Under the Restoration he became a peer of France, but protested against the reactionary spirit of the government, and remained in opposition.
He was left in the hands of reactionary boyars and priests, who encouraged him to hate his father and wish for the death of the tsar-antichrist.
All these forces were equally necessarythe revolutionists to keep up agitation and make government by bayonets impossible; the moderates to curb the impetuosity of the revolutionists and to present a scheme of society that was neither reactionary nor anarchical; the volunteers abroad to gain military experience; and the more peaceful exiles to spread the name of Italy among foreign peoples.
Created secular prelate, he was sent as apostolic delegate to Viterbo, where he early manifested his reactionary tendencies in an attempt to stamp out Liberalism.
In connexion with this system of salaries should be mentioned a somewhat reactionary law carried by Pericles in 451, by which an Athenian parentage on both sides was made an express condition of retaining the franchise and with it the right of sitting on paid juries.
He was variously reported to have been wounded and killed in this affair, and the wits of the reactionary party circulated his epitaph: Ci-git le general Santerre Qui n'eut de Mars que la biere.
In 1537 he was appointed chaplain to Henry VIII., and in 1538 he was threatened with prosecution by the reactionary party.
It was not, indeed, simply a reactionary or undemocratic measure; it was, as The Times correspondent pointed out, " a measure sui generis, designed to defeat the objects of the universal suffrage movement that compelled the Coalition to take office in April 1906, and framed in accordance with Magyar needs as understood by one of the foremost Magyar noblemen."
He was surrounded by intriguers who were playing a game of their own, and for some time he appeared almost disposed to be as reactionary as his great-uncle Abbas I.
But the reactionary boyars, among whom were the near kinsmen of Theodore, proclaimed him tsar and Matvyeev was banished to Pustozersk, in northern Russia, where he remained till Theodore's death (April 27, 1682).
The great danger is that, as the blood in the vessels becomes thawed, there will be so much reactionary flow through the tissues that acute inflammation will follow.
In 1823, when the reactionary powers were meditating joint action to suppress the - revolution in Spain, the government without consultin P ?
Though he was always an enemy to liberalism, his natural independence of character prevented him from acquiescing in the reactionary measures of the king.
In the affairs of his own country he refrained from developing and extending the liberal institutions which he had created immediately after his accession, and he finally adopted in all departments of administration a strongly reactionary policy.
As Stolypin became more and more violent and reactionary, the Octobrists lost their standing ground, and Guchkov eventually resigned the presidentship of the Duma.
Rumours of a reactionary plot by Austria and the Jesuits against Pius, induced him to create a national guard and to appoint Cardinal Ferretti as secretary of state.
Charles Albert, although mahftaining his reactionary policy, had introduced administrative reforms, built railways, reorganized the army and developed the resources of the country.
Thayers Dawn of Italian Independence (Boston, 1893) is gushing and not always accurate; C. Cants Dell indipendenza italiana cronistoria (Naples, 1872-1877) is reactionary and often unreliable; V.
8 In spite of these restrictions and of an electoral system which tended to make these assemblies as strait-laced and reactionary as any government bureau, the zemstvos did good work, notably educational, in those provinces where the proprietors were inspired with a more liberal spirit.
The course taken by Cranmer in promoting the Reformation exposed him to the bitter hostility of the reactionary party or " men of the old learning," of whom Gardiner and Bonner were leaders, and on various occasions - notably in 1543 and 1 545 - conspiracies were formed in the council or elsewhere to effect his overthrow.
For example, were there no reactionary peasant among the delegates, a reactionary majority might be forced to return a Social Democrat to the Duma.
Thus, in spite of his academic sympathy with liberal ideas, he became, together with Metternich, a champion of political stagnation, and co-operated willingly in the reactionary measures against the revolutionary movements in Germany, Italy and Spain.
In these circumstances sanguine enthusiasm naturally gave way to despondency, and the reforming zeal of the government was replaced by tendencies of a decidedly reactionary kind.
in any form, entered frankly on a reactionary policy, which was pursued consistently during the whole of his reign.
So also did the " Midhat Constitution " promulgated by Abd-ul-Hamid almost immediately after his accession to the throne, owing largely to the reactionary spirit at that time of the' Ulema and of the sultan's immediate advisers, but almost, if not quite, in equal measure to the scornful reception of the Constitution by the European powers.
A reactionary movement started in April 1909 was promptly suppressed by the Young Turks through the military occupation of Constantinople by Shevket Pasha and the dethronement of Abd-ul-Hamid, who was succeeded by his younger brother Reshad Effendi under the title of Mahommed V.
He was reporter of the committee which drew up the constitution of the year III., and his report shows keen apprehension of a return of the Reign of Terror, and presents reactionary measures as precautions against the re-establishment of "tyranny and anarchy."
In this instance the ultimate success of the corporation greatly strengthened the Obscurantist and reactionary element throughout Austria.
Liberalism In Piedmont, in spite of the governments reactionary and methods, a large part of the population were genuinely ~ attached to the Savoy dynasty, and the idea of a regenera- meat tion of Italy under its auspices began to gain ground.
was pressed by the more reactionary elements to model his parliament on this rough equivalent of the Western states-general.
Thus the prominent school of criticism which appraised Wagner in the 10th century by his approximation to Darwin and Herbert Spencer, appraises him in the aoth by his approximation to Bernard Shaw; with the absurd result that Gatterdammerung is ruled out as a reactionary failure.
