How to use Raw in a sentence
Jonny's voice was young and raw again.
They're not raw, and I only eat them for dinner.
He was right, of course, but his harsh words were like salt on a raw wound.
Feeling raw, Jenn rose.
In truth, the raw information funneled to us was transmitted as received after passing through our office.Advertisement
His teeth rattled at the raw energy coursing within his body.
One group of the French stood close to the road, and two of them, one of whom had his face covered with sores, were tearing a piece of raw flesh with their hands.
She neared him, sensing a flood of raw emotion she didn't understand.
Her raw sweetness threatened his resolve to keep his distance.
His pain was almost palpable, and she couldn't help feeling it was too raw for him to fake.Advertisement
She responded to him with raw hunger, no longer timid as she had been when he kissed her the day before.
Appetizers include oysters baked or raw, jumbo jump crab meat cocktail, and fried calamari.
Do they know what makes you allergic to light and eat raw steaks covered in peanut butter for every meal?
She regretted alluding to it the moment the raw look of anguish crossed his face.
Rhyn's jaw clenched, and he fought the raw feeling inside him, the one that betrayed him every time he tried to convince himself he'd survived worse.Advertisement
Her gaze went to the unfamiliar horizon as raw pain began to replace her numbness.
The only practically available raw material for 'the extraction of uranium is pitchblende (q.v.).
Because nanites are so small, they require little in the way of raw materials, just a few molecules here and there.
Shuddering, she looked toward Taran, the sense of betrayal raw.
Without traditional beauty, he was still handsome in a raw, dangerous way.Advertisement
Raw, unguarded, a mix of desire and surprise that caused her cheeks to flush and her body to yield beneath him.
They were night and day, her pale beauty and raw emotion contrasting with his heavy, masculine features and dark satisfaction.
A permanent memorial of it remains in the famous Order of the Golden Fleece, which was instituted by the duke at Bruges in 1430 on the occasion of his marriage with Isabel of Portugal, a descendant of John of Gaunt, and was so named from the English wool, the raw material used in the Flemish looms, for which Bruges was the chief mart.
Factories for cleaning and baling raw cotton and for extracting cotton oil were set up, and employed a large number of people, mostly in Ferghana.
The total area under cotton in 1916, including that grown in Khiva and Bukhara, was 1,838,215 acres, yielding about 18,000,000 poods or 290,000 tons of raw cotton.Advertisement
While importation of raw cotton increases importations of cotton thread and of cotton stuffs have rapidly decreased.
The diminution was due to a smaller exportation of raw silk and oil.
The most important imports are minerals, including coal and metals (both in pig and wrought); silks, raw, spun and woven; stone, potters earths, earthenware and glass; corn, flour and farinaceous products; cotton, raw, spun and woven; and live stock.
Before the tariff reform of 1887 manufactured articles, alimentary products and raw materials for manufacture held the principal places in the imports.
In the exports, alimentary products came first, while raw materials for manufacture and manufactured articles were of little account.
In 1894 the excess of imports over exports fell to 2,720,000, but by 1898 it had grown to 8,391,000, in consequence chiefly of the increased importation of coal, raw cotton and cotton thread, pig and cast iron, old iron, grease and oil-seeds for use in Italian industries.
A distinct feature of this ritual was wµocbayta (eating the flesh of the victim raw), whereby the communicants imagined that they consumed and assimilated the god represented by the victim, and thus became filled with the divine ecstasy.
The exports of Aube consist of timber, cereals, agricultural products, hosiery, wine, dressed pork, &c.; its imports include wool and raw cotton, coal and machinery, especially looms. The department is served by the Eastern railway, of which the main line to Belfort crosses it.
The raw materials from which the food is constructed are absorbed from the exterior in solution in water, and the latter is the medium through which the gaseous constituents necessary for life reach the protoplasm.
Live-stock and agricultural products are exported; the chief imports are wood and raw silk.
Altogether raw silk and silk yarn to an annual value exceeding 1-1 millions sterling are exported from Russia.
Hence, although wages are painfully low, the cost of production to the manufacturer is relatively high; and it is still further increased by the cost of the raw materials, by the heavy rates of transport owing to the distance from the sea, by the dearness of capital and by the scarcity of fuel.
The wealth of Russia consisting mainly of raw produce, the trade of the country turns chiefly on the purchase of this for export, and on the sale of manufactured and imported goods I in exchange.
With regard to the imports into Russia-they consist mainly of raw materials and machinery for the manufactures, and of provisions, the principal items being raw cotton, 17% of the aggregate; machinery and metal goods, 13%; tea, 5%; mineral ores, 5%; gums and resins, 4%; wool and woollen yarns, 32%; textiles, 3%; fish, 3%; with leather and hides, chemicals, silks, wine and spirits, colours, fruits, coffee, tobacco and rice.
This railway has become important for the export of raw cotton from Central Asia to Russia.
The intervening distance, through country exceedingly unhealthy for white men, and therefore promising no traffic except raw materials, does not seem a likely field for rapid railway extension.
On the other hand, where, as in America, the great volume of freight is raw material and crude food-stuffs, and the distances are great, a low charge per unit of transportation is more important than any consideration such as quickness of delivery; therefore full car-loads of freight are massed into enormous trains, which run unbroken for distances of perhaps 1000 m.
Owing to its excellent harbour Baku is a chief depot for merchandise coming from Persia and Transcaspia - raw cotton, silk, rice, wine, fish, dried fruit and timber - and for Russian manufactured goods.
The import of the manufactured product from 1875 to 1900 increased at a much greater ratio than that of the raw grain, for whilst in 1875 the former represented less than one-ninth of the total, by 1900 the proportion had risen to nearly one-fourth.
This may, however, be due to the fact that their contact with civilization was so short; the Yue-Chi and Turks had had some commerce with more advanced races before they played any part in political history, but the Ephthalites appear as raw barbarians, and were annihilated as a nation in little more than a hundred years.
In comparative valuations of feeding stuffs it has been found that cotton seed meal exceeds corn meal by 62%, wheat by 67%, and raw cotton seed by 26%.
During recent years a considerable quantity of cotton has been exported, but more than a compensating amount of raw cotton, yarns and textiles, is imported.
Before the railway was opened some spinners had been in the habit of making their purchases of raw material in Liverpool, but the great inconveniences of the journey, combined 1 Commercial crop.
One way out of the difficulty is that the spinner should exercise his judgment and buy his raw material at what seems to him the most suitable times.
