Ravenna sentence example
Garibaldi and a few followers, including his devoted wife Anita, after vainly attempting to reach Venice, where the tricolor still floated, took refuge in the pine forests of Ravenna; the Austrians were seeking him in all directions, and most of his legionaries were captured and shot.
Venice, Istria, the Dalmatian coast and South Italy were assigned to the East, while Rome, Ravenna and the Pentapolis were included in the Western realm.
The best known and the most extensive of these lagoons is that in which Venice is situated, which extends from Torcello in the north to Chioggia and Brondolo in the south, a distance of above 40 m.; but they were formerly much more extensive, and afforded a continuous means of internal navigation, by what were called "the Seven Seas" (Septem Maria), from Ravenna to Altinum, a few miles north of Torcello.
That city, like Ravenna, originally stood in the midst of a lagoon; and the coast east of it to near Monfalcone, where it meets the mountains, is occupied by similar expanses of water, which are, however, becoming gradually converted into dry land.
The other small streams east of this—of which the most considerable are the Solaro, the Santerno, flowing by Imola, the Lamone by Faenza, the Montone by ForlÃ¬, all in Roman times tributaries of the Po—have their outlet in like manner into the Po di Primaro, or by artificial mouths into the Adriatic between Ravenna and Rimini.Advertisement
We know from the Roman historians that a large force of Gauls came as far south as Rome in the year 390 B.C., and that some part of this horde settled in what was henceforward known as the Ager Gallicus, the easterdmost strip of coast in what was later known as Umbria, including the towns of Caesna, Ravenna and -Ariminum.
He defeated Odoacer, drove him to Ravenna, besieged him there, and in 493 completed the conquest of the country by murdering the Herulian chief with his own hand.
He settled at Ravenna, which had been the capital of Italy since the days of Honorius, and which still testifies by its monuments to the Gothic chieftains Romanizing policy.
At its close the provinces of Italy were placed beneath Greek dukes, controlled by a governor-general, entitled exarch, who ruled in the Byzantine emperors name at Ravenna.
Ravenna, entrenched within her lagoons, remained a Greek city.Advertisement
Three separate capitals must be discriminated Pavia, the seat of the new Lombard kingdom; Ravenna, the garrison city of the Byzantine emperor; and Rome, the rallying point of the old nation, where the successor of St Peter was already beginning to assume that national protectorate which proved so influential in the future.
At Ravenna we find the Polenta family, at Rimini the Malatestas, at Parma the Rossi, at Piacenza the Scotti, at Faenza the Manfredi.
As a consequence of the battle of Ravenna, the Medici returned in 1512 to Florence.
After a temporary peace, he fled to the monastery of Classe near Ravenna.
The older portion, the capella in palatio, an octagonal building surmounted by a dome, was designed on the model of San Vitale at Ravenna by Udo of Metz, was begun under Charlemagne's auspices in 796 and consecrated by Pope Leo III.Advertisement
It is surrounded on the first story by a sixteensided gallery (the Hochmiinster) adorned by antique marble and granite columns, of various sizes, brought by Charlemagne's orders from Rome, Ravenna and Trier.
Some early ambones are found in Ravenna, and in the south of Italy are many fine examples; the epistle ambo in the cathedral at Ravello (1130), which is perhaps the earliest, shows a Scandinavian influence in the design of its mosaic inlay, an influence which is found in Sicilian work and may be a Norman importation.
The building contained one hundred marble pillars, and was also adorned with sculptures and mosaics sent from Ravenna by Pope Adrian I.
Ravenna has railway communication with Bologna (via Castel Bolognese), Ferrara and Rimini, and by steam tram with Forli.
The style is commonly called Byzantine; but some of the most striking features of the churches of Ravenna - the colonnades, the mosaics, perhaps the cupolas - are not so much Byzantine as representative of early Christian art generally.Advertisement
A rare work on the earlier church (Buonamici, La Metropolitana di Ravenna) gives details of its construction.
The present cathedral contains several early Christian marble sarcophagi, a silver cross of the 6th century (that of Agnellus), and the so-called throne of the Archbishop Maximian (54655 2), adorned with reliefs in ivory, which, however, was really brought to Ravenna in iooi by John the Deacon, who recorded the fact in his Venetian chronicle, as a present from the Doge Pietro Orseolo to the Emperor Otho III.