He declared himself a strong partisan of the union of the Left in what is known as the Bloc, in order to check the reactionary deputies of the Right.
Baldasseroni, Leopoldo II (Florence, 1871), useful but reactionary in tendency, the author having been Leopold's minister, G.
The emperor, however, whatever his own views, was surrounded by reactionary influences, of which the most powerful were the empress-mother, Pobedonostsev the procurator of the Holy Synod, Count Muraviev and the Grandduke Sergius.
Prince Mirski resigned, his resignation being immediately followed by a reactionary imperial manifesto reaffirming the principle of autocracy (February 18th).
He at once became the recognized leader of the Liberal opposition to the reactionary government, but must be distinguished from Count Bennigsen, a member of the same family, and son of the distinguished Russian general, who was also one of the parliamentary leaders at the time.
He opposed the reactionary measures of the Tory government, supported and afterwards succeeded Romilly in his efforts for reforming the criminal code, and took a leading part both in Catholic emancipation and in the Reform Bill.
In Asia Minor the Kurdish troops under Ibrahim Pasha revolted, and, although they were defeated with the loss of their commander, the Kurds continued to attack indiscriminately the Turks, Nestorians and Armenians; disturbances also broke out among the other reactionary Moslems of this region, culminating in a massacre of the Armenians at Adana.
An attempt on his life by the student Jukic (June 8) was followed by still more reactionary measures, and on July 11 the autonomy of the Serbian orthodox church in Slavonia and Hungary was also suspended.
Filangieri was a very distinguished soldier, and a man of great ability; although he changed sides several times he became really attached to the Bourbon dynasty, which he hoped to save by freeing it from its reactionary tendencies and infusing a new spirit into it.
Haemorrhage has been classified as - (I) primary, occurring at the time of the injury; (2) reactionary, or within twenty-four hours of the accident, during the stage of reaction; (3) secondary, occurring at a later period and caused by faulty application of a ligature or septic condition of the wound.
The elections resulted in a majority favourable to the new ministry, and a series of laws were passed of a reactionary tendency with a view to strengthening the government.
In 1883 he resigned his seat in parliament owing to the reactionary measures of the government, which made it impossible for him to continue his former co-operation with Bismarck, but returned in 1887 to support the coalition of national parties.
As minister he carried through an important judicial reform which had been prepared by his predecessor, but had to retire from office because he was opposed to the reactionary measures for restoring the influence and privileges of the nobility.
The reactionary policy thus indicated gave the impression that a similar aim underlay the appointment about the same date of a commission to inquire into Biblical studies; and in other minor matters Leo XIII.
The emperor's most important act was a severe reprimand addressed to Herr von Puttkamer, the reactionary minister of the interior, which caused his resignation; in the distribution of honours he chose many who belonged to classes and parties hitherto excluded from court favour.
His was the mildest and least reactionary of all the Italian despotisms of the day, and although always subject to Austrian influence he refused to adopt the Austrian methods of government, allowed a fair measure of liberty to the press, and permitted many political exiles from other states to dwell in Tuscany undisturbed.
Now that he saw an opportunity to become master he became reactionary and abolished the federal constitution.
In this repect the opposition to Gnosticism led to a reactionary movement.
The island suffered from the reactionary policy of Ferdinand VII., but the few sporadic attempts at revolution between 1815 and 1820 were readily suppressed.
Returned to the Convention in September 1792 he developed moderate, even reactionary views, becoming one of the fiercest opponents of the Mountain, though he never wavered in his support of republican principles.
In Austria the army was now supreme, and the appointment of Prince Felix Schwarzenberg as head of the government was a guarantee that its power would be used in a reactionary F sense without weakness or scruple.
He presented a measure in favour of full liberty for the press, which at that time was almost unanimously reactionary, protested against the outlawry of returned emigres, spoke in favour of the deported priests and attacked the Directory.
The whole system was designed to suppress the competition of outsiders, but the divergent interests of individuals and towns, the pressure of competition and changing commercial conditions, in part the reactionary character of the legislation, made enforcement difficult.
The worshippers at the shrine of Chinese philosophy evoked a reactionary spirit of nationalism, just as the excessive worship of Occidental civilization was destined to do in the I9th century.
the dark shadow of Metternich's policy of " stability " fell across the kingdom, and the forces of reactionary absolutism were everywhere supreme.
In the Assembly, to which he was returned in 1791 by the department of Seine-et-Marne, he voted generally with the minority, and his views being obviously too moderate for his colleagues he resigned in 1792 and was soon after arrested on suspicion of being a reactionary.
Ochino was at once cited, but was deterred from presenting himself at Rome by the warnings of Peter Martyr and of Cardinal Contarini, whom he found at Bologna, dying of poison administered by the reactionary party.
During the years which immediately preceded the war, as well as during the first 18 months of the conflict, he was himself a candidate for the office of Imperial Chancellor, in the sense that many of the reactionary Conservatives and of those who advocated a ruthless conception of policy in peace and war regarded him as their political hope.
1917 under reactionary auspices to combat all attempts at peace by compromise, and to advocate the prosecution of the U-boat warfare with extreme ruthlessness.
He resigned office on the proclamation of the republic after the flight of the pope to Gaeta in 1849, resumed it for a while when Pius returned to Rome with the protection of French arms, but when a reactionary and priestly policy was instituted, he went into exile and took up his residence at Turin.
