Law and supplemented in Early Law and Custom.
Thus wealth, position, court influence and ability combined gave the Czartoryscy a commanding position in Poland, and, to their honour be it said, they had determined from the first to save the Republic, whose impending ruin in existing circumstances they clearly foresaw, by a radical constitutional reconstruction which was to include the abolition of the liberum veto and the formation of a standing army.
These authorities are, therefore, only available for the reconstruction of the order of the selections from the gospels, not for textual criticism properly so called.
The corner-stone of his reconstruction of early Christian history is derived not so much from philosophical principles as from a fresh study of the documents.
Till Amos (with the solitary exception of Micaiah ben Imlah, in i Kings xxii.) prophecy was optimist - even Elijah, if he denounced the destruction of a dynasty and the annihilation of all who had bowed the knee to Baal, never doubted of the future of the nation when only the faithful remained; but the new prophecy is pessimist - it knows that Israel is rotten to the core, and that the whole fabric of society must be dissolved before reconstruction is possible.
While seeking to perfect ancient philosophy, it really extinguished it; and in like manner its attempted reconstruction of ancient religions only resulted in their destruction.
In fact, there were special cases, like that of Synesius, in which a speculative reconstruction of distinctively Christian doctrines by Christian men was winked at.
As a theoretic treatment of social economy, and therefore as a guide to social reconstruction and practice in the future, it is provisional, not definitive.
The concurrence of botanical (Hooker, 1847), zoological, and finally of palaeontological evidence for the reconstruction of the continent of Antarctica, is one of the greatest triumphs of biological investigation.
It was felt that there was no sufficient justification to make any attempt at an entire reconstruction of the text on the authority of the versions.
This theory, however, is based upon a hypothetical reconstruction of the Gospel in question which has found very few supporters.
This reconstruction of its meaning seems to have been the peculiar revelation of the Lord to Paul, who viewed Christ's crucifixion and death as an atoning sacrifice, liberating by its grace mankind from bonds of sin which the law, far from snapping, only made more sensible and grievous.
He published, besides many orations, a History of the Anti-Slavery Measures of the Thirty-Seventh and Thirty-Eighth United States Congresses (1865); Military Measures of the United States Congress (1868); a History of the Reconstruction Measures of the Thirty-Ninth and Fortieth Congresses (1868) and a History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America (3 vols., 1872-1875), his most important work.
In 1812 he accompanied the Grande Armee to Russia, was seriously wounded at Smolensk, and on the reconstruction of the Polish army in 1813 was made a general of division.
The brief premiership of Sir Mackenzie Bowell, between 1894 and 1896, was marked by much dissension in the Conservative ranks, ending finally in a reconstruction of the government in 1896 under Sir Charles Tupper.
Invited Regiomontanus, The Most Celebrated Astronomer Of The Age, To Rome, To Superintend The Reconstruction Of The Calendar.
He was re-elected in r866, and supported the reconstruction measures advocated by his party.
In 1867 the congressional plan of reconstruction was completed and Alabama was placed under military government.
The Reconstruction Acts of Congress required every new constitution to be ratified by a majority of the legal voters of the state.
Fleming's Civil War and Reconstruction in Alabama (New York, 1905).
Although the civil rights were conferred upon the freedmen, Congress would not tolerate the political incapacity and social inferiority which the legislature had assigned to them, and therefore Georgia was placed under military government, as part of the third military district, by the Reconstruction Act of the 2nd of March 1867.
The convention met in Atlanta on the 9th of December 1867 and by March 1868 had revised the constitution to meet the requirements of the Reconstruction Acts.
The Reconstruction period in Georgia is remarkable for its comparative moderation.
The explanation lies in the fact that there were comparatively few " carpet-baggers " or adventurers in the state, and that a large number of conservative citizens, under the leadership of ex-Governor Brown, supported the Reconstruction policy of Congress and joined the Republican party.
In 1749 he was appointed engineer-general to the East India Company, and went out to superintend th' reconstruction of their forts; but his health soon failed, and he died at Fort St David on the 29th of July 1751.
But, whether because he drew a distinction between the treason of individuals and of states, or was influenced by Seward, or simply, once in responsible position, separated Republican party politics from the question of constitutional interpretation, at least he speedily showed that he would be influenced by no acrimony, and adopted the lenient reconstruction policy of Lincoln.
Daub was one of the leaders of a school which sought to reconcile theology and philosophy, and to bring about a speculative reconstruction of orthodox dogma.
The church of St Mary, Lowgate, was founded in the 14th century, but is almost wholly a reconstruction.
In the period of reconstruction under British rule, General Botha, who was still looked upon as the leader of the Boer people, took a prominent part in politics, advocating always measures which he considered as tending to the maintenance of peace and good order and the re-establishment of prosperity in the Transvaal.
Porter urged the reconstruction of the navy, which he saw begun in 1882.
Davis, he secured the passage of the Wade-Davis Bill (for the reconstruction of the Southern States), the fundamental principle of which was that reconstruction was a legislative, not an executive, problem.
