How to use Recent in a sentence
This memory was recent and came easily.
The restaurant was a recent and welcome addition.
It was a recent picture, and she was smiling, her dark eyes dancing.
It was a recent decision.
Recent events forced my hand.Advertisement
Then there was Cynthia's recent additional fear.
After the Emperor had left Moscow, life flowed on there in its usual course, and its course was so very usual that it was difficult to remember the recent days of patriotic elation and ardor, hard to believe that Russia was really in danger and that the members of the English Club were also sons of the Fatherland ready to sacrifice everything for it.
The recent chain of events made it impossible for her to deny something serious was going on, and she was somehow involved.
She made one anyway and forced herself to eat it, blaming her recent trauma for her queasiness.
She didn't know if he'd welcome the gift or if his recent ordeal left him more jaded toward his past.Advertisement
In their attitude toward him could still be felt both uncertainty as to who he might be – perhaps a very important person – and hostility as a result of their recent personal conflict with him.
A number of Bird Song's more recent guests were bickering over differing rules to Mexican Train Dominoes in the dining room while others were trading Boardwalk and Park Place in the parlor.
Of recent years great strides have been made in the culture of new varieties of water-lilies in the open air.
We are creating at a rate exponentially more than our most recent ancestors.
Dean's mind churned the details of the recent happenings, trying to make sense of Shipton's orchestrated plunge to the river, and the strange reactions of those still sleeping beneath Bird Song's roof, and elsewhere.Advertisement
During the hurried explanations of her mother's condition, her trip home and hushed comments on the recent happenings, it was moments before Dean noticed Janet O'Brien sitting in the far corner.
The very fact that we have debated in recent years whether we can use torture to get information that will save lives is a sign of the effects of civilization.
A few had been converted to apartments, but a recent wave of historical consciousness had temporarily halted the decay.
Betsy filled mother in on the recent happenings while I placed the second call to Brennan.
She glanced at antique school house clock on the kitchen wall, a recent purchase.Advertisement
After lunch, photographer Brandon Westlake took the opportunity to show a montage of his recent shots, first on the parlor coffee table, and then, as the crowd increased, he presented a full-fledged slide show.
As he peddled downhill toward Ridgway, he could see the east side of the valley, exposed to the southern sun, had melted nearly clear of snow while across the valley, draped in shadow most of the day, the western slope retained almost all its recent covering.
Dean paused at the County's sole traffic light, a recent addition and, in some minds, a reluctant bow to progress.
His long term of service in the House, his leadership of his party on its floor, his candidacy for the speakership, and his recent election to the United States Senate, marked him out as the available man.
Recalling his recent impressions, the first thought that came into his mind was that today he had to be presented to the Emperor Francis; he remembered the Minister of War, the polite Austrian adjutant, Bilibin, and last night's conversation.Advertisement
Recent as that mental picture was, Rostopchin already felt that it had cut deep into his heart and drawn blood.
Talon's work on her arms pissed him off, but he hadn't considered the wounds were as recent as yesterday.
While the warm sun drenched them and there wasn't a cloud in sight, they'd learned from recent experience that mountain weather could blow in misery at a moment's notice and replace the sunshine with drenching, chilling rain.
While Dean hadn't read the tome, Cynthia had utilized it faithfully in her recent perpetration of meals.
The retreating blonde woman's rope and crampons lay discarded at the edge of the path, the bag from their recent purchase crumpled nearby.Advertisement
Sackler brought Dean up to date on his recent stay with Baratto but nothing of importance was learned.
The clipped note in her chief advisor's voice reminded her of how little he approved of her recent decision to involve herself in war planning.
We have not had an opportunity of testing this, nor Grubb's more recent models; but, should it be found possible to produce such images satisfactorily, without distortion and with an apparatus convenient and rigid in form, such micrometers may possibly supersede the filar micrometer.
Recent investigations have confirmed Baeyers view of the formation of formaldehyde, but a different explanation has been recently advanced.
The recent deposits of the Transvaal may be considered to be insignificant.Advertisement
The most recent statistics show the disease to be diminishing.
The recent scandals of the papacy induced Otto to deprive the Romans of their right to elect popes.
The civil wars may be regarded as a continuation of the previous municipal struggle, intensified by recent hostilities between the burghers and the nobles.
Beads of'amber occur with Anglo-Saxon relics in the south of England; and up to a comparatively recent period the material was valued as an amulet.
Mention may be made here of a class of epidermal organ, the hydaihodea, the wide distribution and variety of which have been revealed by recent research.Advertisement
This has had a most important effect on the development in recent years of morphological anatomy.
Gaseous Interchanges and their Mechanism.Another feature of the construction of the plant has in recent years come into greater prominence than was formerly the case.
The true nature of the relationship was first recognized by Pfeffer in 1877, but few cases were known till recent years.
Many writers in recent years, among whom may be named especially Heliriegel and Wilfarth, Lawes and Gilbert, and Schlcesing and Laurent, have shown that the Leguminosae as a group form conspicuous exceptions to this rule.
It is no exaggeration to say that the genus, often even the species, can be determined from almost any recent bone, but in the case of Miocene, and still more, of Eocene fossils, we have often to deal with strange families, which either represent an extinct side branch, or which connect several recent groups with each other.Advertisement
But it also follows that, if every extinct and recent bird were known, neither species, nor genera, nor families, nor orders could be defined.
The key to the distribution of recent groups lies in that of the extinct forms. Not only have many absolutely new families been discovered, but many kinds of modern birds are now known to have existed also in countries which they are now extinct.
The upper Eocene has yielded many birds, most of which are at least close forerunners of recent genera, the differentiation into the leading orders and families being already well marked, e.g.
Most Pleistocene birds are generically, even specifically, identical with recent forms; some, however, have become extinct, or they have become exterminated by man.
Until a very recent epoch there flourished in Madagascar huge birds referable to the Ratitae, e.g.Advertisement
Tiedemann, 2 the Heidelberg anatomist, who has been generally ignored, although he surpassed many a recent zoogeographer by the wide view he took of the problem; in fact he was the first to connect distribution with environmental or bionomic factors; e.g.
Some recent connoisseurs, however, ask us to restrict to seven the number of his genuine extant engravings - which appears unreasonable.
