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reaction

reaction

reaction Sentence Examples

  • We could tell by his reaction the news wasn't good.

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  • When she saw my reaction, she added.

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  • I was amazed at his reaction to a simple compliment.

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  • Not exactly the reaction she had expected, but certainly not a negative one.

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  • I'd witnessed his reaction the prior night.

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  • He could not deny his foremost reaction was the desire for more.

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  • He could not deny his foremost reaction was the desire for more.

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  • Howie offered little and without seeing his facial reaction, I couldn't tell how he stood.

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  • Interested in the strong reaction, Taran pushed his eye- band up to see her.

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  • Claire's reaction was far different.

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  • Claire's reaction was far different.

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  • Did I feel any guilt in not letting Julie know Howie's reaction to my pronouncement?

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  • Damian sat down on the arm of a leather couch, accustomed to the reaction, and pulled off his boot to drain the water.

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  • If Felipa noticed her reaction, she gave no indication.

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  • Sensing my reaction she added, It's sort of what I do in my job; research things.

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  • Can you imagine the public reaction to that today: A quarter of a million people killed or wounded in a single day?

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  • He sprinted, geared down, and just lolled along, experimenting with his body's reaction to the various phases and ultimately pleased with its response to his multiple tests.

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  • He sprinted, geared down, and just lolled along, experimenting with his body's reaction to the various phases and ultimately pleased with its response to his multiple tests.

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  • Pure reaction but it got you in the door in a hurry.

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  • And worse yet, he felt a strange shiver of discomfit at Cynthia's odd reaction to Jerome Shipton's death.

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  • She could neither control her body's reaction to it nor satiate it.

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  • She could neither control her body's reaction to it nor satiate it.

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  • I've found over reaction produces results, a lesson from my tip-line experiences.

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  • If she needed any reassurance about her appearance, it was immediately supplied by Yancey's reaction when she entered the family room.

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  • He found it both amusing and a bit disconcerting that both Sidwell women's initial reaction was to castrate him.

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  • But Dean's denial of Cynthia's implication appeared well founded given her reaction to the discovery of the body in Norfolk.

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  • For once, Yully was grateful for the almost allergic reaction humans had to her.

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  • As he rose to answer it, he couldn't help noticing Edith Shipton's alarmed reaction to the ring.

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  • Her reaction – and what he'd read in her mind – left him unable to deny an uneasy truth.

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  • His anger surprised her with its intensity, and she judged from Ully's reaction that seeing the lord and master pissed was not something the good-natured mad scientist wanted anything to do with.

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  • She hadn't been able to sleep, she told him, wondering what his reaction would be, if in fact she might be pregnant.

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  • At the mention of the name, there was a noticeable reaction from all members of the Dawkins' clan.

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  • At the mention of the name, there was a noticeable reaction from all members of the Dawkins' clan.

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  • She could summon Darkyn, though she feared his reaction to her leaving more than what these people would do to her.

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  • "What will Fitzgerald do?" was Cynthia first reaction when Dean told her of Lydia's conversation with her boss.

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  • That would have accounted for her reaction in Norfolk.

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  • He'd seen Fitzgerald's reaction at the mention of the vodka.

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  • It was not a reaction the Deans expected when Effie read the sordid confirmation her great aunt was a prostitute and carrying on an adulterous affair.

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  • She tried to question me on Howie's reaction to my phone call, but I remained mum.

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  • He might have questioned why it still embarrassed her, if it hadn't been for the fact that he was busy questioning why her reaction still excited him.

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  • Darian was lean as a whip, his body honed to the point where instinct and reaction were one.

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  • "I can find them," Darian said, watching the Watcher's reaction closely.

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  • Taran knew instinctively what could cause such a reaction from Sirian, and it involved the foolish woman.

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  • A human's reaction to him never ceased to intrigue him.

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  • When Dean saw the flashing lights behind him he was startled until he recognized the white Chevy Blazer, the sheriff's car, and his reaction turned from concern to a smile.

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  • He knew there wasn't a straight man alive who wouldn't have that exact reaction to her.

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  • He knew there wasn't a straight man alive who wouldn't have that exact reaction to her.

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  • He smiled to himself as he climbed the steps, wondering what Jake's reaction would be to a search for ancient bones.

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  • She gave a nervous wave, watching for his reaction and relieved when he offered a warm smile.

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  • We all agreed but I silently wondered what our collective reaction would be if the opposite occurred!

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  • I'm talking about Howie's reaction to witnessing a crime being committed.

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  • Fred's reaction startled Mrs. Lincoln from the sofa.

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  • Initially fearing her to be brittle by her reaction to the world around her, A'Ran was more assured of her ability to withstand the changes in her life.

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  • Initially fearing her to be brittle by her reaction to the world around her, A'Ran was more assured of her ability to withstand the changes in her life.

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  • Deidre braced herself for his violent reaction or words.

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  • Her strong reaction to the childhood incident surprised him.

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  • In that light, his reaction to her appeared less like that of a moody homicidal maniac and more like one of a jilted lover.

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  • She laughed aloud at his reaction, a little too loudly, quickly covering her mouth as other diners glanced her way.

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  • Dean hadn't thought much about Cynthia Byrne's reaction to the ever growing possibility that her husband might be alive.

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  • True to form, he showed no reaction to the surprise visitor as he casually flipped on the switch, flooding the room in light.

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  • In that light, his reaction to her appeared less like that of a moody homicidal maniac and more like one of a jilted lover.

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  • Dean hadn't thought much about Cynthia Byrne's reaction to the ever growing possibility that her husband might be alive.

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  • As if in reaction against the worsening of their position they were all particularly animated and gay.

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  • Fitzgerald's reaction was shock and anger.

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  • His reaction fueled the sense of doom that had been growing since Jade appeared with Iliana.s hand.

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  • His reaction fueled the sense of doom that had been growing since Jade appeared with Iliana.s hand.

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  • He'd expected her original reaction to him to be born of shock, but she wrapped her arms around him once again.

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  • That's not the reaction I thought I'd hear.

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  • That's not the reaction I thought I'd hear.

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  • Unlike most men, he didn't back down from her, a reaction that intrigued her.

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  • Unlike most men, he didn't back down from her, a reaction that intrigued her.

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  • He backed up slightly, bracing for her reaction.

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  • He knew she was on borrowed time given the alcohol's delayed reaction.

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  • She dropped the picture in his lap and watched his reaction.

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  • The agonizing memories ruptured to the surface at last, forcing a long overdue reaction.

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  • Finally she released him and leaned back to view his reaction.

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  • Bordeaux sat on his horse, looking genuinely surprised at her reaction.

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  • I should have recorded your first reaction.

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  • I wasn't surprised by my wife's quick reaction.

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  • He looked for my reaction.

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  • He held her gaze, gauging her reaction.

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  • Damian studied him, curious about the reaction.

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  • Praying she hadn't missed some term of the deal, she waited for his reaction.

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  • She waited for some sort of reaction.

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  • Cynthia asked, surprised by his reaction.

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  • It was not an uncommon reaction.

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  • I'm sure you miss him, Dean said, fishing for a reaction.

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  • Jennifer Radisson had displayed the same reaction.

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  • At that point, the doctor paused, watching her as though waiting for a reaction.

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  • She actually had no intent of inviting him to the house, but thought it might rouse a reaction.

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  • When she did, Alex stopped and waited for her reaction.

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  • He nodded, studying her face for a reaction.

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  • They seemed to be waiting for her reaction.

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  • "Yes," she said at last, cringing for another bad reaction.

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  • He stared at her, and she flung the plate at him, furious at his lack of reaction.

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  • "You're seeking my permission to speak to the visitors," he summarized, gauging her reaction.

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  • She was about to sneak away when A'Ran's sword lowered, and he turned, alerted by the boy's reaction.

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  • The others looked at him, surprised at the depth of his reaction.

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  • When he hit the master switch that bathed all the cars at once in light, he turned to watch her reaction.

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  • Everything. Opening them while the giver waits to see your reaction.

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  • Lana watched him, at a loss at what to think of his reaction.

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  • He turned his back to her to start walking, and she was grateful he didn't see her reaction.

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  • She made baby sounds as she nursed – sounds that aroused an instinctive reaction.

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  • He nodded, clearly pleased by her reaction.

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  • She braced herself for their reaction.

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  • Darian wasn't sure what to make of her reaction.

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  • Her stomach roared to life, and even the demon paused at her body's reaction to the food.

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  • Her initial reaction was an urge to crawl under the table.

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  • That said, she was ill prepared for the reaction she got from Alex when he saw the puppy.

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  • Ingrid had the same reaction every morning.

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  • Xander understood; it was the same reaction Ingrid gave him whenever he claimed he could cook.

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  • She focused again on the road, sensing he was waiting for her reaction.

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  • One section of the law expresses the fact that the weights of two substances, not necessarily elements, that are equivalent in one reaction, are often found to be equivalent in a number of other reactions.

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  • They are formed by the action of nitrous fumes on ammoniacal solutions of cobaltous salts, or purpureo-salts, or by the mutual reaction of chlorpurpureosalts and alkaline nitrites.

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  • Much more was this the case when, in the summer, the dangers from the Croats, Serbs and the reaction at Vienna increased.

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  • It forms glancing prisms of neutral reaction slightly soluble in water.

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  • The murder of Kotzebue by Karl Sand, however, shocked him out of his extreme revolutionary views, and from this time he tended, under the influence of the writings of Hamann and Herder, more and more in the direction of conservatism and romanticism, until at last he ended, in a mood almost of pessimism, by attaching himself to the extreme right wing of the forces of reaction.

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  • The addition of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution caused a divided reaction.

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  • The properties of podophyllin resin vary with the reaction of the tissue with which it is in contact; where this is acid the drug is inert, the picro-podophyllin being precipitated.