Average Quantities of Raw Cotton imported Annually into the United Kingdom from the following Countries in the Periods 1896-1900 and 1901-1904.
Of the miracles of Jesus, Bushnell says, " The character of Jesus is ever shining with and through them, in clear self-evidence leaving them never to stand as raw wonders only of might, but covering them with glory as tokens of a heavenly love, and acts that only suit the proportions of His personal greatness and majesty " (Nature and the Supernatural, p. 364).
At this period the supply of the raw material was insufficient to admit of any important development in the industry, and before the drilling of artesian wells for petroleum was initiated by Drake the " coal-oil " or shale-oil industry had assumed considerable proportions in the United States.
Petroleum has very long been known as a source of light and heat, while the use of crude oil for the treatment of wounds and cutaneous affections, and as a lubricant, was even more general and led to the raw material being an article of commerce at a still earlier date.
The penitentiary system, according to which the priest enforced a code of moral law in the confessional by the sanction of penance - penance which must be performed as a condition of admission to the sacrament of the Eucharist - had been from early times a great instrument in the civilization of the raw Germanic races.
In the manufacture of fertilizers, the raw material for which is derived from the phosphate beds, Florida's aggregate product in 1900 was valued at $500,239, and in 1905 at $1,590,371, an increase of 217.9% in five years.
The chief imports are cotton piece goods, cotton twist, salt, sugar, provisions, railway materials, raw cotton, metals, coal, tobacco, spices and kerosene oil.
The chief exports are raw cotton, rice, wheat, oil-seeds, hides and lac. The exports of wheat are liable to extreme fluctuations, especially during famine periods.
As a river-port it has a brisk trade in the produce of the surrounding district as well as in the raw materials of its manufactures, especially in wool from La Plata, Australia and Germany.
The staple export is raw cotton, the value of which is about 80% of all the exports.
Of such a union the dominions of the sovereign as they exist to-day are only the raw material."
The material loss inflicted on the French was not very great, but its effect in raising the moral of the raw Prussian cavalry and increasing their confidence in their old commander was enormous.
But Villeneuve's ill-appointed ships, manned by raw crews, suffered loss of spars in a gale, and he returned to Toulon on the 21st.
The extraordinary numbers of utilizable water-powers, the unusual transport facilities affording ample means of reaching the great markets, and finally the proximity to the raw materials of manufacture, have made Minnesota of great importance as a manufacturing state.
Though Siberia has within itself all the raw produce necessary for prosperous industries, it continues to import from Russia all the manufactured articles it uses.
Massicot is the raw material for the manufacture of "red lead" or "minium."
Corn, raw cotton, hides, wool, nuts and dried fruit are exported.
The largest and best equipped of them are located in the federal states of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, though the greater part of the raw cotton used comes from the northern states and pays high freight rates.
It forms the raw material of some important industries.
Ammonium uranate heated to redness yields pure U308, which serves as a raw material for uranium compounds.
The department imports coal, lime, stone, salt, raw sulphur, skins and timber and exports agricultural and mineral products, bricks and tiles, and other manufactured goods.
Constancy of composition of the raw materials and their careful and thorough admixture in constant proportions are therefore essential to the production of the required glasses.
Fragments of glass of the same composition as that aimed at are generally incorporated to a limited extent with the mixed raw materials to facilitate their fusion.
When a suitable temperature for the fusion of the particular glass in question has been attained, the mixture of raw materials is introduced in comparatively small quantities at a time.
These bubbles arise partly from the air enclosed between the particles of raw materials and partly from the gaseous decomposition products of the materials themselves.
The raw materials used in this manufacture are chosen with considerable care, since the requirements as to the colour of the product are somewhat stringent.
In a sheet-glass tank there is therefore a gradient of temperature and a continuous passage of material from the hotter end of the furnace where the raw materials are introduced to the cooler end where the glass, free from bubbles and raw material, is withdrawn by the gatherers.
The composition of these glasses is very similar to that of sheet-glass, but for the ordinary kinds of rolled plate much less scrupulous selection need be made in the choice of raw materials, especially of the sand.
The sap is drawn off from the upper growing portion of the stem, and altogether an average tree will run in a season 350 lb of toddy, from which about 35 lb of raw sugar - jaggery - is made by simple and rude processes.
On the other hand, the advocates of admitting the feed into a vacuum pan in many minute streams appeal rather to the ignorant and incompetent sugarboiler than to a man who, knowing his business thoroughly, will boil 150 tons of hot raw sugar in a pan in a few hours, feeding it through a single pipe and valve io in.
From the centrifugal the sugar is either turned out without washing as raw sugar, only fit for the refinery, or else it is well washed with a spray of water and air until white and dry, and it is then offered in the market as refined sugar, although it has never passed through animal charcoal (bone-black).
In a process employed with great success in some refineries the raw sugars are washed before being melted, and thus a purer article is obtained for subsequent treatment.
Quantities of raw and refined cane and beet sugar in tons avoirdupois imported into the United Kingdom in 1870 and in 1875, and yearly from 1880 to 1901 inclusive, with the consumption per head of the population in lb and the price per cwt.
The tapeworm most frequently found in man in Western Europe is the Taenia solium, which is constant wherever pork is consumed, and is more common in parts where raw or imperfectly cooked pork is eaten.
Many of them seem to have been admitted to membership. They were regarded as merchants, for they bought raw material and sold the manufactured commodity; no sharp line of_ demarcation was drawn' between the two classes in the 12th and 13th centuries.
For roll, twist of pigtail tobacco the raw material is damped or sauced as in the case of cut tobacco.
A broad stream or canal crosses the city from south to north, and forms the principal highway for boat traffic. The main trade of the place is in raw silk, but some silk fabrics, such as flowered crape (chousha), are also manufactured.
Capillary bleeding is a general oozing from a raw surface.
The feldspar of a splendid pegmatite and its products of disintegration on the borders of Owari, Mino and Mikawa form the raw material of the very extensive ceramic industry of this district, with its chief place, Seto.
Imports include cotton and silk goods, coal, iron and steel, petroleum, timber, raw wool, cotton yarn and cork.
Raw cotton and silk are the principal exports, while manufactured goods are imported from Russia.
Manufactures are of small account, the raw material going mostly to the coast; but olive-oil is made, together with various wines, of which the most famous is the vino d'oro, a sweet liqueur-like beverage.
Beauregard advised Johnston to give up the enterprise, but on account of the bad effect a retreat would have on his raw troops Johnston resolved to continue his advance.
