His realism enables him to maintain the reality of Time, and so of the process of the world's redemption.
It is thus opposed both to natural realism and to idealism.
Hamilton (Discussions, p. 197) allows greater sagacity to Collier than to Berkeley, on the ground that he did not vainly attempt to enlist men's natural belief against the hypothetical realism of the philosophers.
Finally the theory defined is opposed to all forms of realism, whether in the older form which sought to reduce mind to a function of matter, or in any of the newer forms which seek for the ultimate essence of both mind and matter in some unknown force or energy which, while in itself it is neither, yet contains the potentiality of both.
It is possible, as Haureau maintains, that Roscellinus meant no more than to refute the extreme Realism which asserts the substantial and, above all, the independent existence of the universals.
Albert and Aquinas both profess the moderate Aristotelian Realism which treats genera and species only as substantiae secundae, yet as really inherent in the individuals, and constituting their form or essence.
And accordingly it gave rise to the three great doctrines which divided the medieval schools: Realism of the Platonic type, embodied in the formula universalia ante rein; Realism of the Aristotelian type, universalia in re; and Nominalism, including Conceptualism, expressed by the phrase universalia post rem, and also claiming to be based upon the Peripatetic doctrine.
with which he formulated his position were the im mediate occasion of the contemporaneous crystallization of Realism in the theories of Anselm and William of Champeaux.
In view of the results of this analysis, Reid's theory (and the theory of Scottish philosophy generally) has been dubbed natural realism or natural dualism, in contrast to theories like subjective idealism and materialism or to the cosmothetic idealism or hypothetical dualism of the majority of philosophers.
It is a Realism of the most uncompromising type, which by its reduction of individuals to accidents of one identical substance seems to tremble on the very verge of Spinozism.
Believing that the pendulum had overshot its swing from conventional classicality towards pictorial realism, he turned from the " fleshy " school towards the Greek, while realizing the artistic necessity for modern feeling.
His Shosetsu Shinsui (Essentials of a Novel) was an eloquent plea for realism as contrasted with the artificiality of the characters depicted by Bakin, and his own works illustrative of this theory took the public by storm.
The nature of the resultant concepts belongs to the great controversy between Nominalism, Realism and Conceptualism.
Realism was in the beginning of the 12th century the dominant doctrine and the doctrine of the church; the Nominalists were the innovators and the especial representatives of the Rationalistic Summists.
Their vivid realism appealed strongly to the taste of the average foreigner.
Taken strictly his words state the position of extreme Nominalism; but even if we were not forbidden to do so by other passages, in which the doctrine of moderate Realism is adopted (under cover of the current distinction between the singular as felt and the pure universal as understood), it would still be unfair to press any passage in the writings of this period.
The inherent difficulties of Realism led to a J variety of attempts to reach a more satisfactory formula.
As has been said it classifies universals as predicates of individuals and thus involves the difficulties which gave rise to the controversy between realism and nominalism.
One of the catchwords of the day was to insist on a knowledge of things instead of a knowledge of words, on " realism " instead of " verbalism."
On the question of universals he endeavoured to steer a middle course between the pantheistically inclined realism of Duns Scotus and the extreme nominalism of William of Occam.
More important in the history of scholasticism are the theological consequences to which Gilbert's realism led him.
Haydn uses a true Straussian discord in The Seasons, in order to imitate the chirping of a cricket; but the harshest realism in Gatterdammerung (the discord produced by the horns of Hagen and his churls in the mustering-scene in the second act) has a harmonic logic which would have convinced Corelli.
This is Realism, which may be of two varieties, according as the substantially existent universals are supposed to exist apart from the sensible phenomena or only in and with the objects of sense as their essence.
The first form of Realism corresponds to the Platonic theory of the transcendence of the ideas; the second reproduces the Aristotelian doctrine of the essence as inseparable from the individual thing.
consciousness of the differences involved and the issues at stake; and, thanks to the heretical conclusion disclosed by Roscellinus, Realism became established for several centuries as the orthodox philosophical creed.
All these inspiring metaphysical and moral doctrines the pupil accepted from his master's dialogues, and throughout his life adhered to the general spirit of realism without materialism pervading the Platonic philosophy.
Maurice, whose character, marked by " religious realism," sought in the past " the witness to eternal truths, the manifestation by time-samples of infinite realities and unchanging relations";4 and Charles Kingsley, " a great teacher," though one " certain to go astray the moment he becomes didactic."
They spoke of " natural realism " and a " natural dualism " of mind and matter (reinstating here the element which Berkeley had struck out).
As he reverted to Realism, his influence, first at Rheims and then in Paris, was doubtless instrumental in bringing about the general acceptance of that doctrine till the advent of Roscellinus as a powerful disturbing influence.
difference of opinion as to his system, some, like Ritter and Erdmann, regarding it as a moderate form of Realism - a return indeed to the position of Aristotle - while others, like Cousin, Remusat, Haureau and Ueberweg, consider it to be essentially Nominalistic, only more prudently and perhaps less consistently expressed than was the case with Roscellinus.
In his treatment of the conception of matter, Duns shows that he inclined much more to the Realism which makes for pantheism than was the case with the Aristotelianism of Thomas.
Unfortunately, even he had not all the courage of his creed, and while he would paint a bird or a fish with perfect realism, he no more dared to trust his eyes in larger motives than did the most devout follower of ShUbun or Motonobu.
Faith in the infallibility of the scholastic system was thus shaken, and the system itself was destroyed by the revival of philosophic nominalism, which had been discredited in the 11th century by the realism of the great schoolmen.
It follows that Aristotelianism in the Categories and in the Metaphysics is a realism both of individuals and of universals; of individual substances as real subjects, and of universals as real predicates.
Realism, more particularly of the Wundt type, is represented by Emericus Pauer, Az ethikai determinismus (" Ethical Determinism "), and Eugen Posch (Az idorb'l, " On Time ").