The old marshal vainly endeavoured to keep his own, Progressists within bounds in the Cortes of 1854-1856, and in the great towns, but their excessive demands for reforms and liberties played into the hands of a clerical and reactionary court and of the equally retrograde governing classes.
The Piedmontese government at this time was most reactionary, and had made a clean sweep of all French institutions.
"He was," wrote his reactionary minister, Count della Margherita, "hostile to Austria from the depths of his soul and full of illusions as to the possibility of freeing Italy from dependence on her..
The constitution, dating from 1852, is a reactionary modification of one carried in 1849, which had been a considerable advance upon one granted in 1816.
Henceforth Christian's suspected democratic principles made him persona ingratissima at all the reactionary European courts, his own court included, and he and his second wife, Caroline Amelia of Augustenburg, whom he married in 1815, lived in comparative retirement as the leaders of the literary and scientific society of Copenhagen.
He was the soul of the reactionary opposition that led to the fall of Thiers; and in 1873 it was he who, with Lucien Brun, carried to the comte de Chambord the proposals of the chambers.
While there was in a certain sense freedom of opinion, all printers had to seek a licence from the government for every manner of book or paper, and heresy was so closely affiliated with treason that the free expression of thought, whether reactionary or revolutionary, was beset with grave danger.
He had to accept the services of many ex-officers whose hearts were with the old regime, and he also found it difficult and, in some cases impossible, to dissolve reactionary Free Corps like those which returned from the Baltic provinces or like Ehrhardt's Marine Brigade.
Noske, notwithstanding the genuineness of his Republican and Social Democratic opinions, enjoyed con siderable popularity in the new army and with the reactionary friends of law and order, as a man of decided character, great energy and resourcefulness in times of crisis.
The state, however, became increasingly identified with the reactionary party in the Transvaal.
In 1843 Lindenau was forced by the action of the aristocratic party to resign, and was replaced by Julius Traugotte von Kdnneritz (1792-1866), a statesman of reactionary views.
Warned by the sympathy excited in Saxony by the revolutionary events at Paris in 1848, the king dismissed his reactionary ministry, and a Liberal cabinet took its place in March 1848.
The king himself was carried away with the reactionary current, and the people remained for the time indifferent.
His rule was subservient to Austria, reactionary and despotic. On the outbreak of the French Revolution of 1830, Francis IV.
Subsequently Alexander was alienated from him owing to the intrigues of the count's enemies, who hated him for his severity and regarded him as a dangerous reactionary.
In his early years he was an active political journalist, and from 1826 to 1830 opposed the reactionary policy of the king in Le Globe.
When Geneva recovered its political independence in 1814 a new constitution was drawn up, but it was very reactionary, for there is no mention in it of the sovereignty of the people.
The restoration in Tuscany was not accompanied by the reactionary excesses which characterized it elsewhere, and a large part of the French legislation was retained.
His reactionary conservative temper was in complete harmony with the views of Bismarck and the emperor William, and with their powerful support he attempted, in defiance of modern democratic principles and even of the spirit of the constitution, to re-establish the old Prussian system of rigid discipline from above.
A crisis had arisen in Galatia owing to the invasion of the churches, which St Paul had founded there, by reactionary Jews.
There he had been informed in confidence of the renewal by the Allies of their treaty binding them to interfere in case of a renewal of revolutionary trouble in France; and it was partly owing to this knowledge that he resigned office in December of the same year, on the refusal of his colleagues to support a reactionary modification of the electoral law.
It was promulgated in Mexico, and the ecclesiastics and Spaniards, fearing that a Liberal Spanish government would force on them disendowment, toleration and other changes, induced Augustin de Iturbide, who had already been conspicuous in suppressing the risings, to take the field in order to effect what may be called a reactionary revolution.
He was presently displaced by a thorough reactionary, General Zuloaga, and expelled from Mexico early in 1858; and for three years Mexico was a prey to civil war between two rival governments - the Republicans at Vera Cruz under Juarez, who, as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, succeeded Comonfort; and the reactionaries at the capital.
The revolutions of 1830 strengthened Frederick William in his reactionary tendencies; the question of the constitution was indefinitely shelved; and in 1831 Prussian troops concentrated on the frontier helped the task of the Russians in reducing the military rising in Poland.
Twice he declined the offer of a portfolio in the Neapolitan cabinet, and upon the triumph of the reactionary party undertook the defence of the Liberal political prisoners.
Prior to the Revolution he took only a minor part in politics, but when it broke out he soon became, with the queen, the chief of the reactionary party at court.
His first acts, indeed, allayed the worst alarms of the Liberals; but it was soon apparent that the weight of the crown would be consistently thrown into the scale of the reactionary forces.
If he had no sympathy with revolutionary disturbers of the peace, he had even less with the fatuous extravagances of the comte d'Artois and his reactionary entourage, and his influence was thrown into the scale of the moderate constitutional policy of which Richelieu and Decazes were the most conspicuous exponents.
In so far as he had any decided political convictions, he seemed to be animated with that reactionary spirit which was predominant in Europe at the time of his birth, and continued in Russia to the end of his father's reign.
Some of the enthusiasts sank into a sceptical, reactionary frame of mind; while others, with deeper convictions or capable of more lasting excitement, attributed the failure to the fact that only halfmeasures and compromises had been adopted by the government.