The day passed in confused and savage scuffles between the raw enthusiasts of either side, but by 5.30 P.M.
Those who go find means of bettering their own condition beyond the seas, where they become producers of food and raw material for the home country, and at the same time customers for her manufactured products.
At the same time improvements in agriculture and the opening up of new countries have enabled the modern community to gain its food and raw material with a less expenditure of labour force, and the surplus agricultural population has gone to the city.
The commodities otherwise mostly dealt in are opium, tea, rice, oil, raw cotton, fish and silk.
The English fleets were, therefore, comparatively small, were illprovided and had to co-operate with French squadrons which in the then raw state of King Louis' young navy, proved inefficient allies.
Among the lesser manufactures are lumber and timber products (value in 1905, $5,610,772), most of the raw material being floated down on rafts from Wisconsin and Minnesota.
During the monsoon the climate is very damp, and at times even cold and raw, thick clouds and mist enveloping the sky for many days together.
The transit trade in the last-named year included bullion valued at £33,000, being raw gold from the Kilo mines, Belgian Congo.
Though only four states of the Union are smaller, only three exceeded Massachusetts in 1905 in the value of manufactured products (six exceeding it in population); and this despite very scant native resources of raw materials and a very limited home market.
A protective tariff was imposed in early colonial times and protection was generally approved in the state until toward the close of the 19th century, when a strong demand became apparent for reciprocity with Canada and for tariff reductions on the raw materials (notably hides) of Massachusetts manufactures.
The manufacture of alcohol from the sulphite lyes of the wood-pulp industry was contemplated, but carbide, although produced in increasing quantities, was not considered as a possible raw material owing to its greater importance as a source of the fertilizer cyanamide.
The Indies were expected to supply precious metals and raw materials, and to take all manufactures from the mother country.
Like the Spaniards it held that this trade should be confined to an exchange of colonial raw produce for home manufactures.
The processes involved were gathering the raw material, shredding, splitting, gauging, wrapping, twining, spinning and braiding.
Nor should it be forgotten that the internal classification and the combinations of the above subjects are also matters to be treated upon some uniform plan, if the full value of the statistics is to be extracted from the raw material.
If the transformation is made first, and if the resulting raw moments with regard to the (approximate) central ordinate are o, 72, 71-3, ..., the true moments µ1, u2, /13, ...with regard to the central ordinate are given by Lo=o 1 i / h2,3 83.
If we write -fxo f yox s yiu dx dy, we first calculate the raw values coo., ai,o, 0.1,1,
This has made it easy for the states to the west to contribute raw materials, notably coal and iron, adding these to the natural raw products of New York.
The manufacture of paper and wood-pulp products ($37,750,605 in 1905) is an industry for which the state still furnishes much of the raw material, and other large industries of which the same is true are the manufacture of flour and grist-mill products, dairy products, canned fruits and vegetables, wines, clay products, and salt.
Apart from gold-mining, coal-mining and gum-digging, the industries are still mainly the growing of food and raw material; and the occupation of the land is easily the chief of all economic questions.
The old Austria was very richly provided with raw materials; the coal and iron supply was especially rich; in the years immediately preceding the war the production of these two commodities followed in general a rising curve.
In this respect Austria found herself in the same position as the German Empire; in fact, her position was in many respects considerably worse; many richly productive territories were temporarily occupied by the enemy; and as Austria was far less well provided with raw materials than Germany she was less in a position to produce goods for exchange.
The more complete the economic isolation of the monarchy the more the lack of raw materials made itself felt, both for the manufacture of indispensable war supplies and for the feeding of the civil population.
The quantity of raw materials which Austria had been in the habit of importing from abroad, and the quantity stored in the country at the outbreak of the war, were comparatively very small.
The Austrian and Hungarian ports were of little importance as ports of entry for raw materials, the goods stored there being mainly from the Levant.
These boards were now given the monopoly of the right to import certain wares (sometimes private buyers were allowed to purchase, but only on condition of selling the goods imported to the board); they were also entrusted with the reception of the instalments of raw materials already mentioned as released from bond in Germany.
The virtual stoppage of all supplies of raw materials from abroad necessitated the strictest economy in the use of those available at home, and this led to an elaborate system of Government control.
This system of State control prevented industries which used grain as their raw material from buying in an open market, and in their case too it was found necessary to regulate supplies by means of an organization analogous to that of the economic associations already mentioned.
Briefly, the duty of maintaining industries was made obligatory, and in the last resort the military authorities were empowered to take them over, though this was not likely to happen as long as the high prices continued and the Government supplied raw materials.
From Bengal are imported opium, drugs and cloths; from China, teas, raw silk, silk piece-goods, coarse China wares, paper, and innumerable smaller articles for the Chinese settlers.
It is less favourably placed in respect of the iron and textile industries, having to rely to a large extent upon the import of raw materials from abroad.
The war, of course, cut off the supply of raw materials for the textile trade, which in 1921 was still suffering from shortage, particularly of raw cotton.
In that year, and again in 1825, great reductions were made in the duties on raw materials, especially on wool, raw silk, flax and iron, while considerable reductions were also made in the duties on manufactured goods.
Still less does it hold good of raw materials, many of which had been really affected by the duties, and were largely imported after their abolition.
Before the treaty, all woollen and cotton manufactures, all manufactures of leather, of hardware, pottery, all glass ware, had been prohibited, while raw materials and such manufactures as were not prohibited had been subjected to heavy duties.
The duty on wool, typical among the duties on raw materials, was completely abolished, and with this change came a great reduction in the duties upon woollen goods.
The raw Scots lad started work at an early age as a bobbin-boy in a cotton factory, and a few years later was engaged as a telegraph clerk and operator.
All the Baltic powers were more or less interested in the apportionment of this vast tract of land, whose geographical position made it not only the chief commercial link between east and west, but also the emporium whence the English, Dutch, Swedes, Danes and Germans obtained their corn, timber and most of the raw products of Lithuania and Muscovy.
Andijan is a centre for the trade in raw cotton and has cotton factories.
Before the rebellion Yun-nan Fu had a prosperous aspect; the shops were large and well supplied with native silken goods, saddlery, &c., while English cotton, Russian cloths and raw cotton from Burma constituted the main foreign merchandise.
As butter is consumed in the raw state, a trustworthy preliminary treatment of the cream is in the highest degree desirable.
The forces of these four commanders were raw but eager, and the people behind them clamoured for a decision.