The mosaics of the 5th century, in the dome, are the earliest and perhaps the finest at Ravenna for their splendid decorative effect and rich colouring, and are less stiff and conventional than the later mosaics.
In this mausoleum Theodoric was buried, but his body was cast forth from it, perhaps during the troublous times of the siege of Ravenna by the imperial troops, and the Rotunda (as it is now generally called) was converted into a church dedicated to the Virgin.
The mosaics have been in parts much restored; but the earlier ones still show, like those which preceded them in Ravenna,.Advertisement
This, like the other campanili of Ravenna, is later than the church to which it belongs.
Apollinare in Classe, erected at the same time outside the walls of Classis, and now standing by itself in the lonely marshes, is the largest basilica existing at Ravenna.
The exterior brick walls are divided by shallow arches and pilasters, as in other churches of Ravenna.
The 18th-century series of portraits of the archbishops of Ravenna is no doubt copied from an earlier original.
The famous pineto or pinewood of Ravenna, which already existed in Odoacer's time, and has been sung by poets since Dante, lies some 5 m.
Strabo mentions a tradition that Ravenna was founded by Thessalians, who afterwards, finding themselves pressed by the Etrurians, called in their Umbrian neighbours and eventually departed, leaving the city to their allies.
Throughout the valley of the Po the Gauls took the place of the Etrurians as a conquering power; but Ravenna may possibly have retained its Umbrian character until, about the year 191 B.C., by the conquest of the Boii, the whole of this region passed definitely under the dominion of Rome.
Strabo, writing probably a few years after Ravenna had been thus selected as a naval arsenal, gives us a description of its appearance which certainly corresponds more closely with modern Venice than with modern Ravenna.
Of this some traces still exist in the bed of the Ronco above Ravenna.
The port of Ravenna, situated about 3 miles from the city, was named Classis.
A long line of houses called Caesarea connected it with Ravenna, and in process of time there was such a continuous series of buildings that the three towns seemed like one.
Of Roman Ravenna nothing remains above ground, though a little has been found by excavation, including a mosaic pavement at Classe.
The great historical importance of Ravenna begins early in the 5th century, when Honorius, alarmed by the progress of Alaric in the north of Italy, transferred his court hither.
From this date (404) to the fall of the Western Empire in 476 Ravenna was the chief residence of the Roman emperors.
Odoacer, like the emperors who had gone before him, made Ravenna his chief place of residence, and here he shut himself up when Theodoric the Ostrogoth had invaded Italy and defeated him in two battles.
Theodoric's siege of Ravenna lasted for three years (489-492), and was marked by one bloody encounter in the pinewood on the east of it.
The terms, arranged through the intervention of John, archbishop of Ravenna, were not observed by 1 The great pinewood to the east of the city, which is still one of the great glories of Ravenna, must therefore have been in existence already in the 5th century.
Ravenna was Theodoric's chief place of residence, and his reign (493-526) may be considered the time of its greatest splendour.
Long after the Goths had lost Rome they still clung to Ravenna, till at length, weary of the feebleness of their own king, Vitiges, and struck with admiration of their heroic conqueror, they offered to transfer their allegiance to Belisarius on condition of his assuming the diadem of the Western Empire.
Thus in the year 539 was Ravenna re-united to the Roman empire.
Its connexion with that empire - or, in other words, its dependence upon Constantinople - lasted for more than 200 years, during which period, under the rule of Narses and his successors the exarchs, Ravenna was the seat of Byzantine dominion in Italy.
St Romuald and St Peter Damian were both natives of Ravenna.
From this time (1509) down to our own days, except for the interruptions caused by the wars of the French Revolution, Ravenna continued subject to the papal see and was governed by a cardinal legate.
In 1849 Garibaldi's wife Anita, who had accompanied him on his retreat from Rome, succumbed to fatigue in the marshes near Ravenna.
More than five centuries later (1320) Dante became the guest of Guido Novello di Polenta, lord of Ravenna, and here he died on the 14th September of the following year.
The marble urn containing the body of the poet still rests at Ravenna, where what Byron calls "a little cupola more neat than solemn" has been erected over it.