The movement gradually assumed the form of terrorism, and aimed at the assassination of prominent officials, and even of the emperor himself, and the natural result was that the reactionary tendencies of the government were strengthened.
It was suppressed in an hour's time by the tsar's troops, of whom only one man was mortally wounded; and the horrible vengeance (September - October 1698) which Peter on his return to Russia wreaked upon the captive musketeers was due not to any actual fear of these antiquated warriors, but to his consciousness that behind them stood the reactionary majority of the nation who secretly sympathized with, though they durst not assist, the rebels.
His main purpose was to modernize and reinterpret Christianity; he says in the preface to the third edition of the book: "I have written it solely in the service of evangelical truth, to win to the truth those especially who have been most unhappily alienated from the church and its interests, in a great measure through the fault of a reactionary party, blinded by hierarchical aims."
and his queen, Emma, ruled from 1855 to 1863 and were succeeded by his brother, Kamehameha V., who died in 1872, and in whose reign a third (and a reactionary) constitution went into effect in 1864, by mere royal proclamation.
Bignon did not re-enter public life until 1817, when he was elected to the chamber of deputies, in which he sat until 1830, consistent in his opposition to the reactionary policy of successive governments.
From [x, his return in 1850 to 1870 he was the reactionary 1846-4878.
By heading off reactionary Austria Napoleon hoped to conciliate the French Liberals; by helping the pope, to satisfy the Catholics; by concessions to be wrung both from Pius and from the Roman triumvirs, to achieve a bloodless victory.
Although the Liberal record of the pope was a thing of the past, and his policy had, since Gaeta, become firmly identified with the reactionary policy of Antonelli, yet the early years of his pontificate were in such lively recollection as to allow of Pius IX.'s appearing to some extent in the light of a national hero.
The name Thermidorian (Thermidorien) was given to the authors of this revolution and to the supporters of the reactionary movement of which it was the signal.
He covered his defection from Hardenberg's liberal constitutionalism by a series of "philosophical" treatises on the nature of the state and of man, and became the soul of the reactionary movement at the Berlin court, and the faithful henchman of Metternich in the general politics of Germany and of Europe.
The situation that resulted issued in the revolutionary year 1848 in a general manifestation of public discontent; and Frederick William, who had become elector on his father's death (November 20, 1847), was forced to dismiss his reactionary ministry and to agree to a comprehensive programme of democratic reform.
Among the enterprising and shrewd Catalans, who look upon their rulers as reactionary, and reserve all their sympathies for the Provencal neighbours whom they so nearly resemble in race, language and temperament, French influence and republican ideals spread rapidly; taking the form partly of powerful labour and socialist organizations, partly of less reputable bodies, revolutionary and even anarchist.
From the tribune of the Chamber he described the revolution of February as a "catastrophe," and he supported reactionary legislation, notably the bill (May 31, 1850) for the liinitation of the suffrage.
In internal affairs his ministry was characterized by a reactionary policy less severe than elsewhere in Germany, which led none the less from 1854 onward to a struggle with the parliament, which ended in the dismissal of Pfordten's ministry on the 27th of March 1859.
It was not until the 4th of May 1877, when the peril from reactionary intrigues was notorious, and the clerical party had begun a campaign for the restoration of the temporal power of the pope, that he delivered his famous speech denouncing "clericalism" as "the enemy."
He appeared there as the champion of the king and encouraged him in his reactionary policy.
Little by little his policy, always supported by a majority in a house of representatives elected by a corrupt and narrow franchise, became more reactionary and purely dynastic. His position in France seeming to be unassailable, he sought to strengthen it in Europe by family alliances.
If in this matter Louis Philippe had seemed to sacrifice the international position of France to dynastic interests, his attempt to re-establish it by allying himself with the reactionary monarchies against the Liberals of Switzerland finally alienated from him the French Liberal opinion on which his authority was based.
Under the more moderate ministers of succeeding years he again held various appointments, but refused to join the reactionary cabinets of the close of the reign of Charles X.
On the vexed question of the interpretation of Article 13 Metternich recognized the inexpediency of requiring the South German states to revise their constitutions in a reactionary sense.
Thus precious time was lost, violent antagonisms were called forth, the patience of the nation was exhausted, and the reactionary forces were able to gather strength for once more asserting themselves.
A reactionary ministr)
to submit to so severe a blow at the very time when she wa strong enough to appoint a reactionary government, and ha; nearly re-established her authority, not only in Vienna, but i:
The nickname cartridge-prince (Kartdtschenprinz) bestowed upon him during the troubles of 48 was undeserved; but he was notoriously opposed to Liberalism and, had he followed his own instincts, he would have modified the constitution in a reactionary sense.
A proposal to introduce biennial budgets was for this reason regarded with great suspicion by the Opposition as a reactionary measure, and rejected.
Their part henceforth was to vote blindly with the Conservative groups, in a common fear of the Social Democracy, or to indulge in protests, futile because backed by no power inside or outside the parliament; their impotence was equally revealed when in December 1902 they voted with the Agrarians for the tariff, and in May 1909 when they withdrew in dudgeon from the new tariff committee, and allowed the reactionary elements a free hand.
The proclamation on the 26th of February 1861 of the new constitution for the whole monarchy, elaborated by Anton von Schmerling, though far from satisfying the national aspirations of the races within the empire, at least gave Austria a temporary popularity in Germany; the liberalism of the Habsburg monarchy was favourably contrasted with the " reactionary " policy of Prussia, where Bismarck was defying the majority of the diet in his determination to build up the military power of Prussia.