On the 21st of July took place the first battle of Bull Run (q.v.) between McDowell and Beauregard, fought by the raw troops of both sides with an obstinacy that foreboded the desperate battles of subsequent campaigns.
The equally raw Confederates were in no condition to pursue.
His troops were raw and possessed no decisive superiority in numbers, and sharp fighting took place when the garrison of Donelson tried to cut its way out.
According to Liebig, potassium is the essential alkali of the animal body; and it may be noted that sheep excrete most of the potassium which they take from the land as sweat, one-third of the weight of raw merino consisting of potassium compounds.
For the purpose of the manufacturer of this salt these are assorted into a raw material containing approximately, in Ioo parts, 55-65 of carnallite (representing 16 parts of potassium chloride), 20-25 of common salt, 15-20 of kieserite; 2-4 of tachhydrite (CaC12 2MgC12 12H20), and minor components.
The mother-liquor is used for a subsequent extraction of fresh raw salt.
The purified carbonate (which still contains most of the chloride of the raw material and other impurities) is known as "pearl ashes."
Only raw materials came from St Peter, and those probably not checked or revised by him; the arrangement is due to Mark himself, and is more successful than might have been expected in the circumstances - indeed so successful as to suggest advice from some good quarter.
Manufactures.--Kentucky's manufactures are principally those for which the products of her farms and forests furnish the raw material.
To these may be added wool-weaving, centred at Sedan, and minor industries such as the manufacture of basket-work, wooden shoes, &c. Coal and raw wool are prominent imports, while iron goods, cloth, timber, live-stock, alcohol and the products of the soil are exported.
Manufacturing for international trade has not been and may never be reached, but the industry certainly has reached the stage of meeting a great part of the home demand for manufactured goods, where the raw material can be produced in the country.
About one-half the raw cotton consumed was produced in Mexico, and the balance imported in fibre or as yarn.
The industry is protected by a high tariff, as is also the production of raw cotton, and further encouragement is offered through a remission of internal revenue taxes where Mexican fabrics are exported for foreign consumption.
Besides fruits and agricultural produce, its exports include raw silk, [[Cotton (disambiguation)|cotton, opium, ]]-water, attar of roses, wax and the dye known as Turkey red.
The word is also applied to many mechanical devices by which raw material is transformed into a condition ready for use or into a stage preparatory to other processes, e.g.
It is very rapidly absorbed from raw surfaces and may thereby cause fatal consequences.
Deducting from this the cost of raw materials and adding the cost of mill supplies, the result$6,743,399,7f8
In the manufacture of food products the United States holds a lead that is the natural result of immense advantages in the production of raw materials.
The district is traversed by the Bombay and Baroda railway, and has two seaports, Dholera and Gogo, the former of which has given its name to a mark of raw cotton in the Liverpool market.
From the former come most of the manufactured goods imported and large quantities of raw materials; to the latter are sent food-stuffs.
The climate in the higher districts is raw and the produce is mostly confined to hardy cereals, such as oats.
She had a very raw crew, including very few real seamen, and her men had only had one day's gunnery drill.
The exports which come next in value are opium, wood-oil, hides, beans, cotton yarn and raw silk.
The most important manufacturing industries are those that depend upon cotton for raw material, with a gross product in 1900 valued at $26,521,757.
This growth in cotton manufactures is due to various causes, among them being_ the proximity of raw material, convenient water-power, municipal exemption from taxation and the cheapness of labour.
The forests of Georgia, next to the fields, furnish the largest amount of raw material for manufactures.
Gram is largely cultivated in the East, where the seeds are eaten raw or cooked in various ways, both in their ripe and unripe condition, and when roasted and ground subserve the same purposes as ordinary flour.
It is as a distributing centre for the manufactured products of the East to the West, and for the raw products of the West to the East, and for the trans-shipment from lake to rail and vice versa, that Buffalo occupies a position of greatest importance.
Aristotle's vague knowledge of the worm may have been derived from information acquired by the Greeks with Alexander the Great; but long before this time raw silk must have begun to be imported at Cos, where it was woven into a gauzy tissue, the famous Coa vestis, which revealed rather than clothed the form.
Towards the beginning of the Christian era raw silk began to form an important and costly item among the prized products of the East which came to Rome.
Under favourable conditions it is estimated that i r kilogrammes of fresh cocoons give 1 kilogramme of raw silk for commerce, and about the same quantity for waste spinning purposes.
The former embraces a range of operations peculiar to silk, dealing as they do with continuous fibres of great length, whereas in the spun silk industry the raw materials are treated by methods analogous to those followed in the treatment of other fibres (see Weaving).
This assortment is of great consequence for the success of the reeling operations, as uniformity of quality and evenness and regularity of fibre are the most valuable features in raw silk.
The object of reeling is to bring together the filaments (bave) from two or more (generally four or five, but sometimes up to twenty) cocoons, and to form them into one continuous, uniform, and regular strand, which constitutes the " raw silk " of commerce.
To do this, the natural gum of the cocoons which holds the filaments together must be softened, the ends of the filaments of the required number of cocoons must be caught, and means must be taken to unwind and lay these filaments together, so as to form a single uniform rounded strand of raw silk.
In this way a continuous uniform fibre or strand of raw silk of indefinite length is produced.
With comparatively simple appliances, on the other hand, a skilled reeler, with trained eye and delicate touch, can produce raw silk of remarkably smooth and even quality.
The object of crossing (croissage) is to round, smooth and condense the separate filaments of each set into one strand, and as the surface of the filaments is gummy and adhesive it is found on drying that they have agglutinated into a compact single fibre of raw silk.
The reel to which the raw silk is led consists of a light six-armed frame, enclosed within a wooden casing having a glass frame in front, the enclosure being heated with steam-pipes.
Raw silk, being still too fine and delicate for ordinary use, next undergoes a series of operations called throwing, the object of which is to twist and double it into more substantial yarn.
He receives the raw silk in hanks as it is taken from the reel of the filature, and putting it on a light reel of a similar construction, called the swifts, FIG.
According to the qualities of raw silk used and the throwing operations undergone the principal classes of thrown silk are - (1) " singles," which consist of a single strand of twisted raw silk made up of the filaments of eight to ten cocoons; (2) tram or weft thread, consisting of two or three strands of raw silk not twisted before doubling and only lightly spun (this is soft, flossy and comparatively weak); (3) organzine, the thread used for warps, made from two and rarely three twisted strands spun in the direction contrary to that in which they are separately twisted.