But the link that connects him with churchly realism, as well as with the NeoPlatonic mysticism, is the conviction that complete and certain knowledge rests wholly on divine revelation, i.e.
William of Champeaux (1070-1121), who is reputed the founder of a definitely formulated Realism, much Y as Roscellinus is regarded as the founder of Nominalism, was instructed by Roscellinus himself in dialectic. Unfortunately none of William's philosophical works have survived, and we depend upon the statements of his opponent Abelard, in the Historia calamitatum mearum, and in certain manuscripts discovered by Cousin.
As against Realism he maintains consistently Res de re non praedicatur; genera and species, therefore, which are predicated of the individual subject, cannot be treated as things or substances.
Ancient myths are admitted without undergoing analysis; the most naïve realism alternates with daring efforts at spiritualizing.
Ritschl appears to confine Metaphysic to the category of Causality.) The theory as formulated has such grave ambiguities, that his theology, which, as we have seen, is wholly based on uncompromising religious realism, has actually been charged with individualistic subjectivism.
For opposite reasons, neither the Greek nor the Jewish mind lent itself readily to mysticism: the Greek, because of its clear and sunny naturalism; the Jewish, because of its rigid monotheism and its turn towards worldly realism and statutory observance.
Under an appearance of much vain subtlety the controversy about universals involved issues of the greatest speculative and practical importance: realism represented a spiritual, nominalism an anti-spiritual, view of the world; while realism was evidently favourable, and nominalism unfavourable, to the teaching of the Church on the dogmas of the Trinity and the Eucharist.
The real germs of Realism and Nominalism are to be found in the 9th century, in scattered commentaries and glosses upon the statements of Porphyry and Boetius.
Abelard also perceived that Realism, by separating the universal substance from the forms which individualize it, makes the universal indifferent to these forms, and leads directly to the doctrine of the identity of all beings in one universal substance or matter - a pantheism which might take either an Averroistic or a Spinozistic form.
We find, however, as late as 1473 the attempt made to bind all teachers in the university of Paris by oath to teach the doctrines of Realism; but this expiring effort was naturally ineffectual, and from 1481 onward even the show of obedience was no longer exacted.
Remigius is thus a Realist, not so much in the sense of Plato as in the spirit of Parmenides, and Haureau applies to this form of Realism Bayle's description of Realism in general as " le Spinosisme non developpe."
At all events, while Erigena's Realism is pronounced, the Platonic and Aristotelian forms of the doctrine are not distinguished in his writings.
The Hegelian identity of being and thought is also abandoned and the truth of realism acknowledged, an attempt being made to exhibit idealism and realism as respectively incomplete but mutually complementary systems. Ulrici's later works, while expressing the same views, are 1 :trgely occupied in proving the existence of God and the soul from the basis of scientific conceptions, and in opposition to the materialistic current of thought then popular in Germany.
out, whether we suppose idealism or realism to be true, in neither case do the things themselves pass into our knowledge.
In the shadowy age which preceded the Stone age and hardly ended later than 10,000 B.C., the cave-dwellers of the Dordogne could draw elks, bisons, elephants and other animals at rest or in movement, with a freshness and realism which to-day only a Landseer can rival.
In truth, his Realism was of a somewhat uncritical type.
This then is his transfigured realism, which, as far as what is known goes, is idealism, but as far as what exists goes, realism - of a sort.
Also, the tree leaves look quite grainy, spoiling the realism somewhat.
It could be because I'm such a huge hockey fan, but the utter realism and intense high-definition graphics make this a wonderful experience.
The point of this philosophy is not materialism, but realism.
Enriched by new ethical and religious elements, Czech philosophy manifests itself in Masaryk's works as a new realism or humanism.
He thereby gave the signal for the age-long conflict between Nominalism and Realism, which exercised the keenest intellects among the Schoolmen, while the crowning work of his life, the Consolatio Philosophiae (524), was repeatedly expounded and imitated, and reproduced in renderings that were among the earliest literary products of the vernacular languages of modern Europe.
To the theory of knowledge Spencer contributes a "transfigured realism," to mediate between realism and idealism, and the doctrine that "necessary truths," acquired in experience and congenitally transmitted, are a priori to the individual, though a posteriori to the race, to mediate between empiricism and apriorism.
(I) He perceived the importance of the universal or conceptual element in knowledge, and thus at a single stroke broke through the hard realism of ordinary common sense, disproved all forms of naturalism that were founded on the denial of the reality of thought, and cut away the ground from a merely sensational and subjective idealism.
Some of the eagles feathers, blown to his side, suggest the death of the bird; at his feet lies the corpse of the little boy, and the horror, grief and anger that such a tragedy would inspire are depicted with striking realism in the farmers face.
nomen, name), the name of one of the two main tendencies of medieval philosophy, the other being Realism.
The principles of the great orthodox philosophers of the later scholastic period which begins in the 13th century, Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas, were those of moderate realism.
In this list are included of course all shades of opinion, from extreme Nominalism to extreme Realism.
Latin poetry is more rich in the expression of personal feeling than of dramatic realism.
Even the naïf pictorial suggestion, of which free use is made in the Creation and in the Seasons, is closer to the manner of Handel than to that of the 19th century: it is less the precursor of romance than the descendant of an earlier realism.
He is reputed the founder of Realism.
Hence the stress laid on will as the realizing factor, in opposition to thought, a view through which Schelling connects himself with Schopenhauer and Von Hartmann, and on the ground of which he has been recognized by the latter as the reconciler of idealism and realism.
Such is Aristotle's realism of individuals and universals, contained in his primary philosophy, as expressed in the Metaphysics, especially in Book Z, his authoritative pronouncement on being and substance.
Such is Aristotle's natural realism, pervading his metaphysical and physical writings.
Such is Aristotle's theological realism without materialism and the origin of all spiritualistic realism, contained in his Metaphysics (A 6-end).
Such is Aristotle's dual, or rather triple, realism, continued in his De Anima and other biological writings, especially De Generatione Animalium, ii.