The reconstruction of this document has been attempted by several critics.
The bill - the first formal expression by Congress with regard to Reconstruction - did not pass both Houses until the closing hours of the session, and failed to receive the approval of the president, who on the 8th of March issued a proclamation defining his position.
He came thither in person, invaded Caledonia, commenced the reconstruction of the wall of Hadrian, rebuilding it from end to end in stone, and then in the fourth year of his operations died at York.
The reconstruction probably followed in general,the line of Hadrian's wall in order to utilize the existing ditch, and,this explains why the turf wall itself survives only at special points.
He assisted in the reconstruction of Aberdeen University in 1575, and in order that he might do for St Andrews what he had done for Glasgow, he was appointed principal of St Mary's College, St Andrews, in 1580.
A simply gigantic plan was drawn out, with the assistance of the celebrated Alberti, for the reconstruction of the Leonine City, the Vatican and St Peter's.
Bramante drew out the plan for the new cathedral of St Peter and the reconstruction of the Vatican.
In 1547 Michelangelo was further entrusted with the superintendence of the reconstruction of St Peter's.
The Pincian, the Esquiline, and the south-easterly part of the Caelian hills received essentially their present form by the creation of the Via Sistina, Felice, delle Quattro Fontane, di Sta Croce in Gerusalemme, &c.; by the buildings at Sta Maria Maggiore, the Villa Montalto, the reconstruction of the Lateran, and the aqueduct of the Felice, which partially utilized the Alexandrina and cost upwards of 300,000 scudi.
The church of St Nicholas is a modern reconstruction with the exception of the Perpendicular tower.
In the cases of several of these the fragments are sufficient to aid a reconstruction.
The chief importance of the monastic rule and institute of St Basil lies in the fact that to this day his reconstruction of the monastic life is the basis of the monasticism of the Greek and Slavonic Churches, though the monks do not call themselves Basilians.
On the motion of Stevens (Dec. 4, 1865), the two houses appointeda joint committee on reconstruction, and Stevens was made chairman of the House committee.
He introduced from the joint committee what became, with changed clause as to the basis of representation, the Fourteenth Amendment, and also the Reconstruction Act of the 6th of February 1867.
The question of the chronological reconstruction of the Register is dealt with by Ewald in his celebrated article in the Neues Archiv der Gesellschaft fiir dltere deutsche Geschichtskunde, iii.
All this was a reaction from St Benedict's reconstruction of the monastic life - a reaction which in the matter of austerities .nd individualistic piety has made itself increasingly felt in the later manifestations of the monastic ideal in the West.
With the disappearance of the Reconstruction questions and the emergence of the tariff issue, however, his influence began to wane.
It appears, however, from a careful examination of the remains that their work was only a reconstruction of a more ancient edifice, the date of the original form of which cannot be fixed; while its first alteration belongs to the "tufa" period, and three other periods in its history can be traced.
The advantage of the Lucan reconstruction, so far as the first part is concerned, is that it supplies a reason for Peter's ready obedience, which is somewhat difficult to understand if he had never seen Jesus before.
On the 1st of September it passed, with some slight modifications, the Austrian proposals for the reconstruction of the Bund under a supreme Directory, an assembly of delegates from the variotis parliaments, a federal court of appeal and periodical conferences of sovereigns.
The present article deals mainly with the third group, to which the title "Clementine literature" is usually confined, owing to the stress laid upon it in the famous Tubingen reconstruction of primitive Christianity, in which it played a leading part; but later criticism has lowered its importance as its true date and historical relations have been progressively ascertained.
A criterion is thus given us for the reconstruction of the Apology, where the Greek which we have has been abbreviated, and we are enabled to claim with certainty some passages of the Syriac which might otherwise be suspected as interpolations.
It seems, therefore, that the known texts of Manetho, serviceable as they have been in the reconstruction of Egyptian.
The chief event of the year 1899 was the great strike of 40,000 artisans, which cost Denmark 50,000,000 crowns, and brought about a reconstruction of the cabinet in order to bring in, as minister of the interior, Ludwig Ernest Bramsen, the great specialist in industrial matters, who succeeded (September 2-4) in bringing about an understanding between workmen and employers.
Remaining in the cabinet of President Andrew Johnson, Stanton exerted all his energies toward thwarting the policies of that executive, especially those related to the reconstruction of the Southern states.
He expressed disapproval of the Tenure of Office Act, making the consent of the Senate necessary for the removal of civil officers, and drafted the supplementary act on Reconstruction, passed over the president's veto on the 19th of July 1867.
An interesting reconstruction is given by Anatole France in Sur la Pierre blanche.
Those who have followed up the work of Mendel believe that the qualities of the new individual are a precise selection from and reconstruction of the parental qualities, and that were complete analysis possible, the characters of the new individual could be predicted with chemical accuracy.