Silks for sewing and embroidery belong to a different class from those intended for weaving, and thread-makers throw their raw silks in a manner peculiar to themselves.
Silk in the raw and thrown state absorbs a large amount of moisture, and may contain a percentage of water without being manifestly damp. As it is largely sold by weight it becomes necessary to ascertain its condition in respect of absorbed water, and for that purpose official conditioning houses are established in all the considerable centres of silk trade.
Scouring renders all common silks, whether white or yellow in the raw, a brilliant pearly white, with a delicate soft flossy texture, from the fact that the fibres which were agglutinated in reeling, being now degummed, are separated from each other and show their individual tenuity in the yarn.
The other Asiatic exporting countries also maintain native silk manufactures which absorb no inconsiderable proportion of their raw material.
The production and consumption of raw material shown in Table III.
America takes a premier position in consumption of the raw material.
In 1867 the import of raw material amounted to 491,983 lb.
Russia, by a prohibitive tariff on manufactured silks of other countries, has since 1890 developed and fostered a trade which consumes annually about 3 million lb of raw material for its home industry.
In 1885 the production of raw silk was about 300,000 111, while in 1905 it reached 750,000 lb, an annual production which is still maintained.
The term silk waste includes all kinds of raw silk which may be unwindable, and therefore unsuited to the throwing process.
The three chief syndicates, one each in Italy, France and Switzerland, work very much together, practically ruling the prices for yarns and raw materials.
To the gay young beauty, familiar with Parisian society, the raw and serious youth was not a possible parti.
By the young bloods of the "House" he was treated pleasantly as a raw outsider of genius.
In the fiscal year 1908, 359,4 1 3 lb of wodl (valued at $58,133) and 928,599 lb of raw hides (valued at $87,599) were shipped from the Territory to the United States.
The most notable event in the history of the town was its siege by Fairfax in 1648, when the raw levies of the Royalists in the second civil war held his army at bay for nearly eleven weeks, only surrendering when starved out, and when Cromwell's victory in the north made further resistance useless.
Smith, writing in the Philosophical Transactions for 1683-1684, says of the Turks (p. 439), "They have no genius for Seavoyages, and consequently are very raw and unexperienced in the art of Navigation, scarce venturing to sail out of sight of land.
Since the Ship Canal made Manchester into a cotton port there has been a steady development of the raw cotton trade in Manchester, and many cotton brokers and merchants have Manchester offices or pay regular visits from Liverpool.
The manufacture of great quantities of coke has resulted from the demand for this product in the iron and steel industry and from the abundance of coking coal; the manufacture of glass has been promoted by the supply of glass sand and natural gas in the west of the state; the manufacture of leather by the abundance of hemlock bark; the manufacture of pottery, terra-cotta and fire-clay products by the abundance of raw material; the manufacture of silk and silk goods by the large number of women and girls who came into the state in families of which the men and boys were employed in mining and picking anthracite coal; and in each of these industries as well as in a few others the state has for many years produced a large portion of the country's product.
Comestibles, raw materials, and combustibles form the greater part of the imports, but this great manufactory also imports a considerable quantity of foreign manufactured goods.
Deville first selected the chloride as his raw material, but observing it to be volatile and extremely deliquescent, he soon substituted in its place a double chloride of aluminium and sodium.
This preparation of a chlorine compound suited for electrolysis becomes more costly and more troublesome than that of the oxide, and in addition four times as much raw material must be handled.
The process exhibited several disadvantages, the electrolyte had to be kept constant in composition lest either fluorine vapours should be evolved or sodium thrown down, and the raw materials had accordingly to be prepared in a pure state.
The excellence of the converts, upon the whole, is testified to by travellers who really know the case; particularly by Mrs Bishop, who speaks of the " raw material " out of which they are made as " the best stuff in Asia."
An examination of its lists of exports and imports will show that Holland receives from its colonies its spiceries, coffee, sugar, tobacco, indigo, cinnamon; from England and Belgium its manufactured goods and coals; petroleum, raw cotton and cereals from the United States; grain from the Baltic provinces, Archangel, and the ports of the Black Sea; timber from Norway and the basin of the Rhine, yarn from England, wine from France, hops from Bavaria and Alsace; ironore from Spain; while in its turn it sends its colonial wares to Germany, its agricultural produce to the London market, its fish to Belgium and Germany, and its cheese to France, Belgium and Hamburg, as well as England.
Second, in puddling iron which is to be used as a raw material for making very fine steel by the crucible process, quality is the thing of first importance.
With the exception of sealskins, which are pickled in brine, all raw skins come to the various trade markets simply dried like this.
The Japanese kind are imported raw, but are few in numbers, very pale and require dyeing.
Notwithstanding the reported rights of the Russian imperial authorities over some regions with respect to these and other valuable fur-bearing animals, there are in addition to the numbers regularly sent to the trade auction sales in London many good parcels of raw skins to be easily bought direct, provided price is not the first consideration.
For many years raw sealskins Sold as seal.
The forests of northern New England and of the province of Quebec supply the raw material for the extensive saw-mills and planing-mills, the pulpand paper-mills, and the sulphite fibre mills, said to be the largest in existence.
The only very large establishment is one for the construction of iron steamers, engines, &c., but some factories have been erected within the area of the free port for the purpose of working up imported raw materials duty free.
Like_ Hamburg, it does predominantly a transit trade; it is especially important as the importer of raw products from America.
The imports consist mainly of raw material for working up in the factories of the district, while the principal exports are coal, fruit, wine, dyes, cloth, silk and other manufactured articles of various descriptions.
The principal imports are food supplies` and raw material such as cotton, wool, silk, flax, hemp and jute.
A large proportion of the water which ascends to the leaf acts merely as a carrier for the other raw food materials and is got rid of from the leaf in the form of water vapour through the stomata - this process is known as transpiration.
A considerable quantity of raw cotton is brought from Ferghana by the latter route and shipped at Krasnovodsk for the mills in the south and centre of Russia, as well as for countries farther west.
Phormium has been treated as a cultivated plant in New Zealand, though only to a limited extent; for the supplies of the raw material dependence has been principally placed on the abundance of the wild stocks and on sets planted as hedges and boundaries by the Maoris.
Johnson, not content with turning filthy savages, ignorant of their letters, and gorged with raw steaks cut from living cows, into philosophers as eloquent and enlightened as himself or his friend Burke, and into ladies as highly accomplished as Mrs Lennox or Mrs Sheridan, transferred the whole domestic system of England to Egypt.