Such is Aristotle's psychological and logical realism, contained in the De Anima and logical treatises.
His views imply a cultivated intelligence well versed in practical affairs, opposing to the extremes of both nominalism and realism a practical common sense.
- three kinds of definite answers are returned: those of materialism, idealism and realism, according to the emphasis laid by metaphysicians on body, on mind, or on both.
Metaphysical realism is the intermediate view that everything known is either body or soul, neither of which alone exhausts the universe of being.
Aristotle, the founder of metaphysics as a distinct science, was also the founder of metaphysical realism, and still remains its main authority.
At the present day realism is despised on the ground that its differentiation of body and soul, natural and supernatural, ignores the unity of being.
Moreover, there is no real opposition between monism and dualism, for there can very well be one kind of being, without being all body or all soul; and as a matter of fact, Aristotelian realism is both a monism of substance and a dualism of body and soul.
It is in any case unfair to decide questions by disparaging terms, and to argue as if the whole choice were between materialistic or idealistic monism, leaving realism out of court.
We shall return, then, to the clearer and more authoritative division, and proceed to discuss materialism, idealism and realism in their order.
Realism was at a low ebb.
The author himself says that it is transfigured realism - which is realism in asserting objective existence as separate from subjective existence, but anti-realism in denying that objective existence is to be known.
So far as this main point of transfigured realism is steadily maintained, it is a compound of idealism and realism, but not materialism.
It is true that the author did not see that he was passing from transfigured realism into materialism.
Leibnitz, again, having become equally dissatisfied with Cartesianism, Spinozism and the Epicurean realism of Gassendi, in the latter part of his life came still nearer than Spinoza to metaphysical idealism in his monadology, or half-Pythagorean,half-Brunistic analysis of bodies into monads, or units, or simple substances, indivisible and unextended, but endowed with perception and appetite.
We cannot, therefore, agree with many recent idealists who regard Leibnitz as one of themselves, though it is true that, when stripped of its realism, his metaphysics easily passed into the metaphysical idealisms of Lotze and of Fechner.
- Meanwhile in England, Locke, though differing from Descartes about the origin of ideas, followed him in the illogical combination of psychological idealism with metaphysical realism.
This third position isarelic of ancient metaphysical realism; although it must be remembered that Kant does not go to the length of Descartes and Locke, who supposed that from mere ideas we could know bodies and souls, but suggests that beneath the phenomena of outer and inner sense the thing in itself may not be heterogeneous (ungleichartig).
Fichte now set himself in the Wissenschaftslehre (1794) to make transcendental idealism into a system of metaphysical idealism without Kant's inconsistencies and relics of realism.
Here he was for the first time grappling with a fundamental difficulty in metaphysical idealism which is absent from realism, namely, the difficulty of explaining the identity of a thing, e.g.
As long as even the meagre realism of the Kantian thing in itself is maintained, the account of there being one sun is simply that one thing causes different phenomena in different minds.
Lastly, Fichte called this system realism, in so far as it posits the thing in itself as another thing; idealism, in so far as it posits it as a noumenon which is a product of its own thinking; and on the whole real idealism or ideal realism.
Meanwhile, the natural substances of Aristotelian realism are regarded with common aversion.
At first this starting-point looks like dualistic realism, but in reality the author only meant dualism within experience.
It is materialistic without being materialism; it is realistic without being realism.
He describes it as idealism in the form of ideal realism, because it recognizes an ideating will requiring substance as substratum or matter for outer relations of phenomena.
Wundt, however, afterwards wrote an Einleitung in die Philosophic (1901; 4th ed., 1906), in which he speaks of realism in the form of ideal realism as the philosophy of the future.
It is not to be idealism which resolves everything into spirit, but realism which gives the spiritual and the material each its own place in harmony with scientific consciousness.
It is not to be dualistic but monistic realism, because matter is not separate from spirit.
It is not to be materialistic but ideal realism, because the physical and the psychical are inseparable parallels inexplicable by one another.
It is to be monistic ideal realism, like that of Fichte and Hegel; not, however, like theirs idealistic in method, a Phantastisches Begrifsgebaude, but realistic in method, a Wissenschaftliche Philosophie.
It is to be ideal realism, as in the System.
It is not to be a species of idealism, as in the System - but of realism.
It is true that Spencer's " transfigured realism" contains much that was not dreamt of by Hume.
He develops this belief in an absolute in connexion with his own theory of evolution into something different both from the idealism of Hume and the realism of Hamilton, and rather falling under the head of materialism.
The " antirealism," which takes the lion's share in " transfigured realism," is simply a development of the phenomenalism of Hume.
It was counteracted to some extent by the study at the universities of the deductive logic of Aristotle and the inductive logic of Bacon, by parts of Mill's own logic, and by the natural realism of Reid, Stewart, and Hamilton, which met Hume's scepticism by asserting a direct perception of the external world.
But natural realism, as finally interpreted by Hamilton, was too dogmatic, too unsystematic, and too confused with elements derived from Kantian idealism to withstand the brilliant criticism of Mill's Examination of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy (1865), a work which for a time almost persuaded us that Nature as we know it from sensations is nothing but permanent possibilities of sensation, and oneself only a series of states of consciousness.
His theory of "attuition," by which he supposes that we become conscious of objects outside ourselves, is his " return to dualism," and is indeed so like natural realism as to suggest that, like Ferrier, he starts from Hamilton to end in Hegel.
In fact, his dualism is not realism, but merely the distinction of subject and object within idealism.
The school undoubtedly tends towards realism.
Personal idealism, therefore, must end in personal realism.
Metaphysical and Psychological Realism.
- Realism is the view that some known things are bodily, and some are mental.
The point of true realism is Aristotle's point that the world consists of such distinct, though related, things, and therefore of substances, natural and supernatural.
Again, the method of true realism is that of Aristotle, and consists in recognizing the independence of metaphysics.
