Reactions sentence example

reactions
  • While everyone heard the same noise, their reactions differed.
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  • It is a colourless fuming liquid boiling at 90.5° C. With water and with ammonia it undergoes the same reactions as the chloride.
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  • The healthy bone marrow reacts with remarkable rapidity to the demand for more blood cells which may be required by the organism; its reactions and variations in disease are very striking.
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  • The reactions of the nitroparaffins with nitrous acid are very characteristic and have been used as a method for discriminating between the primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols (V.
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  • If his reactions were any indication, the same was true for him.
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  • Biological FactorsThese include the reactions of plants and animals on the habitat.
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  • These reactions are practised in the following manner: A thread of asbestos is moistened and then dipped in the substance to be tested; it is then placed in the luminous point of the Bunsen flame, and a small porcelain basin containing cold water placed immediately over the asbestos.
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  • The hyaline material, unlike the amyloid, does not give the metachromatic staining reactions with methyleneviolet or iodine.
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  • Uncertain what to think of their reactions, Deidre turned to Wynn.
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  • The existence of reactions which are reversible on slight alteration of conditions at once invalidates the principle, for if the action proceeding in one direction evolves heat, it must absorb heat when proceeding in the reverse direction.
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  • The methods of chemical analysis may be classified according to the type of reaction: (I) dry or blowpipe analysis, which consists in an examination of the substance in the dry condition; this includes such tests as ignition in a tube, ignition on charcoal in the blowpipe flame, fusion with borax, microcosmic salt or fluxes, and flame colorations (in quantitative work the dry methods are sometimes termed " dry assaying "); (2) wet analysis, in which a solution of the substance is treated with reagents which produce specific reactions when certain elements or groups of elements are present.
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  • Repair Of Injuries In the process of inflammation we have a series of reactions on the part of the tissues, and fluids of the body, to counteract the ill effects of irritation or injury, to get rid of the cause, and to repair its results.
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  • Our perceptions differentiate but imperfectlysymptonis which are due to very different causes and reactions, probably because the organization of the plant is so much less highly specialized than that of higher animals.
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  • If this be the case, however, it is evident that there is no real distinction between the reactions which take place when two elements combine together and when an element in a compound is displaced by another.
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  • In the various reactions of the tissues against the exciting cause of the injury we see a striking example of a beautifully organized plan of attack and defence on the part of the organism.
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  • One can easily demonstrate all the actions and reactions which take place in this form of acute inflammation.
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  • At this point one's attention is focused on the wonderful reactions possessed by the healthy tissues to combat these evil influences.
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  • The staining reactions of the various parts of the nucleus depend to some extent upon their chemical constitution.
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  • The reactions of the tissues vary in degrees according to the nature and severity of the injury.
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  • There is neither any absolute difference nor a constancy in their chemical reactions, and there can be brought about a transition of the " colloid " material into the " mucoid," or conversely.
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  • Dean's mind churned the details of the recent happenings, trying to make sense of Shipton's orchestrated plunge to the river, and the strange reactions of those still sleeping beneath Bird Song's roof, and elsewhere.
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  • The attempt to work out either of the reactions against Thomism in new theological systems is pretty much confined to Germany.
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  • Gerhardt found that reactions could be best followed if one assumed the molecular weight of an element or compound to be that weight which occupied the same volume as two unit weights of hydrogen, and this assumption led him to double the equivalents accepted by Gmelin, making H= 1, 0 =16, and C = 12, thereby agreeing with Berzelius, and also to halve the values given by Berzelius to many metals.
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  • Later, another group will test the results and record the reactions.
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  • They're being influenced by your reactions.
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  • B~it the staining reactions of nuclei may vary at different stages of their development; and it i~ probable that there is no method of staining which differentiates with certainty the various morphological constituents of the nucleus.
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  • 2, L), a nucleolus appears, a nuclear membrane is formed, and daughter nuclei are thus constituted which possess the same structure and staining reactions as the mother nucleus.
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  • The dominant forms result from crustal movements, the subsidiary from secondary reactions o during the action of the primitive forms on mobile distri butions.
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  • The reactions taking place are complicated, and the solution contains ultimately small drops of sulphur in suspension, a colloidal sulphur (which Spring (Rec. tra y.
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  • The scheme of reactions is shown thus: R'I CH2(Coor)2->CHNa(Coor)2->CHR'(Coor)2 .I,NaOH CO 2 -{- CH 2 R' 000H [[Echr'(Cooh)2 R"I [Chr']](Cooh) 2 NaOH -CNaR'(Coor)2 - CR'R"(Coor)2 I NaOH CO 2 + CHR'R"
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  • By his insistence upon the use of the balance as a quantitative check upon the masses involved in all chemical reactions, Lavoisier was enabled to establish by his own investigations and the results achieved by others the principle now known as the " conservation of mass."
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  • We may here notice the important chemical symbolism or notation introduced by Berzelius, which greatly contributed to the definite and convenient representation of chemical composition and the tracing of chemical reactions.
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  • Gerhardt attempted a solution by investigating chemical reactions.
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  • This link was the full extension of Avogadro's theory to all substances, Cannizzaro showing that chemical reactions in themselves would not suffice.
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  • The combination, as it is ordinarily termed, of chlorine with hydrogen, and the displacement of iodine in potassium iodide by the action of chlorine, may be cited as examples; if these reactions are represented, as such reactions very commonly are, by equations which merely express the relative weights of the bodies which enter into reaction, and of the products, thus Cl = HC1 Hydrogen.
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  • Balard discovered chlorine monoxide in 1834, investigating its properties and reactions; and his observations on hypochlorous acid and hypochlorites led him to conclude that " bleaching-powder " or " chloride of lime " was a compound or mixture in equimolecular proportions of calcium chloride and hypochlorite, with a little calcium hydrate.
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  • Similarly he represented the reactions investigated by Liebig and Wehler on benzoyl compounds as double decompositions.
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  • It is necessary, therefore, to avoid reactions involving such intermolecular migrations when determining the orientation of aromatic compounds.
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  • methane, tetrachlormethane, &c., to yield aromatic compounds when subjected to a high temperature, the so-called pyrogenetic reactions (from Greek 7rup, fire, and - yon, fco, I produce); the predominance of benzenoid, and related compounds-naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, &c.-in coal-tar is probably to be associated with similar pyrocondensations.
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  • Hitherto we have generally restricted ourselves to syntheses which result in the production of a true benzene ring; but there are many reactions by which reduced benzene rings are synthesized, and from the compounds so obtained true benzenoid compounds may be prepared.
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  • - We have previously alluded to the relative stability of the benzene complex; consequently reactions which lead to its disruption are all the more interesting, and have engaged the attention of many chemists.
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  • Progress in forensic chemistry was only possible after the reactions of poisons had been systematized; a subject which has been worked out by many investigators, of whom we notice K.
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  • It must be mentioned here that the reactions of any particular substance are given under its own heading, and in this article we shall only collate the various operations and outline the general procedure.
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  • Some of these insoluble compounds can be detected by their colour and particular reactions.
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  • It is unnecessary here to dwell on the precautions which can only be conveniently acquired by experience; a sound appreciation of analytical methods is only possible after the reactions and characters of individual substances have been studied, and we therefore refer the reader to the articles on the particular elements and compounds for more information on this subject.
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  • (5) Colorimetric. - This method is adopted when it is necessary to determine minute traces (as in the liquid obtained in the electrolytic separation of copper) of substances which afford well-defined colour reactions.
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  • p. 411), the cycle of reactions probably being as follows: NO 2 [[Nhoh-Hno 2 +Hno]]; HNO-}-RI-CHI+RNO (CH3CH2NO-->CH 3 CH: N OH).
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  • The reactions are represented as (I) N2+3H2+2C0 -1-2H 2 0=2H CO 2 NH 4 (Ammonium formate).
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  • They give the biuret and xanthoproteic reactions, and form salts with both acids and bases.
