Rayleigh sentence example

rayleigh
  • The investigations of Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay had shown that indifference to chemical reagents did not sufficiently characterize an unknown gas as nitrogen, and it became necessary to reinvestigate other cases of the occurrence of "nitrogen" in nature.
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  • JOHN WILLIAM STRUTT RAYLEIGH, 3rd baron (1842-), English physicist, was born in Essex on the 12th of November 1842, being the son of the 2nd baron.'
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  • Lord Rayleigh had an interest in abnormal psychological investigations, and became a member and vice president of the Society for Psychical Research.
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  • For a popular but authentic account of some of Lord Rayleigh's scientific work and discoveries, see an article by Sir Oliver Lodge in the National Review for September 1898.
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  • In 1875 Lord Rayleigh published an investigation on "the work which may be gained during the mixing of gases."
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  • In the experiment imagined by Lord Rayleigh a porous diaphragm takes the place of the partition and trap-doors imagined by Clerk Maxwell, and the molecules sort themselves automatically on account of the difference in their average velocities for the two gases.
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  • The process was developed by Madame Lefebre in 1859; by Meissner in 1863, who found that moist gases gave a better result; and by Prim in 1882, who sparked the gases under pressure; it was also used by Lord Rayleigh in his isolation of argon.
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  • Crookes showed that the arc brought about combination; and in 1897 Lord Rayleigh went into the process more fully.
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  • Lord Rayleigh in 1894 found that the density of atmospheric nitrogen was about 2% higher than that of chemically prepared nitrogen, a discovery which led to the isolation of the rare gases of the atmosphere.
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  • pp. 342 et seq.; Lord Rayleigh, Proc. Roy.
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  • This correction may be indicated in the diagram by a straight line drawn from o through the point at which the line of I = moo intersects that of H = o 28 (Rayleigh, Phil.
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  • In some experiments carried out in 1887, Lord Rayleigh (Phil.
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  • 1,300 [[[Dimensions And Magnetization]] The observations of Baur and Rayleigh have been confirmed and discussed by (amongst others) W.
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  • Soc., 1889, 46, 269) of " magnetic viscosity " under small forces-the cause of the magnetometer " drift " referred to by Rayleigh.
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  • Lord Rayleigh has recorded that he was himself convinced by Fraunhofer's reasoning at a date antecedent to the writings of Helmholtz and Abbe.
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  • p. 465, 1870; Rayleigh, Nature (October 2, 1873).
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  • See Peter Rayleigh, History of Ye Antient Society of Cogers (London, 1904).
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  • Lord Rayleigh has pointed out that the difference may arise from the heterogeneity of alloys.
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  • In the collected Scientific Papers of Lord Kelvin (3 vols., Cambridge, 1882), of James Clerk Maxwell (2 vols., Cambridge, 1890), and of Lord Rayleigh (4 vols., Cambridge, 1903), the advanced student will find the means for studying the historical development of electrical knowledge as it has been evolved from the minds of some of the master workers of the 19th century.
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  • This method has been refined by many experimenters, among whom we may notice Morley and Lord Rayleigh.
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  • Lord Rayleigh has made many investigations of the absolute densities of gases, one of which, namely on atmospheric and artificial nitrogen, undertaken in conjunction with Sir William Ramsay, culminated in the discovery of argon.
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  • As a single instance of this may be mentioned some experiments of Lord Rayleigh (Proc. Roy.
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  • Lord Rayleigh (Phil.
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  • Cavendish made many analyses: from more than soo determinations of air in winter and summer, in wet and clear weather, and in town and country, he discerned the mean composition of the atmosphere to be, oxygen 20 833% and nitrogen 79.167% The same experimenter noticed the presence of an inert gas, in very minute amount; this gas, afterwards investigated by Rayleigh and Ramsay, is now named argon.
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  • Rayleigh points out that this clinging of the sound to the surface of a concave wall does not depend on the exactness of the spherical form.
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  • This is explained by Rayleigh (Sound, ii.
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  • Lord Rayleigh (Scientific Papers, iii.
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  • If the forks are not of exactly the same frequency the ellipse will slowly revolve, and from its rate of revolution the ratio of the frequencies may be determined (Rayleigh, Sound, i.
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  • Various modifications of the kaleidophone have been made (Rayleigh, Sound, § 38).
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  • With this apparatus Koenig studied the effect of temperature on a standard fork of 256 frequency, and found that the frequency decreased by o 0286 of a vibration fora rise of I°, the frequency being exactly 256 at 26.2° C. Hence the frequency may be put as 256 { I - 0.000113 0-26.2)1 (From Lord Rayleigh's Theory of Sound, by permission of Macmillan & Co., Ltd.) FIG.