Ungava includes much of the lower portion of Labrador, with a rim of recent marine deposits along its western coast, but the interior has the usual character of low rocky hills of Archean rocks, especially granite and gneiss, with a long band of little disturbed iron-bearing rocks, resembling the Animikie, or Upper Huronian of the Lake Superior region, near its eastern side.
In recent years classifications in part agreeing with the older schemes but largely original, in accord with researches on the comparative anatomy of the insects, have been put forward.
In the classification adopted in this article, the attempt has been made to combine the best points in old and recent schemes, and to avoid the inconvenience of a large heterogeneous group including the vast majority of the families.
Partly owing to this, and partly to ancient feuds whose origin we cannot trace, the Athenian people was split up into three great factions known as the Plain (Pedieis) led by Lycurgus and Miltiades, both of noble families; the Shore (Parali) led by the Alcmaeonidae, represented at this time by Megacles, who was strong in his wealth and by his recent marriage with Agariste, daughter of Cleisthenes of Sicyon; the Hill or Upland (Diacreis, Diacrii) led by Peisistratus, who no doubt owed his influence among these hillmen partly to the possession of large estates at Marathon.
Being concealed, however, by more recent deposits, the deposits appear on the surface only in N.W.
Those under the latter body are of recent growth, the policy of the last twenty years of the 19th century having been to hand over the budget allowances for primary instruction to the Holy Synod, which opened parish schools under the local priests.
The total expenditure on primary schools in 1900 was 5,30o,000 (about the average in recent years), of which 20%.
Recent investigations in the government of Moscow have revealed that 40% of the peasant households possessed no horses, and similar inquiries in 41 governments elicited the fact that 28% of the peasant households were without horses, although of the total number of horses in the country 82% belong to the peasantry.
Within recent years, however, some efforts have been made both by the Ministry of Agriculture and by the more enlightened of the zemstvos to improve the education of the peasantry, but the progress achieved has been small.
It is of comparatively recent foundation (1860), and is carried on largely with French and Belgian capital, with modern appliances and with modern scientific knowledge.
On the whole, however, at that period as in more recent times, they contributed largely to the process of territorial expansion.
Like the European settlers on the coast of Africa in more recent times, they wished the barbarians of the interior to be restricted to the use of their primitive weapons.
Until recent times these various nationalities were allowed to retain unmolested the language, religion and peculiar local administration of their ancestors; but when the new nationality doctrine came into fashion, attempts were made to spread among them the language, religion and administrative institutions of the dominant race.
Recent American railway development, viewed in its larger aspects, has thus been characterized by what may be described as the rediscovery of the Pacific coast.
P Y of risk, it has during recent years come to notice that the number of casualties among railway servants is still unduly great, and in 1899 a Royal Commission was appointed to investigate the causes of the numerous accidents, fatal and nonfatal, to railway men.
The most recent type of state commission is the so-called Public Utility Commission, of which the best examples are those of New York and Wisconsin, established in 1907.
These mountains are among the most recent in the continent, and some of them, at least, are still growing.
In numerous instances clear evidence of recent movements along the fault planes has been discovered; and frequent earthquakes testify with equal force to the present uplift of the mountain blocks.
Borings and soundings taken at Funafuti in 1897 indicate almost beyond doubt that the whole of this Polynesian region is an area of comparatively recent subsidence.
Although there are no active cones, Upolu has in comparatively recent times been subject to volcanic disturbances, and according to a local tradition, outbreaks must have occurred in the 17th or 18th century.
Among Lockyer's other works are - The Dawn of Astronomy (1894), to which Stonehenge and other British Stone Monuments astronomically considered (1906) may be considered a sequel; Recent and coming Eclipses (1897); and Inorganic Evolution (1900).
It is necessary here to advert to a subject much debated during recent years, viz.
Budde's Die Religion des Volkes Israel bis zur Verbannung, as well as Addis's recent Hebrew Religion (1906), is a most careful and scholarly compendium.
The town, which has grown rapidly in recent years, is a favourite boating centre for the Parisians.
Recent reports also show us how much may be done in infected districts.
Recent discoveries have done little or nothing for treatment.
The recent discovery of a bloodsucking maggot, which is found in native huts throughout the greater part of tropical and subtropical Africa, and attacks the inmates when asleep, is of great interest.
During this time, it is the judgment of the most recent Protestant writer on St Dominic that, though keeping on good terms with Simon de Montfort, the leader, and praying for the success of the crusaders' arms during the battle of Muret, "yet, so far as can be seen from the sources, Dominic took no part in the crusade, but endeavoured to carry his spiritual activity on the same lines as before.
The mosaics are modern, and the whole church has suffered greatly from recent restoration.
Recent criticism goes to show that there is a very considerable body of biblical material, more important for its attitude to the history than for its historical accuracy, the true meaning of which cannot as yet be clearly perceived.
The disaster which aroused Nehemiah's grief was scarcely the fall of Jerusalem in 586 B.C., but a more recent one, and it has been conjectured that it followed the work of Ezra (in b above).
It is replaced by Chronicles, which, confining itself to Judaean history from a later standpoint (after the Persian age), includes new characteristic traditions wherein some recollection of more recent events may be recognized.
If in more recent times progress in Judaism has implied more or less of revolt against the rigors and fetters of Qaro's code, yet for 250 years it was a powerful safeguard against demoralization and stagnation.
Napoleon, after the report of the assembly, established the consistorial system which remained in force, with its central consistory in the capital, until the recent separation of church and state.
Among famous names of recent times foremost stands that of the artist Josef Israels.
Modern schools have been set up in many places, and Palestine has been the scene of a notable educational and agricultural revival, while technical schools - such as the agricultural college near Jaffa and the schools of the alliance and the more recent Bezalel in Jerusalem - have been established.
The recent advent of constitutional government may improve the condition of the Jews.
In 1870 was founded the United Synagogue, which is a metropolitan organization, and the same remark applies to the more recent Federation of Synagogues.
Recent experiments lead to the conclusion that iron, lead, manganese, lignite and sulphur exist in considerable abundance.
The cultivation of silk cocoons, formerly a flourishing industry, has greatly declined in recent years, but efforts are now being made to revive it.
These ancient indications of a Minoan connexion with Sicily have now received interesting confirmation in the numerous discoveries, principally due to the recent excavations of P. Orsi, of arms and painted vases of Late Minoan fabric in Bronze Age tombs of the provinces of Syracuse and Girgenti (Agrigentum) belonging to the late Bronze Age.