The fate of Parga created intense feeling at the time in England, and was cited by Liberals as a crowning instance of the perfidy of the government and of Castlereagh's subservience to reactionary tendencies abroad.
Reactionary as the measure was it enabled the agricultural interest, on which the prosperity of Denmark mainly depended, to tide over one of the most dangerous crises in its history; but certainly the position of the Danish peasantry was never worse than during the reign of the religious and benevolent Christian VI.
But the National Liberals triumphed at the general election; fear of reactionary tendencies finally induced the Radicals to accede to the wishes of the majority; and on the 5th of June 1849 the new constitution received the royal sanction.
He had steadily to oppose Sigismund's reactionary tendencies; he had also to curb the nobility, which he did with cruel rigour.
Yet he was not reactionary.
The new queen Catherine Howard represented the triumph of the reactionary party under Gardiner and Norfolk; but there was no idea of returning to the papal obedience, and even Catholic orthodoxy as represented by the Six Articles was only enforced by spasmodic outbursts of persecution and vain attempts to get rid of Cranmer.
In 1807 he became editor of the Gaceta de Madrid, and in the following year was condemned to death by Murat for publishing a patriotic article; he fled to Cadiz, and under the Junta Central held various posts from which he was dismissed by the reactionary government of 1814.
After the fall of Robespierre, Legendre took part in the reactionary movement, undertook the closing of the Jacobin Club, was.
Indeed the king's horror of Jacobinism was morbid in its intensity, and drove him to adopt all sorts of reactionary measures and to postpone his coronation for some years, so as to avoid calling together a diet; but the disorder of the finances, caused partly by the continental war and partly by the almost total failure of the crops in 1798 and 1799, compelled him to summon the estates to Norrkoping in March 1800, and on the 3rd of April Gustavus was crowned.
Jefferson, however, far from America in these years and unexposed to reactionary influences, came back with undiminished fervour of democracy, and the talk he heard of praise for England, and fearful recoil before even the beginning of the revolution in France, disheartened him, and filled him with suspicion.'
Ferdinand succeeded in getting a reactionary ministry appointed, and dissolved parliament in May 1815, after concluding a treaty with Austria - now freed by Murat's defection from her engagements with him - for the recovery of his mainland dominions by means of an Austrian army paid for by himself.
On the 23rd the Austrians entered Naples, followed soon afterwards by the king; every vestige of freedom was suppressed, the reactionary Medici ministry appointed, and the inevitable state trials instituted with the usual harvest of executions and imprisonment.
in 1881, he was appointed minister of the interior on the understanding that he would carry out a nationalist, reactionary policy, but his shifty ways and his administrative incapacity so displeased his imperial master that he was dismissed in the following year.
In 1866 he displayed considerable personal courage and energy in quelling an insurrection of separatist and reactionary tendencies.
Hand in hand with these reactionary measures came two others, one against Jews and Christians, one against the Shiites.
In 1831 the mission question led to a rising against the reactionary clerical rule of Governor Manuel Victoria.
The reactionary party, which, owing to the absence of Hertford and Lisle and to the presence of Gardiner, gained the upper hand in the council in the summer of 1546, were not satisfied with this repulse; they probably aimed at the leaders of the reforming party, such as Hertford and possibly Queen Catherine Parr, who were suspected of favouring Anne, and on the 18th of June 1546 Anne was again arraigned before a commission including the lord mayor, the duke of Norfolk, St John, Bonner and Heath.
As a politician he was one of the leaders of modern Liberalism, and though always loyal when appeals were made to patriotism, such as government demands for the army, he remained obdurate on constitutional questions; and he resolutely opposed the reactionary policy of the Prussian Conservatives.
Virginia remained in the hands of the reactionary party and was governed by men whose primary purpose was to "make their fortunes" at the expense of the colonials.
As a member of the Council of Five Hundred, Du Pont carried out his policy of resistance to the Jacobins, and made himself prominent as a member of the reactionary party.
All this while the political policy of Tudors and Stewarts tended towards monarchical absolutism, while the Reformation in England, modified by contact with the Low Countries during their struggles, was narrowing into strict reactionary intolerance.
Unfortunately his successor soon fell under the influence of the reactionary party which had begun to assert itself in Russia even before the assassination of Alexander II.
Although the distress was caused by the reactionary effect of a disordered currency and the inflated prices of the war of 1812, he ascribed it to the country's dependence on foreign supply and foreign markets.
The Talmud outlived the reactionary tendencies of the Qaraites (q.v.) and of the Kabbalah, and fortunately, since these movements, important though they undoubtedly were for the evolution of thought, had not within them the power to be of lasting benefit to the rank and file of the community.
She was at once raised to the throne by the party of progress, as represented by Prince Menshikov and Count Tolstoy, whose interests and perils were identical with those of the empress, before the reactionary party had time to organize opposition, her great popularity with the army powerfully contributing to her success.
The Orebro Riksdag (April - August 1812), remarkable besides for its partial repudiation of Sweden's national debt and its reactionary press laws, introduced general conscription into Sweden, and thereby enabled the crown prince to carry out his ambitious policy.
A man of great talent, he was a violent reactionary, and suffered from the consequences of an attitude so unpopular.