From that time to the present day the record of the Hungarian capital has been one of uninterrupted advance, not merely in externals, such as the removal of slums, the reconstruction of the town, the development of communications, industry and trade, and the erection of important public buildings, but also in the mental, moral and physical elevation of the inhabitants; besides another important gain from the point of view of the Hungarian statesman, namely, the progressive increase and improvement of status of the Magyar element of the population.
The church of St Mary is in the main a modern reconstruction, but retains ancient fragments and a font believed to have belonged to Furness Abbey.
During this long period of legislative activity he served in the House on the committees on elections, ways and means, and appropriations, took a prominent part in the anti-slavery and reconstruction measures during and after the Civil War, in tariff legislation, and in the establishment of a fish commission and the inauguration of daily weather reports.
To his personal energy and enterprise, as manager of the railway company, was largely due the continued prosecution of this difficult engineering undertaking, in connexion with which he was responsible for a thorough reconstruction of Ecuador finance.
Of his numerous other works the most important was the reconstruction of the twelve tables of early Roman law.
His student life was, however, broken by the pope's command to preach to the English in Rome; and a course of his lectures, On the Connexion between Science and Revealed Religion, deservedly attracted much attention, his general thesis being that whereas scientific teaching has repeatedly been thought to disprove Christian doctrine, further investigation has shown that a reconstruction is possible.
A reconstruction of it has been erected in the Museo di Villa Giulia at Rome.
These centuries represent an age which the Jewish historians have partly ignored (as regards Samaria) and partly obscured (as regards the return from exile and the reconstruction of Judah); but since this age stands at the head of an historical development which leads on to Christianity and Rabbinical Judaism, it is necessary to turn from Palestine as a land in order to notice more particularly certain features of the Old Testament upon which the foregoing evidence directly bears.
In the present state of biblical historical criticism this plan seemed more advisable than any attempt to reconstruct the history; the necessity for some reconstruction will, however, be clear to the reader on the grounds of both the internal intricacies and the external evidence.
The historical framework contains traditions of the reconstruction and repair of temple and cult, of the hostility of southern peoples and their allies, and of conflicts between king and priests.
A little reconstruction made Dartmoor into a modern gaol, and in the waste lands around there was ample labour for any number of convict hands.
In November 1847 and March 1848 Radowitz was sent by King Frederick William to Vienna to attempt to arrange common action for the reconstruction of the German Confederation.
This reconstruction, which merges subject and predicate in one expression, in order to combine it with the verb of existence, is repeated in similar proposals of recent English logicians.
Hence the reconstruction of all categorical judgments by merging subject and predicate, either on Brentano's or on Bradley's plan, is a misrepresentation even of normal categorical judgments of existence.
The second, though it might still have preceded the Parmenides might equally well have followed the negative criticism of that dialogue, as the beginning of reconstruction.
But at first sight there is little sign of any greater contribution to the reconstruction than is to be found in Ramus or many another dead thinker.
The economic evolution of the state since Reconstruction has been in the main that common to all the old slave states developing from the plantation system of ante-bellum days, somewhat diversified and complicated by the special features of a young and border community.
From the beginning the state has been unswervingly Democratic, save in the Reconstruction years, though often with heavy Whig or Republican minorities.
Struggling in these difficulties, the government of the state was upset by the first Reconstruction Act.
The first Reconstruction Act having declared that " no legal state government or adequate protection for life or property " existed in the " rebel states," Arkansas was included in one of the military districts established by Congress.
The current expenses of the state in the years of Reconstruction were also enormously increased.
The climax of the Reconstruction period was the socalled Baxter-Brooks war.
After Reconstruction the state again became Democratic, and the main interest of its history has been the progress of economic development.
For the Reconstruction period see especially the Poland Report in House Rp. No.
Thoroughgoing reconstruction in every item of theology and in every detail of polity there may be, yet shall the Christian life go on - the life which finds its deepest utterance in the words of Christ, " Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart and thy neighbour as thyself "; the life which expresses its profoundest faith in the words Christ taught it to pray, "Our Father"; the life which finds its highest rule of conduct in the words of its first and greatest interpreter, " Let this mind be in you which was also in Christ Jesus our Lord."
Beginnings have been made towards grouping our authorities; but the work must go on much further before a solid basis for the reconstruction of its primitive form can be said to exist.
The attempts made at such a reconstruction, as by Blass (1895, 1897) and Hilgenfeld (1899), are quite arbitrary.
Later, in the Reconstruction period, he commanded the Fifth Military District (Louisiana and Texas) at New Orleans, where his administration of the conquered states was most stormy, his differences with President Johnson culminating in his recall in September 1867.
With the surrender of the Confederate army under General Lee to Grant at Appomattox the task of reconstruction began.
Pierpont set up in Richmond a government, based upon the Lincoln plan and supported by President Johnson, which continued till the 2nd of March 1867, when the famous reconstruction order converting the state into Military District No.
The Constitution of the reconstruction years was unchanged until 1902, when the present fundamental law was adopted.
From the close of the war until his death he vigorously opposed the Reconstruction Acts.