The recent exploration of a cemetery belonging to the close of the great palace period, and in a greater degree to the age succeeding the catastrophe, has now conclusively shown that there was no real break in the continuity of Minoan culture.
The first great result of recent geogra phical research has been to modify pre-existing ideas of results vestigate the orography of the vast central region represented by in.
The date of these eruptions is still uncertain, but they probably continued to a very recent period.
The general results of recent inquiry into the ethnography of Afghanistan is to support the general correctness of Bellew's theories of the origin of the Afghan races.
The claim of the Durani Afghan to be a true Ben-i-Israel is certainly in no way weakened by any recent investigation.
The most recent authorities are of opinion that the Kolarians and Dravidians represent a single physical type; but, whatever the historical explanation may be, they certainly have different languages and show different stages of civilization.
It is only of recent years that the writings of Schopenhauer and the researches of many distinguished orientalists have awakened some interest in Asiatic philosophy.
The aqueduct was constructed in quite recent times, rain-water having previously given the only supply.
Her efforts to restore it in1526-1528were ineffectual; her prestige had depended upon her reputation for wealth derived from the fact that she had acted in recent years as the paymaster of Europe.
The work is only of any value for the century 45055 0, when Jordanes is dealing with recent history.
In recent times they enter military service less and less, betaking themselves mainly to cultivation and to the carrying business connected with agriculture.
Schelle, Turgot (Paris, 1909); and Marquis de Segur, Au Couchant de la monarchie (Paris, 1910), contain much that is based on recent research.
Of the former, the first, published in 1896, was on the dynamics of a particle; and afterwards there followed a number of concise treatises on thermodynamics, heat, light, properties of matter and dynamics, together with an admirably lucid volume of popular lectures on Recent Advances in Physical Science.
Previous to this period the husbandry of Scotland was still in a backward state as compared with the best districts of England, where many practices, only of recent introduction in the north, had been in general use for generations.
Whereas formerly the farmer was to some extent compensated by a higher price for a smaller yield, in recent years he had had to compete with an unusually large supply at greatly reduced prices.
Such deviations from the practice of merely selling grain and meat off the farm have much extended in recent years, and will probably continue to do so under the altered conditions of British agriculture, determined by very large imports of grain, increasing imports of meat and of other products of stock-feeding, and very large imports of cattle-food and other agricultural produce.
In the cattle classes, aged beasts of huge size and of considerably over a ton in weight used to be common, but in recent years the tendency has been to reduce the upper limit of age, and thus to bring out animals ripe for the butcher in a shorter time than was formerly the case.
This method has made great advances in recent years.
It is easy to understand, therefore, why we trace the beginnings of economics, so far as England is concerned, in the 16th century, and why the application of strict scientific tests in this subject of human study has become possible only in comparatively recent times.
The same may be said of another subject, too frequently neglected by earlier writers, to which due significance has been given in the best recent work, namely, time in relation to value.
There are very few questions of public or commercial importance upon which the best and most recent investigations are to be found amongst English works.
The great increase in recent years in British military and naval expenditure, made necessary by the exceptional demands of a state of war and the great development of foreign powers, was partly responsible for the new difficulties; partly it was due to the great extension of the functions of the state during the latter part of the 19th century.
On this subject many monographs and larger works have been published in recent years, but dealing rather with such questions as trade unionism, co-operation and factory legislation, than the structure and organization of particular industries, or the causes and the results of the formation of the great combinations, peculiarly characteristic of the United States, but not wanting in England, which are amongst the most striking economic phenomena of modern times.
It is only possible to mention here a few of the more recent text-books.
These books are generally regarded as typical of the best English work of recent years in economic investigation.
The Scottish lords were not to serve beyond the sea against their will, and were pardoned for their recent violence, in return owning allegiance to Edward.
Recent research has, however, explained how it came about that a son born on the earlier date received the name Nabulione (Napoleon).
His own violations of the treaties of Luneville and Amiens were overlooked; and in particular men forgot that the weakening of the Knights of St John by the recent confiscation of their lands in France and Spain, and the protracted delay of Russia and Prussia to guarantee their tenure of power in Malta, furnished England with good reasons for keeping her hold on that island.
In any case, it sent the proposals of the 4th of April in order to test the sincerity of his recent offer of compensation to England.
By the peace of Presburg (26th of December 1805) Napoleon compelled Austria to recognize all the recent changes in Italy, and further to cede Venetia, Istria and Dalmatia to the new kingdom of Italy.
He is said to have remarked with an oath after Jena that he would make the Spanish Bourbons pay for their recent bellicose proclamation.
Two Aegean vases were found at Sidon in 1885, and many fragments of Aegean and especially Cypriote pottery have been turned up during recent excavations of sites in Philistia by the Palestine Fund.
Various summaries, controversial articles, &c., formerly quoted, are now superseded by recent discoveries.
These views are not, however, supported plate is not, however, very definite, and the segmentation does not by other recent observers.
In several recent attempts to group the orders into sub-classes, stress has been laid upon a few characters in the imago.
Sharp's proposed association of the parasitic wingless insects in a group Anapterygota cannot, however, be defended as natural; and recent researches into the structure of these forms enables us to associate them confidently with related winged orders.
The classification here adopted is based on Sharp's scheme, with the addition of suggestions from some of the most recent authors - especially Bdrner and Enderlein.
Geological History The classification just given has been drawn up with reference to existing insects, but the great majority of the extinct forms that have been discovered can be referred with some confidence to the same orders, and in many cases to recent families.
Relationships And Phylogeny The Hexapoda form a very clearly defined class of the Arthropoda, and many recent writers have suggested that they must have arisen independently of other Arthropods from annelid worms, and that the Arthropoda must, therefore, be regarded as an " unnatural," polyphyletic assemblage.
The standing of the Trichoptera in a position almost ancestral to the Lepidoptera is one of the assured results of recent morphological study, the mobile mandibulate pupa and the imperfectly suctorial maxillae of the Trichoptera reappearing in the lowest families of the Lepidoptera.
At present about a thousand works and papers are published annually, and in this place it is possible to enumerate only a few of the most important among (mostly) recent memoirs that bear upon the Hexapoda generally.
About the time that Buffon was bringing to an end his studies of birds, Mauduyt undertook to write the Ornithologie of the Encyclopedic methodique - a comparatively easy task, considering the recent works of his fellow-countrymen on that subject, and finished in 1784.