At the same time, while the independence of metaphysics leads us to metaphysical realism, this is not to deny the value of psychology, still less of logic. Besides the duty of determining what we know, there is the duty of determining how we know it.
The Undercurrent of Modern Realism.
- Coming after the long domination of Aristotelian realism, Descartes and Locke, though psychological idealists, were metaphysical realists.
But their psychological method and idealism produced another mistake - the tendency to a modicum of realism, as much as seemed to this or that author to follow from psychological idealism.
In Germany, since the victory of Kant over Wolff, realism has always been in difficulties, which we can appreciate when we reflect that the Germans by preference apply the term " realism " to the paradoxes of Herbart (1776-1841), who, in order to avoid supposed contradictions, supposed that bodies are not substances, but show (Schein), while " reals" are simple substances, each with a simple quality, and all preserving themselves against disturbance by one another, whether physically or psychologically, but not known to be either material or spiritual because we do not know the simple quality in which the nature of the real consists.
Gunther (1783-1863), " Cartesius correctus," erected too mystical an edifice on the psychological basis of Descartes to sustain a satisfactory realism.
But German realism lacks critical power, and is little better than a weed overshadowed by the luxuriant forest of German idealism.
In France, the home of Cartesian realism, after the vicissitudes of sensationalism and materialism, which became connected in French the French mind with the Revolution, the spirit of Descartes revived in the 19th century in the spiritualistic realism of Victor Cousin.
But Cousin's psychological method of proceeding from consciousness outwards, and the emphasis laid by him on spirit in comparison with body, prevented a real revival of realism.
So far this ontological triplicity is realism.
But when we examine his theory of the non-ego, and find that it resolves matter into active force and this into animated activity, identifies law with reason, and calls God absolute substance, we see at once that this spiritual realism is not very far from idealism.
Janet accepted the traditional ontological triplicity - God, souls and bodies - and, in answer to Ravaisson, who called this realism " demi-spiritualisme," rejoined that he was content to accept the title.
The psychological metaphysics of Cousin and of Janet was, however, too flimsy a realism to withstand its passage into this very idealism of matter which has become the dominant French metaphysics.
These examples are enough to show that the psychological metaphysics of spiritual realism has not been able to withstand the rise and progress of spiritual idealism in France.
After the metaphysical idealism, begun by Berkeley, had eventuated in Hume's reduction of the objects of knowledge to sensations, ideas and associations, the Scottish school, applying the Baconian method to the study of mind, began to inquire once more for the evidences of our knowledge, and produced the natural or intuitive realism of T.
Moreover, he and his successors mixed up so many accidents with the essence of their realism that the whole system broke down under its own weight.
It also contained much that was doubtful, and much that was ill-adapted to the metaphysics of realism.
While it asserted a realism of individuals, it admitted a conceptualism of universals.
Nevertheless, in spite of all this Kantism, he adhered to his natural realism.
He has the merit of presenting natural or intuitive realism in its purity.
Intuitive Realism is to be replaced by Physical Realism.
The three evidences, which are fatal to intuitive realism, do not prove hypothetical realism, or the hypothesis that we perceive something mental, but infer something bodily.
But notwithstanding its illogicality, its tendency to underrate Nature as inferred from such idealistic premises, and its certain transition into a consistent idealism, hypothetical realism has, with little excuse, revived among us in the writings of Shadworth Hodgson, James Martineau and A.
The cause Of this anachronism has been the failure of intuitive realism and the domination of idealism, which makes short-sighted men suppose that at all events they must begin with the psychology and the psychological idealism of the day, in the false hope that on the sands of psychological idealism they may build a house of metaphysical realism.
It is realism - but inconsequent and inadequate realism, something like that of Spencer; according, indeed, more knowledge of the distinction between Nature as condition of sensations and God as condition of Nature; but very like in holding that all we know of natural forces is our perceptions.
Such is the modern " Acatalepsia," which arises from denying the evidence of the senses, and from citing the transfigured realism of Spencer instead of the original realism of Aristotle, about whom Balfour speaks as follows: " It would be difficult, perhaps impossible, to sum up our debts to Aristotle.
- Aristotelian realism is the strong point of Roman Catholic philosophy.
For Alexandria little can be urged save a certain strain of "Alexandrine" idealism and allegorism, mingling with the more Palestinian realism which marks the references to Christ's sufferings, as well as the eschatology, and recalling many a passage in Philo.
Many of its most distinguished exponents are Flemings by birth, and their writings reflect the characteristic Flemish scenery; they have the sensuousness, the colour and the realism of Flemish art; and on the other hand the tendency to mysticism, to abstraction, is far removed from the lucidity and definiteness associated with French literature properly so-called.
Consciousness, he held - agreeing thus with the doctrine of "natural realism" which Hamilton developed from Reid - implies knowledge both of self and of the external world.
The Pricke of Conscience is a long religious poem, in rhyming couplets, dealing with the beginning of man's life, the instability of the world, why death is to be dreaded, of doomsday, of the pains of hell, and the joys of heaven, the two latter subjects being treated with uncompromising realism.
Meanwhile, several of the elder generation, unaffected by the movement of realism, continued to please the public. Three lyrical poets, H.
The Danish public, grown tired of realism, and satiated with pathological phenomena, returned to a fresh study of their own national characteristics.
Thus the "Nemesis," belonging probably to 1503, is a marvellously wrought piece of quite unflinching realism in the rendering of a common type of mature, muscular, unshapely German womanhood.
They range from subjects of the homeliest and most mirthful realism to others serious and devout, and from literal or almost literal transcripts of natural form to the most whimsically abstract combinations of linear pattern and tendril .and flourish.
Critics who have lived in London during the relief of Mafeking have blamed Beethoven for his realism.
It is evident from them that a dramatic treatment of the Agnus Dei was "in the air"; all the more so, since Schubert does not imitate Beethoven's realism.
It is realism as well as idealism, and never quits its hold on facts.
This has taken the direction on the one hand of a revival of realism (see Metaphysics), on the other of a new form of subjective idealism (see Pragmatism).