Upon the arrival of Garibaldi at Naples, Bertani was appointed secretary-general of the dictator, in which capacity he reorganized the police, abolished the secret service fund, founded twelve infant asylums, suppressed the duties upon Sicilian products, prepared for the suppression of the religious orders, and planned the sanitary reconstruction of the city.
Perhaps the most comprehensive of the fiscal reforms of the Empire was the reconstruction of the land tax, based on a census or (to use the French term) cadastre, in which the area, the modes of cultivation and the estimated productiveness of each holding were stated, the average of ten preceding years being taken as the standard.
After the reconstruction under Diocletian at the end of the 3rd century A.D., fifteen years (the indictio) - though probably used as early as the time of Hadrian - was recognized as the period for revaluation.
Extensive reconstruction, in the style of the 13th century, was undertaken towards the close of the 19th century.
The buildings on the Newgate Street site underwent reconstruction from time to time, and in 1902 were vacated by the school, which was moved to extensive new buildings at Horsham.
He led an expedition following Sherman into the Carolinas and fought two successful actions with Bragg at Kinston, N.C. He was governor of Ohio in 1866-1867, and as such advocated the colonization of the freedmen in a restricted area, and sympathized with President Johnson's programme of Reconstruction and worked for a compromise between Johnson and his opponents, although he finally deserted Johnson.
This theatre has a peculiar interest as the scene of the tumult aroused by the mission of St Paul; but the existing remains represent a reconstruction carried out after his time.
Milner had thus an additional difficulty in his reconstruction work.
By the middle of 1 9 04 the high commissioner and Mr Alfred Lyttelton, who had become secretary for the colonies, agreed that the work of reconstruction had so far progressed that steps ' This action was on the lines of the commercial federation scheme of Cecil Rhodes, who had died in March 1902.
These wars were too brief to interfere seriously with the social reconstruction to which the king devoted himself.
An effort to induce the city to adopt, in the rebuilding after the earthquake of 1906, an artistic plan failed, and reconstruction followed practically the old plan of streets, although the buildings which had marked them had been for the most part obliterated.
As the result of the reconstruction of this section, thousands of wooden buildings, which had been a striking architectural characteristic of the city, were replaced by structures of steel, brick, and, especially, reinforced concrete.
Owing to the complete reconstruction of its business section San Francisco is equalled by few cities in the possession of office and business buildings of the most modern type.
Reconstruction in the burned section began at once, with the result that it was practically rebuilt in the three years following the earthquake.
We divine the system of the whole from the part we know, but the process of reconstruction must remain approximative.
In the Senate he again became chairman of the finance committee, and also of the joint committee on reconstruction.
He was the author of the report of this last committee (1866), in which the Congressional plan of reconstruction was set forth and which has been considered a state paper of remarkable power and cogency.
The discovery of ether brought with it a reconstruction of our ideas of the physical universe, transferring the emphasis from the mathematical expression of static relationships to a dynamic conception of a universe in constant transformation; matter in equipoise became energy in gradual readjustment.
In Congress he was conspicuous as a Radical Republican in Reconstruction legislation, and was one of the managers selected by the House to conduct the impeachment, before the Senate, of President Johnson, opening the case and taking the most prominent part in it on his side; he exercised a marked influence over President Grant and was regarded as his spokesman in the House, and he was one of the foremost advocates of the payment in "greenbacks" of the government bonds.
The church of St John the Baptist is a reconstruction of 1817; it contains monuments by John Flaxman.
In Lange's Logische Studien, which attempts a reconstruction of formal logic, the leading idea is that reasoning has validity in so far as it can be represented in terms of space.
The convention of 1861, by maintaining continuous government, had saved the state from anarchy and from reconstruction by the national power; but an ironclad test oath (it required denial of forty-five distinct offences) was provided, to be taken by all voters, state, county and municipal officers, lawyers, jurors, teachers and clergymen.
After the Civil War he vigorously opposed the Congressional plan of reconstructing the late Confederate states, and himself drafted the message of President Johnson, vetoing the Reconstruction Act of the 2nd of March 1867.
The results in geography and in natural science in all its departments were abundant and accurate; his observations necessitated a reconstruction of the map of Central Africa.
The church of St Mary, with the exception of the tower a modern reconstruction, contains some French stained glass of the 16th century.
He resented the initiative in Reconstruction taken by Lincoln, and later by Johnson, as an encroachment upon the powers of Congress.
Apart from the details of his socialistic teaching, which are vague and unsystematic, we find that the ideas of Saint-Simon as to the reconstruction of society are very simple.
In the Parmenides reconstruction predominates over criticism - the letter of Eleaticism being here represented by Zeno, its spirit, as Plato conceived it, by Parmenides.
Lord Wellesley took advantage of the reconstruction of the cabinet to resign a position in which he had not been given a free hand, and his post of foreign secretary was offered to Canning.
The country which, in half-a-dozen years, had seen a radical reform of parliament, a no less radical reform of municipal corporations, the abolition of slavery, and the reconstruction of the poor laws, was longing for a period of political repose.
This radical reconstruction of the electorate necessarily made the result of the elections doubtful.