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  • These effects have been explained by Lord Rayleigh (Sound, i.
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  • § 68 c), consists of a wheel carrying several soft-iron armatures fixed at equal distances Rayleigh's round its circumference.
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  • In an experiment described by Rayleigh such a wheel provided with four armatures was used to determine the exact frequency of a driving fork known to have a frequency near 32.
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  • The mathematical investigation of forced vibrations (Rayleigh,Sound, i.
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  • The first may be illustrated by Lord Rayleigh's experiments to determine the amplitude of vibration in waves only just audible (Sound, ii.
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  • In a later series of experiments Lord Rayleigh (Phil.
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  • Helmholtz's theory of the resonator (Rayleigh, Sound, ii.
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  • For minimum audible sounds Wien found a somewhat smaller value of the amplitude than Rayleigh.
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  • It is remarkable that, as Lord Rayleigh says, " the streams of energy required to influence the eye and the ear are of the same order of magnitude."
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  • The position of the loop has not yet been calculated for an ordinary open pipe, but Lord Rayleigh has shown (Sound, ii.
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  • Using this result Rayleigh found the correction for an unflanged open end by sounding two pipes nearly in unison, each provided with a flange, and counting the beats.
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  • Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay (Phil.
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  • 141, or Rayleigh, ra ' Sound, ii.
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  • - Helmholtz investigated the velocity of propagation of sound in pipes, taking into account the viscosity of the air (Rayleigh, Sound, ii.
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  • Kundt also obtained results in general agreement with the formula (Rayleigh, Sound, ii.
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  • A full discussion will be found in Rayleigh's Sound, vol.
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  • Lord Rayleigh has shown that there is a tangential motion as well as a motion in and out.
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  • Lord Rayleigh (Sound, ii.
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  • The essential fact, as pointed out by Lord Rayleigh (Scientific Papers, i.
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  • Lord Rayleigh (loc. cit.) points out that this FIG.
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  • Mag., 1878, 2, p. 500, or Rayleigh, Sound, § 386) that sounds of considerable intensity when heard by themselves are liable to be completely obliterated by graver sounds of sufficient force goes far to explain this, for the summation tones are of course always accompanied by such graver sounds.
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  • The second mode of production of combination tones, by the mechanism of the receiver, is discussed by Helmholtz (Sensations of Tone, App. xii.) and Rayleigh (Sound, i.
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  • The standard treatise on the mathematical theory is Lord Rayleigh's Theory of Sound (2nd ed., 1894); this work also contains an account of experimental verifications.
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  • Lamb, The Dynamical Theory of Sound (1910), is intended as a stepping-stone to the study of-the writings of Helmholtz and Rayleigh.
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  • Wood, have been written largely on the basis of the general physics of the aether; while the Collected Papers of Lord Rayleigh should be accessible to all who desire a first-hand knowledge of the development of the optical side of the subject.
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  • The Clark cell is made in two forms, the board of trade or tubular form, and the H form of cell devised by Lord Rayleigh.
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  • In 1764 Leonhard Euler employed the functions of both zero and integral orders in an analysis into the vibrations of a stretched membrane; an investigation which has been considerably developed by Lord Rayleigh, who has also shown (1878) that Bessel's functions are particular cases of Laplace's functions.
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  • Lamb, C. Chree, Lord Rayleigh); and to hydrodynamics (Lord Kelvin, Sir G.
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  • Heinrich Eduard Heine has shown that the functions of higher orders may be considered as limiting values of the associated functions; this relation was discussed independently, in 1878, by Lord Rayleigh.
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  • Lord Rayleigh, to whom we owe the first general discussion of the theory of the spectroscope, found by observation that if two spectroscopic lines of frequencies n1 and n, are observed in an instrument, they are just seen as two separate lines when the centre of the central diffraction band of one coincides with the first minimum intensity of the other.
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  • Lord Rayleigh's expression for the resolving power of different instruments is based on the assumption that the geometrical image of the slit is narrow compared with the width of the diffraction image.
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  • Theoretical resolving power can only be obtained when the whole collimator is filled with light and further (as pointed out by Lord Rayleigh in the course of discussion during a meeting of the " Optical Convention " in London, 1905) each portion of the collimator must be illuminated by each portion of the luminous source.
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  • In interpreting the phenomena observed in a spectroscope, it is necessary to remember that the instrument, as pointed out by Lord Rayleigh, is itself a producer of homogeneity within the limits defined by its resolving power.
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  • Rayleigh, Phil.