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  • A similar influence was exerted by him in other branches of the common law; and although, after his retirement, a reaction took place, and he was regarded for a while as one who had corrupted the ancient principles of English law, these prejudices passed rapidly away, and the value of his work in bringing the older law into harmony with the needs of modern society has long been fully recognized.

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  • After the vigorous reaction has ceased and all the sodium has been used up, the mass is thrown into dilute hydrochloric acid, when the soluble sodium salts go into solution, and the insoluble boron remains as a brown powder, which may by filtered off and dried.

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  • When the excitement consequent on the gold finds had subsided, there was a considerable reaction against the claims of Labour, and this was greatly helped by the congested state of the labour market; but the principle of an eight-hours day made progress, and was conceded in several trades.

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  • Enormous numbers of ale-houses were closed - a proceeding which excited intense resentment and was probably no slight cause of the royalist reaction.

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  • These last may be of the nature of " reaction " currents; they are collectively known as the equatorial counter-current.

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  • If the current drive an electromagnetic engine, the reaction of the engine will produce an electromotive force opposing the current.

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  • In the latter case the overturning tendency begins as soon as the load leaves the ground, but ceases as soon as the load again touches the ground and thus relieves the crane of the extra weight, whereas overturning backwards is caused either by the reaction of a chain breaking or by excessive counterweight.

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  • Jovinian thus indicates a natural and vigorous reaction against the exaggerated asceticism of the 4th century, a protest shared by Helvidius and Vigilantius.

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  • Much good work was done by the Republicans during their brief tenure of power,but it soon came to an endowing to the course of events which favored a reaction against France.

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  • The republics set up by the French at Naples, Rome and Milan collapsed as soon as the French troops retired; and a reaction in favor of clerical and Austrian influence set in with great violence.

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  • The reaction, which was dull and heavy in the dominions of the pope and of Victor Emmanuel, systematically harsh in the Austrian states of the north, and comparatively mild in Parma and Tuscany, excited the greatest loathing in southern Italy and Sicily, because there it was directed by a dynasty which had aroused feelings of hatred mingled with contempt.

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  • But although welcomed with enthusiasm Reaction on his return to Turin, he introduced a system of in the reaction which, if less brutal, was no less uncom- Italian promising than that of Austrian archdukes or Bourbon States.

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  • It is no ultimate given point of departure; it is due to the reaction of thought upon sensation.

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  • Nagel (Ber., 1898, 31, p. 2009), this oxide does not exist, the reaction leading to the formation of an hydroxide according to the equation: Mo 3 C1 4 (OH) 2 + 4KHO 3H 2 O = 3Mo(OH) 3 -l-4KBr+3H.

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  • It sublimes in small rhombic tables or needles, and is slightly soluble in cold water, the solution possessing an acid reaction.

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  • It is a yellow amorphous powder which is soluble in dilute alkalis, the solution on acidification giving an hydroxide, C1 4 Mo 3 (OH) 2, which is soluble in nitric acid, and does not give a reaction with silver nitrate.

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  • The reaction of the cells may be in two directions, moreover.

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  • It gives a characteristic red-brown reaction with iodine solution.

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  • Some of these have a neutral reaction, others react as feeble acids.

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  • Alexander had planned to amalgamate the former rulers of the world with his Macedonians; but his death was followed by a Macedonian reaction.

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  • The special question of the reaction of man on his environment is handled by G.

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  • The oxides of type RO are soluble in water, the solution possessing a strongly alkaline reaction and rapidly absorbing carbon dioxide on exposure; they are basic in character and dissolve readily in acids with the formation of the corresponding salts.

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  • Hantzsch (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 3337) has shown that in the action of alcohols on diazonium salts an increase in the molecular weight of the alcohol and an accumulation of negative groups in the aromatic nucleus lead to a diminution in the yield of the ether produced and to the production of a secondary reaction, resulting in the formation of a certain amount of an aromatic hydrocarbon.

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  • The meta-nitrocompound, which is precipitated last, is then reduced, and the amino group so formed is replaced by the hydroxyl group by means of the Sandmeyer reaction.

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  • Since this process is repeated for many days the habitual reaction of the stomach wellnigh exhausts the male.

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  • At first he supported the ministry, but when they began to show signs of reaction he separated from them, and gradually came to be at the head of the constitutional opposition.

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  • His philosophical standpoint may be characterized as a reaction from the pantheistic tendency of Hegel's idealistic rationalism towards a more pronouncedly theistic position.

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  • It is moderately soluble in water, the solution possessing a faintly acid reaction.

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  • Oxidizing agents rapidly attack sulphuretted hydrogen, the primary products of the reaction being water and sulphur.

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  • It is gradually decomposed by water: 2S 2 C1 2 + 3H 2 0 = 4HC1 + 2S + H2S203, the thiosulphuric acid produced in the primary reaction gradually decomposing into water, sulphur and sulphur dioxide.

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  • in water possessing a strongly acid reaction.

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  • The neutral alkaline salts are soluble in water and show an alkaline reaction, the other neutral salts being either insoluble or difficultly soluble in water.

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  • The acid salts have a neutral or slightly acid reaction.

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  • In this latter reaction the deep yellow solution obtained is exposed to air when the calcium polysulphide formed is gradually converted into thiosulphate by oxidation, and the calcium salt thus formed is converted into the sodium salt by sodium carbonate or sulphate.

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  • Much manganese sulphate is formed during the reaction, and H.

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  • Soc., 1902, 81, p. I) showed that this can be almost entirely avoided by replacing the manganese oxide by hydrated ferric oxide, the reaction proceeding according to the equation: 2Fe(OH) 3 3S0 2 = FeS 2 0 6 FeS0 3 3H 2 0.

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  • This cautious compromise sanctioned by the Church does not represent the extremest reaction against nominalism.

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  • An offshoot of the Khlysti is the more celebrated secret sect of the Skoptsi (skopets, a eunuch), which represents an extreme ascetic reaction from the promiscuous immorality of some (by no means all) of the Khlysti.

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  • The new tsar, Alexander III., was an apt pupil of his tutor Pobedonostsev (q.v.), the celebrated procurator of the Holy Synod, for whom the representative system was a modern lie," and his reign covered a period of frank reaction, during which there was not only no question of affected even the stolid and apparently immovable masses of the peasantry.

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  • The of the revolutionary terrorists were countered by the Russian terrorists of the reaction who under the name of People."

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  • The reaction against the medieval theory at the time of the Reformation took the form of a return to what had no doubt been an early belief, - the idea that the Christian sacrifice consists in the offering of a pure heart and of vocal thanksgiving.

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  • The book of Judges with its " monotonous tempo - religious declension, oppression, repentance, peace," to which Wellhausen 4 refers as its ever-recurring cycle, makes us familiar with these alternating phases of action and reaction.

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  • The reaction into idolatry and Babylonian star worship in the long reign of Manasseh synchronized and was connected with vassalage 1 There is some danger in too strictly construing the language of the prophets and also the psalmists.

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  • But Ezekiel expressed the strong reaction which had set in against this belief in its older forms. He denies that the individual ever dies for the sins of the father.

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  • The idolatrous reaction in the reign of Manasseh appears to have restored all the evils of the past and added to them.

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  • But the fall in the price of silver led to a reaction, and from 1893 the gold output predominated.

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  • This was followed by a reaction and a general collapse of inflated values until 1873, when the discovery of the Great Bonanza mine brought about a revival of industry and of speculation.

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  • Their effect was supplemented by the division into French and British sympathizers; the Republicans approving the aims and condoning the excesses of the French Revolution, the Federalists siding with British reaction against French democracy.

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  • Like Berthelot, he writes the chemical equation of the reaction, but in addition he considers the chemical formula of each substance to express not only its material composition, but also the (unknown) value of its intrinsic energy.

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  • After the failure of Contarini's attempt at reconciliation with the Protestants (1541) the papacy committed itself to the reaction advocated by Caraffa; the Inquisition and censorship were set up (1542, 1 543), and the extermination of heresy in Italy undertaken with vigour.

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  • When he realized the strength of the national reaction, he allowed the patriotic fascisti free rein to reestablish order and practically exercise many functions of Government, while he assumed an attitude of Olympic calm and posed as being au dessus de la melee, so as to avoid compromising himself with any party.

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  • Nomadic life is recognized by Arabian writers themselves as possessing a relative superiority, and its characteristic purity of manner and its reaction against corruption and luxury are not incompatible with a warlike spirit.

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  • ascended the throne in that year, and though the constitution of 1849 recognized the principle of religious liberty, an era of reaction supervened, especially when " the concordat of 1855 delivered Austria altogether into the hands of the clericals."

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  • As a pastoral writer ("in some respects the best in the world," according to Leigh Hunt) he contributed, at an early stage, to the naturalistic reaction of the 18th century.

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  • In this respect, too, he anticipates the reaction in England which followed securely on the publication of Percy's Reliques.

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  • There was a brief reaction: Henry Stuart Foote (1800-1880), Unionist, was elected governor in 1851 over Davis, the States' Rights candidate, and in the same year a Constitutional Convention had declared almost unanimously that "the asserted right of secession".

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  • However, there was a speedy reaction against the oppositon which had in no small measure been inspired by fear of a requirement that debts be paid in gold and silver.

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  • Most frequently it appears historically, in relation to some definite system of belief, as a reaction of the spirit against the letter.

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  • Sufism (q.v.) appears in the 9th century among the Mahommedans of Persia as a kind of reaction against the rigid monotheism and formalism of Islam.

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  • From the 12th and 13th centuries onward there is observable in the different countries of Europe a widespread reaction against the growing formalism and worldliness of the Church and the scandalous lives of many of the clergy.

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  • Pierre Poiret (1646-1719) exhibits a violent reaction against the mechanical philosophy of Descartes, and especially against its consequences in Spinoza.

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  • Externally, a Slavonic reaction came, and dealt heavy blows to the eastward advance of German civilization.

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  • From the 13th century onward a reaction set in.