Throughout the war he allied himself with the most radical of the Republican faction in opposition to President Lincoln's policy, and subsequently became one of the bitterest opponents of President Johnson's plan of reconstruction.
Their building operations included the rebuilding of their summer residence, the Ermitage, the great Baireuth opera-house, the building of a theatre and the reconstruction of the Baireuth palace and of the new opera house.
In July he left the Ministry of Munitions to become Minister of Reconstruction without portfolio.
The ambitious medical establishment created by him was subjected to a good deal of criticism on the score of economy during 1920; and on the reconstruction of the Ministry in March 1921 he was transferred from the new department to become once more a minister without portfolio.
Under a reconstruction made in 1904 there is an executive council consisting of the governor and four official members.
After the Civil War Blair became a supporter of President Johnson's reconstruction policy, and eventually rejoined the Democratic party.
Differing from the Republican party on the reconstruction policy, Blair gave his adherence to the Democratic party after the Civil Cumberland in 1746.
While yet a student he began to apply ideas gathered from the Greek philosophers in a reconstruction of Kant's system.
There were so many irregularities and so much corruption connected with the bond issues of reconstruction days that it is impossible to discover their exact amount.
All the misfortunes of the war itself are insignificant when compared with the sufferings of the people during the era of Reconstruction (1865-1871).
In the spring of 1868 the state adopted a new constitution in conformity with the Reconstruction Acts of Congress, and elected state officers and congressmen, and on the 25th of June the state was readmitted to the Union.
Again, when it presently appeared that the theory of the immanent idea was inconsistent with itself, and moreover inapplicable to explain predication except where the subject was a sensible thing, so that reconstruction became necessary, the Zenonian difficulty continued to demand and to receive Plato's best attention.
If we reinterpret the history of the family and its descent into Egypt, and belittle its increase into a nation, and if we figure to ourselves a more gradual occupation of Palestine, we destroy the entire continuity of history as it was understood by those who compiled the biblical history, and we have no evidence for any confident reconstruction.
The reader may consult La Vasconie by Jean de Jaurgain (Paris, 1898) for the latest example of this reconstruction of ancient history from fragmentary and dubious materials.
The decade following the Spanish-American War (1898-1908), which may be regarded as a period of industrial and commercial reconstruction, was marked by a very rapid increase in the use of electricity for lighting, traction and other purposes.
Another feature of the period of reconstruction was the formation of numerous trusts or combinations of producing companies designed to take advantage of the high tariff, and to restrict competition, lower expenses an d raise prices.
When the reconstruction of the navy was begun, in 1908, Spain possessed 1 battleship, 2 armoured cruisers, 6 protected cruisers, 5 destroyers and 6 torpedo-boats.
In the meanwhile the compass went through a process of complete reconstruction in his hands, a process which enabled both the permanent and the temporary magnetism of the ship to be readily compensated, while the weight of the bo-in.
Many of the houses are built with timber framework in Elizabethan style, and the two parts of the town are united by a bridge of 24 arches, originally erected in the 14th century, when the revenue of certain lands was set apart for its upkeep. The church of St Mary, with the exception of the tower, is a modern reconstruction.
In France La Societe Nationale des Antiquaires de France was formed in 1814 by the reconstruction of the Academic Celtique, which had existed since 1805.
The new tsar had devoted especial attention to the reform and reconstruction of the navy, which under Alexander I.
Arthroscopically assisted reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament using a patella tendon bone autograft.
A large bathhouse was found, pictured here in the reconstruction, probably used by more important workers or officials at the site.
One possible layout is shown in the artist's reconstruction of the fort, showing the triangle as primarily ceremonial.
Transplantation of preserved human amniotic membrane for surface reconstruction in severely damaged rabbit corneas.
Paper records are shredded beyond practicable reconstruction; tapes are completely degaussed and then disposed of in compliance with local environmental regulations.
Family Reconstruction, An Introduction to English Historical demography.
We provide a comprehensive service, ranging from advising major corporations on reconstruction to helping financially distressed individuals.
Alternatively ask them to produce a reconstruction drawing showing what they think the whole object looks like.
Further work on the granodiorite dyad yielded no matches, and unless additional pieces are found, the work of reconstruction is essentially finished.
Health, education, and psychosocial support also need to be central to any national reconstruction efforts.
At the same time the bells were recast and some reconstruction took place in the belfry, when a steel headstock was inserted.
I have recently completed a Masters degree and have an ongoing study looking at ligament laxity following ACL reconstruction.
Cruciate ligament reconstruction may alleviate the anterior knee pain associated with anterior or posterior cruciate ligament laxity.
Two days after the fire which claimed three buildings, including the main longhouse this was the scene that faced the reconstruction team.
A small reconstruction of a viking longhouse was constructed with a turf roof to show how Vikings made their houses.
Having a reconstruction will not mend sexual problems with a partner or change the way they feel about you.