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  • They are loose, white, non-hygroscopic powders, soluble in water and salt solutions, and have an acid reaction; they give the colour reactions of albumins.
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  • The mucins and mucoids belong to this group; they are acid and contain no phosphorus; they give the albumin colour reactions but are not coagulated by heat.
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  • Mucoids resemble mucins in their composition and reactions, but differ, in general, in their physical properties.
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  • - C]] 7 the same colour reactions.
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  • It is an albumin, and not a carbohydrate as was formerly held; and gives most of the colour reactions of albumins.
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  • paas, black), substances which differ very considerably in composition, the sulphur and iron content being by no means constant; they do not give the reactions of albumins.
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  • Moreover, a study of the chemical relations of electrolytes indicates that it is always the electrolytic ions that are concerned in their reactions.
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  • Thus neither a chlorate, which contains the ion C103, nor monochloracetic acid, shows the reactions of chlorine, though it is, of course, present in both substances; again, the sulphates do not answer to the usual tests which indicate the presence of sulphur as sulphide.
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  • Secondary reactions take place at the same time, yielding more particularly hydrocarbons of the paraffin series.
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  • The aromatic aldehydes resemble the aliphatic aldehydes in most respects, but in certain reactions they exhibit an entirely different behaviour.
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  • But his best known contribution to general chemistry is his work on the phenomena of reversible reactions, which he comprehended under a general theory of " dissociation.
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  • Usually the cytoplasm shows a marked affinity for the acid stains, but the different bodies found in the cell may show great variation in their staining reactions.
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  • The fat in this condition is readily recognized by the usual microchemical and staining reactions.
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  • The reaction with iodine is seen best by direct light; the reactions with the other substances are visible only by transmitted light.
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  • Oddi does not regard it as the essential constituent of amyloid, chiefly because the colour reactions are forthcoming in the residuum after the substance has been removed, while the substance itself does not give these reactions.
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  • Thus Krawkow and Nowak, employing the frequent subcutaneous injection of the usual organisms of suppuration, have induced in the fowl the deposition within the tissues of a homogeneous substance giving the colour reactions of true amyloid.
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  • When hardened in spirit, however, the greater part of this experimental amyloid in the fowl vanishes, and the reactions are not forthcoming.
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  • These are peculiar bodies which are found in the prostate, in the central nervous system, in the lung, and in other localities, and which get their name from being very like starch-corpuscles, and from giving certain colour reactions closely resembling those of vegetable cellulose or even starch itself.
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  • It further resembles true amyloid in giving all its colour reactions.
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  • Now, what is remarkable in these and many other reactions is not only that effects apparently very opposite may result from minute differences of molecular construction, but also that, whatever the construction, agents, not wholly indifferent to the body or part, tend to anchor themselves to organic molecules in some way akin to them.
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  • It is convenient here to add that such reactions and modifications, if more conspicuous in the nervous system, are of course not confined to it, but are concerned in their degree in all the processes of metabolism, being most readily traced by us in the blood.
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  • They show all the reactions of esters, being readily hydrolysed by caustic alkalis, and reacting with ammonia to produce carhamic esters and urea.
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  • Of the heavy metals, copper is the one which exhibits by far the greatest avidity for sulphur, its subsulphide Cu 2 S being the stablest of all heavy metallic sulphides in opposition to dry reactions.
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  • These reactions permit the transformation of an aldose into a ketose; the reverse change can only be brought about by reducing the ketose to an alcohol, and oxidizing this compound to an aldehyde.
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  • The present article, as explained under Electrochemistry, treats only of those processes in which electricity is applied to the production of chemical reactions or molecular changes at furnace temperatures.
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  • The furnace used by Henri Moissan in his experiments on reactions at high temperatures, on the fusion and volatilization of refractory materials, and on the formation of carbides, suicides and borides of various metals, consisted, in its simplest form, of two superposed blocks of lime or of limestone with a central cavity cut in the lower block, and with a corresponding but much shallower inverted cavity in the upper block, which thus formed the lid of the furnace.
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  • In these processes the electric current is used solely to generate heat, either to induce chemical reactions between admixed substances, or to produce a physical (allotropic) modification of a given substance.
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  • If, however, no porous division be used to prevent the intermingling by diffusion of the anode and cathode solutions, a complicated set of subsidiary reactions takes place.
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  • Again, anode reactions, such as are observed in the electrolysis of the fatty acids, may be utilized, as, for example, when the radical CH3C02 - deposited at the anode in the electrolysis of acetic acid - is dissociated, two of the groups react to give one molecule of ethane, C 2 H 6, and two of carbon dioxide.
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  • p. 375) applied in Russia to the manufacture of alcohol, by a series of chemical reactions starting from the production of acetylene by the action of water upon calcium carbide.
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  • Other reactions which introduce carboxyl groups into aromatic groups are: the action of carbonyl chloride on aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of aluminium chloride, acid-chlorides being formed which are readily decomposed by water to give the acid; the action of urea chloride Cl�CO�NH 2, cyanuric acid (CONH) 3, nascent cyanic acid, or carbanile on hydrocarbons in the presence of aluminium chloride, acid-amides being obtained which are readily decomposed to give the acid.
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  • There are certain reactions, however, in which oxidation can be successfully applied to the synthesis of acids.
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  • Thus primary alcohols and aldehydes, both of the aliphatic and aromatic series, readily yield on oxidation acids containing the same number of carbon atoms. These reactions may be shown thus: - � R�CH 2 OH -> R.
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  • Of foremost importance are the reactions termed the malonic acid and the aceto-acetic ester syntheses; these are discussed under their own headings.
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  • If a solution of potassium acetate be electrolysed the products are ethane, carbon dioxide, potash and hydrogen; in a similar manner, normal potassium succinate gives ethylene, carbon dioxide, potash and hydrogen; these reactions may be represented: CH 3 �CO 2;K CH 3 CO 2 K' CH 2 �CO 2 1K CH 2 CO 2 K' --> I + + I I -i iI + CH 3 �CO 21 K CH 3 CO 2 K' CH 2 �CO 2 iK CH 2 CO 2 K' By electrolysing a solution of potassium ethyl succinate, KO 2 C�(CH 2) 2 CO 2 C 2 H 5, the KO 2 C� groups are split off and the two residues �(CH 2) 2 CO 2 C 2 H 5 combine to form the ester (CH2)4(C02C2H5)2.
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  • Torbern Olof Bergman reinvestigated its properties and determined its reactions; his account, which was published in his Opuscula, contains the first fairly accurate description of the metal.
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  • When A is held still, and B rotated, centrifugal action sets up vortex currents in the water in the pockets; thus a continuous circulation is caused between B and A, and the consequent changes of momentum give rise to oblique reactions.
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  • The moments of the components of these actions and reactions in a plane to which the axis of rotation is at right angles are the two aspects of the torque acting, and therefore the torque acting on B through the shaft is measured by the torque required to hold A still.
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  • The Stahlian theory, originally a theory of combustion, came to be a general theory of chemical reactions, since it provided simple explanations of the ordinary chemical processes(when regarded qualitatively) and permitted generalizations which largely stimulated its acceptance.
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  • Modern research has proved that such reactions are not occasioned by water acting as H 2 0, but really by its ions (hydrions and hydroxidions), for the velocity is proportional (in accordance with the law of chemical mass action) to the concentration of these ions.
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  • In finding the line of pressure some principle such as the principle of least action must be used in determining the reactions at the crown and springings, and some assumptions must be made of not certain validity.
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  • In finding the abutment reactions some principle such as the principle of least action must be used, and some assumptions of doubtful validity made.
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  • The reactions at the abutments are R 1 = Wm/1 and R2 = W (l - m)/l.
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  • A / / is wl; the reactions at abutments, R I = R2 = 2w/.
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  • The sum of the two upward vertical reactions must clearly be equal to the sum of the loads.
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  • 67 a shows the reciprocal figure or polygon for the external forces on the assumption that the reactions are slightly inclined.