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  • She added that all the parties except the Jacobins were full of confidence; and that the nobles now cherished hopes of a reaction, seeing that the reduction of the number of rulers from five to three pointed towards monarchy.

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  • Aulard, Paris pendant la reaction thermidorienne et sous le directoire (5 vols., Paris, 1898-1902); Comte A.

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  • The severity of the disciplinary measures which followed procured a reaction under which Farel and Calvin were banished the city in 1538.

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  • Many esters of malonic acid have been prepared, the most important being the diethyl ester (malonic ester), CH 2 (000C 2 H 5) 2, which is obtained by dissolving monochloracetic acid in water, neutralizing the solution with potassium carbonate, and then adding potassium cyanide and warming the mixture until the reaction begins.

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  • When the reaction has finished, the whole is evaporated and heated to about 130 0 -140° C. and then allowed to cool.

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  • In Venice the result of this menace was a decided reaction towards Byzantium.

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  • Most of the state institutions secured Federal charters after the establishments of the national banking system (1863-1864), but the high price of government bonds and the large amount of capital required led to a reaction, which was only partially checked by the reduction of the minimum capital to $25,000 under the currency act of the 14th of March 1900.

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  • Many concessions were made to the popular will, but during the subsequent reaction these were withdrawn, and the period between 1850 and 1871, when Karl Friedrich Reinhard, Freiherr von Dalwigk (1802-1880), was chiefly responsible for the government of HesseDarmstadt, was one of repression, although some benefits were conferred upon the people.

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  • And this being the case, the complete conditioning causes of the miracle will be found in God and nature together, and in that eternal action and reaction between them which perhaps, although not ordered simply according to general laws, is not void of regulative principles.

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  • The sweeping character of his victory was due less to his own personal strength or to the weakness of Cox than to the national reaction against the Democratic party and the popular feeling against President Wilson.

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  • From this point of view, the Crusades appear as a reaction of the West against the pressure of the East - a reaction which carried the West into the East, and founded a Latin and Christian kingdom on the shores of Asia.

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  • The year iIto is additionally important by reason of the accession of Maudud al Mosul, which marks the beginning of a Moslem reaction.

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  • But a Mahommedan reaction came, thanks in large measure to the zeal of Timur; and central Asia was lost to Christianity.

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  • Hence the consequent fusion with Aphrodite, Artemis, Diana, Juno and Venus, and the action and reaction of one upon the other in myth and legend.

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  • Soaps give an alkaline reaction and have a decided acrid taste; in a pure condition - a state never reached in practice - they have neither smell nor colour.

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  • The reaction, however, is very complicated.

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  • The earliest certain reaction against Baalism is ascribed to the reign of Ahab, whose marriage with Jezebel gave the impulse to the introduction of a particular form of the cult.

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  • After a second political reaction, the prospect of a second Persian war, and the naval superiority of Aegina led to the assumption of a bolder policy.

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  • Ruthenium sulphate, Ru(S04)2, as obtained by oxidizing the sulphide, is an orange-yellow mass which is deliquescent and dissolves in water, the solution possessing a strongly acid reaction.

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  • Her rule in Parma, conjointly with Neipperg, was characterized by a clemency and moderation which were lacking in the other Italian states in that time of reaction.

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  • A reaction in his favour was beginning in his later days, but he died defeated and deserted at Seville, leaving a will by which he endeavoured to exclude Sancho and a heritage of civil war.

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  • 2 The theory of Berthollet was essentially mechanical, and he attempted to prove that the course of a reaction depended not on affinities alone but also on the masses of the reacting components.

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  • Elements which readily enter into reaction with each other, and which develop a large amount of heat on combination, are said to have a powerful affinity for each other.

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  • The combination, as it is ordinarily termed, of chlorine with hydrogen, and the displacement of iodine in potassium iodide by the action of chlorine, may be cited as examples; if these reactions are represented, as such reactions very commonly are, by equations which merely express the relative weights of the bodies which enter into reaction, and of the products, thus Cl = HC1 Hydrogen.

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  • they appear to differ in character; but if they are correctly represented by molecular equations, or equations which express the relative number of molecules which enter into reaction and which result from the reaction, it will be obvious that the character of the reaction is substantially the same in both cases, and that both are instances of the occurrence of what is ordinarily termed double decomposition H2 + C12 = 2HC1 Hydrogen.

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  • In all cases of chemical change energy in the form of heat is either developed or absorbed, and the amount of heat developed or absorbed in a given reaction is as definite as are the weights of the substance engaged in the reaction.

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  • We may suppose that in the formation of gaseous hydrochloric acid from gaseous chlorine and hydrogen, according to the equation H2 +C1 2 = HCI+HC1, a certain amount of energy is expended in separating the atoms of hydrogen in the hydrogen molecule, and the atoms of chlorine in the chlorine molecule, from each other; but that heat is developed by the combination of the hydrogen atoms with the chlorine atoms, and that, as more energy is developed by the union of the atoms of hydrogen and chlorine than is expended in separating the hydrogen atoms from each other and the chlorine atoms from one another, the result of the action of the two elements upon each other is the development of heat, - the amount finally developed in the reaction being the difference between that absorbed in decomposing the elementary molecules and that developed by the combination of the atoms of chlorine and hydrogen.

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  • Thus, chlorine enters into reaction with hydrogen, and removes hydrogen from hydrogenized bodies, far more readily than bromine; and hydrochloric acid is a far more stable substance than hydrobromic acid, hydriodic acid being greatly inferior even to hydrobromic acid in stability.

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  • When two substances which by their action upon each other develop much heat enter into reaction, the reaction is usually complete without the employment of an excess of either; for example, when a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen, in the proportions to form water 2E12+0, =20H2, is exploded, it is entirely converted into water.

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  • Theoretically the reaction takes place in the case of ferric nitrate in the manner represented by the equation Fe(NOs) 3 + 3KCNS = Fe(CNS) 3 + 3KNOs; Ferric nitrate.

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  • The amines also exhibit striking differences: in the aliphatic series these compounds may be directly formed from the alkyl haloids and ammonia, but in the benzene series this reaction is quite impossible unless the haloid atom be weakened by the presence of other substituents, e.g.

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  • Certain a-diketones condense to form benzenoid quinones, two molecules of the diketone taking part in the reaction; thus diacetyl, CH 3 CO CO CH 3, yields p-xyloquinone, C 6 H 2 (CH 3) 2 0 2 (Ber., 1888, 21, p. 1411), and acetylpropionyl, CH 3 CO CO C 2 H 5, yields duroquinone, or tetramethylquinone, C 6 (CH 3) 4 0 2, Oxymethylene compounds, characterized by the grouping > C:CH(OH), also give benzene derivatives by hydrolytic condensation between three molecules; thus oxymethylene acetone, or formyl acetone, CH 3 CO.

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  • The methods of chemical analysis may be classified according to the type of reaction: (I) dry or blowpipe analysis, which consists in an examination of the substance in the dry condition; this includes such tests as ignition in a tube, ignition on charcoal in the blowpipe flame, fusion with borax, microcosmic salt or fluxes, and flame colorations (in quantitative work the dry methods are sometimes termed " dry assaying "); (2) wet analysis, in which a solution of the substance is treated with reagents which produce specific reactions when certain elements or groups of elements are present.

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  • In quantitative analysis the methods can be subdivided into: (a) gravimetric, in which the constituent is precipitated either as a definite insoluble compound by the addition of certain reagents, or electrolytically, by the passage of an electric current; (b) volumetric, in which the volume of a reagent of a known strength which produces a certain definite reaction is measured; (c) colorimetric, in which the solution has a particular tint, which can be compared with solutions of known strengths.

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  • Of the principal workers in this field we may notice Friedrich Hoffmann, Andreas Sigismund Marggraf (who detected iron by its reaction with potassium ferrocyanide, and potassium and sodium by their flame colorations), and especially Carl Scheele and Torbern Olof Bergman.

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  • Another type of dry reaction, namely, the flame coloration, had been the subject of isolated notices, as, for example, the violet flame of potassium and the orange flame of sodium observed by Marggraf and Scheele, but a systematic account was wanting until Cartmell took the subject up. His results (Phil.

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  • If it possesses an alkaline or acid reaction, it must be tested in the first case for ammonia, and in the second case for a volatile acid, such as sulphuric, nitric, hydrochloric, &c.

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  • Sulphur dioxide, recognized by its smell and acid reaction, results from the ignition of certain sulphites, sulphates, or a mixture of a sulphate with a sulphide.

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  • Ammonia, recognizable by its odour and alkaline reaction, indicates ammoniacal salts or cyanides containing water.

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  • This method is made up of three operations: - (1) preparation of a standard solution.; (2) preparation of a solution of the substance; (3) titration, or the determination of what volume of the standard solution will occasion a known and definite reaction with a known volume of the test solution.

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  • Various artifices are employed to denote the end of the reaction.

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  • In the first group, we have to notice the titration of a cyanide with silver nitrate, when a milkiness shows how far the reaction has gone; the titration of iron with permanganate, when the faint pink colour shows that all the iron is oxidized.

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  • In the second group, we may notice the application of litmus, methyl orange or phenolphthalein in alkalimetry, when the acid or alkaline character of the solution commands the colour which it exhibits; starch paste, which forms a blue compound with free iodine in iodometry; potassium chromate, which forms red silver chromate after all the hydrochloric acid is precipitated in solutions of chlorides; and in the estimation of ferric compounds by potassium bichromate, the indicator, potassium ferricyanide, is placed in drops on a porcelain plate, and the end of the reaction is shown by the absence of a blue coloration when a drop of the test solution is brought into contact with it.

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  • The elaborate choral writing sometimes rises to almost Hellenic regions of dramatic art; and there is no crudeness in the passages that carry on the story quietly in reaction from the climaxes - a test far too severe for Tannhauser and rather severe for even the mature works of Gluck and Weber.