Top of page Alan Fortune Student metalanguage in collaborative rule formation and pushed output Alan Fortune discussed student metalanguage in collaborative rule formation and pushed output Alan Fortune discussed student metalanguage in text reconstruction.
Reconstruction of the painted wall plaster on the wall shown above.
Some women decide not to have reconstruction or wear a prosthesis.
Man U's Old Trafford Stadium is undergoing stand reconstruction.
Augustus also oversaw the reconstruction of all the ancient city walls and the erection of new fortifications.
However money earmarked for post-war reconstruction will not go to companies in France, Germany, Russia or Syria.
This procedure has become regarded as the gold standard for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
The White House maintains that Iraq's oil revenue is essential to financing the country's postwar reconstruction.
We urgently need to improve our post-conflict reconstruction performance.
The announcement follows the EU's approval at the end of July for the disbursement of $ 61 million for post-flood reconstruction.
They have titles on primary and secondary breast cancer, breast reconstruction, breast screening, ovarian cancer and cancer genetics.
This type of bladder reconstruction is sometimes called an orthotopic reconstruction or neo bladder.
Finding ways to improve the limb reconstruction service at Sheffield Children ' s Hospital.
Discover a full-scale replica of the Bayeux Tapestry or a reconstruction of an Iron Age House.
The politicization of relief complicates the provision of aid, and may yet scupper the effective reconstruction of Iraq.
A superb reconstruction of an 18th century seaport which is also home to the oldest warship afloat in the UK.
It asks whether the experience of Total War created demands for a radical, or even socialist, reconstruction of society.
The Marshall Plan had mobilized the European liberals and terminated the experiment with national reconstruction based on a broad class truce.
The occupiers have proved unable to achieve even the reconstruction to the level achieved by the Ba'athist regime under sanctions and episodic bombing.
Capacity for work brought him places on important committees - he was chairman successively of the committee on military affairs, the committee on banking and currency, and the committee on appropriations, - and his ability as a speaker enabled him to achieve distinction on the floor of the House and to rise to leadership. Between 1863 and 1873 Garfield delivered speeches of importance on "The Constitutional Amendment to abolish Slavery," "The Freedman's Bureau," "The Reconstruction of Rebel States," "The Public Debt and Specie Payments," "Reconstruction,'" The Currency," Taxation of United States Bonds," Enforcing the 14th Amendment," National Aid to Education,' and "the Right to Originate Revenue Bills."
The prophet's predictions of disaster continued, according to the record, up to the investment of the city by the Chaldean army in 588 (i.-xxiv.); after the fall of the city (586) his tone changed to one of consolation (xxxiii.-xxxix.) - the destruction of the wicked mass accomplished, he turned to the task of reconstruction.
This society held a synod at which a confession of faith and a book of order were drawn up. Meanwhile the national Protestant Church set itself to the work of reconstruction on the basis of universal suffrage, with restrictions, but no result was arrived at.
In May 1899 the minister of justice stated in the chamber of deputies that the machinery of the courts in the country was antiquated, unwieldy and incapable of performing its duties; that 50,000 cases were then waiting decision in the minor courts, and Io,000 in the federal division; and that a reconstruction of the judiciary and the judicial system had become necessary.
In his message to congress, on the 1st of May 1899, General Roca spoke strongly of the immediate necessity of a reform in the methods of administering justice, the expediency of a revision of the electoral law, and the imperative need of a reconstruction of the department of public instruction.
Later he published Principles of Social Reconstruction (1917); Mysticism and Logic (1918); The Analysis of Mind (1920) and (after a visit to Russia) The Theory and Practice of Bolshevism (1920).
The usual tendency has been to regard it in the light of the criticism of early Israelite history, which demands some reconstruction (§ 8), and to discern distinct tribal movements previous to the union of Judah and Israel under David.
The internal literary and historical questions are extremely intricate, and the necessity for some reconstruction is very generally felt (for preliminary details, see Ezra And Nehemiah).
That later tradition should give the pre-eminence to the priestly reforms of Ezra is in every way natural, but it has been found extremely difficult to combine the two in any reconstruction of the period.
The first reconstruction legislature met on the 16th of October 1865, and at once proceeded to enact stringent vagrancy laws and other measures against the freedmen; these laws the North 1 South Carolina ceded its western lands to the United States in 1787 and Georgia in 1802.
Progress is the result of adaptation rather than reconstruction.
True, on the 22nd of December 1793 he was made general of brigade for his services; and in February 1794 he gained the command of the artillery in the French army about to invade Italy; but during the preliminary work of fortification along the coast he was placed under arrest for a time owing to his reconstruction of an old fort at Marseilles which had been destroyed during the Revolution.
The vote of £T50o,000 a year for ten years for the reconstruction of the Ottoman navy by " national subscription," as already mentioned, was not included in the official budget, nor was there any allusion to it in the prefatory memorandum.
After its reconstruction with the help of Narses (see IGUvIUM) the town remained subject to the exarchs of Ravenna, and, after the destruction of the Lombard kingdom in 774, formed part of the donation of Charlemagne to the pope.