More recent monographs have been more exact, and some of them equally sumptuous.
Returning northwards, we have of the birds of the whole of France nothing of real importance more recent than the volume.
Like Gloger, Sundevall in his ideal system separated the true passerines from all other birds, calling them Volucres; but he took a step further, for he assigned to them the highest rank, wherein nearly every recent authority agrees with him; out of them, however, he chose the thrushes and warblers to stand first as his ideal " Centrum " - a selection which, though in the opinion of the present writer erroneous, is still largely followed.
This very remarkable treatise forms the groundwork of almost all later or recent researches in the comparative anatomy and consequent arrangement of the Passeres, and, though it is certainly not free from inperfections, many of them, it must be said, arise from want of material, notwithstanding that its author had command of a much more abundant supply than was at the disposal of Nitzsch.
In recent times the general prosperity of the city, which is on the ascendant, has brought about a revival of domestic and civic architecture.
In recent times there has been a good deal of activity in Venice in regard to the preservation of its artistic and architectural treasures.
The definition of the Council of Trent was intended both to enforce the accepted Catholic position and to exclude the teaching of Luther, who, whilst not professing to be certain whether the "substance" of the Bread and Wine could or could not be said to remain, exclaimed against the intolerance of the Roman Catholic Church in defining the question.6 For a full and recent exposition of the Catholic teaching on Transubstantiation the reader may consult De ecclesiae sacra mentis, auctore Ludovico Billot, S.J.
The soil is composed of red ferruginous kankar, with a stratum of clay in the more elevated parts, covered by a thin layer of vegetable mould, or by recent alluvial deposits.
During recent years the study of fossil insects (palaeoentomology) has attracted much attention.
By careful selection (the methods of which are described below) in the United States, the quality of the product was much improved, and on the recent revival of the cotton industry in the West Indies American " Sea Island " seed was introduced back again to the original home of the species.
It has, however, certain characteristics which cause it to be in demand even in the United States, where during recent years Egyptian cotton has comprised about 80% of all the " foreign " cottons imported.
The actual amounts differ with different varieties, conditions of cultivation, methods of ginning, &c.; a recent estimate in the United States gives 35% of lint for Upland cotton and 25% for Sea Island cotton as more accurate.
In India, where conditions are much more diversified and it is more difficult to induce the native cultivator to adopt new methods, attention has also been directed during recent years to the improvement of the existing races.
The government is encouraging recent efforts to re-establish the cultivation.
During recent years a considerable quantity of cotton has been exported, but more than a compensating amount of raw cotton, yarns and textiles, is imported.
The explanation of this change in the direction of indices of steadiness cannot be proved to consist in any peculiarity in the supplies of recent years.
The uneasiness caused by the excessive dependence of Great Britain upon the United States for cotton, coupled with the Recent belief that shortages of supply are more frequent than R they ought to be, and the fear that diminishing returns attempts to open may operate in America, occasioned the formation in England of the British Cotton Growing Association on.
Recent statistics bearing upon cotton are collected annually in the two publications, Shepperson's Cotton Facts and Jones's Handbook for Daily Cable Records of Cotton Crop Statistics.
He is given a potion by some Druids, which banishes all memory of his recent adventures and which also rids his wife Emer of the pangs of jealousy.
One of his more recent historical works is Die Mission and Ausbreitung des Christentums in den ersten drei Jahrhunderten (1902; English translation in two volumes, 1904-1905).
Within recent years, owing to the initiative of Colonel English, a method of raising oil by the agency of compressed air has been introduced into the Baku oil-fields.
The more recent legislation with regard to " petroleum spirit " relates mainly to the quantity which may be stored for use on " light locomotives."
In the extreme north (Commagene) the highlands are almost entirely held by Kurds who entered from beyond Euphrates in comparatively recent times.
The language throughout southern and middle Syria as high as Killis is Arabic, which has entirely ousted Aramaic and Hebrew from common use, and tends to prevail even over the speech of recent immigrants like the Circassians.
The influence exercised at all times on Syrian art by the powerful neighbouring states is abundantly confirmed by all the recent finds which, in addition to our previous knowledge, show the action of the Aegean culture on Phoenicia and Palestine.
Affinities.-The position of the Nemertines in the animal kingdom is now looked upon as more isolated than was formerly thought, and recent writers have been inclined to treat them as a separate phylum.
In the peninsula especially, where the presence of the Malays is more recent than elsewhere, many traditions exist which point to a comparatively recent occupation of the country.
In the Malay Peninsula itself there is abundant evidence, ethnological and philological, of at least two distinct immigrations of people of the Malayan stock, the earlier incursions, it is probable, taking place from the eastern archipelago to the south, the later invasion spreading across the Straits of Malacca from Sumatra at a comparatively recent date.
The most noticeable feature of recent Moravian history has been the active sympathy of its inhabitants with the anti-Teutonic home-rule agitation of the Bohemian Czechs.
The chief recent book on her is Saint Poucy's Histoire de Marguerite de Valois (1887).
His accuracy, which has been called in question by some scholars, has been remarkably vindicated by recent excavations at Athens and elsewhere.
Recent investigation has thrown a new and unexpected light on the art, the monuments and the topography of the ancient city.
We must here group these important epochs together, as distinguished from the later period of Roman rule, and confine ourselves to a brief notice of their principal monuments and a record of the discoveries by which they have been illustrated in recent years.
The fact that spring water is not now found in this locality is by no means fatal to the theory; recent engineering investigations have shown that much of the surface water of the Attic plain has sunk to a lower level.
The widely-received view of Curtius that it ran to Cape Kolias (now Old Phalerum) on the east of the Phaleric bay is not accepted by recent topographers.
A copy of the Diadumenos of Polyclitus from Delos, and temple sculptures from Epidaurus and the Argive Heraeum, are among the more notable of its recent acquisitions.
Notwithstanding certain disadvantages inherent in its situation, the trade and manufactures of Athens have considerably increased in recent years.
All the recent Ratitae still possess a considerable number of rather primitive characters, e.g.
During recent years chemistry has become one of the most important subjects in the curriculum of technical schools and universities, and at the present time no general educational institution is complete until it has its full equipment of laboratories and lecture theatres.
Tantalum has in recent years been turned to economic service, being employed, in the same manner as tungsten, for the production of the filaments employed in incandescent electric lighting.