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  • Their importance will never be comparable to that of his music; but, just as the reaction against Ruskin's ascendancy as an art-critic has coincided with an increased respect for his ethical and sociological thought, so the rebellious forces that are compelling Wagnerism to grant music a constitution coincide with a growing admiration of his general mental powers.

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  • This has followed the somewhat stronger reaction in favour of Colossians.

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  • Such increase would give rise to excessive reaction, which, in tissues already weakened, might actually produce.

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  • Zinc dust and hydrochloric acid reduce pyrrol to pyrrolin (dihydropyrrol), C 4 H 6 NH, a liquid which boils at 90° C. (748 mm.); it is soluble in water and has strongly basic properties and an alkaline reaction.

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  • When boiled with calcium chloride and ammonia, salicylic acid gives a precipitate of insoluble basic calcium salicylate, C 6 H 4 ‹ 0 2 i Ca, a reaction which serves to distinguish it from the isomeric metaand para-hydroxybenzoic acids.

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  • But a reaction against Charles soon set in, for all the powers were alarmed at his success, and on the 31st of March a league between the pope, the emperor, Venice, Lodovico it Moro and Ferdinand of Spain was formed, ostensibly against the Turks, but in reality to expel the French from Italy.

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  • They represent a protest against the contemporary Canaanite civilization and a reaction towards the simplicity of life which was felt more strongly in Judah or to the east of the Jordan than in the northern kingdom of Israel.

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  • All the more powerful was the reaction.

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  • The first symptoms of a reaction appear in the reign of Paul (1796-1801).1801).

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  • There Arianism was formulated and there Athanasius, the great opponent of both heresy and pagan reaction, worked and triumphed.

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  • If a brief definition of instinct, from the purely biological point of view be required, that given in the Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology may be accepted: "An inherited reaction of the sensori-motor type, relatively complex 3'p 3' p and markedly adaptive in character, and common to a group of individuals."

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  • For many years there has been a reaction against the all-cotton farming system.

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  • It behaves as a powerful reducing agent, and on hydrolysis with dilute mineral acids is decomposed into formaldehyde and hydroxylamine, together with some formic acid and ammonia, the amount of each product formed varying with temperature, time of reaction, amount of water present, &c. This latter reaction is probably due to some of the oxime existing in the form of the isomeric formamide HCO NH 2.

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  • Scholl, Ber., 1896, 29, p. 87), the reaction probably being: RR:C(NO 2)NO-)RR: C: ([[Nhoh) 2 -)Rr: C: Noh+Nh20h]].

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  • Wallach (Ann., 1900, 312, p. 171) has shown that the saturated cyclic ketones yield oximes which by an application of the Beckmann reaction are converted into isoximes, and these latter on hydrolysis with dilute mineral acids are transformed into acyclic amino-acids; thus from cyclohexanone, e-amidocaproic acid (e-leucine) may be obtained: CH2" C NOH C CH 2 CH 2 7: ?12?CH2 CH2 NH /CH2 CH2 C02H CH2', An ingenious application of the fact that oximes easily lose the elements of water and form nitriles was used by A.

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  • Hantzsch (Ber., 1891, 24, p. 13) has made use of the Beckmann reaction, whereby they are converted into acid-amides.

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  • The first product of the reaction is nitric oxide, which on cooling with the residual gases produces nitrogen peroxide.

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  • The best temperature for the first reaction is between 80°C. and 130°C. and for the second between 40° C. and 60° C. In another process, which originated with C. Kaiser (Abst.

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  • Glauber in 1648 as a product of the reaction between nitric acid and arsenious oxide.

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  • Bromine oxidizes it to nitric acid, but the reaction is not quantitative.

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  • It may be recognized by the blue colour it gives with diphenylamine sulphate and by its reaction with potassium iodide-starch paper.

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  • It is somewhat volatile at ordinary temperature, and its aqueous solution possesses a strongly acid reaction.

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  • In Egypt, however, monophysitism was as strong as ever, and soon at Constantinople the arrogance of Rome caused a reaction, led by Theodora, the wife of the new emperor Justinian (527565).

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  • But Abd-ul-Hamid had issued a free pardon to the mutineers, and the committee had now decided that the new regime would never be secure while the sovereign favoured reaction.

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  • Ultimately the sun went down on an undecided field on which 25,000 French and 38,000 Russians had fallen, but the, moral reaction on the former was far greater than on the latter.

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  • But in spite of statements in which ancient authors have represented Aristides as a democratic reformer, it is certain that the period following the Persian wars during which he shaped Athenian policy was one of conservative reaction.

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  • The reagents in common use are: Millon's reagent, a solution of mercuric nitrate containing nitrous acid, this gives a violet-red coloration; nitric acid, which gives a yellow colour, turning to gold when treated with ammonia (xanthoproteic reaction); fuming sulphuric acid, which gives violet solutions; and caustic potash and copper sulphate, which, on warming, gives a red to violet coloration (biuret reaction).

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  • The nucleo-albumins or phospho-globulins are insoluble in water and acids, but soluble in alkalies, and have an acid reaction.

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  • They are loose, white, non-hygroscopic powders, soluble in water and salt solutions, and have an acid reaction; they give the colour reactions of albumins.

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  • The decomposition products are generally the same as with the general albumin; it gives the biuret reaction; forms salts with acids and alkalies, but is essentially acid in nature.

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  • Gelatin occurs also in the cornea and the sclerotic coat of the eye; and in fish scales, the latter containing 80% of collagen, and 20% of ichthylepidin, a substance differing from gelatin in giving a wellmarked Millon's reaction.

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  • Turgot's successor, Necker, however, continued the regime of reform until 1781, and it was only with Necker's dismissal that the period of reaction began.

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  • Here the ions are potassium and the group Ag(CN)2.1 Each potassium ion as it reaches the cathode precipitates silver by reacting with the solution in accordance with the chemical equation K--+KAg(CN) 2 =2KCN+Ag, while the anion Ag(CN) 2 dissolves an atom of silver from the anode, and re-forms the complex cyanide KAg(CN) 2 by combining with the 2KCN produced in the reaction described in the equation.

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  • For some substances it has been shown to be independent of the particular reaction used.

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  • In dilute solution such substances as hydrochloric acid and potash are almost completely dissociated, so that, instead of representing the reaction as HC1+KOH = KC1 d-H20, we must write The ions K and Cl suffer no change, but the hydrogen of the acid and the hydroxyl (OH) of the potash unite to form water, which is only very slightly dissociated.

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  • the electromotive force is measured by the heat of reaction per unit of electrochemical change.

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  • Volumetric methods are used, but the uncertainty of the end of the reaction has led to the suggestion of special indicators, or of determining the amount of cuprous oxide gravimetrically.

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  • Nevertheless his reaction does not in this case really carry him beyond the ground of Schopenhauerian philosophy, and his own may perhaps be most truly regarded as the paradoxical development of an inverted Schopenhauerism.

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  • The latex exhibits a neutral, acid or alkaline reaction depending upon the plant from which it has been obtained.

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  • The reaction is a general one for all aldehydes with zinc methyl and zinc ethyl, but not with the higher zinc alkyls.

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  • Vanillin does not give the Cannizzaro reaction, but with alcoholic potash forms vanillicacid,H000(1) � C6H3.00H3 (3)�OH(4), and vanilloin.

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  • It is usually prepared by the so-called "Reimer" reaction (Ber., 1876, 9,p. 1268), in which chloroform acts on phenol in the presence of a caustic alkali, C 6 H 5 OH+CHC1 3 +4KHO = 3KCI+3H20+KO�C6H4�CHO, some para-oxybenaldehyde being formed at the same time.

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  • Chrome alum, K 2 SO 4 �Cr 2 (SO 4) 3.24H 2 O, appears chiefly as a by-product in the manufacture of alizarin, and as a product of the reaction in bichromate batteries.

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  • But, though now admitted to power through the burgher reaction, as a concession to democratic ideas, and to cause a split among the greater people, they enjoyed very limited privileges.'

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  • and the Jews - he to establish the tribunal and they to prevent him - was compiled, as the preface showed, to stem the Ultramontane reaction, but none the less carried weight because it was a recital of events with little or no comment or evidence of passion in its author.

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  • Disillusioned with men and despairing of the future of his country, he spent the rest of his life devoted to agricultural pursuits, and rarely emerged from his retirement; when he did so, it was to fight political and religious reaction.

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  • The 10th century as a whole is especially marked out as a dark age, being partly filled with civil troubles and partly characterized by a reaction of faith against reason.

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  • Meantime the excesses of the French republicans had provoked reaction in England, and the Tory ministry adopted a policy of repression.

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  • The collapse of the federal idea and the definite triumph of the party of reaction in 1852 led to his retirement from politics.

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  • The reaction is generally carried out in the presence of sulphuric acid, which is used to absorb the water formed during the process of nitration.

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  • series of eminent rulers, it successfully asserted itself alike against pagan reaction from within, and aggressive pressure from without, and, as it grew in strength and skill, expanded territorially at the expense of all its neighbours.

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  • invasion and conquest was the simultaneous Catholic reaction in Hungary.

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  • But though reaction was the motive power of this new machinery of government, it could not do away with many of the practical and obvious improvements of 1848, and it was not blind to some of the indispensable requirements of a.

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  • reaction in favour of the native literature manifested itself at first chiefly in the creation of various schools of poetry.

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  • The extension of the range of subjects to which mathematical methods can be applied, accompanied as it is by an extension of the range of study which is useful to the ordinary worker, has led in the latter part of the 19th century to an important reaction against the specialization mentioned in the preceding paragraph.

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  • This reaction has taken the form of a return to the alliance between algebra and geometry (�5), on which modern analytical geometry is based; the alliance, however, being concerned with the application of graphical methods to particular cases rather than to general expressions.