An internal trial of strength continued throughout the winter between the rival governmental groups, until in May 1920 a breach was only averted by a reconstruction of the Cabinet under Vesnic, who as Serbian minister in Paris since 1904 enjoyed wide prestige, and though a Radical, stood aloof from party dissensions.
When Mr Chamberlain reached the Transvaal in January 1903 the feeling among the British section of the community was optimistic. Mr Chamberlain was well received by the Boer leaders; it was, however, to the Rand magnates that he turned for financial help. That large sums were imperatively needed to accomplish the work of reconstruction was apparent.
If the processes of disintegration and of reconstruction which characterize life balance one another, the size of the mass of living matter remains stationary, while, if the reconstructive process is the more rapid, the living body grows.
An ingenious conjecture by Zahn enables us to add the words " holy Church " to our reconstruction of the creed from the writings of Tertullian.
The Czechs were animated with intense sympathy for the real Russian people, and looked forward to the day when they will be able to cooperate as kinsmen in the reconstruction of a peaceful and well-ordered Russia.
Though he chastised Liberal professors and turbulent students, it was in the spirit of a benevolent Landesvater; and he laboured assiduously at the enormous task of administrative reconstruction necessitated by the problem of welding the heterogeneous elements of the new Prussian kingdom into a united whole.
On the 1st of January 1910 the bonded debt was $6,944,000, mainly incurred by the extravagance of the Reconstruction administration (see History, below).
With other radical Republicans Davis was a bitter opponent of Lincoln's plan for the reconstruction of the southern states, and on the 15th of February 1864 he reported from committee a bill placing the process of reconstruction under the control of Congress, and stipulating that the Confederate states, before resuming their former status in the Union, must disfranchise all important civil and military officers of the Confederacy, abolish slavery, and repudiate all debts incurred by or with the sanction of the Confederate government.
In this position he exerted himself to secure the rearrangement and reconstruction of the buildings devoted to scientific instruction, urging that in the provision of properly equipped teaching laboratories France was much behind Germany (see his report Les Hautes Etudes pratiques dans les universites allemandes, 1870).
Click here to see a reconstruction of the castle.
The White House maintains that Iraq 's oil revenue is essential to financing the country 's postwar reconstruction.
A lot of the success relies upon the excellent reconstruction drawings, which bring the evidence to life.
The next stage of this program will be the development of a 3D Bayesian image reconstruction algorithm, which offers superior noise properties.
A large reconstruction effort had, by the early 1950s, repaired much of the war damage.
The announcement follows the EU 's approval at the end of July for the disbursement of $ 61 million for post-flood reconstruction.
The detailed description of the method can be found in " Three-dimensional reconstruction of single particles embedded in ice ".
He has tiptoed away, allocating a derisory sum for reconstruction in Afghanistan, a country falling back into chaos.
Various multi-dimensional interpretations could be associated with unbuilt architecture as a basis from where a digital reconstruction can be developed.
Although hepatic vein resection was performed in 15 patients, only two underwent major hepatectomy and none had vascular reconstruction.
However, keep in mind that the interior architect's specialty is to balance the aesthetic and scientific/mathematical aspects of room design, as well as oversee the internal reconstruction process.
A new liner minimizes reconstruction while still providing an updated look, reducing lead exposure common in older models, and offering a fix for any nicks or breaks in the tub surface.
Of course, the biggest theme is the reconstruction of European villages, but there are also more than 40 rides, shows, and animals to enjoy.
Surgical reconstruction may be required if the fracture changes the position of the eye or there is other facial deformity.
The first season has some really great episodes, such as the night the owners of Trademark Properties staked out one of their houses under reconstruction in order to catch people stealing building materials.
The State of Georgia has a large number of reportedly haunted properties that lend themselves to the mystique of this romantic place, steeped as it is in tales of the Civil War, the Reconstruction and much more.
She eventually became a well-known figure in the reconstruction of Bajor which led to her position aboard Deep Space Nine.
The legislature of 1866 rejected the Fourteenth Amendment to the Federal Constitution, and soon afterwards Florida was made a part of the Third Military District, according to the Reconstruction Act of 1867.
Other significant episodes have been the Unification of the Funds, the Equalization of Districts and the reconstruction of Conference on a broader basis, the Ministers' Sustentation Fund and the Church Extension Fund, and the enlargement and reorganization of the college at Manchester.
He also presided, as an eminent constitutional lawyer, over a committee set up in that year to consider the reconstruction of the House of Lords, and spent much labour in a task which all parties were disposed to shirk.
What the war and revolution had left of the large farms, subsequent agrarian legislation further damaged; and in 1921 the Latvian state was still struggling against the dislocating effects of war and revolution, and its finance and commerce were seeking new methods of reconstruction.
Another special distinction of Cuvier is his remarkable work in comparing extinct with recent organisms, his descriptions of the fossil Mammalia of the Paris basin, and his general application of the knowledge of recent animals to the reconstruction of extinct ones, as indicated by fragments only of their skeletons.