Wilhelm Meister is a work of extraordinary variety, ranging from the commonplace realism of the troupe of strolling players to the poetic romanticism of Mignon and the harper; its flashes of intuitive criticism and its weighty apothegms add to its value as a Bildungsroman in the best sense of that word.
The second part is, in form, far removed from the impressive realism of the Urfaust.
By this Transcendental Synthesis he proposed to reconcile Realism and Idealism, and to destroy the traditional difficulty between transcendental, or pure, thought and "things in themselves."
The fact is that the uniformity of nature stands to induction as the axioms of syllogism do to syllogism; they are not premises, but conditions of inference, which ordinary men use spontaneously, as was pointed out in Physical Realism, and afterwards in Venn's Empirical Logic. The axiom of contradiction is not a major premise of a judgment: the dictum de omni et nullo is not a major premise of a syllogism: the principle of uniformity is not a major premise of an induction.
But there is another realism which holds that inference is a process neither from ideas to ideas, nor from ideas to things, but from beliefs to beliefs, from judgments about things in the premises to judgments about similar things in the conclusion.
That what, e.g., Bacon says of his method may run counter to this is an accident of the tradition of the quarrel with realism.
He opposed both the extreme realism of Herbart and what he regarded as the one-sided idealism of Hegel, and endeavoured to find a mean between them, to discover the ideal or formal principle which unfolds itself in the real or material world presented to it.
Thus fettered, even the realism of the Gothic sculptors failed, except in rare instances, of its full expression.
But he is essentially modern in the vividness of his self-portraiture, and in what we are wont to call realism.
His incommensurable and indescribable masterpiece of mingled humour, wisdom, satire, erudition, indecency, profundity, levity, imagination, realism, reflects the whole age in its mirror of hyperAristophanic farce.
But what marks out his armament is its pronounced realism.
He thus re- asserted realism, whose gospel reads, "In the beginning was appetite, passion, will," and has discredited the doctrinaire belief that ideas have original force of their own.
The work deals with the current difficulties between nominalism and realism, the relation between the individual and the genus or species.
The serenity of Swedish literature was rudely shaken about 1884 by an incursion of realism and by a stream of novel and violent imaginative impulse.
These are English philosophy in the writings of Herbert Spencer, French realism in the practice and the preaching of Zola, Norwegian drama mainly through Ibsen, and Danish criticism in the essays and monographs of Georg Brandes.
After devoting himself wholly to realism of the coarsest kind, he began in 1889 his series of mystico-pathological novels about life in the archipelago of Stockholm.
He started authorship with a book of verse in 1888, after which time he led a reaction against realism and pessimism, and has turned back to a rich romantic idealism in his novels of Endymion (1889) and Hans Alienus (1892), and in his stories (1897) of the time of Charles XII.
Sometimes, it must be owned, his realism is rather coarse and brutal, but when he paints the forests of Franche-Comte, the "Stag-Fight," "The Wave," or the "Haunt of the Does," he is inimitable.
William of Occam was the most prominent intellectual leader in an age which witnessed the disintegration of the old scholastic realism, the rise of the theological scepticism of the later middle ages, the great contest between pope and emperor which laid the foundations of modern theories of government, and the quarrel between the Roman curia and the Franciscans which showed the long-concealed antagonism between the theories of Hildebrand and Francis of Assisi; and he shared in all these movements.
He has left on record that it was his aim and hope to reconcile realism and nominalism in the interests of theological peace.
His Phi Beta Kappa oration at Harvard College in August 1837, on "The American Scholar," was an eloquent appeal for independence, sincerity, realism, in the intellectual life of America.
There, in the great cathedral school of Notre-Dame, he sat for a while under the teaching of William of Champeaux, the disciple of St Anselm and most advanced of Realists, but, presently stepping forward, he overcame the master in discussion, and thus began a long duel that issued in the downfall of the philosophic theory of Realism, till then dominant in the early Middle Age.
Through him was prepared in the Middle Age the ascendancy of the philosophical authority of Aristotle, which became firmly established in the half-century after his death, when first the completed Organon, and gradually all the other works of the Greek thinker, came to be known in the schools: before his time it was rather upon the authority of Plato that the prevailing Realism sought to lean.
His own mode of thought he preferred later to describe as an ideal realism, which refused to reduce reality to thought, but asserted a parallelism between the forms of existence and the forms of knowledge.
The same cramping realism clings to him everywhere beyond the domain of politics - in his religion, in his fancies, in his affections.
He teaches the medieval Platonic realism, but he accepts the Aristotelian philosophy of his day, marking off certain truths as proved and understood by the light of nature, and stamping those which are not so proved as not understood nor understandable, i.e.
When we turn to Duns Scotus, we still find realism, still predestinarianism.
So far the steps are plain enough; but we do not yet see how this logical Realism (as it was afterwards called) comes to have the essentially ethical character that especially interests us in Platonism.
These biographies are more literary and medieval and less poetic than the Icelandic sagas and king's lives; their simplicity, truth, realism and purity of style are the same.
In the first of these the proof rests on the ordinary grounds of realism, and coincides to some extent with the earlier theory of Augustine, though it is carried out with singular boldness and fulness.
In many cases the heretical movement was due less to foreign example than to the indwelling tendencies of the dominant school of realism.
The doctrine here developed is the first cardinal point of Herbart's system, and has obtained for it the name of "pluralistic realism."
There is comedy too, to alleviate the weight of supposedly solemn realism.
Some MUDs like HoloMUCK or Jay's House have stringent codes enforcing the realism of proposed additions.
The Bolshevik party has shown in action a combination of the highest revolutionary audacity and political realism.
authorship of the book to provide its rugged realism.
Cynics of today regard this as metaphysical bunkum, yet it might be pragmatic realism tomorrow.
As to realist conservatism, she highlighted a certain air de famille between Realism and Conservatism.