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  • One result of the introduction of the new conceptions dating from Darwin was a healthy reaction from that attitude of mind which led to the regarding of the classes and orders recognized by authoritative zoologists as sacred institutions which were beyond the criticism of ordinary men.

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  • Though an acquired or " superimposed " character is not transmitted to offspring as the consequence of the action of the external agencies which determine the " acquirement," yet the tendency to react to such agencies possessed by the parent is transmitted and may be increased and largely developed by survival, if the character developed by the reaction is valuable.

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  • The first step is to calculate the force which represents the reaction between the parts of the medium separated by x=o.

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  • In using benzoyl chloride in this reaction the condensation is found to proceed better if a little ammonium chloride be added: 2C6H5 CNd-C6H5.0001 C6H5 C Cl OC C6H5 6 H 5 N C(C6H5):N The cyanidines behave as weak bases.

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  • Naturally and necessarily the capture of Bloemfontein was followed by a period of reaction.

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  • The teaching of Apollinarius that in Christ the Divine Word took the place of the human rational soul, thus seeming to do away with his possession of a true humanity, had led to a reaction by Paul of Samosata, Diodore of Tarsus, Theodore of Mopsuestia, and Nestorius of Constantinople.

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  • Western Syria, on the contrary, had partaken with Alexandria in the reaction from Nestorianism which finally crystallized in the Monophysite doctrine, that spread so widely through Egypt and Western Asia towards the end of the 5th century.

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  • His death in 457 was followed by a strong anti-Nestorian reaction at Edessa, which led to the expulsion of many of the leading teachers.

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  • Rank has accounted for much, and ceremonial dress - the apparel Romans, naturally left its mark, and there have been ages of increasing luxury followed by periods of reaction, with a general levelling and nationalization on religious grounds (Judaism, Islam).

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  • 6) tells us that in his own time the linen chiton of Ionia had again been discarded in favour of the Doric dress, and the monuments show that after the Persian wars a reaction against Orientalism showed itself in a return to simpler fashions.

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  • Under acids it yields the following reaction C48 H 60018 +H20 =2C16 141806+C10th40-1-C6H1.206.

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  • This crocin is a red colouring matter, and it is surmised that the red colour of the stigmas is due to this reaction taking place in nature.

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  • On the other hand, the Prussians were new to the battlefield, and the reaction after the elation of victory was intense; moreover, if what happened at Hiihnerwasser affords a guide, the staff would have required some days to disentangle the units which had fought and to assign them fresh objectives.

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  • The mechanism of this reaction was explained by A.

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  • Their pneumonic nature has been amply substantiated in later times; they are now regarded simply as evidence of pneumonic reaction to the stimulus of the tubercle bacillus.

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  • Again, a fractured bone in a paralysed limb often fails to unite, while another in the opposite sound limb unites readily, and an ulcerated surface on a paralysed limb shows little healing reaction.

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  • Leber experimented with several chemical compounds to find what reaction they had on these cells; by using fine glass tubes sealed at the outer end and containing a chemical substance, and by introducing the open end into the blood vessels he found that the leucocytes were attracted - positive chemiotaxis - by the various compounds of mercury, copper, turpentin, and other substances.

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  • Then we have the property of adaptation, in which the negative reaction may be changed into a positive; a given toxin may at first repel the cell, but by a gradual process the cell becomes accustomed to such a toxin and will move towards it.

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  • If the injury be a small incised wound through the skin and subcutaneous tissues without any septic contamination, there usually follows a minimum of reaction on the part of the tissues.

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  • Watery solution of iodine imparts to it a deep mahogany-brown colour; iodine and sulphuric acid occasionally, but not always, an azure-blue, methylviolet, a brilliant rose-pink and methyl-green gives a reaction very much like that of methyl-violet, but not so vivid.

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  • The reaction with iodine is seen best by direct light; the reactions with the other substances are visible only by transmitted light.

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  • The name "amyloid " was applied to it by Virchow on account of the blue reaction which it gives occasionally with iodine and sulphuric acid, resembling that given with vegetable cellulose.

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  • Iodine gives usually a dark brown reaction, sometimes a deep blue; iodine and sulphuric acid almost always call forth an intense deep blue reaction; and methyl-violet usually a brilliant pink, quite resembling that of true amyloid.

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  • The reaction with methylviolet, however, differs from that with true amyloid in being evanescent.

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  • phagocytic reaction on the part of the organism against irritants.

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  • This reaction is carried out by the mobile phagocytes sometimes alone, sometimes with the aid of the vascular phagocytes, or of the nervous system."

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  • Dropsical liquids are usually pale yellow or greenish, limpid, with a saltish taste and alkaline reaction, and a specific gravity ranging from 1005 to 1024.

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  • There was, however, a Guelph reaction in 1264; the city was taken and sacked by Henry VII.

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  • The reaction proceeds in several stages, mono-, diand finally tri-nitrate being produced, the final stage requiring sulphuric acid as a dehydrator.

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  • 1.84), the containing vessel being cooled by a water jacket and the acid mixture agitated by a stream of cooled air, the temperature being kept at about 15° C. A considerable excess of acids is necessary for the completion and safety of the reaction, usually about 8 parts of the acid mixture to 1 of glycerin.

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  • In 1877, with Crafts, he made the first publication of the fruitful and widely used method for synthesizing benzene homologues now generally known as the "Friedel and Crafts reaction."

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  • Other passages, where he describes himself as ever engaged, even in his dreams, on his task of inquiry and composition, produce the impression of an unrelieved strain of mind and feeling, which may have ended in some extreme reaction of spirit, or in some failure of intellectual power, that may have led him to commit suicide.

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  • Berzelius (Jahresb., 182 5, 4, p. 91) by the action of chlorine on silicon, and is also obtained when an intimate mixture of silica and carbon is heated in a stream of chlorine and the products of reaction fractionated.

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  • The compounds formed in the first case, which may be either definite chemical compounds or solid solutions, are discussed under Alloys; in this place only combinations with non-metals are discussed, it being premised that the free metal takes part in the reaction.

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  • Passed through a red-hot tube, benzene vapour yields hydrogen, diphenyl, diphenylbenzenes and acetylene; the formation of the last compound is an instance of a reversible reaction, since Berthelot found that acetylene passed through a red-hot tube gave some benzene.

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  • Cambon soon had reason to repent of that event, for he became one of those most violently attacked by the Thermidorian reaction.

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  • As a rule these equations are established immediately by determining the component acceleration of the fluid particle which is passing through (x, y, z) at the instant t of time considered, and saying that the reversed acceleration or kinetic reaction, combined with the impressed force per unit of mass and pressure-gradient, will according to d'Alembert's principle form a system in equilibrium.

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  • - An important problem in the motion of a liquid is the determination of the state of velocity set up by the passage of a solid through it; and thence of the pressure and reaction of the liquid on the surface of the solid, by which its motion is influenced when it is free.

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  • 00 ab2dX °0 ab2dX (22) L (I JS)' (18) (t9) This impulse will remain of constant magnitude, and fixed relatively to the body, which thus experiences an additional reaction from the circulation which is the opposite of the force required to change the position in space of the circulation impulse; and these extra forces must be taken into account in the dynamical equations.

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  • ZI /t = - (a - s) M'Q 2 sine cos ° - EQ sin() =[ - (a - (3)M'U+E]V (8) Now suppose the cylinder is free; the additional forces acting on the body are the components of kinetic reaction of the liquid - aM' (Ç_vR), - (3M' (-- E -FUR), - EC' dR, (9) so that its equations of motion are M (Ç - vR) _ - aM' (_vR) - (a - $) M'VR, (io) M (Ç+uR) = - OM' (dV+U R) - (a - ()M'UR - R, '(II) C dR = dR + (a - Q)M'UV+0V; (12) and putting as before M+aM'=ci, M+13M' = c2, C+EC'=C3, ci dU - c2VR=o, dV +(c1U+E)R=o, c 3 dR - (c 1 U+ - c 2 U)V =o; showing the modification of the equations of plane motion, due to the component E of the circulation.

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  • The tumults against the Paterine heretics (1244-1245), among whom were many Ghibelline nobles favoured by the podestd Pace di Pesamigola, indicate a successful Guelphic reaction; but Frederick II., having defeated his enemies both in Lombardy and in the Two Sicilies, appointed his natural son, Frederick of Antioch, imperial vicar in Tuscany, who, when civil war broke out, entered the city with 1600 German knights.

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  • There was perpetual rioting and anarchy, and interference in the affairs of the government by the working men, while at the same time poverty and unemployment increased owing to the timidity of capital and the disorders, until at last in 1382 a reaction set in, and order was restored by the gild companies.

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  • But their excesses, and in particular the Cabochien ordinance of the 25th of May 1413, aroused public indignation; a reaction took place, and in the month of August the Armagnacs in their turn became masters of the government and of the king.

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  • Calvinism had become, towards the close of the 16th century, supreme in Holland, but the very rigour of the uniformity it exacted provoked a reaction.

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  • Propylene is liberated during the reaction, and the phosphoric acid ester of meta-cresol which is formed is then fused with potash.

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  • for the production of calcium carbide) in which a portion of the charge is first actually fused, and then maintained in the molten condition by the current passing through it, while the reaction between further portions of the charge is proceeding.

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  • The secondary and tertiary amines do not give this reaction.

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  • By warming its aqueous solution with an excess of silver oxide it is converted into tetramethylammonium hydroxide, N(CH3)40H, which crystallizes in hygroscopic needles, and has a very alkaline reaction.

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  • At a temperature of about 300-400° C. the alkyl chloride formed in this reaction attacks the benzene nucleus and replaces hydrogen by an alkyl group or groups, forming primary amines homologous with the original amine; thus methylaniline hydrochloride is converted into paraand ortho-toluidine hydrochloride, and trimethyl phenyl ammonium iodide is converted into mesidine hydriodide.

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  • The secondary amines do not give the isonitrile reaction.