Of recent years the introduction of various organic compounds as precipitants or reagents has reduced the labour of the process; and advantage has also been taken of the fairly complex double salts which these metals form with compounds.
During recent years an immense number of ringed or cyclic compounds have been discovered, which exhibit individual characters more closely resembling benzene, naphthalene, &c. than purely aliphatic substances, inasmuch as in general they contain double linkages, yet withstand oxidation, and behave as nuclei, forming derivatives in much the same way as benzene.
Methods depending upon oxidation in the presence of a contact substance have come into favour during recent years.
Recent researches have shown that the law originally proposed by Kopp - " That the specific volume of a liquid compound (molecular volume) at its boiling-point is equal to the sum of the specific volumes of its constituents (atomic volumes), and that every element has a definite atomic value in its compounds " - is by no means exact, for isomers have different specific volumes, and the volume for an increment of CH 2 in different homologous series is by no means constant; for example, the difference among the esters of the fatty acids is about 57, whereas for the aliphatic aldehydes it is 49.
Stewart, Recent Advances in Organic Chemistry (1908); and in a series of pamphlets issued since 1896 with the title Sammlung chemischer and chemisch-technischer Vortrcige.
In recent years a tendency has been apparent among critics to accept Ephesians as a genuine work of Paul.
Holtzmann's elaborate and very ingenious theory (1872) that Colossians has been expanded, on the basis of a shorter letter of Paul, by the same later hand which had previously written the whole of Ephesians, has not met with favour from recent scholars.
This Semitic population in Anatolia is an important recent discovery.
It is related that, during the performance of one of his plays, the scaffolding of the wooden stage gave way, in consequence of which the Athenians built a theatre of stone; but recent excavations make it doubtful whether a stone theatre existed in Athens at so early a date.
Among more recent maps of Palestine, that by Petrus Vesconte (1320) is greatly superior to the earlier maps.
Among the more important productions of more recent times, may be mentioned a map of the empire, said to be based upon actual surveys by Yhang (721), who also manufactured FIG.
The chart of the world by Juan de la Cosa, the companion of Columbus, is the earliest extant which depicts the discoveries in the new world (150o), Nicolaus de Canerio, a Genoese, and the map which Alberto Cantino caused to be drawn at Lisbon for Hercules d'Este of Ferrara (1502), illustrating in addition the recent discoveries of the Portuguese in the East.
In Denmark, on the proposal of the Academy of Science, a survey was carried out in 1766-1825, but the maps issued by the Danish general staff depend upon more recent surveys.
How millennarianism nevertheless found its way, with the help of apocalyptic mysticism and Anabaptist influences into the churches of the Reformation, chiefly among the Reformed sects, but afterwards also in the Lutheran Church, how it became incorporated with Pietism, how in more recent times an exceedingly mild type of "academic" chiliasm has been developed from a belief in the verbal inspiration of the Bible, how finally new sects are still springing up here and there with apocalyptic and chiliastic expectations - these are matters which cannot be fully entered upon here.
Nothing is known with certainty as to the origin of the vast majority of breeds of dogs, and it is an unfortunate fact that the progressive changes which have been made within comparatively recent times by fanciers have not been accurately recorded by the preservation, in museums or collections, of the actual specimens considered typical at different dates.
In comparatively recent times they have been adopted by English fanciers, and a definite strain with special points has been produced.
Altogether 1621 bones, nearly all broken and gnawed, were found; of these 691 belonged to birds and small rodents of more recent times.
Of more recent origin are the ruins known as Galla graves (Taalla Galla).
Humayun was thus left in possession of his father's recent conquests, which were in dispute with the Indian Afghans under Sher Shah, governor of Bengal.
The latter was received with great enthusiasm both in England (where it reached its 19th edition) and in America, but recent criticism has lessened its popularity and it is now almost forgotten.
He wrote many similar works, among which is a Vindication of Luther against his recent English Assailants (1854).
It now remains to consider the slavery of primitive origin which has .existed within recent times, or continues to exist, outside of the Western world.
Linete and Linet-wige, whence seems to have been corrupted the old Scottish "Lintquhit," and the modern northern English "Lintwhite" - originally a somewhat generalized bird's name, but latterly specialized for the Fringilla cannabina of Linnaeus, the Linota cannabina of recent ornithologists.
It is a monument of learning and scholarship. The most recent edition is that with notes and introduction by the present writer, u.s. It includes also the History of the Abbots, and the Epistle to Egbert.
It cannot be denied that in the later Avesta, and still more in writings of more recent date, he is presented in a legendary light and endowed with superhuman powers.
In the more recent hymns of the Rig-Veda and in later India, on the other hand, only evil spirits are understood by asuras, while in Iran the corresponding word ahura was, and ever has continued to be, the designation of God the Lord.
The Berlin herbarium is especially rich in more recent collections, and other national herbaria sufficiently extensive to subserve the requirements of the systematic botanist exist at St Petersburg, Vienna, Leiden, Stockholm, Upsala, Copenhagen and Florence.
Evidences of petroleum were discovered long ago, in the very field where in recent years the Beaumont and Vinton wells were bored.
Only in very recent years have oysters, though plentiful, become of competitive importance in the national market; they are greatly favoured by state protective legislation.
In recent years there has been an immigration of Italians into Louisiana, which seems likely to prove of great social and economic importance.
But it is of recent date and does not attain an elevation of more than 40 or 50 ft.
In recent years the growth of the leaf under cloth tents has greatly increased, as it has been abundantly proved that the product thus secured is much more valuable - lighter in colour and weight, finer in texture, with an increased proportion of wrapper leaves, and more uniform qualities, and with lesser amounts of cellulose, nicotine, gums and resins.
In very recent years gardening has become an interest of importance, particularly in the province of Pinar del Rio.
The date of these walls has not as yet been ascertained, recent excavations, which led to the discovery of a few tombs in which the earliest objects showing Greek influence may go back to the 7th century B.C., not having produced any decisive evidence on the point.
Until quite recent times the conservative and fanatical spirit of the 'Ulema had been one of the greatest obstacles to progress and reform in a political system in which spiritual and temporal functions were intimately interwoven.
Yet even so the want of complete documentary evidence upon which to base conclusions has vitiated all but the most recent of the countless monographs and histories that have appeared on the subject.