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  • In chemistry the term is given to chemical reactions in which a substance decomposes into two or more substances, and particularly to cases in which associated molecules break down into simpler molecules.
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  • The aqueous solution of ammonia is very basic in its reactions, and since it is a weak electrolyte, one must assume the solution to contain a certain amount of ammonium hydroxide NH 4 OH, although it is probably chiefly composed of a solution of ammonia in water.
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  • It was obtained as a by-product in many chemical reactions, and subsequently used to be extracted from kainite, one of the Stassfurt minerals, but the process is now given up because the salt can be produced cheaply enough from the chloride by decomposing it with sulphuric acid and calcining the residue.
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  • In 1775 he investigated arsenic acid and its reactions, discovering arseniuretted hydrogen and "Scheele's green" (copper arsenite), a process for preparing which on a large scale he published in 1778.
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  • The acid cannot be prepared by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid on an iodide on account of secondary reactions taking place, which result in the formation of free iodine and sulphur dioxide.
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  • Its aqueous solution is not an electrolyte, and consequently does not give the reactions of the mercury and cyanogen ions.
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  • The reactions may probably be represented as follows: C 2 H5NC+C 2 H51+4C2H50H=C2H5NH2 HI+HC02C2H5+2 (C2H5)20, C 2 H 5 NC C2H5N(C2H5 I)C(+3C2H50H) -> (C 2 H 5) 2 NH HI-{- H C02C2H5 + (C2H5)20.
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  • - Besides those philosophies which are reactions to Kant or to Hume, there are a number of other modern systems which start with the common hypothesis that knowledge is experience.
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  • In 1796 he published two pamphlets in defence of the Directory and against the counter-revolution, "De la force du gouvernement actuel et de la necessite de se Tallier" and "Des reactions politiques."
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  • Besides a large number of animal and vegetable substances, many precipitates formed in the course of inorganic chemical reactions are non-crystalline and appear in the colloidal state, instances are the sulphides of antimony and arsenic and the hydroxides of iron and alumina.
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  • They also differ very markedly from free living fungi in their chemical reactions.
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  • The wall of the hyphae of the fungus give in the young state the ordinary reactions of cellulose but older material shows somewhat different reactions, similar to those of the so-called fungus-cellulose.
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  • The classification of lichens is unique in the fact that chemical colour reactions are used by many lichenologists in the discrimination of species, and these reactions are included in the specific diagnoses.
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  • The substances used as tests in these reactions are caustic potash and calcium hypochlorite; the former being the substance dissolved in an equal weight of water and the latter a saturated extract of bleaching powder in water.
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  • These substances are represented by lichenologists by the signs K and CaC1 respectively, and the presence or absence of the colour reactions are represented thus, K+, CaCI+, or K -, CaC1 -.
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  • The objection to the case of these colour reactions is due to the indefinite nature of the reaction and the doubt as to the constant presence of a definite chemical compound in a given species.
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  • Considerations such as these should make one very wary in placing reliance on these colour reactions for the purposes of classification.
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  • As a synthetical agent in organic chemistry, aluminium chloride has rendered possible more reactions than any other substance; here we can only mention the classic syntheses of benzene homologues.
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  • A similar series of reactions was carried out with rosaniline, which was shown to be the corresponding derivative of tolyldiphenylmethane.
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  • On the general reactions of the 1.5 diketones, see E.
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  • The latter fact, as well as the extraordinary fastidiousness, so to speak, of parasites in their choice of hosts or of organs for attack, point to reactions on the part of the host-plant, as well as capacities on that of the parasite, which may be partly explained in the light of what we 'now know regarding enzymes and chemotropism.
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  • of lron Ore Lumps of Lime - In the upper part of the furnace the carbonic oxide deoxidizes the iron oxide of the ore by such reactions as xCO+Fe02.
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  • The typical reactions are something like the following: Fe304+4C = 4C0+3Fe; Fe30 4 -1-C = 3FeO+CO; 2P + 5Fe 3 O 4 =12FeO + 3FeO,P 2 0 5; Si + 2Fe304 = 3FeO,S10 2 3FeO.
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  • The chief reactions are as follows :- 1.
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  • Blagden (Ber.,1900,33,p.2544), who consider that three simultaneous reactions occur, namely, the formation of labile double salts which decompose in such a fashion that the radical attached to the copper atom wanders to the aromatic nucleus; a catalytic action, in which nitrogen is eliminated and the acid radical attaches itself to the aromatic nucleus; and finally, the formation of azo compounds.
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  • Hantzsch explains the characteristic reactions of the diazonium compounds ky the assumption that an addition compound is first formed, which breaks down with the elimination of the hydride of the acid radical, and the formation of an unstable syn-diazo compound, which, in its turn, decomposes with evolution of nitrogen (Ber., 18 97, 30, p. 2 54 8; 1898, 31, p. 2053).
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  • Concentrated ammonia converts it into diazoacetamide, CHN 2 CONH 2, which crystallizes in golden yellow plates which melt at 114° C. For other reactions see Hydrazine.
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  • Ethyl nitrate, C2H5.0N02, is a colourless liquid which boils at 86.3° C. It is prepared by the action of nitric acid on ethyl alcohol (some urea being added to the nitric acid, in order to destroy any nitrous acid that might be produced in secondary reactions and which, if not removed, would cause explosive decomposition of the ethyl nitrate).
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  • The areas of intervening cortex, arriving at structural completion later than the above sense-spheres, are called by some association-spheres, to indicate the view that they contain the neural mechanisms of reactions (some have said "ideas") associated with the sense perceptions elaborated in the several sensese spheres.
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  • Ferrier's investigations showed, motor reactions of the facial and sensori- limb muscles are regularly and easily evoked.
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  • The distinction, therefore, between the movement of the eyeballs, elicited from the occipital (visual) cortex, and that of the hand, elicited from the cortex in the region of the central sulcus (somaesthetic), is not a difference between motor and sensory, for both are sensori-motor in the nature of their reactions; the difference is only a difference between the kind of sense and sense-organ in the two cases, the muscular apparatus in each case being an appanage of the sensual.
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  • Symptoms attendant on the hypnotic state are closure of the eyelids by the hypnotizer without subsequent attempt to open them by the hypnotized subject; the pupils, instead of being constricted, as for near vision, dilate, and there sets in a condition superficially resembling sleep. But in natural sleep the action of all parts of the nervous system is subdued, whereas in the hypnotic the reactions of the lower, and some even of the higher, parts are exalted.
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  • Moreover, the reactions seem to follow the sense impressions with such fatality, that, as an inference, absence of will-power to control them or suppress them is suggested.
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  • In many instances hypnotism seems to establish quickly reactions similar to such as usually result only from long and closely attentive practice.
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  • Two theories of a physiological nature have been proposed to account for the separation of the complex reactions of these conditions of hypnotism from volition and from memory.
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  • Both the components of alite react, and for simplicity their reactions may be stated in separate equations, thus: 2(3Ca0 S10 2)+9H 2 O =2(Ca0 S102) 5H20+4Ca(OH)2 Tricalcium silicate.
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  • Thallic salts are easily reduced to thallous by means of solution of sulphurous acid, and thus rendered amenable to the above reactions.
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  • If we reflect on the multitude and complexity of such actions and reactions in operation from the youngest stages to the end of the life of each individual, we cannot be surprised at any correlation.
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  • News, 188 7, 55, p. 67):-at a moderate heat: 8KC103= 5KC104-I-3KC1+202, succeeded by the following reactions as the temperature increases: 2KC10 3 =KC10 4 +KC1+0 2 and 2KC10 3 =2KC1+30 2 (see also F.
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  • These reactions, however, do not take place if the substances are absolutely dry.
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  • A number of secondary reactions, however, occur, owing partly to the excess of calcium carbonate and coal and partly to the impurities present, so that the solid product of the process, which is called " black-ash," has a somewhat complicated composition.
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  • Both these reactions are carried out in tall cylindrical columns or " stills," consisting of a number of superposed cylinders, having perforated horizontal partitions, and provided with a steam-heating arrangement in the enlarged bottom portion.