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  • It is basic in character, and has a strongly alkaline reaction.

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  • Instances of its application are found in the separation of orthoand para-nitrophenol, the o-compound distilling and the p- remaining behind; in the separation of aniline from the mixture obtained by reducing nitrobenzene; of the naphthols from the melts produced by fusing the naphthalene monosulphonic acids with potash; and of quinoline from the reaction between aniline, nitrobenzene, glycerin, and sulphuric acid (the product being first steam distilled to remove any aniline, nitrobenzene, or glycerin, then treated with alkali, and again steam distilled when quinoline comes over).

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  • The reaction from one extreme has, indeed, tended to lead to another, until not only the heroes, but the very gods themselves, are being traced to very human, not to say commonplace, origins.

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  • Haemorrhage has been classified as - (I) primary, occurring at the time of the injury; (2) reactionary, or within twenty-four hours of the accident, during the stage of reaction; (3) secondary, occurring at a later period and caused by faulty application of a ligature or septic condition of the wound.

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  • There came a reaction of taste and sense, but the delicate spirit of Tennyson had been wounded.

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    0
  • A reaction against this extravagance was perhaps inevitable, and criticism has of late been little occupied with the poet.

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    0
  • These students, confronted by i strong reaction in favor of pure Japanese art, have fought manfully to win public sympathy, and though their success is not yet crowned, it is not impossible that an Occidental school may ultimately be established.

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  • The reaction that followed was as severe in Baden as elsewhere in Germany, and culminated in.

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  • Many electrolytic methods have been proposed for the purification of sugar; in some of them soluble anodes are used for a few minutes in weak alkaline solutions, so that the caustic alkali from the cathode reaction may precipitate chemically the hydroxide of the anode metal dissolved in the liquid, the precipitate carrying with it mechanically some of the impurities present, and thus clarifying the solution.

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    0
  • The reaction against scholasticism was still in full tide; it was the transition time between the old and the new, when the eager and forwardlooking spirits had first of all to do battle with scholastic Aristotelianism.

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    0
  • He could have profited by the reaction which followed popular excitement but for his bad reputation and his want of discretion.

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    0
  • But when the development of the Revolution caused a general reaction, he adhered stoutly to his opinion that the Revolution was essentially just and ought not to be condemned for its errors or even for its crimes.

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  • An important nucleus-synthetic reaction is the saponification of nitriles, which may be obtained by the interaction of potassium cyanide with a halogen substitution derivative or a sulphonic acid.

    0
    0
  • Phosphorus pentachloride decomposes it into carbon monoxide and dioxide, the reaction being the one generally applied for the purpose of preparing phosphorus oxychloride.

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  • In March 1714 Herville, the French envoy in London, sent to Torcy, the French foreign minister in Paris, the substance of two long conversations with Bolingbroke in which the latter advised patience till after the accession of George, when a great reaction was to be expected in favour of the Pretender.

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  • His lack of imagination and his narrow patriotism made him the natural leader of the reaction against the new Hellenic culture.

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  • The reaction was shortlived; but the same affectation of antiquity is seen in the writings of Apuleius, also an African, who lived a little later than Fronto and was a man of much greater natural parts.

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  • Of late, largely under the inspiration of Don Antonio Canovas, there has been a certain reaction in his favour.

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  • To check the reaction towards the old religion he wrote several works of great power, especially his Theologiae Jesuitarum praecipua capita (1562), an incisive attack on the principles of the society, and the Examen concilii Tridentini (four parts, 1565-66-72-73), his greatest work.

    0
    0
  • In the case of ferrous sulphate, prepared by dissolving iron in dilute sulphuric acid, the reaction follows the equation AuCl 3 +3FeS04 = FeC13-I-Fe2(S04)3+Au.

    0
    0
  • It has been found that the reaction proceeds faster when the solution is heated.

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    0
  • Theend reaction may be written 4Au+8KCN 2H 2 0 +0 2 = 4KAu (C N) 2 -}-4KOH.

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    0
  • The heating is continued for 4 to 12 hours according to the amount of silver present; the end of the reaction is known by the absence of any hissing.

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  • Generally the reaction mixture is allowed to cool, and the residue, which settles to the bottom of the pot, consists of gold together with copper, lead and iron sulphates, which are insoluble in strong sulphuric acid; silver sulphate may also separate if present in sufficient quantity and the solution be sufficiently cooled.

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  • The writings of Tertullian afford the clearest demonstration that what is called Montanism was, at any rate in Africa, a reaction against secularism in the Church.

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  • A lay reaction against the theocratic pretensions of Dagobert, who was counting on Norman support, was responsible for the summons; and in the strength of that reaction Baldwin was able to become the first king of Jerusalem.

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  • A celebrated debate on this question took place in the House of Commons in January 1690; but the evident intention of the Whigs to perpetuate their own ascendancy by tampering with the franchise contributed largely to the Tory reaction which resulted in the defeat of the Whigs in the elections of that year.

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  • a-Naphthylamine is prepared by reducing a-nitronaphthalene with iron and hydrochloric acid at about 70° C., the reaction mixture being neutralized with milk of lime, and the naphthylamine steam-distilled.

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    0
  • When reduced by sodium in boiling amyl alcohol solution it forms alicyclic tetrahydro-0naphthylamine, which has most of the properties of the aliphatic amines; it is strongly alkaline in reaction, has an ammoniacal odour and cannot be diazotized.

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  • A clerical reaction followed against new progressive ideas and English methods of development.

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  • There is perpetual action and reaction between picture and myth; and a legislator desiring to purify and raise his countrymen's religion must devote no less attention to their plastic art than to their hymnology.

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  • The mere fact of the effort being made would have given the battle of Gravelotte the moral effect of a victory, and the reaction in the German ranks from the feeling of over-confidence, which had mastered them after the early successes of Spicheren and Woerth, must have had most far-reaching consequences.

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  • In 1738 appeared his Hydrodynamica, in which the equilibrium, the pressure, the reaction and varied velocities of fluids are considered both theoretically and practically.

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  • One of these problems, illustrated by experiment, deals with an ingenious mode of propelling vessels by the reaction of water ejected from the stern.

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  • On the other hand, if the effects arose from balanced stresses set up inside the globe by the radiation, the effects on the vanes and on the case would be of the nature of action and reaction, so that the establishment of motion of the vanes in one direction would involve impulsion of the case in the opposite direction; but when the motion became steady there would no longer be any torque either on the vanes or on the case, and the latter would therefore come back to its previous position of equilibrium; finally, when the light was turned off, the decay of the motion of the vanes would involve impulsion of the case in the direction of their motion until the moment of the restoring torque arising from the suspension of the case had absorbed the angular momentum in the system.

    0
    0
  • This increase of velocity implies an increase of the reaction on the surface, the black side of a vane being thus pressed with greater force than the bright side.

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    0
  • The fall of Cracow extinguished the last hope of the boldest Pole; but before the end of the year an extraordinary reaction began in Poland itself.

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  • In a like spirit of moderation he opposed the Thermidorian reaction, and defended Barere, Billaud-Varenne the Collot d'Herbois from the accusations launched against them on the 22nd of March 1795.

    0
    0
  • A reaction against Lollardy, however, had already begun in the days of Henry IV., and both he and his son felt obliged to discountenance opinions which were believed to be politically and theologically dangerous.

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  • As viceprincipal of the theological college at Cuddesdon (1854-1859) he wielded considerable influence, and, on returning to Oxford as vice-principal of St Edmund's Hall, became a growing force among the undergraduates, exercising his influence in strong opposition to the liberal reaction against Tractarianism, which had set in after Newman's secession in 1845.

    0
    0
  • Since 1851 it has been known that all sea-water has an alkaline reaction, and Torniie defined the alkalinity of sea-water as the amount of carbonic acid which is necessary to convert the excess of bases into normal carbonate.

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    0
  • The pleasing style and novel matter enchanted the Spanish public, but the unmeasured laudation of Cortes at the expense of his lieutenants and companions brought about a violent reaction.

    0
    0
  • In another form of apparatus advantage is taken of the property possessed by sodium-potassium peroxide of giving off oxygen when damped; the residue of caustic soda and potash yielded by the reaction is used to absorb the carbonic acid of the expired air.

    0
    0
  • A special V-shaped tube is used in the operation, and the reaction commences between 400° C. and 500° C.

    0
    0
  • The external forces holding the brake from turning are W, distant R from the axis, and the reaction, W 1 say, of the lever against the fixed pin P, distant R1 from the axis.

    0
    0
  • " Atom " has mainly a chemical import, being defined as the smallest particle of matter which can take part in a chemical reaction; a " molecule " is composed of atoms, generally two or more.

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    0
  • The course of events after the Thermidorian reaction of July 1 794 favoured his return to France.

    0
    0
  • With the death of Edward there came a period of reaction lasting for five years.

    0
    0
  • It would seem as if this sharp, uncompromising reaction was what was needed to produce a popular realization of the contrast between the Ecclesia anglicana of Henry VIII.

    0
    0
  • A reaction against the extreme severity of the king's courts became apparent at this date.

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    0
  • On one side of his thought Aristotle represents a reaction against idealism and a return to the position of common-sense.

    0
    0
  • In continental philosophy the reaction against mechanical and pantheistic explanations of the universe found even more definite utterance than in English psychological.

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    0
  • Reaction against Traditional Idealism.

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  • It is not, therefore, surprising that there should have been a vigorous reaction.

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  • Vien, the pioneer of the classical reaction in painting..

    0
    0
  • The classical reaction was now in full tide; Winckelmann was writing, Raphael Mengs.

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    0
  • The inevitable reaction of the romantic movement made the masterpieces, which had filled the men of the Revolution with enthusiasm, seem cold and lifeless to those who had been taught to expect in art that atmosphere of mystery which in nature is everywhere present.