WEEK 4: Britain's outstanding contribution to Film: Issues of Realism in British Cinema.
Above all the principles of honesty and integrity when applying the PMS are essential to enable genuine creativity in design and realism in management.
Nevertheless, there is a view that realism implies technical determinism.
detract from this brutal realism Gibson is reaching for.
dialectical critical realism.
wonderful evocations of Latin America from the founder of ' Magical Realism ' .
fetishism of the style of Great Realism in ' Literature and Revolution ' .
To ensure realism, the decoys utilize appropriate paintwork to define important features thereby improving the overall fidelity.
gritty realism, which I am sure got a few record executives hot under the collar.
Thus this project argues that far from breeding intolerance, realism is actually required for tolerance to be present.
About the Artist I suppose I paint in a realism style trying always to capture the likeness or appearance of the subject.
Awarded art prizes for detail and realism, including the Silver longboat Art Competition and Dover Prize.
magical realism for female purposes.
He makes magic realism his own, and his debut novel is superb.
mannered style of acting and a move toward realism.
Most of his work is firmly set in his native county and combines melodrama with earthly realism.
NOTE: not compatible with other gameplay / realism mods that alter artillery units.
When Flaubert wrote Madame Bovary, I believe he thought chiefly of a somewhat morbid realism; and behold!
Naive realism maintained the commonsense notion that physical objects existed independently of the senses.
landscape oil painting Artist Teresa Bernard Original landscape oil paintings for sale by realism artist Teresa Bernard.
outstanding contribution to Film: Issues of Realism in British Cinema.
I will argue that Platonism is an unsatisfactory account of moral realism.
Practitioners within the penal system, have perhaps a tendency to disparage screen portrayals of prison for their lack of realism.
Helen tries to inject some realism into the discussion of the sorts of " things " the women want to see in their cells.
Caustics are a subtle lighting effect that can really lend realism to raytraced images of such items.
They include portrayals of demons, heroes, dragons and emperors in a style which combines realism and a ' vacant ' expression.
Artaud fully rejected realism in the theater, cherishing a vision of a stage of magical beauty and mythical power.
Much of the action takes place with humans or moving rivers in the same shot, further enhancing the realism.
A number of models in period costume add realism to each room.
A bit of gritty realism, which I am sure got a few record executives hot under the collar.
She was female and used magical realism for female purposes.
socialist realism was launched, an artistic style to go with the Popular Front.
Agential realism is an epistemological and ontological framework that reformulates both of its terms - agency and realism.
naive realism maintained the commonsense notion that physical objects existed independently of the senses.
Yet their combination of high values and hard-headed realism created the greatest instrument in history for the avoidance of war.
realism mods that alter artillery units.
realism setting and create unwanted results Surface Map.
Following in the shadows of the originals, Tekken and Streetfighter, this game has a great sense realism to it.
realism in the film.
realism in the game.
realism of the game makes playing Pro Evo 3 glorious.
realism of the film.
Platonism (also called transcendent realism and ante rem realism ): This is the view described in section 1.
socialist Realism was launched, an artistic style to go with the Popular Front.
It is difficult to enjoy the next section of Stalinist socialist realism, even ironically.
Experimental currents in visual arts such as abstract expressionism were unfavorably compared with the soviet socialist realism.
The major frameworks include sociobiology, theodicy, political realism and ' the clash of civilizations ' .
stark realism of Cathy Come Home led to angry calls for action to prevent such circumstances.
It is suffused with " magic realism " a folk surrealism in which people fly and mysterious juxtapositions are the norm.
Salmon believes viewers will also benefit from the overdue realism now sweeping sports TV.
tempered with a constant realism.
tenet of critical realism.
Realism attempts to capture and recreate a harmonious totality of human life.
ultramarine skies recall the visionary realism of early Flemish painting.
A pair of cocktail umbrellas will give added realism!
Such a position might be called trope universalism; Mertz calls his version ' moderate realism ' .
In terms of realism, gameplay and general polish, Falcon 4: Allied Force is almost unrivaled in the flight-sim genre.
Fichte (the younger) did not escape this misinterpretation of Lotze's true meaning, though they had his Metaphysik and Logik to refer to, though he promised in his Allgemeine Physiologie (1851) to enter in a subsequent work upon the "bounding province between aesthetics and physiology," and though in his Medizinische Psychologie he had distinctly stated that his position was neither the idealism of Hegel nor the realism of Herbart, nor materialism, but that it was the conviction that the essence of everything is the part it plays in the realization of some idea which is in itself valuable, that the sense of an all-pervading mechanism is to be sought in this that it denotes the ways and means by which the highest idea, which we may call the idea of the good, has voluntarily chosen to realize itself.
In speaking of the origin of Scholasticism - name and thing - it has been already noted that medieval speculation takes its rise in certain logical problems. To be more precise, central theme of Scholastic debate (see Nominalism, Realism).
About the same time David of Dinant, in a book De tomis (rendered by Albertus De divisionibus), taught the identity of God with matter (or the indivisible principle of bodies) and nous (or the indivisible principle of intelligences) - an extreme Realism culminating in a materialistic pantheism.
Such a doctrine, in the stress it lays upon the singular, the object of immediate perception, is evidently inspired by a spirit differing widely even from the moderate Realism of Thomas.
In a fine bit of realism we are told how Gaal observed the approaching foe and was told by Zebul, "You see the shadow of the hills as men," and as they drew nearer Zebul's ironical remark became a taunt, "Where is now thy mouth ?
Mimetic posture-dances (Shosagoto) were always introduced as interludes; past and present indiscriminately contributed to the playwrights subjects; realism was carried to extremes; a revolving stage and all mechanical accessories were supplied; female parts were invariably taken by males, who attained almost incredible skill in these simulations; a chorusrelic of the Nochanted expositions of profound sentiments or thrilling incidents; and histrionic talent of the very highest order was often displayed.