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  • Lord Rayleigh,' who has also investigated vibrating systems giving series of lines approaching a definite limit of " root," remarks that by dynamical reasoning we are always led to equations giving the square of the period and not the period, while in the equation representing spectral series the simplest results are obtained for the first power of the period.
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  • Soc., April 1894.) At this stage it became clear that the complication depended upon some hitherto unknown body, and probability inclined to the existence of a gas in the atmosphere heavier than nitrogen, and remaining unacted upon during the removal of the oxygen - a conclusion afterwards fully established by Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay.
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  • The announcement to the British Association in 1894 by Rayleigh and Ramsay of a new gas in the atmosphere was received with a good deal of scepticism.
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  • The following analyses (Rayleigh, Phil.
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  • The names of the first recipients were: Earl Roberts, Viscount Wolseley, Viscount Kitchener, Sir Henry Keppel, Sir Edward Seymour, Lord Lister, Lord Rayleigh, Lord Kelvin, John Morley, W.
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  • Pure hydrogen is a tasteless, colourless and odourless gas of specific gravity 0.06947 (air= i) (Lord Rayleigh, Proc. Roy.
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  • Journ., 1888, 10, p. 191; Lord Rayleigh, Chem.
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  • If the effects depended merely on the velocity of translation of the molecules, both conductivity and viscosity should increase directly as the square root of the absolute temperature; but the mean free path also varies in a manner which cannot be predicted by theory and which appears to be different for different gases (Rayleigh, Proc. R.S., January 1896).
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  • John William Strutt, 3rd baron Rayleigh >>
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  • Helmholtz and Lord Rayleigh are founded on this relation.
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  • The function F is therefore called by Lord Rayleigh the dissipation function.
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  • The validity of the recilirocal theorems of Helmholtz and Lord Rayleigh, already referred to, is not affected by frictional forces of the kind here considered.
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  • This is perhaps the place to refer also to the great services of Lord Rayleigh to electrical science.
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  • Lord Rayleigh for carbon bisulphide,2 and Sir W.
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  • The theory of electro-optics received great attention from Kelvin, Maxwell, Rayleigh, G.
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  • 2 See Lord Rayleigh, Proc. Roy.
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  • Burbury, The Mathematical Theory of Electricity and Magnetism (2 vols., 1885); Lord Kelvin (Sir William Thomson), Mathematical and Physical Papers (3 vols., Cambridge, 1882); Lord Rayleigh, Scientific Papers (q.
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  • For further calculations on Laplace's principles, see Rayleigh, Phil.
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  • (" Laplace's Theory of Capillarity," Rayleigh, Phil.
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  • Lord Rayleigh has shown that the fall of surface-tension begins when the quantity of oil is about the half of that required to stop the camphor movements, and he suggests that this stage may correspond with a complete coating of the surface with a single layer of molecules.] On the Forms of Liquid Films which are Figures of Revolution.
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  • The joint operation of superficial tension and inertia in fixing the wave-length of maximum instability was first considered by Lord Rayleigh in a paper (Math.
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  • Preferable to an opaque screen is a piece of ground glass, which allows the shadow to be examined from the farther side (Lord Rayleigh).
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  • REFERENcES.-Further information on some of the matters discussed above will be found in Lord Rayleigh's Collected Scientific Papers (1901).
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  • And in 1909 the British government appointed a scientific committee, with Lord Rayleigh as chairman, as a consultative body for furthering the development of the science in England.
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  • r); an interesting case of this phenomenon is the polarization of the light from the sky - a subject that has been treated theoretically by Lord Rayleigh in an important series of papers (See SKY, Colour Of, and Rayleigh, Scientific Works, i.
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  • Lord Rayleigh (Scientific Papers, i.
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  • But the result of taking these into account is far from being in accordance with the facts, and experiments of Lord Rayleigh and Paul Drude make it probable that we ought to assume that the transition from one medium to another, though taking place in a distance amounting to about one fiftieth of a wave-length, is gradual instead of abrupt.
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  • Lord Rayleigh has pointed out that all theories are defective in that they disregard the fact that one at least of the media is dispersive, and that it is probable that finite reflection would result at the interface of media of different dispersive powers, even in the case of waves for which the refractive indices are absolutely the same.
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  • Rayleigh discovered the gas argon and was awarded the Nobel prize for physics in 1904.
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  • Rayleigh is perhaps most famous for his discovery the inert gas argon in 1895, work which earned him a Nobel Prize in 1904.
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  • eigenvalue analysis and used to evaluate Rayleigh damping factors from equations (5 ).
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  • obtained in advance from: Copped Hall Study Days, 26 Great Wheatley Road, Rayleigh, Essex SS6 7AP.