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  • The reactions are therefore (we shall in this case speak only of the sodium compounds): (I) NaC1=Na+Cl, (2)Na+H 2 0 = NaOH+H.
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  • It has all the reactions of hydrogen peroxide, and S.
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  • Soc., 1904, p. 203) have made an exhaustive study of its reactions, and find that it is decomposed by the halogens (dissolved in carbon tetrachloride) with liberation of carbon monoxide and formation of a nickel halide.
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  • The position of equilibrium is determined by the considera tion that the reactions at A and B, which are by hypothesis normal t the planes, must meet at a point J on the vertical through G.
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  • The problem of a rod suspended by strings attached to two points of it is virtually identical, the tensions of the strings taking the place of the reactions of the planes.
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  • On this assumption, the reactions on any member at its two joints must be equal and opposite.
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  • To find the reactions at the joints we may proceed as follows.
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  • The stresses in the bars, in the problem as thus modified, may be supposed found by the preceding methods; it remains to infer from the results thus obtained the reactions in the original form of the problem.
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  • The directions and magnitudes of the reactions at A and C are then easily ascertained.
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  • The principle can of course be extended to any system of particles or rigid bodies, connected together in any, way, provided we take into account the internal stresses, or reactions, between the various parts.
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  • Its special value lies in this, that by a suitable adjustment of the hypothetical displacements we are often enabled to eliminate unknown reactions.
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  • The principle of virtual work is specially convenient in the theory of frames (~ 6), since the reactions at smooth joints and the stresses in inextensible bars may be left out of account.
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  • The statement may be extended to a system of rigid bodies, provided the mutual reactions consist of the stresses in inextensible links, or the pressures between smooth surfaces, or the reactions at rolling contacts (~ 9).
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  • The remaining equations serve to determine the reactions of the rotating body on its bearings.
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  • Since the reactions on the bearings must be statically equivalent to the whole system of effective forces, they will reduce to a force (X Y Z) at 0 and a couple (L M N) given by X=w~(mx) =ai1~(m)~, Y =w1~(my) =wI�(m)y, Z =0, L=wfZ(myz), M =, 2~(mzx), N =0, (8)
    0
    0
  • The reactions do not therefore reduce to a single force at 0 unless ~ (rnyz) = 0, ~ (mIx) = o, i.e.
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  • We will suppose that the extraneous forces consist of a known force (X, Y, Z) at the centre, and of the reactions (Fi, Ff, R) at the point of contact.
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  • If the only extraneous forces are the reactions (F, Q, R) at the point of contact, we have M0~=P, M05,=Q, M~1=R,
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  • Claisen, whose views are now accepted, studied the reactions of sodium ethylate and showed that if sodium ethylate be used in place of sodium in the above reaction the same result is obtained.
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  • He explains the reactions thus: O ?ONa CH 3 �C < +NaOC2H5=CH3�C -0C2H5, ?
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  • Both reactions occur to some extent simultaneously.
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  • Nicholls and James have applied, very ingeniously, well-known reactions to the refining of copper, raised to the grade of white metal.
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  • of cathode, and an electrolyte containing qlb of copper sulphate and z lb of sulphuric acid per gallon, all the gold, platinum and silver present in the crude copper anode remain as metals, undissolved, in the anode slime or mud, and all the lead remains there as sulphate, formed by the action of the sulphuric acid (or S04 ions); he found also that arsenic forms arsenious oxide, which dissolves until the solution is saturated, and then remains in the slime, from which on long standing it gradually dissolves, after conversion by secondary reactions into arsenic oxide; antimony forms a basic sulphate which in part dissolves; bismuth partly dissolves and partly remains, but the dissolved portion tends slowly to separate out as a basic salt which becomes added to the slime; cuprous oxide, sulphide and selenides remain in the slime, and very slowly pass into solution by simple chemical action; tin partly dissolves (but in part separates again as basic salt) and partly remains as basic sulphate and stannic oxide; zinc, iron, nickel and cobalt pass into solution - more readily indeed than does the copper.
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  • They are characterized by their additive reactions: combining with water to form acids, with alcohols to form esters, and with primary amines to form amides.
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  • Proust; but his speculations, in particular his insistence on the influence of the relative masses of the acting substances in chemical reactions, have exercised a dominating influence on the modern developments of the theory of chemical affinity, of which, far more than T.
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  • Much as the decade from 1880 to 1890 abounded with investigations on the reactions of bacteria to heat, so the following decade was remarkable for discoveries regarding the effects of other forms of radiant energy.
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  • And in the second place, the various serum reactions to be described below have been called into requisition.
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  • In the first - active immunity - a reaction or series of reactions is produced in the body of the animal, usually by injections of bacteria or their products.
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  • He devoted himself mainly to investigations in organic chemistry, and in particular to synthetical studies by the aid of "condensation" reactions.
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  • It is to be noticed, however, that green plants have the power of building up living substance from inorganic material, and there is a certain analogy between the building up of new living material only in association with pre-existing living material, and the greater readiness with which certain inorganic reactions take place if there already be present some trace of the result of the reaction.
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  • Reactions in which it is used in the liquid form, in vapour, in solution, and in the presence of the so-called "bromine carriers."
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  • Some reactions, which are only possible by the aid of nascent bromine, are carried out by using solutions of sodium bromide and bromate, with the amount of sulphuric acid calculated according to the equation 5NaBr NaBr03-1-6H2S04= 6NaHSO 4 3H 2 O 6Br.
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  • It cannot be prepared with any degree of purity by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid on bromides, since secondary reactions take place, leading to the liberation of free bromine and formation of sulphur dioxide.
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  • The chemical reactions are as follows: the treatment of the calcium phosphate with the acid gives phosphoric acid, H 3 PO 4, which at a red heat loses water to give metaphosphoric acid, HP03; this at a white heat reacts with carbon to give hydrogen, carbon monoxide and phosphorus, thus: 2HP06+ 6C= H2 +6CO+P2.
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  • Metaor iso-xylene, the most important isomer, may be prepared by nucleus-synthetic reactions, or by distilling mesitylenic acid, C 6 H 3 (CH 3) 2 CO 2 H, an oxidation product of mesitylene, C 6 H 3 (CH 3) 3, which is produced on the condensation of acetone, with lime; this reaction is very important, for it orientates meta-compounds.
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  • Canine is a secondary base, forming a nitroso derivative with nitrous acid, a urethane with chlorcarbonic ester and a tertiary base (methyl conine) with methyl iodide; reactions which point to the presence of the = NH group in the molecule.
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  • Here only reactions of commercial utility will be considered, and reference should be made to the article Sulphur for reactions which are more of a purely scientific interest.
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  • The burner gas is introduced at one end, the waste gases issue from the other, the movement of the gases being impelled partly by their own chemical reactions, partly by the draught produced by a chimney (or tower), or by mechanical means.
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  • By the play of reactions induced in this way practically the whole of the SO 2 is ultimately converted into sulphuric acid, and at the same time the nitrogen oxides are always recovered with comparatively very slight losses and made to serve over again.
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  • The reactions taking place in the vitriol chambers are very complicated, and have been explained in many different ways.
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  • Lunge, according to which there are two principal reactions succeeding each other, it may be in quite contiguous places, but under different conditions.
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  • This theory at once explains, among other things, why the acid formed in the vitriol chambers always contains an excess of water (the second of the above-quoted reactions requiring the "mass action" of this excess), and why the external cooling produced by the contact of the chamber sides with the air is of great importance (liquid water in the shape of a mist of dilute sulphuric acid being necessary for the process).
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  • Whatever be the true theory of the vitriol-chamber process, there is no doubt about the way in which the reactions have to be carried out in practice.
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  • Since the reactions occur among gases and liquids in the nebulous state, vast spaces have to be provided in which the process may be carried out as completely as possible before the waste gases are allowed to escape into the outer air.