    0
    0
  • Since the reaction with the acid salts is attended by liberation of nitric acid: NaH 2 PO 4 +3AgNO 3 = Ag3P04+NaN03 +2HN03, Na 2 HPO 4 +3AgNO 3 =Ag 3 PO 4 + 2NaN03+HNO 3, it is necessary to neutralize the nitric acid if the complete precipitation of the phosphoric acid.

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    0
  • It is readily soluble in water, the solution being gradually transformed into the orthoacid, a reaction which proceeds much more rapidly on boiling.

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    0
  • Scarcely had they done this when news of the encounter at Lexington produced a strong reaction in their favour, and in May 1775 they called a Provincial Congress which usurped the powers of the Assembly.

    0
    0
  • Republicans carried the state for Fremont for president, and a succession of Republican governors held office until 1862 when the discouragement in the North with respect to the Civil War brought a reaction which elected Seymour governor.

    0
    0
  • After the suppression of the Kapp troubles and the return of the Ministry to Berlin it was impossible for Noske to remain in office, as the labour masses, who by the general strike against the Kapp " Government " had for the moment obtained a decisive influence upon affairs, regarded him as having been too tolerant of reaction in the army and as having manifested excessive ruthlessness in the suppression of the Communist bands.

    0
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  • Many Jews questioned this diagnosis, and refused to see in the new anti-Semitism (q.v.) which spread over Europe in 1881 any more than a temporary reaction against the cosmopolitanism of the French Revolution.

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    0
  • Under his father's patronage he joined in the conservative reaction which came to a head in 411, when hopes of a Persian alliance or peace with Sparta strengthened the existing dissatisfaction with the democratic rule.

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    0
  • This extreme reaction displeased Theramenes, who in return began to agitate for the calling of the 5000 into real existence.

    0
    0
  • These measures suggest that a slight reaction against the extreme policy of President Kruger had set in.

    0
    0
  • After a period of tranquillity a reaction set in against Frankish influences, and in 840 the freemen and liti separated themselves from the nobles, formed a league, or stellinga, and obtained a promise from the emperor Lothair I.

    0
    0
  • The bitterness which this occurrence provoked was intensified by a political reaction which was initiated about the same time under Kenneritz.

    0
    0
  • The reaction at the right abutment is R4 = W1x1/l+W2x2/lrt ..

    0
    0
  • 41) the total load is w(c+x); the reaction at B is C R2 =w(c+x) Xc±x= (c+x)2, I.

    0
    0
  • The greatest shear at C for any position of the load occurs when the head of the train is at C. For any load p between C and B will increase the reaction at B and therefore the shear at C by part of p, but at the same time will diminish the shear at C by the whole FIG.

    0
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  • beyond C, the shear at C will probably be greatest when W2 is at C. Let R be the resultant of the loads on the bridge when W 1 is at C. Then the reaction at B and shear at C is Rn/l.

    0
    0
  • Next let the loads advance a distance a so that W2 comes to C. Then the shear at C is R(n+a)/l - WI, plus any reaction d at B, due to any additional load which has come on the girder during the movement.

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  • 46) be the section at which the greatest shear is required, and let the loads advance from the left till W I is at C. If R is the resultant of the loads then on the girder, the reaction at B and shear at C is Rn/l.

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  • 48), at distances x and x+a from the left abutment, be their resultants on either side of C. Then the reaction at B is WIx/1+W2(x+a)/l.

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    0
  • When the load is at F', the reaction at B' is m/l and the moment at C' is m(l-x)ll, which will be reckoned positive, when it resists a tendency of the right-hand part of the girder to turn counter-clockwise.

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  • The loads at D', E, due to unit weight on the rail girder are (p-n)/p and n/p. The reaction at B' is {(p- n)xi+n(xi+p)}' /pi.

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  • Also mn/mf = hk/kf 'or' mn-W (l-x)/l, which is the reaction at A due to the load at C, and is the shear at any point of AC. Similarly, po is the reaction at B and shear at any point of CB.

    0
    0
  • Then qr/ro = hk/hg or ro =W (l-x-a)/l, which is the reaction at A and shear at any point of AD, for the new position of the load.

    0
    0
  • 67 b, superimposed and divided so that the length AX represents the load AX, the length AB the load AB, the length YX the reaction YX, and so forth.

    0
    0
  • In subsequent diagrams the two reaction lines will, for the sake of clearness, be drawn as if slightly inclined to the vertical.

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  • If there are no redundant members in the frame there will be only two members abutting at the point of support, for these two members will be sufficient to balance the reaction, whatever its direction may be; we can therefore draw two triangles, each having as one side the reaction YX, and having the two other sides parallel to these two members; each of these triangles will represent a polygon of forces in equilibrium at the point of support.

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  • 20 1918 that the Government adopted the point of view of the Social Democrats, and promised to extend the principle of the parliamentary franchise, as established in the case of elections to the Reichsrat, to the communal elections also, but with reservations intended to guard against " the undesirable reaction of nationality in districts of mixed population."

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  • The immediate cause of war - the murder of the heir to the throne - had profoundly impressed all the Austrian peoples, and the belief that efforts were being made from without to destroy the old empire produced among them a strong reaction in favour of its preservation.

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  • The economic situation of Austria shared in this respect in the general development of world affairs, in which also, after a period of prosperity, a reaction set in in 1913.

    0
    0
  • It is Only surprising that in 1912 the reaction already showed itself sharply in Austria.

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    0
  • Neither is it merely fortuitous that the reaction proceeded from France itself.

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    0
  • It was employed for purposes quite different from those to which he had himself applied it, and the reaction triumphed by the very arms which had been most powerful in the hands of the Revolution.

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    0
  • Every living organism reacts to its environment; if the reaction is unfavourable, disability leading to ultimate extinction is the result.

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    0
  • If the reaction is favourable, its result is called an adaptation.

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    0
  • Induced or eddy currents are thus created in the copper disk, and the reaction of these against the magnetic field offers a resistance to the rotation of the disk.

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    0
  • The last of these, Ferdinand, who succeeded in 1848, granted a liberal constitution to his people, but cancelled it during the reaction of 1852.

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    0
  • It dissolves readily in water, the solution having an acid reaction.

    0
    0
  • Ammonia is a colourless gas possessing a characteristic pungent smell and a strongly alkaline reaction; it is lighter than air, its specific gravity being o�589 (air =1).

    0
    0
  • p. 55) by the interaction of nitrogen iodide with zinc ethyl, the products of the reaction being triethylamine and ammonia; the ammonia liberated was absorbed in hydrochloric acid, and 95% of the theoretical amount of the ammonium chloride was obtained.

    0
    0
  • p. 612) has shown that perfectly dry ammonia will not combine with perfectly dry hydrochloric acid, moisture being necessary to bring about the reaction.

    0
    0
  • On exposure to air it gradually assumes a yellow colour and becomes acid in its reaction.

    0
    0
  • The aqueous solution of this salt liberates carbon dioxide on exposure to air or on heating, and becomes alkaline in reaction.

    0
    0
  • Berthelot in 1883 showed that if ammonium nitrate be rapidly heated the following reaction takes place with explosive violence:-2NH 4 NO 3 = 4H20+2N2+ 02.

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    0
  • We have to remember that he was removed from the scene early in the reaction, before force was fully organized for the suppression of the revolution.

    0
    0
  • On such a view the aether might conceivably be a perfect fluid, its fundamental property of elastic reaction arising (as at one time suggested by Kelvin and G.

    0
    0
  • In the Church of England, on the other hand, the name "Protestant" has, under the influence of the High Church reaction, been repudiated by an increasingly large number of the clergy and laity, and is even sometimes used by them in a.

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    0
  • These, however, had far too strong a hold upon the Roman world for a reaction against the new tendency to be long avoided.

    0
    0
  • This reaction began with the reform of Benedict of Aniane (d.

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    0
  • 13 1920, with Rumania April 23 1921), positive in so far as it aimed at the establishment and maintenance of peace, security and normal economic conditions in central Europe, and defensive in so far as it was directed against all attempts at reaction menacing the existence of the new states.

    0
    0
  • But in Germany, as in France, a combination of political and of economic forces led before long to a reaction towards protection.

    0
    0
  • The reaction came in 1879, when duties were increased on manufactured articles as Protec- well as on agricultural articles.

    0
    0
  • The factors which have brought about this reaction have been, as was already noted, partly economic, partly political: on the one hand, the pressure of competition from distant countries in agricultural products, a consequence chiefly of improved transportation; on the other hand, the revival of national sentiment and prejudice.

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    0
  • The Sophistic epoch of Greek philosophy was, in great part, such a negative reaction against the self-confident assertion of the nature-philosophies of the preceding age.

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    0
  • In less than twenty years after the death of its founder, it collapsed before a combined attack of all Poland's enemies, and simultaneously a terrible pagan reaction swept away the poor remnants of Christianity and civilization.

    0
    0
  • An auxiliary cause of the decline of Protestantism was the beginning of a Catholic reaction.

    0
    0
  • The adhesion of the same monarch to the League of the Catholic Reaction certainly added to the difficulties of Polish diplomacy, and still further divided the already distracted diet, besides alienating from the court the powerful and popular chancellor Zamoyski.

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    0
  • But, at the beginning of the 17th century, when the current of the Catholic reaction was running very strongly and the Jesuits, after subduing the Protestants, began to undermine the position of the Orthodox Church in Lithuania, a more intolerant spirit 1 Cf.

    0
    0
  • But these demoralizing and disintegrating influences had been suspended by the religious revival due to the Catholic reaction and the Jesuit propaganda, a revival which reached its height towards the end of the 16th century.

    0
    0
  • His warning, "No nonsense, gentlemen" (Point de reveries, Messieurs), was taken in very ill part, and it was perhaps naturally, but beyond question most unhappily, the truth that the tsar's concessions only served to encourage the Poles to revolt, and to produce a strong Russian reaction against his liberal policy.

    0
    0
  • All this, however, was to pass away under the great Jesuit reaction.