The other mosques, of which there are about thirty within the walls, excluding the chapels and places of prayer, are all of recent erection.
In recent years the demands of modern travel have led to the establishment of a hotel, which affords comfortable accommodation according to European methods.
All these views have, however, been cast in the shade by more recent investigations based on minute literary analysis of the Pentateuch, begun by Graf, continued by Kuenen, and culminating in the work of Wellhausen and Robertson Smith.
In 1819 he returned to England, and published in the following year an account of his travels and discoveries entitled Narrative of the Operations and Recent Discoveries within the Pyramids, Temples, Tombs and Excavations in Egypt and Nubia, &c. He also exhibited during 1820-1821 facsimiles of the tomb of Seti I.
Few if any cities in the Union have, in recent years, been better governed than Cleveland, and this seems to be due largely to the keen interest in municipal affairs which has been shown by her citizens.
In recent history the most notable events not mentioned elsewhere in this article were the elaborate celebration of the centennial of the city in 1896 and the street railway strike of 1899, in which the workers attempted to force a redress of grievances and a recognition of their union.
All ocean currents vary from year to year in their strength of flow and the main interest of physical oceanography in recent years has been the tracing-out of these variations and the search for the causes.
During recent years the controversies with regard to the modes of formation of these structures have entered on a new phase.
Up to comparatively recent years it was matter for controversy whether the Tsanpo formed the upper reaches of the Dihong or of the Irrawaddy.
Although rocks wholly or in large part vitreous are known from very ancient geological systems, such as the Devonian, they are certainly most frequent in recent volcanic countries.
The principal object of this more recent research has been the determination of the quantitative amount of chemical change associated with the passage for a given time of a current of strength known in electromagnetic units.
On the other hand, some of these have in recent times adopted the surplice, and in one at least (the Catholic Apostolic Church) the traditional Catholic vestments have been largely revived.
It is a curious inversion of terms that in recent years has led to the name Sacramentarians being applied to those who hold a high or extreme view of the efficacy of the sacraments.
Among more recent preachers he had most affinity with George Whitefield, Richard Cecil and Joseph Irons.
The V-system is the oldest, but is being largely superseded by the herring-bone; the spiral system is more recent and is still on trial.
The exact chemical nature of caoutchouc is, however, not determined, and recent researches point to the view that its molecular structure may even be somewhat different from that of the terpenes.
There are wide areas on the plains of West Siberia and on the high plateau of East Siberia, which, virtually, are still passing through the Lacustrine period; but the total area now under water bears but a trifling proportion to the vast surface .which the lakes covered even at a very recent period, when Neolithic man inhabited Siberia.
On the whole, their civilization stood much higher than that of their more recent successors.
In addition to these, there exists in the interior of the dorsal valve of some genera a variously modified, thin, calcified, ribbon-shaped skeleton for the support of the ciliated arms, and the form of this ribbon serves as one of the chief generic characters of both recent and extinct forms. This brachial skeleton is more developed in some genera than in others.
Little light has been thrown on the affinities of the Brachiopoda by recent research, though speculation has not been wanting.
Brachiopods first appear in the Lower Cambrian, and reached their highest development in the Silurian, from which upwards of 2000 species are known, and were nearly as numerous in the Devonian period; at present they are represented by some 140 recent species.
A full bibliography of Brachiopoda (recent and fossil) is to be found in Davidson's Monograph of British Fossil Brachiopods, Pal.
Among these are the town hall, of the 16th century, in the Transition style from late Gothic to Renaissance, restored in recent years; the Kornhaus; the Ehingerhaus or Neubronnerhaus, now containing the industrial museum; and the commandery of the Teutonic order, built in1712-1718on the site of a habitation of the order dating from the 13th century, and now used as barracks.
Five recent Roman decisions are doubtless aimed primarily at Loisy's teaching.
In the more recent form of the hearth process the blocks of cast iron forming the sides and back of the Scottish furnace are now generally replaced in the United States by water-cooled shells (waterjackets) of cast iron.
Concealed in part by later deposits, this ancient mountain chain extends from Castelnaudary to the neighbourhood of Valence, where it sinks suddenly beneath the Tertiary and recent deposits of the valley of the Rhone.
Recent scholarship, however, asserts that More was no writer, and that the Vita et mors is an extract from Geoffrey's Chronicon, and was attributed to More, who was the author's patron.
This last value agrees very closely with a determination made by Gill at the Cape of Good Hope, and most other recent determinations give values exceeding 20.50".
Recent researches have shown that other imporant changes in its properties occur at the same critical temperature.
His principal work, Logik, published in 1873, takes an important place among recent contributions to logical theory.
The position of the Arachnida in the great sub-phylum Arthropoda, according to recent anatomical and embryological researches, is explained in the article Arthropoda.
But it is necessary to remember, in the light of recent discoveries, that the sixth prosomatic pair of appendages is carried on the seventh somite of the whole series, there being two prosthomeres or somites in front of the mouth, the first carrying the eyes, the second the chelicerae; also that the first mesosomatic or genital somite is not the seventh or even the eighth of the whole series of somites which have been historically present, 1 See the article Arthropoda for the use of the term " prosthomere."
Do we know in the recent or fossil condition any such primitive Arachnids ?
Appendages of 1st pair.tri-segmented, chelate; of 2nd pair chelate, with their basal segments subserving mastication; of 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th pairs similar in form and function, except that in recent and Carboniferous forms the basal segments of the 3rd and 4th are provided with sterno-coxal (maxillary) lobes, those of the 4th pair meeting in the middle line and underlying the mouth.
The flat summit is formed by a succession of limestones - all deposited in shallow water - from the Eocene (or Oligocene) up to recent deposits in the above-mentioned atoll with islands on its reef.
These were recent events in the time of Joash, and in like manner the Phoenician slave trade in Jewish children is carried back to an early date by the reference in Amos i.
Of recent years, however, the operatives have moved into the suburbs, leaving the model houses of the "artisans' town" to small tradesmen.
The Funafuti borings (1897) show almost beyond doubt that Polynesia is an area of comparatively recent subsidence.
In recent times controversies have arisen in connexion with the Baltic, the Black Sea and more especially the Bering Sea.
The rapid growth of international arbitration in recent times may be gathered from the following figures.
These bands are often concealed by more recent deposits, but it is clear that in this region the Devonian beds form a basin or synclinal with the Amazon for its axis.