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  • For similar reasons it is necessary to employ much more water than is required to form H 2 SO 4; and this is all the more necessary as strong sulphuric acid dissolves the nitrous compounds in the shape of nitroso-sulphuric acid, and thus withdraws these oxygen carriers from the gas-space of the chambers where the necessary reactions take place.
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  • Here the reactions sketched above take place, so that "chamber-acid" as already described is formed, while a mixture of gases escapes containing all the atmospheric nitrogen, some oxygen in excess, about 0.5% of the total S02, and some oxides of nitrogen.
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  • reactions it shows the properties of a hydroxylic substance.
    0
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  • It forms a benzal compound, and gives an oyxmethylene derivative and cannot be oxidized to an acid, reactions which point to it being a ketone containing the grouping -CH 2 CO-.
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  • There is very little doubt that the general course of the decompositions follows these iines; but any such simple explanation of the actions taking place is rendered impossible by the fact that, instead of the breaking-down of the hydrocarbons being completed in the coal, and only secondary reactions taking place in the retort, in practice the hydrocarbons to a great extent leave the coal as the vapours of condensible hydrocarbons, and the breaking down of these to such simple gaseous compounds as ethylene is proceeding in the retort at the same time as the breaking up of the ethylene already formed into acetylene and methane, and the polymerization of the former into higher compounds.
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  • Hence we find that the tar is formed of two distinct sets of products, the first due to incomplete decomposition and the second to secondary reactions due to the products of the decomposition being kept too long in the zone of heat.
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  • Intellectual developments do not go straight onward; there are sharp and sudden reactions.
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  • Many of the movements just mentioned are, at least in design, pure reactions involving no new thoughts.
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  • Semler), linking Protestant scholasticism with modern thought, and exhibiting the continuity of science in spite of great revolutionary changes and great reactions.
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  • Many reactions serve to distinguish these three types of alcohols.
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  • The reactions outlined above may be thus represented: - R�CH 2 OH >R�CH21 Primary alcohol.
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    0
  • The salts of arsenic acid, termed arsenates, are isomorphous with the phosphates, and in general character and reactions resemble the phosphates very closely; thus both series of salts give similar precipitates with "magnesia mixture" and with ammonium molybdate solution, but they can be distinguished by their behaviour with silver nitrate solution, arsenates giving a reddish-brown precipitate,whilst phosphates give a yellow precipitate.
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  • In some reactions it behaves as having the first formula, in others as having the second.
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  • All these reactions take place concurrently, so that one molecule of a diglyceride may still retain its ephemeral existence, whilst another molecule is already broken up completely into free fatty acids and glycerin.
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  • Before that time it was believed that not only could individual oils and fats be distinguished from each other by colour reactions, but it was also maintained that falsification could be detected thereby.
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  • With one or two exceptions (detection of sesame oil and perhaps also of cotton-seed oil) all colour reactions are entirely useless.
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  • The modern methods of oil testing rest chiefly on so-called "quantitative" reactions, a number of characteristic "values" being determined which, being based on the special nature of the fatty acids contained in each individual oil or fat, assist in identifying them and also in revealing adulteration.
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  • Some of these are recognizable as pale yellowish and white mica; others seem to be chlorite, the remainder is perhaps kaolin, but, owing to the minute size of the flakes, they yield very indistinct reactions to polarized light.
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  • In their reactions the different kinds of mucilage present differences; e.g.
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  • The yield obtained is only about 40% of that required by theory, on account of secondary reactions taking place.
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  • I'll record the facts from my personal point of view, and my observation of the reactions of the others involved, some of whom are unable to tell their own story.
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  • We're testing the growth reactions or rate of deterioration of various organics exposed to a variety of energy and magnetic sources.
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  • Contrary indications are that this disillusionment with the established political system could produce the threat of right wing reactions.
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  • The new red wine is eliciting mixed reactions from wine experts.
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  • The dissociated molecules can undergo thermal reactions with neighboring surface atoms or with other adsorbates.
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  • adverse reactions have been noted in 40% of these patients.
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  • Jasminum Absolute produced positive patch test reactions in some patients who were contact sensitive to cinnamic aldehyde.
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  • Aliphatic conjugated and aromatic aldehydes failed to produce urticarial skin reactions with the exception of acrolein.
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  • aldol reactions, using experimental data from Brown (Figure 5) [13] .
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  • Reactions of Grignard reagents Grignard reagents and water Grignard reagents react with water to produce alkanes.
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  • This is explored some more in the page on ligand exchange reactions Amphoteric hydroxides An amphoteric hydroxides An amphoteric substance has both acidic and basic properties.
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  • Reactions range from minor skin rashes to major life-threatening anaphylaxis.
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  • Less severe reactions anaphylaxis sometimes results in less severe reactions which are not life threatening.
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  • Note: You can find more about the reactions of acid anhydrides with nitrogen compounds by following this link.
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  • The same reactions with acid anhydrides Ethanoic anhydride is the only one you are likely to come across for UK A level purposes.
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  • antihistamines medicines that are used to treat allergic reactions.
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  • aware, nobody has studied the chemistry and there is speculation as to the reactions involved.
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  • We are interested in expanding the repertoire of biocatalytic reactions by developing novel biocatalysts for reactions that are chemically very difficult.
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  • Conclusion The ASR retinal prosthesis, to date, has shown no biosafety or negative personal reactions in people with RP.
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  • Workers exposed to the dust of African boxwood developed alarming reactions including irritation of the eyes and nose, and also constitutional symptoms.
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  • Many are reactions to normal life events e.g. bereavement or marital breakdown.
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  • Know how to distinguish alkenes (as unsaturated hydrocarbons) from alkanes (as saturated hydrocarbons) using addition reactions with aqueous bromine.
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  • bromine transfer reactions are extremely fast.
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  • Employment of in-situ FTIR, pH and Raman probes along with reaction calorimetry help follow these complex reactions.
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  • Comparison with oxygen compounds; sulfur-stabilised carbanions and their C-C bond-forming reactions.
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  • In response to cold, plants trigger a cascade of genetic reactions that allow them to survive.
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  • catabolite repression and the reactions involved with Diauxic growth.
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  • The kinetics of chemical change, including catalysis; the mechanistic interpretation of chemical reactions.
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  • The chemical reactions that I am most concerned with are of relevance to heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis.
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  • catalysis of organic reactions.
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  • biological catalysts called enzymes bring about chemical reactions in cells.
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  • catalyze various biochemical reactions.
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  • chemical reactions that would normally not proceed fast enough to be of any use to the cell.
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  • ABSTRACT: Gas-phase ionmolecule chemistry has been used to study the reactions of mutagenic epoxides toward sulfur-containing (SH) organic chemicals.
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  • It is now generally accepted that the loss of stratospheric ozone is caused by chemical reactions initiated by chlorofluorocarbons.
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  • Some stars simply fade like cooling cinders when they have exhausted all the thermonuclear reactions which had made them shine through their lifetime.
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  • citrate synthase Computer simulations are a good way to study enzyme reactions.
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  • Numerous chemical and biological phenomena are modeled by non-linear ODE's, for example chemical reactions and voltage clamped nerve cells.
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  • LEARNING OUTCOMES Students should be able to: Identify the characteristics of the carbonyl group and explain the major reactions typical of carbonyl compounds.
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  • At least it is striking that the media reactions were so universally condemnatory.
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  • condensation reactions below, you are not expected to know all the background details.
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  • conjoint action of causes is named after the chemical reactions which typically exhibit it, e.g.
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  • This made me feel great coz I didn't know what their reactions would be!
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  • cozyreported some of my reactions in Curl Up with a Genealogical Mystery and in Genealogical Cozies.
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  • cracking cracking Cracking is one of the most important reactions in the petroleum industry.
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  • crinklean use all sorts of noisy tricks to check reactions: rattling keys, crinkling paper, blowing police whistles.
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  • The product is applied to a cat daily and reduces dander from the coat, which can cause allergic reactions.
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  • Skin: - rarely allergic skin reactions (e.g. exfoliative dermatitis ).