    0
    0
  • The anhydrous salt is a colourless powder or porous mass, having an alkaline taste and reaction.

    0
    0
  • His domestic policy was one of extreme reaction.

    0
    0
  • The reaction of 1815-1821 in favour of classics was followed by the more liberal programme of Vatimesnil (1829), including, for those who had no taste for a classical education, certain " special courses " (1830), which were the germ of the enseignement special and the enseignement moderne.

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    0
  • In this method of preparation it is found that the secondary alcohols decompose more readily that the primary alcohols of the series, and when sulphuric acid is used, two phases are present in the reaction, the first being the building up of an intermediate sulphuric acid ester, which then decomposes into sulphuric acid and hydrocarbon: C2H 5 OH->C 2 H 5 HSO 4 ->C 2 H 4 +-H 2 SO 4.

    0
    0
  • The reaction probably proceeds thus: MC1 2 +C 0 H 2, ,, C1-HC1+ Cl M CnH 2 nC1-MC12+CnH 2, 2, since the haloid derivatives of the monovalent metals do not act similarly.

    0
    0
  • The solution of the gas in water shows a faintly acid reaction and is supposed to contain carbonic acid, H2C03.

    0
    0
  • Carbon dioxide dissociates, when strongly heated, into carbon monoxide and oxygen, the reaction being a balanced action; the extent of dissociation for varying temperatures and pressures has been calculated by H.

    0
    0
  • In The Latter Reaction Various Other Compounds, Such As Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Bisulphide And Hydrocyanic Acid, Are Produced.

    0
    0
  • In general, his philosophy was a reaction against the sceptic or agnostic position of the Middle and New Academy in favour of the dogmatism of Plato.

    0
    0
  • During the first years of the new regime a keen reaction was produced against the political system of the imperial government in Africa.

    0
    0
  • After a great inquiry held in 1892 by a senatorial committee a reaction was produced in France against this excessive assimilation.

    0
    0
  • The reaction may be written 2K+ 211 2 0= 2K0H+H2, and the flame is due to the combustion of the hydrogen, the violet colour being occasioned by the potassium vapour.

    0
    0
  • A violent reaction ensues with phosphorus and sulphur, and many metals are oxidized by it, some with incandescence.

    0
    0
  • The commercial salt usually has an alkaline reaction; it may be purified by dissolving in the minimum amount of water, and neutralizing with dilute sulphuric acid; alcohol is now added to precipitate the potassium sulphate, the solution filtered and crystallized.

    0
    0
  • The later scholastic Protestant doctrine of verbal infallibility necessarily encouraged critical reaction and proved a widely extended retarding force far down into the 10th century.

    0
    0
  • On ignition the reaction, 8A1+3Fe 3 O 4 =9Fe+4Al 2 O 3, gives a temperature estimated to be between 2,300° and 2,700°C. The reaction, stated in weights, means that 217 parts of aluminium plus 732 parts magnetite (iron oxide) equals 540 parts steel plus 409 parts slag, or approximately 3 parts of aluminium plus 10 parts of magnetite will produce, on combustion, 7 parts of steel.

    0
    0
  • He had, moreover, had no part in the divorce of Catherine or in the humiliation of Mary in Henry's reign, and he made no scruple about conforming to the religious reaction.

    0
    0
  • The prophetic teaching had indeed produced a profound effect; to the party of reaction, as the persecution under Manasseh shows, it seemed to threaten to subvert all society; and we can still measure the range and depth of its influence in the literary remains of the period from Isaiah to the captivity, which include Micah vi.

    0
    0
  • Although real historical personages - Gustavus Vasa, Olaus Petri the reformer and Gerdt the Anabaptist - figure as leading characters, they are made symbolic of the present-day forces of progress and reaction.

    0
    0
  • Claude Acquaviva, the fifth general, held office from 1581 to 1615, a time almost coinciding with the high tide of the successful reaction, chiefly due to the Jesuits.

    0
    0
  • If the growing Christian Church, in quite a different fashion from Paul, laid stress on the literal authority of the Old Testament, interpreted, it is true, allegorically; if it took up a much more friendly and definite attitude towards the Old Testament, and gave wider scope to the legal conception of religion, this must be in part ascribed to the involuntary reaction upon it of Gnosticism.

    0
    0
  • If here a return was made to the old material view of the resurrection (the apostolic avaaraacs -rijs vapKOS), entirely abandoning the more spiritual conception which had been arrived at as a compromise by Paul, this is probably the result of a reaction from the views of Gnosticism.

    0
    0
  • Charles headed the party of feudal reaction, and was among those who compassed the ruin of Enguerrand de Marigny.

    0
    0
  • It can be prepared by the reduction of phenyl propiolic acid with zinc and acetic acid, by heating benzal malonic acid, by the condensation of ethyl acetate with benzaldehyde in the presence of sodium ethylate or by the so-called "Perkin reaction"; the latter being the method commonly employed.

    0
    0
  • Considerable controversy has taken place as to the course pursued by this reaction, but the matter has been definitely settled by the work of R.

    0
    0
  • Coming as the book did just when the reaction against the revolution was about to turn into another reaction in its favour, it was assured of success.

    0
    0
  • It crystallizes from water in colourless rhombic prisms, containing four molecules of water of crystallization, and possesses a very acid reaction.

    0
    0
  • It rarely substitutes directly, because the hydriodic acid produced reverses the reaction; this can be avoided by the presence of precipitated mercuric oxide or iodic acid, which react with the hydriodic acid as fast as it is formed, and consequently remove it from the reacting system.

    0
    0
  • The usual method is to make a mixture of amorphous phosphorus and a large excess of iodine and then to allow water to drop slowly upon it; the reaction starts readily, and the gas obtained can be freed from any admixed iodine vapour by passing it through a tube containing some amorphous phosphorus.

    0
    0
  • It is a white crystalline solid, easily soluble in water, the solution showing a strongly acid reaction with litmus; the colour, however, is ultimately discharged by the bleaching power of the compound.

    0
    0
  • This reaction shows that the alkyl or aryl group is attached to the carbon atom in the nitrile.

    0
    0
  • This reaction shows that the alkyl or aryl group is linked to the nitrogen atom.

    0
    0
  • Such a reaction can only take place if the addition of the alkyl group takes place on the nitrogen atom of the isonitrile, from which it follows that the nitrogen atom must be trivalent and consequently the carbon atom divalent.

    0
    0
  • This explanation also accounts for the formation of nitriles by the diazo reaction, thus: C 6 H 5 N 2 C1+CuNC-)CuN :C Cl N 2 C 6 H 5 ->CuCl-{ N :C N2 C6H5C6H5CN-{- N2.

    0
    0
  • The amount of hydrocyanic acid in a solution may be determined by adding excess of caustic potash and a small quantity of an alkaline chloride, and running into the dilute solution standard silver nitrate until a faint permanent turbidity (of silver chloride) is produced, that is, until the reaction, 2KNC+AgNO 3 = KAg(NC) 2 - -KNO 3, is completed.

    0
    0
  • carbon monoxide is produced, a reaction which finds no parallel in the higher members of the series.

    0
    0
  • In this reaction a glycerol ester is formed as an intermediate product, and undergoes decomposition by the water which is also produced at the same time.

    0
    0
  • Surprised and menaced by the Thermidorian reaction, he denounced its partisans to the Jacobin club.

    0
    0
  • He took part in the reaction which followed the fall of Robespierre, sat in the Council of the Five Hundred under the Directory, and at the coup d'etat of the 18th Fructidor (Sept.

    0
    0
  • The same years, however, made apparent a rapid fall, general and marked, yet possibly only temporary, in the rate at which such urban centres, as well as larger ones, had been gaining upon the rural districts; this reaction being most pronounced in the South and least so in the North Atlantic states, whose manufacturing industries are concentrated in dense centres of population.

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  • explanation of which is probably to be found in the reaction of the first American generation caused on.

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  • that a reaction against this abuse became clearly perceptible.

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  • When the reaction is complete the acid is neutralized with soda, and the phenyl methyl pyrazolone extracted with ether and distilled in vacuo.

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  • Within this period also falls that evangelical and legal reaction against the political and secular tendencies of the church which is known as Montanism.

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  • In his earlier years he devoted himself to chemistry, both theoretical and applied, publishing papers on the preparation of gold and platinum, numerical relations between the atomic weights of analogous elements, the formation of aventurine glass, the manufacture of illuminating gas from wood, the preservation of oil-paintings, &c. The reaction known by his name for the detection of bile acids was published in 1844.

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  • The native white people united, formed a Conservative party and elected a governor and a majority of the lower house of the legislature in 1870; but, as the new administration was largely a failure, in 1872 there was a reaction in favour of the Radicals, a local term applied to the Republican party, and affairs went from bad to worse.

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  • The reaction was followed for a short interval by a return to approximately the former party alignment, but in 1854 the rank and file of the Whigs joined the American or Know-Nothing party while most of the Whig leaders went over to the Democrats.

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  • But the calamitous situation of England at the moment of his death, on the 19th of October 1216, was in the main his work; and while he lived a national reaction in favour of the dynasty was out of the question.

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  • It contains, in addition to tannin, a peculiar principle called larixin, which may be obtained in a pure state by distillation from a concentrated infusion of the bark; it is a colourless substance in long crystals, with a bitter and astringent taste, and a faint acid reaction; hence some term it larixinic acid.

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  • During the reign of his brother, Louis XVIII., he was the leader of the ultra-royalists, the party of extreme reaction.

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  • Martignac was dismissed; and Prince Jules de Polignac, the very incarnation of clericalism and reaction, was called to the helm of state.

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  • By 1550, when he summoned his second diet, a reaction in his favour began, and the lingering petulance of the gentry was sternly rebuked by Kmita, the marshal of the diet, who openly accused them of attempting to diminish unduly the legislative prerogative of the crown.

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