Lord Byron resided at Ravenna for eighteen months in 1820-21, attracted by the charms of the Countess Guiccioli.
To the careful restorations of the last named the buildings of Ravenna owe much.
It arose out of the attempt of the Spanish and Italian forces to relieve Ravenna, besieged by Gaston de Foix, duke of Nemours.
When Ravenna is taken, and Vitigis carried into captivity, Jordanes almost exults in the fact that "the nobility of the Amals and the illustrious offspring of so many mighty men have surrendered to a yet more illustrious prince and a yet mightier general, whose fame shall not grow dim through all the centuries."
It is connected by steam tramways with Ravenna and Meldola, and by a road through the Apennines with Pontassieve.
In the 12th century we find Forli in league with Ravenna, and in the 13th the imperial count of the province of Romagna resided there.
The result is that the plain is being gradually extended in an easterly direction, and cities like Ravenna, Adria and Aquileia, which were once seaports, lie now many miles inland.
It is almost invariably square; the only examples of round campanili in this part of Italy are to be found at Ravenna and at Caorle to the east of Venice; while inside Venice itself the solitary exception to the square plan was the campanile of San Paternian, built in 999 and now demolished, which was a hexagon.
The pope appealed to Liutprand, the powerful king of the Lombards, to attack the imperial possessions in Ravenna.
He did so, and expelled the exarch Paul, who took refuge in Venice and was restored to his post by the doge of the Heraclean or Byzantine party, Orso, who in return for this assistance received the imperial title of hypatos, and trading rights in Ravenna.
Charles's son, Pippin, was crowned king of Italy, entered the peninsula at the head of the Franks, defeated the Lombards, took Ravenna and presented it to the pope, while retaining a feudal superiority.
Desiderius, the last Lombard king, endeavoured to recover Ravenna.
He gathered a fleet at Ravenna, captured Chioggia, and pushed on up the Lido towards the capital of the lagoons at Malamocco.
It is certain, however, that he was suspected by Honorius and abandoned by his own troops, and that he fled to Ravenna, and, having been induced by false promises to quit the church in which he had taken sanctuary, was assassinated on the 23rd of August 408.
Honorius at first established his court at Milan, but, on the report of the invasion of Italy, fled to Ravenna, where he resided till his death on the 27th of August 423.
He studied Latin under John of Ravenna, and Greek under Manuel Chrysoloras.
It afterwards belonged to the Greek exarchate of Ravenna.
In return for these honours Pippin, at the appeal of the pope, made two expeditions into Italy, in 754 and 756; and he became the veritable creator of the papal state by conferring on the pope the exarchate of Ravenna, which he had wrested from Aistulf, the king of the Lombards.
The employment of this material in Italy for legal purposes is sufficiently illustrated by the large number of documents in Latin which were preserved at Ravenna, and date from the 5th to the Loth century.
The former papal territories are now comprised within the Italian provinces of Bologna, Ferrara, Forli, Ravenna, Pesaro and Urbino, Ancona, Macerata, Ascoli-Piceno, Perugia, Rome and Benevento.
After attending the Ecole Polytechnique at Paris, he became professor of physics successively at Bologna (1832), Ravenna (1837) and Pisa (1840).
Bologna was only for a short while subject to the Lombards, remaining generally under the rule of the exarchate of Ravenna, until this in 756 was given by Pippin to the papacy.
The emperor, to whom Gerbert was well known, appointed a time for the two philosophers to argue before him; and Richer has left a long account of this dialectical tournament at Ravenna, which lasted out a whole day and was only terminated at the imperial bidding.
Somewhat later he became Otto's instructor in arithmetic, and had been appointed archbishop of Ravenna before May 998.
The anonymous Chorographer of Ravenna calls the place Londinium Augusta, and doubtless this was the form adopted.
It appears that as early as 1295 furnaces had been established at Treviso, Vicenza, Padua, Mantua, Ferrara, Ravenna and Bologna.
At some period unknown, prior to the 6th century, the Etrurians became a conquering people and extended their power not only northwards over, probably, Mantua, Felsina, Melpum and perhaps Hadria and Ravenna (Etruria Circumpadana), but also southwards into Latium and Campania.
Under Athalaric he was praefectus praetorio, a post which he retained till about 540, after the triumphal entry of Belisarius into Ravenna, when he retired from public life.