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  • In order to learn more about the mechanism of these reactions we have studies these reaction using time-resolved in-situ X-ray diffraction.
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  • dissipated the tension built up by Brennan's actions and Hogg's reactions.
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  • Our aim is to understand how these reactions take place and how they control the speeds of mineral dissolution and precipitation.
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  • Nature of problem: The program calculates angular distributions produced by direct nuclear transfer reactions.
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  • dreadful to think what could have happened - people can be killed by bad reactions to nuts.
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  • duplication of genes caused redundancy in some reactions which could be co-opted for other uses.
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  • equilibrium electrochemistry The above are all examples of electrolysis reactions, where an electron is forced in or out of the electrode.
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  • We have recently done pioneering experiments to demonstrate that resonant radiofrequency electromagnetic fields also affect radical reactions.
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  • electrophilic addition reactions An addition reaction is a reaction in which two molecules join together to make a bigger one.
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  • Their reactions reinforced our own impressions that there is nothing like this anywhere else in the world.
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  • You will also consider energetics, which involves an analysis of energy exchanges taking place in chemical reactions.
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  • We call the heat changes associated with chemical reactions enthalpy changes (D H ).
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  • In adult studies, montelukast reduced sputum eosinophils and attenuated early and late phase allergen-induced reactions.
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  • There were almost 1100 deaths from medication errors and adverse reactions in 2000.
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  • excitation of molecules during the reactions.
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  • This loss of electron density results in a reduction of electron impact excitation reactions in that region.
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  • Positive patch test reactions to the latex and to an aqueous extract of the leaves and latex were observed.
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  • febrile reactions which may have been due to red cell incompatibility.
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  • You also need to have the reactions of a slip fielder.
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  • Paper containing formalin did not produce positive patch test reactions in persons contact sensitive to formaldehyde (Fisher et al.
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  • The course will introduce the theoretical formalisms used to describe the various types of nuclear reactions.
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  • Basically, the Hydrogen nuclei fuse together in a series of reactions to form Helium nuclei and energy.
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  • Hypersensitivity reactions, as have been reported for other contrast media containing gadolinium, have also been observed after administration of Gadovist.
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  • gage the reactions to the preliminary ideas that we had presented.
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  • Allergic skin reactions were reported in one trial with oral ginkgo 240 mg.
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  • glycolysis pathway from a list of possible reactions.
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  • God-given, model reactions to what we're going through.
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  • Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are ranked in order of decreasing seriousness.
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  • We use three reactions to make blue, yellow and white paints, which can be painted onto paper or white hardboard.
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  • The body's allergic reactions may include repeated episodes of fever, shaking chills, sweating, headaches, vomiting, and pain.
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  • Hypersensitivity and allergic reactions As with any recombinant product, Raptiva is potentially immunogenic.
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  • immunoglobulin E to trigger allergic reactions.
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  • It's not easy to get across different reactions when your voice has to remain utterly impassive, yet he managed it.
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  • impulsive reactions, what you can ' do ', creativity.
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  • An infant's actions are purely impulsive reactions to the sensations and emotions he is experiencing.
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  • No severe reactions have been reported with subcutaneous infusion.
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  • initiatestance, small-scale turbulence is responsible for mixing air masses of different chemical composition, thereby initiating chemical reactions.
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  • intolerance reactions, I think each individual is different.
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  • invalidaten NHPs do exhibit similar reactions to drugs or disease, the mechanism for the reaction may be different thus invalidating extrapolation.
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  • Ozone is a lung irritant emitted from many air cleaners in the market that can trigger allergy reactions, even in small amounts.
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  • Solution method: Global analysis of spectra is provided by incorporating nuclear reactions kinematics calculations in the program.
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  • Reactions to lactose are due to a deficiency of the enzyme lactase, which the body needs in order to digest lactose.
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  • lambskin fleeces are from British lambs and are undyed, unbleached and hypoallergenic (not likely to cause allergenic reactions ).
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  • Adverse reactions accompanying overdose should be treated by gastric lavage and supportive measures.
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  • Since photosynthetic light reactions produce ATP, the ATP dependence of RuBisCO activation provides a mechanism for light-dependent activation of the enzyme.
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  • lobotomye reactions were rare, with only 5% or 6% of those who had lobotomies getting worse or dying.
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  • More extensive market research was carried out to gage the reactions of consumers.
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  • The first group more commonly cause allergic reactions and have a short length of action as they are rapidly metabolized by cholinesterase.
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  • But it is not clear what causes the monocytes to move to the damaged site and set off these reactions.
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  • Imagine stopping and inhibiting our usual reactions and so being present while eating mouthful by mouthful.
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  • mycobacteriumsociated with the trial include patterns of response to BCG according to previous vaccination and skin reactions to other mycobacteria and to PPD.
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  • In the process of fusing hydrogen to form helium, the nuclear reactions also produce elementary particles called neutrinos.
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  • nucleon transfer reactions induced on radioactive beam projectiles.
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  • organometallic synthesis, homogeneous catalysis and new catalytic reactions.
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  • organometallic reactions in ionic liquids, and indeed in dispensing with the use of solvents and reaction media in general.
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  • oscillate way, they proved that oscillating reactions - like the renowned Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction - can also take place in multi-phase systems.
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  • overstepping of prograde metamorphic reactions in metapelites from the Bushveld aureole.
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  • Another remote risk to life is from unusually severe reactions to hyperstimulation of the ovaries by the hormones used to induce multiple ovulation.
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  • oxidation-reduction reactions necessary for the utilization of all the major nutrients.
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  • patch test reactions to the latex and to an aqueous extract of the leaves and latex were observed.
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  • Reactions occurred but despite many efforts only complex mixtures of hexane soluble phosphorus containing compounds could be obtained that proved impossible to identify.
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  • photosensitive reactions they may cause, the effect of stopping hormones prior to surgery.
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    0
  • The transition from anoxygenic to oxygenic photosynthesis involved an extension of the existing system, whereby new reactions were added on to existing ones.
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  • posted by tmatt at 1:43 PM | Comments (4) Monday, May 3, 2004 Attention journalists: Want reader reactions?
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  • precipitation reactions, which are important controls on mobility of chemical species in the environment.
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  • preparative methods employ high temperatures to overcome the considerable diffusion barriers present in most solid-solid reactions.
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  • primer sequences are ordered in the cases where PCR reactions failed repeatedly.
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  • propyl parahydroxybenzoate which may cause allergic reactions (possibly delayed ).
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  • Thrombin is formed from prothrombin by a prothrombin activator, itself the end of a series of reactions.
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  • Anxiety reactions, even psychotic reactions, may result.
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  • Useful Products from Air Reversible reactions In some chemical reactions, the products of the reaction can react to produce the original reactants.
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  • Reactions may commonly be zero order, first order or second order with respect to a particular reactant.
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  • reactions of amines as nucleophiles.
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  • GM cats which don't provoke allergic reactions in humans?
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  • reactions catalyzed by the aqua complex.
    0
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  • However, similar adverse reactions have been noted in 40% of these patients.
    0
    0
  • Over 3,500 cases of severe reactions have been documented.
    0
    0
  • This section provides information about reporting suspected adverse drug reactions for healthcare professionals.
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  • The analysis of Al based alloys by calorimetry: Quantitative analysis of reactions and reaction kinetics Review paper by M.J. Starink Int.
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    0
  • To understand what is happening here we need to think about redox reactions.
    0
    0
  • In this section of questions we examine one of the most common types of such reactions, sigmatropic rearrangements.
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  • rearrangement reactions and allows us to employ the novel strategy of migrating functional groups.
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  • These enzymes catalyze many reactions such as carbon skeleton rearrangements or the removal of a methyl group from a tertiary amine.
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  • Reactions can range from mild redness to severe painful blistering.
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    0
  • The topics reviewed are: redox reactions, Hess's Law, balancing ion electron half equations, redox titrations and electrolysis.