A prolonged ministerial crisis, in April and May, was attributed by the Nationalists to the influence of reactionary courtiers, and by the Royalists to the influence of the Anjumans, or political clubs, which were alleged to control the Nationalist majority in the Majlis.
Thoroughly reactionary, and absolutely devoted to the Habsburgs, he contributed more than any one else to the curtailing of the privileges of the Magyar gentry in 1687, when he was created a prince of the Empire, with (in 1712) succession to the first-born of his house.
Hence, like most of those who break away from an established order, he seems by turns a revolutionist and a reactionary.
Salmeron had even to appeal to such well-known reactionary generals as Pavia, Sanchez, Bregna and Moriones, to assume the command of the armies in the south and in the north of Spain.
Though Vladislav was faithful to his promise of maintaining the Compacts, and did not attempt to prevent the Bohemians from receiving the communion in both kinds, yet his policy was on the whole a reactionary one, both as regards matters of state and the religious controversies.
She showed most favour to her reactionary generals and statesmen, to the Church and religious orders, and was constantly the tool of corrupt and profligate courtiers and favourites who gave her court a deservedly bad name.
He was without question a reactionary, morose and taciturn, and spent nearly all his time shut up in his palace.
During the diet of 1839-1840 Deak succeeded in bringing about an understanding between a reactionary government, sadly in want of money, and a Liberal opposition determined that the nation should have its political privileges respected.
In 1795 Sassari was the centre of the reaction of the barons against the popular ideas sown by the French Revolution; an insurrection of the people led by one Angioi lasted only a short while, and led to reactionary measures.
Jules Lemaitre, a less sympathetic critic, finds in the extraordinary crimes of his heroes and heroines, his reactionary views, his dandyism and snobbery, an exaggerated Byronism.
In dealing with modern Italian history he is reactionary and often wilfully inaccurate.
The part played by Ito in these negotiations aroused the animosity of the more reactionary of his fellow-clansmen, who made repeated attempts to assassinate him.
After Alexander's final "conversion" to reactionary principles, Capo d'Istria was dismissed (1822) and Nesselrode definitely took his place.
An attitude so indecent threatened to defeat the very objects of the reactionary powers, and Gentz congratulated the congress that these sorry protests would be buried in the archives, offering at the same time to write for the king a dignified letter in which he should express his reluctance at having to violate his oaths in the face of irresistible force !
Through these extravagances a reactionary movement arose at the beginning of the 18th century, one of the most distinguished leaders of which was Loescher, superintendent at Dresden.
The first steps towards the inevitable breach with the reactionary rowers had already been taken before Castlereaghs tragic death on the eve of the congress of Verona brought George Canning into office as the executor of his policy.
This policy had been foreshadowed in the instructions drawn up by Castlereagh for his own guidance at Verona; but Canning succeeded in giving it a popular and national color and thus removing from the government all suspicion of sympathy with the reactionary spirit of the Holy Alliance.
All Europe, whether Liberal or reactionary, was watching the constitutional struggle with strained attention; the principles of monarchy and of constitutional liberty were alike at stake.
In this respect English governments are more, cautious or reactionary than many of those on the continent of Europe, and access to official documents is denied when it is granted elsewhere; even the lapse of a century is not considered, a sufficient salve for susceptibilities which might be wounded by the whole truth.
The book had a considerable effect in discrediting the reactionary policy of the government; but it was not until 1828, when Berenger was elected to the chamber, that he had an opportunity of exercising a personal influence on affairs as a member of the group known as that of constitutional opposition.
The reactionary policy of the Prussian government made him resign his office of privy councillor and give up political life in 1819; and from that time forward he devoted himself solely to literature and study.
This feeling gave rise to Conservative, even somewhat reactionary, legislation.
The skupshtina and senate assembled, restored the constitution of 1889 instead of the reactionary constitution promulgated by King Alexander on the 19th of April 1901, and ratified the election of Prince Peter, who entered Belgrade as king on the 24th of June 1903.
During the case an attempt was made upon his life as he was leaving the court by a youth who had been brought up under reactionary influences.
The assassins, two well-dressed young men, were very generally believed to have been at least voluntary agents of the reactionary and military cliques.
Acting on the advice of Chief Justice Nicholas Trott (1663-1740) the proprietors adopted a reactionary policy, vetoed several popular laws, and refused to afford protection from the attacks of the Indians.
It was with this end in view that he co-operated with the party of order in the expedition to Rome for the destruction of the Roman republic and the restoration of the pope (March 31, 1849), and afterwards in all the reactionary measures against the press and the clubs, and for the destruction of the Reds.
The more natural explanation is that it was written not in the early years of Josiah's reign, and with the cognizance of the temple priests then in office, but some time during the long reign of Manasseh, probably when his policy was most reactionary and when he favoured the worship of the "host of heaven" and set up altars to strange gods in Jerusalem itself.
He kept to the old system of revenues from the demesne and from imposts that were reactionary in their effect, such as the taille, aids, salt-tax (gabelle) and customs; only he managed them better.
reactionary and clerical tendencies until 1807, when the emperor Napoleon obliged Charles IV.
In Spain itself, tutored by misfortune, the efforts of the kings ministers, in the latter part of his reign, were directed to restoring order in the finances and reviving agriculture Reactionary and industry in.
Marshal Campos was not allowed to carry out his liberal and conciliatory policy, which the reactionary party in the colony, ci partido espanol, resented as much as their allies in the Peninsula.