Raw silk can scarcely be reckoned among the products of the empire, and the annual demand has thus to be provided for by importation.
The number of factories was, in 1905, 376, and the amount of raw sugar and molasses produced amounted to 2,643,531 metric tons, and of refined sugar 1,711,063 tons.
Exempt from duty were now only refuse, raw products, scientific instruments, ships and literary and artistic objects; forty-four articles notably beer, vinegar, sugar, herrings, cocoa, salt, fish oils, ether, alum and sodawere unaffected by the change, while duties were henceforth levied upon a large number of articles which had previously been admitted dtity free, such as pig iron, machines and locomotives, grain, building timber, tallow; horses, cattle and sheep; and, again, the tariff law further increased the duties leviable upon numerous other articles.
Raw lead (including waste) 1,427 1,470 525 568
Raw zinc (including waste).
Raw tin (including waste) 2,357 2,581 787 688
Raw copper (including copper coin, brass, tombac, &c.).
In these circumstances it was decided to introduce a system of comparative free trade; raw materials were admitted free; a uniform import of 10% was levied on manufactured goods, and 20% on colonial wares, the tax being determined not by the estimated value, but by the weight of the articles.
At the beginning of the autumn session a union of 204 members of the Reichstag was formed for the discussion of econolnic questions, and they accepted Bismarcks reforms. In December he was therefore able to issue a memorandum explaining his policy; it included a moderate duty, about 5%, on all imported goods, with the exception of raw material required for German manufactures (this was a return to the old Prussian principle); high finance duties on tobacco, beer, brandy and petroleum; and protective duties on iron, corn, cattle, wood, wine and sugar.
But before the raw material of history thus began to increase enormously in bulk, it bad already begun to change its character and to assume its modern form.
Breeding swine, male and female, run most of their time at pasture and receive a liberal allowance of green food or raw roots.
Food may with advantage be cooked for very young pigs; but, with the exception of potatoes, which should never be given raw, roots and meals are best given uncooked.
This was done during the year 1877, and in the new treaty, while raw material was still imported free of duty, a low duty was placed on textile goods as well as on corn, and the excise on sugar and brandy was raised.
Clay for the "Baggers," or cases in which the wares are fired, is mined in the vicinity, but the raw materials for the fine grades of pottery are obtained elsewhere.
War; and after the bloody battle of Konia (1832), where the raw Turkish army was routed and the grand vizier taken prisoner, it was only European intervention which prevented the Egyptian general, Ibrahim Pasha, from marching unopposed to the Bosphorus.
Through the oases also ran paths to the Sudan by which the raw merchandise of the southern countries could be brought to Egypt.
When rubbed into the skin with such substances as alcohol or glycerine, which are absorbed, atropine is carried through the epidermis with them, and in this manner - or when simply applied to a raw surface - it paralyses the terminals of the pain-conducting sensory nerves.
Indeed, where men live mainly on milk and flesh, consuming the latter raw or roasted, so that its salts are not lost, it is not necessary to add sodium chloride, and thus we understand how the Numidian nomads in the time of Sallust and the Bedouins of Hadramut at the present day never eat salt with their food.
Amraoti raw cotton is quoted on the Liverpool Exchange.
Some of these naturally possess a composition differing but little from that of the mixture of raw materials artificially prepared for the manufacture of Portland cement itself.
The method once exclusively used consists in mixing the raw materials with a large quantity of water in a wash mill, a machine having radial horizontal arms driven from a central vertical spindle and carrying harrows which stir up and intermix any soft material placed in the pit in which the apparatus revolves.
The raw materials in the correct proportion are fed into this mill together with a large quantity of water.
According to present practice the raw materials are mixed in a wash mill with so much water that the resulting slurry contains 40 to 50% of water.
At this middle portion and in the upper part of the lower shaft the burning proper proceeds; the upper shaft is full of unburnt raw material which is heated by the hot gases coming from the burning zone, and the lower shaft contains clinker already burned and hot enough to heat the incoming air which supplies that necessary for combustion at the clinkering zone.
Another form is the Hoffmann or ring kiln, made up of a number of compartments arranged in a ring and connected with a central chimney; in these compartments rough brick-shaped masses of the raw materials are stacked, and between these bricks fuel is sprinkled.
In each case the clinker which has just been burned and is fully hot serves to heat the air-supply to the compart ment where combustion is actu ally proceeding; in like manner the raw materials about to be burned are well heated by the waste gases from the compartment in full activity before they them selves are burned.
At the upper end the raw material is fed in either as a dry powder or as a slurry; at the lower end is a powerful burner.
In the working of this type of kiln the rotation and slight inclination of the cylinder cause the raw material to descend towards the lower end.
At the upper end the raw material is dried and heated moderately.
The output of these kilns varies from 200 to 400 tons per kiln per week according to their size and the nature of the raw materials burned; as against 30 tons per week for an ordinary chamber kiln.
Rotatory kilns of various other makes are now in use, but the same principles are embodied, namely, the employment of a rotating inclined cylinder for burning the raw materials, a burner fed with powdered coal and a blast of air, and some device such as a cooling cylinder or cooling tower by which the clinker may be cooled and the air correspondingly heated on its way to the burner.
Another method of making Portland cement which has been proposed and tried with some success consists in fusing the raw materials together in an apparatus of the type of a blast furnace.
The composition of Portland cement varies within comparatively narrow limits, and for given raw materials the variations are tending = to become smaller as regularity and skill in manufacture Compost increase.
The following analysis may be taken as typical of cements made from chalk and clay on the Thames and 100.0 There may be variations from this composition according to the nature of the raw materials employed.
Other things being equal, the higher the percentage of lime within the limits indicated above the stronger is the cement, but such highly limed cement is less easy to burn than cement containing about 62% of lime; and unless the burning is thorough and the raw materials are intimately mixed, the cement is apt to be unsound.
The raw material is gypsum (q.v.).
The best raw materials for the preparation of thallium are the flue-dusts produced industrially in the roasting of thalliferous pyrites and the "chamber muds" accumulating in vitriol-chambers wrought with such pyrites; in both it is frequently associated with selenium.
The effort to fuse the masses of raw material into a well-proportioned whole is perhaps not quite successful; and Carlyle had not the full sympathy with Frederick which had given interest to the Cromwell.
Owing to the influence of the raw, foggy Sea of Okhotsk, the climate is very cold.
In 1901 the number of persons engaged in working of the raw material was 23,263, of whom 8258 were employed in steel smelting and founding, 7781 at blast furnaces in the manufacture of pig-iron, and 7224 at puddling furnaces and rolling mills.