Of the Pleistocene and recent deposits the most interesting are the remains of extinct animals (Glyptodon, Mylodon, Megatherium, &c.) in the caves of the Sao Francisco.
The successful issue of the recent revolution of the English colonies in North America had filled the minds of some of the more educated youth of that province; and in imitation, a project to throw off the Portuguese yoke was formed, - a cavalry officer, Silva Xavier, nicknamed Tiradentes (tooth-drawer), being the chief conspirator.
In 1906 Dr Affonso Penna, three times minister under Pedro II., and at that time governor of the state of Minas-Geraes, of which he had founded the new capital, Bello Horizonte, was elected president, a choice due to a coalition of the other states against Sao Paulo, to which all the recent presidents had belonged.
Another hall, the Sala di Balia, has frescoes by Spinello Aretino (1408) with scenes from the life of Pope Alexander III., while yet another has been painted by local artists with episodes in recent Italian history.
The Anglican Church is content with the threefold ministry of bishops, priests and deacons, but in recent times the bishops have appointed lay-readers, licensed to read prayers and preach in buildings which are not consecrated.
Dodd's Jefferson Davis (Philadelphia, 1907), which embodies the results of recent historical research.
A critical survey of recent literature on Scholasticism is given by Baeumker in the Archiv far Geschichte der Philosophie, vols.
The work of Cobden, and what is now called "Cobdenism," has in recent years been subjected to much criticism from the newer school of English economists who advocate a "national policy" (on the old lines of Alexander Hamilton and Friedrich List) as against his cosmopolitan ideals.
There were enough inconsistencies in his creed to enable both sides in the recent controversies to claim him as one who if he were still alive would have supported their case in the altered circumstances; but, from the biographical point of view, these issues are hardly relevant.
The border-ridge character of the Sayans (Ergik-targak-taiga) is well established, and the same orographic character is confirmed by recent explorers with regard to the Sailughem range of the Altai.
Recent historical research has ascertained that the country was densely peopled in the 15th century.
The state-maintained gymnasia are mostly of recent foundation, but some schools maintained by the various churches have been in existence for three, or sometimes four, centuries.
There are besides an adequate number of training institutes for teachers, a great number of schools of commerce, several art schools - for design, painting, sculpture, music, &c. Most of these special schools are of recent origin, and are almost entirely maintained by the state or the communes.
The Uralian travels of Anthony Reguly (1843-1845), and the philological labours of Paul Hunfalvy and Joseph Budenz, may be said to have established it, and no doubt has been thrown on it by recent research, though most authorities regard the Magyars as of mixed origin physically and combining Turkish with Finno-Ugric elements.
Since that time (1895) the number of periodical as well as of non-periodical literary works has been constantly rising, although, as in all countries with a literature of rather recent origin, the periodical publications are, in proportion to the whole of the output, far more numerous than the non-periodical.
One of the most recent developments of algebra is the algebraic theory of number, which is devised with the view of removing these difficulties.
In recent times many mathematicians have formulated other kinds of algebras, in which the operators do not obey the laws of ordinary algebra.
The ancient city walls have been almost entirely destroyed in recent times to provide building material,' and the place is famous for the discoveries made in its tombs.
The Yugoslav movement was by no means a recent one, as is often assumed.
Systems Of Classification Morphography includes the systematic exploration and tabulation of the facts involved in the recognition of all the recent and extinct kinds of animals and their distribution in space and time.
Between Linnaeus and Cuvier there are no very great names; but under the stimulus given by the admirable method and system of Linnaeus observation and description of new forms from all parts of the world, both recent and fossil, accumulated.
Another special distinction of Cuvier is his remarkable work in comparing extinct with recent organisms, his descriptions of the fossil Mammalia of the Paris basin, and his general application of the knowledge of recent animals to the reconstruction of extinct ones, as indicated by fragments only of their skeletons.
His recent discovery of the " fixed lines " allowed a precision of observation previously impossible.
Although we have not reached a stage of certainty regarding their origin, function and destiny, recent investigations have brought forward evidence to elucidate the importance of the part played by the different cells in the various types of the inflammatory process.
Many of the hypotheses of the past put forward - to explain cancer must be discarded, in view of the facts brought to light by the comparative and experimental research of recent times.
In recent years the successful experimental transplantation of new growths, occurring sporadically in white mice and rats, into animals of the same species, has thrown a fresh light on all the features of malignant growths.
It will be sufficient to state briefly what appears to be the result of recent investigation.
Skin-grafting and regeneration of bone are among not the least remarkable applications of pathological principles to the combat with disease in recent times; and in this connexion may also be mentioned the daring acts of surgery for the relief of tumours of the brain, rendered practicable by improved methods of localization.
In recent practice some sulphin trioxide, or fuming sulphuric acid, is added, so that the mixture of acids contains less than I% of water.
The discoveries of recent years in the south-eastern portion of Sicily, including especially the objects found in Sicel and Greek cemeteries, may be studied here.
In more recent years, however, efforts have been made by Brunetiere and others to remove it.
But it has by recent researches been clearly established that the celebrated Schola salernitana was a purely secular institution.
Lardaceous disease, however, here and in other regions, now appears to be due to the specific toxins of pyogenetic micro-organisms. In stone of the kidney a great advance has been made in treatment by operative means, and the formation of these stones seems to recent observers to depend less upon constitutional bent (gout) than upon unhealthy local conditions of the passages, which in their turn again may be due to the action of microorganisms.
Within the valley all the alluvial deposits are recent.
The very extensive pumice deposits at Neuwied and the lava and other volcanic rocks belong to a more recent epoch.
The philosophy of Lucretius has been much studied in recent times.
This method originated in the Pennsylvania anthracite mines in 1887, but has been employed in recent years on a large scale in Silesia, Westphalia and other European coalfields.
Recent investigations have shown an alarming increase in mortality from miners' phthisis in Cornwall, South Africa and elsewhere.
The district is now largely peopled with recent settlers from Greece, Crete and the Balkans.
The system under which in towns headmen of wards and elders of blocks are appointed is of comparatively recent origin, and is modelled on the village system.
Of recent years many conversions to Christianity have been made by the American Baptist missionaries amongst the Lahu or Muhso hill tribesmen.