A month after the inauguration the murder of Lincoln left him president, with the great problem to solve of reconstruction of the Union.
The limited knowledge which we possess of the original features of the ground within the area of the city makes a reconstruction of the topographical history of the latter a difficult task; and, as a natural result, many irreconcilable theories have been suggested.
On the formation of the Wirth ministry in May 1921 he was appointed Minister of Reconstruction, and in that capacity negotiated with the French minister, Loucheur, a convention for supplying German materials for the restoration of the devastated area in France, and thus paying in kind part of the reparation which the German Reich had undertaken to pay in gold.
After the reconstruction period of the 1893 panic, however, the tendency for a number of years was to spend larger sums in bettering existing railways rather than in new extensions.
This involved an entire reconstruction of theological ideas which went beyond even the reconstructions of Amos and Isaiah.
But now that these external bases of the old religion were to be swept away, a reconstruction of religious ideas became necessary.
Jeremiah, when he foretold the destruction of the external state and temple ritual, found no resource save in a reconstruction that was internal and spiritual.
His father's library, though large in comparison with that he commanded at Lausanne, contained, he says, " much trash "; but a gradual process of reconstruction transformed it at length into that " numerous and select " library which was " the foundation of his works, and the best comfort of his life both at home and abroad."
Then (b) the former lost its independence towards the close of the 8th century B.C., when a number of its inhabitants were carried away; and the latter shared the fate of exile at the beginning of the 6th, but succeeded in making a fresh reconstruction some fifty or sixty years later.
It may be doubted, however, whether the material is sufficient for such restoration or reconstruction.'
The time had come for deliberate reconstruction, for inquiring whether the existence of many admitted evils was, as it was said to be, unavoidable; for proving that the needs of society may be classified and provided for by contrivances which shall not clash --?
The real state of the case is certainly unsuspected by Origen himself; but many of his opponent's arguments he is unable to meet except by a speculative reconstruction of the church doctrine in question.
He was one of the plenipotentiaries who concluded peace with Lubeck at the congress of Hamburg, and subsequently took an active part in the great work of national reconstruction necessitated by the Reformation, acting as mediator between the Danish and the German parties who were contesting for 2 Hence another of the names - " hurricane-bird " - by which this species is occasionally known.
He then allotted the reconstruction of wall and gates to different parties of workmen, and his narrative describes the portion of wall upon which each of these was employed.'
He invited all the German sovereigns to meet him in conference, and laid before them a plan for the reconstruction of the confederation.
The public school system, established in 1846, never was universal, because of special legislation for various counties; public education was retarded during the Civil War and the Reconstruction period (when immense sums appropriated for schools were grossly mismanaged), but conditions gradually improved after 1875, especially through the concentration of schools.
Garner's Reconstruction Mississippi (New York, 1902) is judicial, scholarly and readable.
Its reconstruction was at once undertaken, and completed in 1910.
After the great fire of 1872 it became possible, in the reconstruction of the business district, to widen and straighten its streets and create squares, and so provide for the traffic that had long outgrown the narrow, crooked ways of the older city.
The Temple had already been partially rebuilt by Zedekiah and his companions, but on a scale far inferior to the magnificent building of King Solomon, and Nehemiah devoted his attention to the reconstruction of the walls.
The last twentyeight years of Bela's reign were mainly devoted to the reconstruction of his realm, which he accomplished with a singleminded thoroughness which has covered his name with glory.
Opposed to the Reconstruction measures, he voted for them on the ground that it was better to accept than reject them, since they were probably the best that could be obtained.
The term " Catholic " does not occur in the old Roman symbol; but Professor Loofs includes it in his reconstruction, based on typical phrases in common use at the time of the ante-Nicene creeds of the East.
Early in 1864, when it became evident that two more Republican votes might be needed in the United States Senate for reconstruction purposes, party leaders at Washington urged the people of Nevada to adopt a constitution and enter the Union as a patriotic duty, and on the 21st of March 1864 Congress passed an act to enable the people of the Territory to form a state government.
And thus perfection of structure and instinct in the imago has been accompanied by degradation in the larva, and by an increase in the extent of transformation and in the degree of reconstruction before and during the pupal stage.
So far as the organization of the Anglican Church is concerned, the most important outcome of the conference was the reconstruction of the Central Consultative Body on representative lines (54-56); this body to consist of the archbishop of Canterbury and seventeen bishops appointed by the various Churches of the Anglican Communion throughout the world.
Without sufficient external and independent evidence wherewith to interpret in the light of history the internal features of the intricate narratives, any reconstruction would naturally be hazardous, and all attempts must invariably be considered in the light of the biblical evidence itself, the date of the Israelite exodus, and the external conditions.
Mississippi suffered less than most of the other Southern states during the Reconstruction period; but expenditures rose from $463,219.71 in 1869 to $1,729,046.34 in 1871.
And this movement of reconstruction of which Prince Andrew had a vague idea, and Speranski its chief promoter, began to interest him so keenly that the question of the army regulations quickly receded to a secondary place in his consciousness.