The town is one of the most important markets for raw silk and cocoons in the south of France, and the Gardon supplies power to numerous silkmills.
The blood is converted into clarifying material, the entrails are used for sausage coverings, the hoofs and small bones furnish the raw material for the manufacture of glue, the large bones are carved into knife handles, and the horns into combs, the fats are made to yield butterine, lard and soap, and the hides and hair are used in the manufacture of mattresses and felts.
The manufacture of iron and steel products, and of products depending upon iron and steel as raw material, is second in importance.
In this development of manufactures, the mineral resources have been an important influence, nearly one-fourth (23.6%) of the manufactured product in 1900 depending upon minerals for raw material.
In this way he absorbed in their integrity the raw materials for elaboration.
There is also a considerable trade in sago, much of which is produced on the mainland, and there are three small sago-factories on the island where the raw product is converted into flour.
Commerce is mostly in the hands of the Jews and Armenians, and chiefly confined to raw products, such as agricultural produce, cattle, wool and wood.
It is an important centre of trade, especially in raw cotton, and has cotton presses and the Krishna cotton mills.
Bleached and unbleached rhubarb are both largely consumed, both raw and cooked.
Threefourths of the exports consist of cotton goods, and three-eighths of the imports were raw wool.
Prior to 1860 the exports of raw cotton from India used to average less than 3 millions sterling a year, mostly to China; but after that date they rose by leaps, until in 1866 they reached the enormous total of 37 millions.
It was estimated in 1905 that the world's output of cotton was 19,000,000 bales, of which 134 millions were produced in the United States, 3 millions in India, and nearly millions in Egypt, Japan and China being India's best customers for the raw article.
At the same time the total number of spindles employed in working up the world's raw cotton was 116 millions, of which 48 millions were in the United Kingdom, 24 millions in the United States, and a little over 5 millions in India.
The chief exports are raw cotton, cotton goods and yarn, rice, wheat, oil-seeds, raw jute and jute-manufactures, hides and skins, tea, opium and lac. In1905-1906there was great activity in both the cotton and jute industries.
On the ist and 2nd of October 1860 a battle was fought on the Volturno victor between 20,000 Garibaldians, many of them raw levies, and 35,000 Bourbon troops, and although at first a Garibaldian division under Tiirr was repulsed, Garibaldi himself arrived in time to turn defeat into victory..
The principal staples include wheat, oilseeds, raw cotton, indigo, sugar, molasses, timber and forest produce, dry-stuffs, ghee, opium and tobacco.
Moreover, the trade interests of his subjects, who got their raw wool from England, drew him to an alliance with England.
The Russian goods constitute four-fifths of the whole trade; those brought from Asia - tea (imported via Kiakhta and via Canton and Suez), raw cotton and silk, leather wares, madder and various manufactured wares - do not exceed 10 or 11%.
The same holds good with regard to all other stuffs, the prices of wool (provisionally established at the earlier fairs of south-western Russia) being ultimately settled at Nizhniy, as well as those of raw silk.
Exports include timber, mine-props, turpentine, resinous material from the Pyrenees and Landes and zinc ore; leading imports are the coal and Spanish minerals which supply the large metallurgical works of Le Boucau at the mouth of the river, the raw material necessary for the chemical works of the same town, wine, and the cereals destined for the flour mills of Pau, Peyrehorade and Orthez.
He attacked them at Rieti (March 7, 1821), but his raw levies were repulsed.
Early advanced against it with 12,000 veterans, defeated General Lew Wallace with about 3500 men at Monocacy Bridge on the 6th, and on the 11th appeared before the fortifications, which were at the time defended by only a few thousand raw troops; the city was saved by the timely arrival of some of Grant's veterans.
By painters both raw and boiled oil are used, the latter forming the principal medium in oil painting, and also serving separately as the basis of all oil varnishes.
Boiled oil is prepared in a variety of ways - that most common being by heating the raw oil in an iron or copper boiler, which, to allow for frothing, must only be about three-fourths filled.
By boiling this varnish with dilute nitric acid vapours of acrolein are given off, and the substance gradually becomes a solid non-adhesive mass the same as the ultimate oxidation product of both raw and boiled oil.
German Catholicism was still in a very raw, unsophisticated state.
It appears to the author, however, that where such methods are employed merely with a view to overcoming a specific malady and there is no intention of increasing the quantity of the wine for purposes of gain, or of giving it a fictitious appearance of quality, these operations are perfectly justifiable and may be compared to the modifications of procedure which are forced upon the brewer or distiller who has to deal with somewhat abnormal raw material.
This Orphic fast from meat was only broken by an annual sacramental banquet, originally, perhaps, of human, but later of raw bovine flesh.
The linen manufacture by degrees ceased to be a domestic industry, and began to centre in and become the characteristic factory employment of special localities, which depended, however, for their supply of raw material primarily on the operations of small growers, working, for the most part, on the poorer districts of remote thinly populated countries.
The island owes its importance, therefore, mainly to its copious supply of a few raw materials, notably copper and timber.
An enormous mass of material, mostly quite in the raw, awaits reduction to order on the part of anthropological theorists, as yet a small and ill-supported body of enthusiasts.
The " American process " or " Pyritic smelting " consists in the direct smelting of raw ores to matte in blast furnaces.
Austin, of Denver, Colorado, and both at Leadville and Silverton raw ores are successfully smelted with as low a fuel consumption as 3 of coke to zoo of charge.
It is smelted raw with hot blast in cupola furnaces, the largest being 2 10 in.
This is reconcentrated raw in hot-blast cupolas to 55%, and blown directly into copper in converters.
A portion of the white metal is calcined to such a degree of oxidation that when fused with the unroasted portion, the reaction between the oxygen in the roasted matte and the sulphur in the raw VII.
Under the series system only the first anode and the last cathode are connected to the conductors; between these are suspended, isolated from one another, a number of intermediate bi-polar electrode plates of raw copper, each of these plates acting on one side as a cathode, receiving a deposit of copper, and on the other as an anode, passing into solution; the voltage between the terminals of the tank will be as many times as great as that between a single pair of plates as there are spaces between electrodes in the tank.
The chief articles imported are sugar, rice, raw cotton and opium, as well as cotton cloths, iron goods and other European manufactures.
The principal exports are grain, live stock and fruit; cement, coal, iron, machinery, flour, raw cotton and hides are imported.