There are in addition some pearling grounds in the Mergui Archipelago, which have a very recent history; they were practically unknown before 1890; in the early 'nineties they were worked by Australian adventurers, most of whom have since departed; and now they are leased in blocks to a syndicate of Chinamen, who grant sub-leases to individual adventurers at the rate of £25 a pump for the pearling year.
The system of reckoning time by limmi was of Assyrian origin, and recent discoveries have made it clear that it went back to the first days of the monarchy.
Under Khammurabi a Samsi-Hadad (or Samsi-Raman) seems to have been vassal-prince at Assur, and the names of several of the high-priests of Assur who succeeded him have been made known to us by the recent German excavations.
Our knowledge of the ancient Sumerian language is still quite imperfect, despite the considerable progress made, more particularly during recent years.
Although 11,000,000 florins had been spent on recent wars Florence continued prosperous and its trade increased.
Francis Hyett's Florence (London, 1903) is more recent and compendious; the author is somewhat Medicean in his views, and frequently inaccurate.
Since Howard published his invention the vacuum pan has been greatly improved and altered in shape and power, and especially of recent years, and the advantages of concentrating in vacuo having been acknowledged, the system has been adopted in many other industries, and crowds of inventors have turned their attention to the principle.
The principal improvement made of recent years in this portion of the process has been the construction of pipes through which the carbonic acid gas is injected into the juice in such a manner that they can be easily withdrawn and a clean set substituted.
But the great achievement of recent manufacture is the production, without the use of animal charcoal, of a cheaper, but good and wholesome article, in appearance equal to refined sugar for all intents and purposes, except for making preserves of fruits in the old-fashioned way.
Yet within recent years great alterations have been effected; in the newer quarters are several handsome streets and public buildings; in the centre many insanitary dwellings have been swept away, and their place occupied by imposing blocks of shops and business premises, and a magnificent new town-hall, erected in a dominant position.
Among the most recent improvements must be mentioned the Brausenwerther Platz, flanked by the theatre, the public baths, and the railway station and administrative offices.
This evidence is, however, strengthened by the results of recent work on changes in the blood of patients suffering from helminthiasis.
On the other hand, the same observations go to show that the disease is met with oftener on the more recent formations than the older, and this fact, so far as concerns the physical characters of the soil, is identical with the questions of permeability to air and water.
But recent research has discredited this theory both in England and on the continent.
A very interesting development of quite recent years is that of growing some valuable cigar tobaccos under artificial shade.
The industry is of quite recent growth, dating only from 1862.
During recent years the average value of the product has fallen, due apparently to deterioration in'quality.
In more recent years tobacco has been grown in Ireland, but up to 1910 it had been found impracticable to obtain from the government sufficient relaxation from fiscal restrictions to encourage the home cultivation, though in 1907 the prospect of licences being issued was held out.
There are signs that this coastal strip was until a geologically recent period below sea-level; and that the coast-line is still receding is evidenced by the history of the town of Muza, once a flourishing port, now 20 m.
Volcanic cones still exist in large numbers, and the sheets of lava appear as fresh as any recent flows of Etna or Vesuvius.
Few are still in situ, the majority having been taken from their original positions and built into houses, mosques or wells of more recent date.
But most of the extant literature of this kind is, in its present form, much more recent; e.g.
Contemporaries usually spoke of 70, 72, 73 or 77 members, and perhaps the list is complete with Daenell's recent count of 72, but the obscurity on so vital a point is significant of the amorphous character of the organization.
But the visible remains of Saracenic art in Tunis and its vicinity are of relatively recent date, the few mosques which might offer earlier examples not being open to inspection by Christians.
Geology.'--The Eastern Cordillera., which, however, is but little known, appears to consist, as in Bolivia, chiefly of Palaeozoic rocks; the western ranges of the Andes are formed of Mesozoic beds, together with recent volcanic lavas and ashes; and the lower hills near the coast are composed of granite, syenite and other crystalline rocks, sometimes accompanied by limestones and sandstones, which are probably of Lower Cretaceous age, and often covered by marine Tertiary deposits.
These mines are of recent development, the.
The photographic method appears to have practically failed during recent years, since there has been no brilliant display upon which to test its capacity.
Recent scholars, accordingly, with but few exceptions, are agreed that the ancient pronunciation of the name was Yahweh (the first h sounded at the end of the syllable).
Another explanation, which appears first in Jewish authors of the middle ages and has found wide acceptance in recent times, derives the name from the causative of the verb; He (who) causes things to be, gives them being; or calls events into existence, brings them to pass; with many individual modifications of interpretation - creator, lifegiver, fulfiller of promises.
The derivation of Yahweh from hawah is formally unimpeachable, and is adopted by many recent scholars, who proceed, however, from the primary sense of the root rather than from the specific meaning of the nouns.
In its earlier form this opinion rested chiefly on certain misinterpreted testimonies in Greek authors about a god 'Iaco, and was conclusively refuted by Baudissin; recent adherents of the theory build more largely on the occurrence in various parts of this territory of proper names of persons ' See Hebrew Religion.
The Development of Chemistry in Recent Times appeared in 1871-1874, and in 1886 he published a work in two volumes on Alchemy in Ancient and Modern Times.
But menacing briefs poured in from Rome; the pope had read one of Savonarola's recent sermons on Exodus; the city itself was threatened with interdict, and the Florentine ambassador could barely obtain a short delay.
It had come to fill only part of its ancient circuit, but of recent years it has revived considerably, and, since the railway reached it, has acquired a semi-European quarter, with a German hotel, cafes and Greek shops, &c.
The Trepostomata are in the main Palaeozoic, although Heteropora, of which recent species exist, is placed by Gregory in this division.
They constitute a small proportion of the recent Polyzoa.
This glacial material is in the form of a till or boulder clay, but in the lowlands, and especially along Narragansett Bay, it is generally overlaid by stratified drift deposited by glacial streams. Within Narragansett Bay are the numerous islands characteristic of an area which has suffered comparatively recent depression, the largest being Rhode Island (or Aquidneck), Conanicut Island and Prudence Island.
These subterranean wonders were known as far back as 1213, but the cavern remained undiscovered in modern times until 1816, and it is only in still more recent times that its vast extent has been fully ascertained and explored.
Recent criticism, however, has tended very much to raise their value by tracing out their wide and far-reaching influence.
There is entire absence of the Alpine plants found abundantly on the summits of other high mountains in Japan, a fact due, doubtless, to the comparatively recent activity of the volcano.