This law the congregations, hotbeds of reactionary tendencies, had ignored; and on the i9th of July 1901, the queen-regent issued a decree, countersigned by Sagasta, for enforcing its provisions.
the outset under clerical and reactionary influences, ment of and his contemptuous treatment of ministerswho XIIL 1902.
against the clerical coterie that surrounded the king, and had not influence enough to prevent the appointment of Monsignor Nozaleda, formerly archbishop of Manila and a prelate of notoriously reactionary views, to the Important Ann.
Alphonso was now shaking himself loose from the deadening influence of the reactionary court, and was beginning to display a disconcerting interest in affairs, information about which he was apt to seek at first hand., The resignation of the see of Valencia by Archbishop Nozaleda was a symptom of the new spirit.
Though at once denounced by Seor Moret as a democratic flag being used to cover reactionary merchandise,f the name of Canalejas was in.
Bourbon then became a violent reactionary, attacking the former members of the Mountain and supporting rigorous measures against the rioters of the 12th Germinal and the 1st Prairial of the year III.
ANDRE BONIFACE LOUIS RIQUETI, VICOMTE MIRABEAU DE (1754-1792), brother of the orator Mirabeau, was one of the reactionary leaders at the opening of the French Revolution.
Hated by the Liberal circles and the Duma, Protopopov not only supported the reactionary policy of Sturmer and Prince Galitzin with the utmost energy, but he is said also to have been one of the secret organizers of the disturbances of Feb.
His concessions to the reactionary and clerical party of the emigres, headed by the comte d'Artois and the duchesse d'Angouleme, aroused suspicions of his loyalty to the constitution, the creation of his Maison militaire alienated the army, and the constant presence of Blacas made the formation of a united ministry impossible.
Great constructive statesman as he was, he was also, from the American point of view, essentially a reactionary.
He was the leader of reactionary forces - constructive forces, as it happened - in the critical period after the War of American Independence, and in the period of Federalist supremacy.
Canovas entered the Cortes in 1854; he was made governor of Cadiz in 1857, sub-director of the state department in 1858, under-secretary at the home office in 1860, minister of the interior in 1864, minister of the colonies in 1865, minister of finance in 1866, and was exiled by Marshal Narvaez in the same year, afterwards becoming a bitter opponent of all the reactionary cabinets until the revolution of 1868.
He had to reconstruct a Conservative party out of the least reactionary parties of the days of Queen Isabella and out of the more moderate elements of the revolution.
He took part in the reactionary movement which followed the fall of Robespierre, and became a member of the reorganized Committees of Public Safety and General Security.
The Coalition included reactionary Conservatives whose influence became more and more predominant.
Under his Government a formal state of siege was maintained, and the police under the reactionary prefect Poehner exercised the greatest severity in the supervision of foreigners and even of non-Bavarian Germans, who were only admitted to the country by special permit.
The Tories ' approach toward Ireland symbolized the continuity between their reactionary domestic policies and their reactionary foreign policy.
The Reactionary Nature of Imperialism The world, however, still remains very heterogeneous.
Bork had proved to be his own worst enemy on television, creating an impression of an arrogant know-it-all spouting reactionary bromides.
For example, the SWP became the fattest of the fake ' lefts ' via decades of the most reactionary anti-Soviet opportunism.
Instead, they want to update reactionary modernism for the age of the Net.
reactionary bourgeoisie of any shade, their political parties or representatives.
reactionary modernism for the age of the Net.
reactionary nationalism have had all their teeth pulled.
Yet putting the question in this empty fashion is a profoundly reactionary procedure.
The rise of Fascism led to an identification of folk studies with deeply reactionary or racist ideology.
The notion that the utterly reactionary counter-revolutionary Stalinist dictatorship of the USSR was likely to invade western Europe was, of course, absurd.
Rather they represented a thoroughly reactionary force which wanted to turn society backward.
European imperialism is as equally reactionary as the US.
Ultimately, I think Unionism is an extremely reactionary set of political ideas; I think that about Republicanism in some ways too.
Edmund Burke is the standard example of the liberal turned reactionary.
Such a position is amorphous; it is conservative and it threatens to become reactionary.
Critical EAP is appealing pedagogically because of its restive questioning of discourse norms, although it can seem reactionary at times.
reactionary in tone and contribute little to the discussion of inerrancy.
reactionary the clever reactionaries of the French bourgeoisie have blurted out the real truth.
Communists are not sanguine pacifists or neutral on the propagation of such deeply reactionary ideas in our society.
steering away from what the audience wants, we're not reactionary at all.
At ohio state with what was different compensation adjustments they maintain a. have any justification stork at age reactionary we attempted.
Ultimately, I think unionism is an extremely reactionary set of political ideas; I think that about Republicanism in some ways too.
Under the impression of the July revolution in Paris and of the orthodox and pietistic influences at Halle, Leo's political convictions were henceforth dominated by reactionary principles.
In 1833 he went to Portugal to assist the liberal Dom Pedro against the reactionary Dom Miguel, but abandoned the idea when it was found that a Polish legion could not be formed.
The correct attitude of the sultan did not save him from the suspicion of intriguing with the powerful reactionary elements in the state, a suspicion confirmed by his attitude towards the counter-revolution of the 13th of April, when an insurrection of the soldiers and the Moslem populace of the capital overthrew the committee and the ministry.