Coal and raw materials for its industries are the chief imports of Eure; its exports include cattle, poultry, eggs, butter, grain and manufactured goods.
The 25% rate covers all articles not mentioned in the schedules, which number 2260 items. The duty free list includes raw cotton, certain descriptions of live animals, agricultural machinery and implements, metal wire, fire engines, structural iron and steel, and machinery in general.
There is one large refinery at Villa del Mar, however, which imports raw cane sugar from Peru for refining.
The sea-borne exports consist chiefly of jute, other items being tea, raw cotton, rice and hides.
But, like the gas and glass companies, it found the cost of the raw material and the incidental expenses too great, and ceased its operations in 1899.
Cotton is largely grown, principally in the central districts and Khorasan, and some qualities are excellent and command high prices in the European markets; 18,400 tons of raw cotton, valued at 838,787, were exported to Russia in I 906f 907.
Cocoons and raw silk valued at 316,140 were exported in 1906-1907.
None, however, is exported in its raw state, as all which is produced is manufactured in the province, and principally at Fat-sham, which has been called the Birmingham of China.
Thus if a little diphtheritic sputum were coughed into a person's eye, or some blood containing anthrax bacilli were to touch a raw spot upon the hand, the removal of microbes in either case by washing with simple water might be regarded as a means of passive defence, whilst washing them away with an antiseptic lotion might be regarded as active defence, because the antiseptic would tend not only to remove but to destroy the microbes.
The success which has been achieved has led to the use of many other organs in a raw or compressed form, or as extracts, in other diseases; e.g.
The first scientific attempt to employ portions of raw organs in the treatment of disease was made by Lauder Brunton in diabetes in 1873, sixteen years before Brown-Sequard's paper on the effect of testicular juice.
He tried to supply this by giving raw meat and glycerine extract of meat, but although he seemed to get some benefit from the treatment, it was not sufficiently marked to attract general attention.
It may be considerably diminished by a return to a more natural system of feeding, as by using brown bread instead of white, by taking oatmeal porridge, and by eating raw or cooked fruits, such as apples, oranges, prunes and figs, or preserves made of fruit, such as raspberry and strawberry jam, marmalade, &c., by vegetables or by dried and powdered seaweed.
The imports are mainly woollen and cotton goods, iron and opium, and the exports include bean cake, bean oil, peas, raw silk, straw-braid, walnuts, a coarse kind of vermicelli, vegetables and dried fruits.
Of this amount £25,644,000 was put as the value of raw gold exported, and £9,257,000 as the value of the diamonds shipped.
The value of raw gold exported in 1907 was £29,510,000, of diamonds £8,973,000.
The raw gold exported was worth £32,047,000 but the export of diamonds fell to £4,796,000.
Of the exports raw gold was valued at £33,303,000, diamonds at £6,370,000, wool at £3,728,000 and ostrich feathers at £2,091,000.
The imports were raw and manufactured cotton, wool and silk, wheat and maize, coal, iron and machinery, dried codfish, sugar, rice, hides and skins, oils.
The raw materials purchased by Flemish, German or English traders were used in the establishment of productive industries, while Portugal received a vast influx of bullion, most of which was squandered on war, luxuries or the Church.
Its imports during the same year amounted to 899,201 tons, including 172,319 tons of grain and other agricultural produce, 156,620 tons of firewood, 145,255 tons of pig-iron and manufactured iron and steel, 47,201 tons of iron ore, 121,168 tons of copper, -silver, lead, tin and nickel with their ores and alloys, 63,009 tons of zinc, its ores and alloys, 41,029 tons of sulphur ore, phosphates and other raw material for the chemical trade.
In a raw state they have a sweet taste, but are difficult of digestion.
In North America the fruits of an allied species, C. americana, are eaten both raw and cooked.
The raw material for these products was secured from the 35,000 sq.
On an average, £3,000,000 to £4,000,000 worth of wheat, about £i,000,000 worth of rye, and over £1,500,000 worth of barley are exported annually, besides oats, flax, linseed, rape seed, oilcake, bran, flour, vegetable oils, raw wool and caviare.
As a rule the ore is subjected to a preliminary chloridizing roast, though occasionally it may be leached raw.
As the clay pits contain only small amounts of any one kind of clay, it has proved more profitable for manufacturers to buy their raw materials from a number of miners than for them to operate the mines themselves, and consequently clay mining and the manufacture of clay products are largely distinct industries.
Much of the raw material for this industry, such as ball, flint, and spar clays and kaolin, is imported from other states.
The raw materials for this industry, however, are imported into New Jersey from other states.
Le Blanc had no choice but to reveal the secrets of his process, and he had the misfortune to see his factory dismantled and his stocks of raw and finished materials sold.
His campaign there is the finest proof of his genius as a general, although he was repeatedly defeated by the English under Wellington, for his soldiers were but raw conscripts, while those of Wellington were the veterans of many campaigns.
The introduction of cotton caused the woollen manufactures on the western side to be superseded by the working up of the imported raw material; but woollen manufactures, themselves carried on now almost entirely with imported raw material, have continued to employ the energies of the inhabitants of the east.
That England, not possessing the raw material, became the seat of the cotton manufacture, was owing to the ingenuity of her inventors.
In 1815 the total quantity of raw cotton imported into the United Kingdom was not more than 99 millions of pounds, which amount had increased to 152 millions of pounds in 1820, and rose further to 229 millions in 1825, so that there was considerably more than a doubling of the imports in ten years.
The excess of the demand of the factories over the supply of raw material has become a remarkable feature of the industry in modern times.
Although surrounded by railways and crossed by the lines NurembergEger and Regensburg-Oberkotzau, the Fichtelgebirge, owing principally to its raw climate and bleakness, is not much visited by strangers, the only important points of interest being Alexandersbad (a delightfully situated watering-place) and the granite labyrinth of Luisenburg.
A considerable trade is carried on with Russia; raw cotton, raw silk, tobacco, hides, sheepskins, fruit and cotton and leather goods are exported, and manufactured wares, textiles, tea and sugar are imported and in part re-exported to Kashgaria and Bokhara.
On every festive occasion, as a saint's day, birth, marriage, &c., it is customary for a rich man to collect his friends and neighbours, and kill a cow and one or two sheep. The principal parts of the cow are eaten raw while yet warm and quivering, the remainder being cut into small pieces and cooked with the favourite sauce of butter and red pepper paste.
The raw meat eaten in this way is considered to be very superior in taste and much more tender than when cold.
It is still largely dependent on local raw material.