The generous scorn and pathos of the historian acting on extraordinary gifts of imaginative insight and characterization, and the fierce indignation of the satirist finding its vent in exaggerating realism, doubtless to some extent warped their impressions; nevertheless their works are the last voices expressive of the freedom and manly virtue of the ancient world.
And, though his merits as a Grecian lie mainly in his conjectures, his realism is felt in this sphere also; his German translations especially show more freedom and practical insight, more feeling for actual life, than is common with the scholars of that age.2 For a list of Reiske's writings see Meusel, xi.
Even the naÃ¯f pictorial suggestion, of which free use is made in the Creation and in the Seasons, is closer to the manner of Handel than to that of the 19th century: it is less the precursor of romance than the descendant of an earlier realism.
From the modest and simple art of the patriotic poets and novelists of the first half of the 19th century, whose work nevertheless was an influential factor in the awakening of a national sentiment among the common people, Czech literature, after a period characterized by the romanticism of Macha and the critical realism of Havlicek, arrived at a school which, while it took its inspiration from the sources of the national spirit, did not shut itself out from foreign influences.
Neruda, a poet of bitter irony but of profound faith in and affection towards his nation, was also the author of novels, notable for their original realism, and numerous belletristic works of a high order.
Ancient myths are admitted without undergoing analysis; the most naÃ¯ve realism alternates with daring efforts at spiritualizing.
He calls this epistemology " transcendent realism "; it is really " transcendent idealism."
Like all true followers of Kant, Riehl prefers epistemology to metaphysics; yet in reality he founds a metaphysics on epistemology, which he calls " critical realism," so far as it asserts a knowledge of things beyond phenomena, and " critical monism," so far as it holds that these things are unlike both physical and psychical phenomena, but are nevertheless the common basis of both.
In truth there is no sound answer to Materialism, except that, besides bodily substance, psychical substance is also necessary to explain how man performs mental actualities consciously (see case Physical Realism, ch.
Ravaisson (see Ravaisson-Mollien), by his Rapport (prepared for the Exhibition of 1867) on philosophy in France, gave a fresh impulse to the transition from spiritual realism to idealism, by developing the Aristotelian g okecn s of matter and the Leibnitzian appetition of monads into " l'amour " as the very being of things.
Georges Eekhoud, born at Antwerp on the 27th of May 1854, was in some ways the most passionately Flemish of the whole group. He described the life of the peasants of his native Flanders with a bold realism, making himself the apologist of the vagabond and the outcast in a series of tragic stories: - Kees Doorik (1883), Kermesses (1883), Nouvelles Kermesses (1887), Le Cycle patibulaire (1892), Mes Communions (1895), Escal Vigor (1899) and La Faneuse d'amour (1900), &c. Nouvelle Carthage (1888) deals with modern Antwerp. In 1892 he produced a striking book on English literature entitled Au siÃ¨cle de Shakespeare, and has written French versions of Beaumont and Fletcher's Philaster (1895) and of Marlow's Edward II.
Artistic pleasure, grown less delicate, required the stimulus of a more sensational effect or a more striking realism, as we may see by the Pergamene and Rhodian schools of sculpture, by the bas-reliefs with the genre subjects drawn from the life of the countryside, or, in literature by the sort of historical writing which became popular with Cleitarchus and Duris, by the studied emotional or rhetorical point of Callimachus, and by the portrayal of country life in Theocritus.
It has been suggested elsewhere (see Socrates) that the crude and unqualified " realism " of Plato's early manhood gave place in his later years to a theory of natural kinds founded upon a " thoroughgoing idealism," and that in this way he was led to recognize and to value the classificatory sciences of zoology and botany.
The life of society, now alarmingly unstable and ruthlessly cfuel, was symbolized by the dance macabre painted on the walls of the cemeteries; the sombre and tragic art of the I5th century, having lost the fine balance life shown by that of the I3th, gave expression in its mournful realism to the general state of exhaustion.
The former Realism and Nominalism were lifted into a higher phase by the principle of the universalizing action of intellect - Intellectus in formis agit universalitatem.
Socialist Realism was launched, an artistic style to go with the Popular Front.
Setting this too high can interfere with the realism setting and create unwanted results Surface Map.
Research Interests Truth, foundations of mathematics and science, the scientific realism debate.
Additionally, a quotation from Fincher defines the quality of realism in the film.
They are all very impressed with the realism in the game.
The realism of the game makes playing Pro Evo 3 glorious.
Pitt is defined primarily as a star, in terms of celebrity, as well as in association with the realism of the film.
Platonism (also called transcendent realism and ante rem realism): This is the view described in section 1.
It is difficult to enjoy the next section of Stalinist Socialist Realism, even ironically.
Experimental currents in visual arts such as abstract expressionism were unfavorably compared with the Soviet socialist realism.
The major frameworks include sociobiology, theodicy, political realism and ' the clash of civilizations '.
The stark realism of Cathy Come Home led to angry calls for action to prevent such circumstances.
However, enthusiasm needs to be tempered with a constant realism.
This is the negative defining tenet of critical realism.
Certainly both the artist 's crystalline, glacial brushwork and intense ultramarine skies recall the visionary realism of early Flemish painting.
A pair of cocktail umbrellas will give added realism !
Such a position might be called trope universalism; Mertz calls his version ' moderate realism '.
Based on individually sampled keys, true stereo imaging, four-way velocity switching and an additional damper layer, this piano evokes unparalleled realism.
You can accentuate this bedding or window ensemble with grommets and rope accents for more realism and added detail.
To replicate the look of rustic castle walls, try a decorative finish for superb realism.
These designs often feature rich colors for more realism and definition.
There are other sites that get really down and dirty with the realism factor.
Using retro-themed decorations and top 40 hits from the era can add even more realism to the event.
Another solution is to fasten a flea collar around the stuffed animal - adding a touch of realism as well as protection for your pets.
That it still exists today and continues to grow is a testament to its realism.
The exceptional realism of these simulated designs makes this a favorite game for players interested in true roller coaster engineering.