(Cardinal Della Genga) proved a ferocious reactionary under whom barbarous laws were enacted and torture frequently applied.
had been bound up with the history of the Risorgimento, but, unlike him, had represented and embodied the anti-national, reactionary spirit.
Thus one reform led to another; but Peter was not dismayed by the magnitude of the task, and worked vigorously in all departments with a sublime disregard for the clamour of reactionary opponents and for the feelings and prejudices of his subjects in general.
Peter, by his first marriage, had a son, the unhappy cesarevich Alexius (q.v.), who figures more largely in imaginative literature than in history - a narrow-minded, obstinate, pious youth, who had no sympathy with his father's violent innovations, and was completely under the influence of the old Muscovite reactionary faction.
Karamzin (12 vols., St Petersburg, 1818-29; French translation, Ii vols., 1819-26), which, though reactionary in tone and largely superseded, remains a classic. The next monumental history of Russia, that of Sergei Mikhailovich Soloviev (29 vols., Moscow, 1863-75), marks the enormous advance made since Karamzin's day in historical method and research.
Their conservatism became increasingly a reactionary fear of democracy; indeed, it is not a strained construction of the times to regard the entire Federalist period from the American point of view as reactionary - a reaction against the doctrines of natural rights, individualism, and states' rights, and the financial looseness of the period of the War of Independence and the succeeding years of the Confederation.
The domestic problem, the problem of discontent in the island, had become acute by 1850, and from this time on to 1868 the years were full of conflict between liberal and reactionary sentiment in the colony, centreing about the asserted connivance of the captains-general in the illegal slave trade (declared illegal after 1820 by the treaties of 1817 and 1835 between Great Britain and Spain), the notorious immorality and prodigal wastefulness of the government, and the selfish exploitation of the colony by Spaniards and the Spanish government.
A provisional and afterwards a permanent regency, composed of three members, was now formed in Brazil, but scenes of disorder succeeded, and discussions and struggles between the republican party and the government, and a reactionary third party in favour of the restoration of Dom Pedro, occupied the succeeding years.
In 1825 the reactionary parlement once more brought back the middle ages, by decreeing the death penalty for public profanation, the execution to be preceded by the amende honorable before the church doors.
An attack upon Bishop Gardiner by Barnes in a sermon at St Paul's Cross was the signal for a bitter struggle between the Protestant and reactionary parties in Henry's council, which raged during the spring of 1540.
His reactionary and retarding ideas as a special creationist and his advocacy of the cataclysmic theory of change exerted a baneful influence until overthrown by the uniformitarianism of James Hutton (1726-1797) and Charles Lyell (1797-1875) and the evolutionism of Darwin.
In the Church of England, though it was prescribed alternatively with the cope in the First Prayer-Book of Edward VI., it was ultimately discarded, with the other " Mass vestments," the cope being substituted for it at the celebration of the Holy Communion in cathedral and collegiate churches; its use has, however, during the last fifty years been widely revived in connexion with the reactionary movement in the direction of the pre-Reformation doctrine of the eucharist.
Under the influence of the July revolution of 1830, however, he also began to be drawn into the current of reaction; and though he still declared himself openly against absolutism, and never took up such a hostile attitude towards constitutional ideas as his brother-in-law King Frederick William IV., he allowed the reactionary system of surveillance which commended itself to the German Confederation after 1830 to be introduced into Bavaria (see Bavaria: History).
Miguel united every reactionary element throughout the kingdom in a last unsuccessful stand against constitutional government; (b) From 1834 to 1853 the main problem for Portuguese statesmen was whether the constitution, now accepted as inevitable, should embody the radical ideas of 1822 or the moderate ideas of 1826; (c) From 1853 to 1889 there was a period of transition marked by the rise of three new parties - Progressive, Regenerator, Republican; (d) From 1889 to 1908 the Progressives and Regenerators monopolized the control of public affairs, but the strength of Republicanism was not to be gauged by its representation in the cortes.
Erzberger continued to be pursued by the relentless animosity of the reactionary parties, the Conservatives (now called Deutsch-Nationalen) and the National Liberals (now styling themselves the Deutsche Volkspartei).
The possibility of a gradual improvement in the condition Of the working class is a reactionary Utopia.
The fate of humankind cannot be left to the reactionary bourgeoisie of any shade, their political parties or representatives.
Suddenly, it is as if those symbols of reactionary nationalism have had all their teeth pulled.
In their nationalism they encompass virtually all reactionary ideology.
Most of them tend to be reactionary in tone and contribute little to the discussion of inerrancy.
As for steering away from what the audience wants, we 're not reactionary at all.
At ohio state with what was different compensation adjustments they maintain a. Have any justification stork at age reactionary we attempted.
I love how writers have to inject mentions of their many gay friends into such reactionary tripe.
Nudism was neither simply reactionary nor progressive.
Aggressive behavior is reactionary and impulsive behavior that often results in breaking household rules or the law; aggressive behavior is violent and unpredictable.
LTK: Another thing you mentioned in your book is that when consumers walk into a dealership, they tend to think more short term, or "reactionary."
MR: Reactionary is where the consumer thinks, "We are in a financial situation to afford and swing this car" - whatever that was the last time.
Ferdinand was impatient of Austrian influence, but on the death of his first wife, Cristina of Savoy, he married Maria Theresa of Austria, who encouraged him in his reactionary tendencies and brought him closer to Austria.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.