    0
    0
  • reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) is the main technique that is used to study these reactions.
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  • serve as vital catalysts for the biological reactions that take place within the body.
    0
    0
  • For some time my daughter and I have been suffering sinusitis, hay fever and allergy reactions due to the ever changing environment.
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    0
  • There were 8 adverse reactions in the experimental group; the safer option of using sodium bicarbonate would be an efficacious alternative.
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  • spallation reactions.
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    0
  • spallation cross sections for proton induced reactions.
    0
    0
  • Each genetic pathway metabolizes glucose and produces succinate via dissimilar chemical reactions.
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    0
  • Some contain a surfactant called sodium lauryl sulfate, which is a common cause of reactions, particularly in people with eczema.
    0
    0
  • The tip cap of the pre filled syringe contains dry natural rubber, which may cause allergic reactions.
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    0
  • Can result in water pollution e.g from mine tailings (obvious from water color) Reactions speeded up by warmth.
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    0
  • tantalum target, the electrons generate an intense highly directional gamma-ray beam that can be used to carry out photonuclear reactions.
    0
    0
  • Further reactions were then carried out to produce the final product taxol.
    0
    0
  • These reactions outline the general route that Holton employed to synthesize taxol.
    0
    0
  • test tube reactions.
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    0
  • thermonuclear reactions deep in its interior.
    0
    0
  • transfused blood causing reactions.
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    0
  • tricarboxylic acid cycle; inputs, reactions, central metabolic role.
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    0
  • triggers the cascade of reactions leading to blood clot formation (thrombosis ).
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    0
  • The characters ' motivations and reactions, tho, didn't quite ring true for me.
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    0
  • underreporting of withdrawal reactions.
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  • It takes a special effort and much unlearning of reactions to see them merely as things.
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  • In sensitive individuals, this dye can produce allergic reactions, including urticaria, severe abdominal cramps and pain.
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    0
  • Some people have urticaria (skin reactions similar to nettle rash or hives ).
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    0
  • vasovagal reactions to the injection, including syncope.
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    0
  • withdrawal reactions in over one full page of text on " Adverse effects " .
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    0
  • And why do many doctors (and perhaps most GPs) still not recognize that antidepressant withdrawal reactions even exist?
    0
    0
  • Quantum mechanical modeling techniques have been used to study many different zeolites and the roles they play in the reactions they catalyze.
    0
    0
  • There is information about cell chemistry, oxidation-reduction reactions, the copper zinc cell and further detail about oxidation states.
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    0
  • The aqueous solution, however, does not show the ordinary reactions of cobalt or of ammonia, and so it is to be presumed that the salt ionizes into [Co(NH 3) 6] and 3C1'.
    0
    0
  • It shows characteristic ketone reactions, yielding a bisulphite compound and combining with hydrocyanic acid to form the nitrile of a-oxyisosuccinic acid.
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    0
  • It is a colourless fuming liquid boiling at 90.5° C. With water and with ammonia it undergoes the same reactions as the chloride.
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  • Nef based his formula, which involves bivalent carbon, on many reactions; in particular, that silver fulminate with hydrochloric acid gave salts of formylchloridoxime, which with water gave hydroxylamine and formic acid, thus - C: NO OAg -)HC?C?
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  • Lignified tissues are colored yellow by aniline sulphate or aniline chloride, violet with phloroglucin and hydrochloric acid, and characteristic reactions are also given by mixtures containing phenol, indol, skatol, thailin, sulphate, &c. (see Zimmermanns Microtechnique).
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  • Milk of sulphur (see above), obtained by decomposing a polysulphide with an acid, contains both forms. The insoluble variety may also be obtained by decomposing sulphur chloride with water and by other reactions.
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  • Thus we can construct a kind of envelope of theory, which, by careful testing as we proceed, can be made to indicate in a general manner the reactions of one part of the activities of the economic world upon the others, and the interdependence of the several parts.
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  • In a series of 75 reactions it was found that in 61 there was apparently a diminution in weight, but in 1908, after a most careful repetition and making allowance for all experimental errors, Landolt concluded that no change occurred (see Element).
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  • Wislicenus, van't Hoff and others showed that substances having the same graphic formulae vary in properties and reactions, and consequently the formulae need modification in order to exhibit these differences.
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  • Such reactions are termed reversible (see Chemical Action).
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  • Dumas gave especial attention to such substitutions, named metalepsy (µeraXntks, exchange); and framed the following empirical laws to explain the reactions: - (1) a body containing hydrogen when substituted by a halogen loses one atom of hydrogen for every atom of halogen introduced; (2) the same holds if oxygen be present, except that when the oxygen is present as water the latter first loses its hydrogen without replacement, and then substitution according to (1) ensues.
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  • In the case of copper, the colour reactions with potassium ferrocyanide or ammonia are usually employed; traces of ammonia are estimated with Nessler's reagent; sulphur in iron and steel is determined by the tint assumed by a silver-copper plate suspended in the gases liberated when the metal is dissolved in sulphuric acid (Eggertz's test) (see W.
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  • Few simple derivatives of the a-series are known, those which have been prepared result by such reactions as the condensation of aminoguanidine or a similar type of compound (e.g.
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  • The complete conversion of stannous into stannic chloride may be effected by a great many reagents - for instance, by chlorine (bromine, iodine) readily; by mercuric chloride in the heat, with precipitation of calomel or metallic mercury; by ferric chloride in the heat, with formation of ferrous chloride; by arsenious chloride in strongly hydrochloric solutions, with precipitation of chocolate-brown metallic arsenic. All these reactions are available as tests for "stannosum" or the respective agents.
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  • Other reactions which introduce carboxyl groups into aromatic groups are: the action of carbonyl chloride on aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of aluminium chloride, acid-chlorides being formed which are readily decomposed by water to give the acid; the action of urea chloride Cl�CO�NH 2, cyanuric acid (CONH) 3, nascent cyanic acid, or carbanile on hydrocarbons in the presence of aluminium chloride, acid-amides being obtained which are readily decomposed to give the acid.
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  • Thus primary alcohols and aldehydes, both of the aliphatic and aromatic series, readily yield on oxidation acids containing the same number of carbon atoms. These reactions may be shown thus: - � R�CH 2 OH -> R.
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  • If a solution of potassium acetate be electrolysed the products are ethane, carbon dioxide, potash and hydrogen; in a similar manner, normal potassium succinate gives ethylene, carbon dioxide, potash and hydrogen; these reactions may be represented: CH 3 �CO 2;K CH 3 CO 2 K' CH 2 �CO 2 1K CH 2 CO 2 K' --> I + + I I -i iI + CH 3 �CO 21 K CH 3 CO 2 K' CH 2 �CO 2 iK CH 2 CO 2 K' By electrolysing a solution of potassium ethyl succinate, KO 2 C�(CH 2) 2 CO 2 C 2 H 5, the KO 2 C� groups are split off and the two residues �(CH 2) 2 CO 2 C 2 H 5 combine to form the ester (CH2)4(C02C2H5)2.
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  • The reactions are strictly analogous to those which occur in the smelting of galena (see Lead), the carbon reducing any oxide, either present originally in the ore or produced in the calcination, and the iron combining with the sulphur of the bismuthite.
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  • Thus the reactions NH 4 Cinh 3 +HC1, and PC PC13+C 12 are instances of the first type; N 2 O 4 2NO 2, of the second (see Chemical Action).
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  • These reactions are of special interest, for they culminate in the production of artificial ruby and sapphire (see Gems, Artificial).
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  • Concentrated ammonia converts it into diazoacetamide, CHN 2 CONH 2, which crystallizes in golden yellow plates which melt at 114° C. For other reactions see Hydrazine.
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  • Ethyl nitrate, C2H5.0N02, is a colourless liquid which boils at 86.3° C. It is prepared by the action of nitric acid on ethyl alcohol (some urea being added to the nitric acid, in order to destroy any nitrous acid that might be produced in secondary reactions and which, if not removed, would cause explosive decomposition of the ethyl nitrate).