In addition to the superbly crafted squad command system, the element that really makes Brothers in Arms a great game is the focus on realism.
Complementing this striking visual realism are the excellent voice-overs between levels.
The Drop Ship video game for the Sony PlayStation 2 is often applauded for its fantastic realism and utter complexity.
It's this sense of variety, combined with the realism and complexity involved with keeping track of your AI-controlled allies that has given Dropship such a positive reception among the flight-loving PS2 gaming community.
If you enjoyed the Drop Ship video game for the PS2 because its intense realism, variety of missions, and fun control schemes, then you may want to check out some of these other flight simulator games.
They have a reputation for innovation and graphical realism in sports video games.
The first thing you need to know is that ''Flatout' is not about realism.
Certainly, realism is lacking when a play can score almost every time it is executed.
The graphics are amazing, the controls are super tight, and the realism is simply unbelievable.
Winning Eleven: Pro Evolution Soccer 2007: You want realism, you've got it.
True to the series, the sense of realism throughout the game draws you in.
While some people may be more inclined to play other fighting games like Street Fighter IV, purists appreciate the relative realism and accuracy offered by the Tekken franchise.
The realism in the sense of speed was nailed down.
With a lot of time and effort, the system can be picked up, and it does add realism to the game.
It adds realism and an element of strategy to exploration, and it's something that I would like to see incorporated in future role-playing titles.
If you enjoyed those simulation games, there's a good chance that you will enjoy the utter realism and involvement found within Spore.
I consider myself a racing game fanatic and rarely find this type of realism in a racing, because I most games you'll slide as oppose to drift and that makes a difference in high performance machines.
The realism conveyed by these puppies will amaze you.
If you want to jump in the fishing action and not worry about rankings or prizes, then pick up an arcade type game where the realism isn't top priority.
Following in the theme of supreme realism, it doesn't get much better than Gran Turismo 4 for the Sony PlayStation 2.
The styles of racing offered vary considerably from the family-friendly arcade to the technical challenge of utter realism.
As video games progress in realism, the rules become increasingly like the ones we live with from day to day.
Realism. Moving toward more realistic video games means programmers take care of all the details, leaving less to the gamers' imagination.
The idea of realism in art plays an important role in the media.
More realism means less creativity on our part, less of our own personality filling in the details missing between a cartoon-ish game and reality.
With this push towards realism there will be an even stronger sub-culture of classic games.
The areas are landscaped good, but the water didn't act or react with any realism.
One thing that got annoying even though it adds to the realism: I hit a wall with my sword.
From the Sims themselves to their neighborhoods, homes and belongings the realism of the Sims 2 will have you questioning your own reality.
This baseball game is not for the faint of heart, however, given its elevated level of authenticity and realism.
Realism in video games is at an all-time high.
Rainbow Six, a seminal tactical shooter, also featured ragdoll corpses that added to the realism of video game mortality.
At what point will video game realism erode that line to the point where gamers feel killing is a natural behavior?
Using the regular Wii Remote is fine for some, but action is quicker and more fluid in shooting games because the light gun creates realism for aiming and reloading.
Piaget called this "moral realism with objective responsibility."
The realism of your origami creation will increase in conjunction with the complexity of the design.
The swim top was made to look slightly jagged or ragged around the bottom, which also gave it more volume and realism.
Miniature framed paintings for display in a dollhouse are available, and miniature dinner sets, including a pumpkin pie with a slice placed onto a plate, will add to the realism of your dollhouse creation.
While many Americans demand realism from their films (and seldom get it, although they think they do), Bombay audiences want their movies to be as far removed from life as possible.
Overall, it got a B+ grade, but viewers tended to be put off by the lack of realism and gumption in it.
Despite the inherent sentimentality, they effectively display the realism of raising children in the late 1980s.
Choosing the best stories after 43 years of storytelling is an impossible task. Fans will all have their favorites, but many One Life To Live storylines were notable for their risk taking elements and gritty realism.
You might decide realism is the way to go.
This arto movement started in the 1860's as a result of a rebellion against Naturalism and Realism, which represented religious and spiritual themes but left little room for interpretation.
If you prefer a touch of realism over a stylized butterfly design, take a look at the offerings available at Tattoo Designs Free.
If you're not interested in realism, a star and moon with personality might be a great fit for you.
By painting outdoor landscapes, they are forced to pay attention to light, shadow, color, and other small details that add a sense of realism to a painting.
They painted everyday subjects in natural settings, thus starting the movement of realism in art.
The padding is dense, adding to the realism.
Although some have attempted to steer him toward conceptual art, Simonon prefers realism.
Featuring another rap legend, Pete Rock, The World Is Yours is smart, challenging, and like 2Pac, an example of mixing the gritty realism of gangsta rap with lyrics that wouldn't be out of place in a literary textbook.
In magical realism the hero is your everyday average person.
Although you many not recognize a lot of the actors in Firefly the fact that they are not well known only adds to the fantastic realism that is felt throughout the series.
The east meets west flair of the music blends in perfectly to Whedon's scenes and effects tap an authentic spring of sounds to bring further realism to the fantasy of the movie.
Adding to the realism is the fact that many of the new faces are on relative levels of exposure in the acting world - there are no big names in this movie.
Sure, it's a comic book movie and based in a fantasy world, but to grab an audience you have to show some realism, you have to show some emotion, otherwise you're just showing off and nowadays audiences can tell when they are being duped.
Clarke, who was an engineer before writing 2001: A Space Odyssey, or Emma Bull, who has a military background to add realism to her Sassenak series of books.
That work experience gave me an interesting background to draw from, and I think it added realism to my books.
Ultimately, all fantasy characters must have an element of realism.
Cindy's candor with the camera and her realism is part of what makes her a valuable spokesperson.
As Cousin says, " Realism and Nominalism were undoubtedly there in germ, but their true principles with their necessary consequences remained profoundly unknown; their connexion with all the great questions of religion and politics was not even suspected.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.