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  • Humphrey, " Lord Rayleigh - the last of the great Victorian polymaths ", Bull.
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  • velocity of propagation of Rayleigh waves is smaller than that of body waves.
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  • Lord Rayleigh had an interest in abnormal psychological investigations, and became a member and vicepresident of the Society for Psychical Research.
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  • The synthesis of nitric acid by passing electric sparks through moist air by Cavendish is a famous piece of experimental work, for in the first place it determined the composition of this important substance, and in the second place the minute residue of air which would not combine, although ignored for about a century, was subsequently examined by Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay, who showed that it consists of a mixture of elementary substances - argon, krypton, neon and xenon (see Argon).
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  • Lord Rayleigh in 1894 found that the density of atmospheric nitrogen was about 2% higher than that of chemically prepared nitrogen, a discovery which led to the isolation of the rare gases of the atmosphere (see Argon).
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  • o 96727 Lord Rayleigh, Chem.
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  • In several papers dating from 1872, Lord Rayleigh (see Collected Papers, i.
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  • The resulting aerial motion in front is readily calculated (see Rayleigh, Theory of Sound, § 278); it is symmetrical with respect to the origin, i.e.
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  • L ° poiedx = a (y + I) average energy per cubic centimetre, (Is) a result first published by Lord Rayleigh (Phil.
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  • According to von Helmholtz and Kirchhoff the velocity in a tube should be less than that in free air by a quantity depending on the diameter of the tube, the frequency of the note used, and the viscosity of the gas (Rayleigh, Sound, vol.
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  • In some domes, for instance in a dome at the university of Birmingham, a sound from one end of a diameter is heard very much more loudly quite close to the other end of the diameter than elsewhere, but in St Paul's Lord Rayleigh found that " the abnormal loudness with which a whisper is heard is not confined to the position diametrically opposite to that occupied by the whisperer, and therefore, it would appear, does not depend materially upon the symmetry of the dome.
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  • With this apparatus Koenig studied the effect of temperature on a standard fork of 256 frequency, and found that the frequency decreased by o 0286 of a vibration fora rise of I°, the frequency being exactly 256 at 26.2° C. Hence the frequency may be put as 256 { I - 0.000113 0-26.2)1 (From Lord Rayleigh's Theory of Sound, by permission of Macmillan & Co., Ltd.) FIG.
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  • The phonic wheel, invented independently by Paul La Cour and Lord Rayleigh (see Sound, i.
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  • In Rayleigh's experiment the 32 fork was made to drive electrically one of frequency about 128, and somewhat as with the phonic wheel, the frequency was controlled so as to be exactly four times that of the 32 fork.
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  • For the vibration of air in other cavities than long cylindrical pipes we refer to Rayleigh's Sound, vol.
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  • There are shears of the order dry/dx and the simple Young's modulus system can no longer be taken to represent the actual condition (see Rayleigh, Sound, i.
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  • Some discussion of the vibrations of bells will be found in Rayleigh, Sound, vol.
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  • The maintenance of the vibration of the air in the singing tube has been explained by Lord Rayleigh (Sound, vol.
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  • Lommel, Lord Rayleigh, Georg Wilhelm Struve); the theory of elasticity (A.
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  • Determinations made thus were equally concordant among themselves, but the resulting density was about 10 1 6 - 0 part greater than that found by Harcourt's method (Rayleigh, Nature, vol.
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  • Thomson, the successor of Maxwell and Lord Rayleigh in the Cavendish chair of physics in the university of Cambridge, began about the year 1899 a remarkable series of investigations on the cathode discharge, which finally enabled him to make a measurement of the ratio of the electric charge to the mass of the particles of matter projected from the cathode, and to show that this electric charge was identical with the atomic electric charge carried by a hydrogen ion in the act of electrolysis, but that the mass of the cathode particles, or " corpuscles " as he called them, was far less, viz.
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  • Perhaps the earliest appearance in analysis of a continuant in its determinant form occurs in Lagrange's investigation of the vibrations of a stretched string (see Lord Rayleigh, Theory of Sound, vol.
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  • The formula for the weight of a drop is then simply Mg = 3.8Ta, (2) in which 3.8 replaces the 27r of the faulty theory alluded to earlier (see Rayleigh, Phil.
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  • The velocity of propagation of Rayleigh waves is smaller than that of body waves.
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  • In 1894 he was associated with Lord Rayleigh in the discovery of argon, announced at that year's meeting of the British Association in Oxford, and in the following year he found in certain rare minerals such as cleveite the gas helium which till that time had only been known on spectroscopic evidence as existing in the sun.
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