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  • In the beginnings of consciousness instinctive reactions precede definite thoughts, and even in mature life thoughts often follow acts instead of preceding them.
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  • Since the reactions on the bearings must be statically equivalent to the whole system of effective forces, they will reduce to a force (X Y Z) at 0 and a couple (L M N) given by X=w~(mx) =ai1~(m)~, Y =w1~(my) =wI�(m)y, Z =0, L=wfZ(myz), M =, 2~(mzx), N =0, (8)
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  • He explains the reactions thus: O ?ONa CH 3 �C < +NaOC2H5=CH3�C -0C2H5, ?
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  • The reactions outlined above may be thus represented: - R�CH 2 OH >R�CH21 Primary alcohol.
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  • And what is the time limit for such reactions?
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  • This page summarizes the reactions of amines as nucleophiles.
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  • GM cats which do n't provoke allergic reactions in humans?
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  • Sulfur is the best element for rearrangement reactions and allows us to employ the novel strategy of migrating functional groups.
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  • The topics reviewed are: redox reactions, Hess 's Law, balancing ion electron half equations, redox titrations and electrolysis.
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  • Reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) is the main technique that is used to study these reactions.
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  • These hepatic reactions were observed during or immediately after treatment, and in most cases were reversible after discontinuation of telithromycin.
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  • Minerals and trace elements serve as vital catalysts for the biological reactions that take place within the body.
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  • The analysis is extended to a consideration of rate constants for chemical reactions between solutes in solution.
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  • Abstract Radiocarbon is produced within minerals at the earth 's surface (in situ production) by a number of spallation reactions.
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  • The assumption of charge independence is used to calculate production by cosmic ray neutrons using spallation cross sections for proton induced reactions.
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  • The next diagram shows the redox reactions demonstrating the chemistry of succinate production.
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  • In a tantalum target, the electrons generate an intense highly directional gamma-ray beam that can be used to carry out photonuclear reactions.
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  • Enantiomers behave in the same way in ordinary test tube reactions.
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  • The sun radiates energy produced by thermonuclear reactions deep in its interior.
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  • Both the pre-mRNA processing reactions of capping and splicing were also subsequently shown to interconnect with transcription elongation.
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  • The problem was that white blood cells were in the transfused blood causing reactions.
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  • Acute, severe reactions may occur in 1-2% of transfused patients.
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  • Children: all suspected adverse drug reactions in children should be reported even if the black triangle symbol has been removed.
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  • The tricarboxylic acid cycle; inputs, reactions, central metabolic role.
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  • It is this aggregation of platelets which triggers the cascade of reactions leading to blood clot formation (thrombosis).
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  • The characters ' motivations and reactions, tho, did n't quite ring true for me.
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  • We do not at present have data that would allow us to accurately calculate the extent of underreporting of withdrawal reactions.
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  • Some people have urticaria (skin reactions similar to nettle rash or hives).
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  • There has also been a notable increase in reporting of immediate vasovagal reactions to the injection, including syncope.
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  • Remarkably, she managed not to mention withdrawal reactions in over one full page of text on " Adverse effects ".
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  • Try each food for two or three days at a time before moving on to the next to check for allergic reactions.
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  • KidsHealth.org stresses the importance of watching closely for allergic reactions as well as keeping your child on a safe and strict feeding schedule.
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  • Why should her reactions be any different when she plays an interactive game with you on the computer?
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  • You'll never find a name that pleases everyone, and some people may hurt your feelings by having negative reactions to names that you love.
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  • If you've had allergic reactions to any of the ingredients in the past, or if you're skin has broken out from the application of any of the ingredients, do not buy the blush.
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  • Some people experience allergic reactions to white gold.
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  • Jewelers are now shifting to palladium as the other metal used in white gold since it does not create allergic reactions.
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  • This can be prevented by choosing a pan or pot that has been treated to prevent the reactions.
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  • Over time, however, you may find that your cast iron rusts, and again that nasty habit of some metals: reactions with certain foods (usually acidic ones).
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  • Soy - This item is another inexpensive filler that provides little protein, interferes with normal digestion, and has been known to cause allergic reactions in pets.
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  • The shots your vet prescribed are necessary to help your cat's hormonal system remain in balance and able to fight off immune reactions that produce the typical allergy symptoms.
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  • Testing needs to be done on the cats showing the reactions.
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  • The humidity seems to add to the congestion asthma sufferers experience, and all of that fabulous flora may actually trigger allergic reactions as well.
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  • Lifestyle Pets claims a 95 percent success rate of providing their clients with cats that don't trigger allergic reactions.
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  • Each vaccination triggers an immune response alongside the possibility of negative reactions.
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  • As these glaciers melt, there is a resulting drop in pressure that may trigger serious geological reactions.
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  • Mary Findley (MF): Throughout my years professionally cleaning homes, many of my customers were chemical sensitive and had reactions to the chemicals I used in their homes.
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  • Allergic reactions to valerian are rare, but they do happen so always watch for unusual symptoms.
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  • While this herb has been consumed for thousands of years it can have side effects when taken in medicinal quantities, as well as having reactions with various medications.
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  • Some cases of allergic reactions have occurred, so if a rash or redness appears, discontinue use.
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  • In addition, some individuals experience upset stomach, heartburn, nausea and allergic reactions.
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  • When taking these products or any herbal remedy, pay careful attention to the ingredient list, and watch for adverse reactions.
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  • Many Chinese herbs can cause reactions and can be dangerous if not used properly.
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  • It is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to prevent allergic reactions.
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  • Upset stomach and nausea have been reported side effects in some patients and rare but serious allergic reactions have also been reported.
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  • Whether it's tree pollen, grass, pet dander or another source, allergens often trigger uncomfortable reactions in adults and children alike.
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  • If your child develops these symptoms, call 911 or take him to the nearest emergency room, since such reactions may be life-threatening.
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  • If this is the case, test an unnoticeable area to make sure that there are no chemical reactions before cleaning the entire ceiling.
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  • Artificial fragrances and preservatives can also cause allergic reactions for some people.
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  • Individuals with adverse skin reactions toward makeup and cleansers should always consider a sample size before going big.
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  • Volatile chemical reactions occur both at the creation of the liquid and as soon as it leaves the bottle.
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  • Of course, with mascara the results are pretty instantaneous, and allergic reactions are rare so there wasn't much to worry about from that standpoint.
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  • An allergy test should always be done before a full application of liquid latex by conducting a patch test to a small area of the skin to check for reactions.
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  • Stainless steel is the poorest conductor of heat among metal pans, but it is most widely used because it does not cause any chemical reactions to food and is virtually maintenance free.
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  • Short descriptions of your reactions or feelings: Write a short sentence about how the subject of the page makes you feel.
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  • Make notes of their reactions in a journal to use in your layout.
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  • Your friends and family are affected and you may have started to feel guilty for your reactions.
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  • Many people find that exercising helps them to manage their reactions to anger.
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  • These physical reactions cause damage to the body over time as anger continues to be in control.
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  • By following these steps, you should have been able to identify what angers you, common themes of your anger, and physiological reactions to stress that lead to rage.
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  • Temporary stress reactions are healthy, but when the body remains in a continuously alert or stressed state, major health consequences result.
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  • Ask members to come up with ways to control their reactions to the situation.
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  • Life stressors trigger stress reactions in the body, which impair the immune system and decrease overall health.
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  • If you believe you may suffer from anxiety attacks, see your doctor for a consultation about possible causes and how to effectively treat them to eliminate your reactions.
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  • Many of these physical reactions to extreme stress can be harmful to the body if they occur frequently, and they can also be indicators of more severe medical conditions.
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  • Logic is simply unavailable in the moment, and reactions are based on raw emotion.
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  • People with chronic anxiety realize that these mental symptoms are out of proportion with the situation but are unable to control their reactions.
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  • These physical symptoms are normal physiologic responses to a stressful situation; these reactions are intended to be short-term and protect the body from danger or threats.
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