The civil and military head of these possessions, the exarch, was stationed at Ravenna.
But as all were subject to his authority, they were included in the exarchate of Ravenna, which was therefore another name for the province of Italy.
At the end of the 6th century the exarchate included Istria; the maritime part of Venetia as distinct from the interior which was in the hands of the Lombard kings at Pavia; the exarchate proper, or territory around Ravenna on the eastern side of the Apennines, to which was added Calabria, which at that period meant the heel and not the toe of the boot; the Pentapolis, or coast from Rimini to Ancona with the interior as far as the mountains; the duchy of Rome, or belt of territory connecting the Pentapolis with the western coast, the coast of Naples, w i th Bruttium the toe of the boot, the modern Calabria, and Liguria, or the Riviera of Genoa.
About 740 it consisted of Istria, Venetia (the maritime portion of which was ceasing to be a province and was becoming a protected state, the forerunner of the future republic of Venice), Ferrara, Ravenna (the exarchate in the limited sense), Pentapolis, Perusia, Rome, the coast of Naples and Calabria (in the sense of the toe and not the heel of the boot) which was being overrun by the Lombards of the duchy of Beneventum, which with Spoletum held the interior.
These fragments of the "province of Italy," as it was when reconquered by Justinian, were almost all lost either to the Lombards, who finally conquered Ravenna itself about 750, or by the revolt of the pope, who separated from the empire on account of the iconoclastic reforms. The intervention of Pippin the Carolingian, who was called in by the popes to protect them against the Lombards and the Eastern emperors alike, made a revival of the exarchate impossible.
It was one of the cities of the Pentapolis under the exarchate of Ravenna, the other four being Fano, Pesaro, Senigallia and Rimini, and eventually became a semi-independent republic under the protection of the popes, until Gonzaga took possession of it for Clement Vii.
He was a staunch adherent of the East Roman empire, which still exercised sovereignty over Rome, Ravenna and some other parts of Italy, and he impeded as far as possible the progress of the Lombards.
The battle of Ravenna was fought, and the French retired from Italy.
The cardinal Giovanni de' Medici, who was present at the battle of Ravenna, brought a Spanish army into Tuscany.
During this visit Charles had presented certain towns to Adrian, but an estrangement soon arose between king and pope over the claim of Charles to confirm the election to the archbishopric of Ravenna, and it was accentuated by Adrian's objection to the establishment by Charles of Grimoald III..
He built palaces at Aix (his favourite residence), Nijmwegen and Ingelheim, and erected the church of St Mary at Aix, modelled on that of St Vitalis at Ravenna and adorned with columns and mosaics brought from the same city.
At Ravenna exist two famous baptisteries encrusted with fine mosaics, one of them built in the middle of the 5th century, and the other in the 6th.
His edition (1896-1905) of the Aristophanic scholia from the Ravenna MS. was less successful.
After the foundation of the naval station at Ravenna, it became the practice to take ship from there to Altinum, instead of following the Via Popillia round the coast, and thence to continue the journey by land.
His contemporary, Cassiodorus (c. 480-c. 575), after spending thirty years in the service of the Ostrogothic dynasty at Ravenna, passed the last thirty-three years of his long life on the shores of the Bay of Squillace, where he founded two monasteries and diligently trained their inmates to become careful copyists.
He held successively the suburban sees of Albano and Sabina, also the sees of Cadiz, Maillezais, Arras and Cremona, and was made archbishop of Ravenna, 1524, by Clement VII.
In 606 the diocese was divided into two parts, and the patriarchate of Aquileia, protected by the Lombards, was revived, that of Grado being protected by the exarch of Ravenna and later by the doges of Venice.
However, any danger that menaced the prestige of Rome disappeared when the emperor Honorius removed the imperial residence to Ravenna, and still more so when the Western emperors were replaced in the north of Italy by barbarian sovereigns, who were Arians.
To it were added the exarchate of Ravenna and a few other districts of central Italy, which had been recently conquered by the Lombards and retaken by the Frankish kings Pippin and Charlemagne.
At the beginning of the struggle Julius had to endure many a hard blow; but his courage never failed - or, at most, but for a moment - even after the French victory at Ravenna, on Easter Sunday 1512.
Under Augustus the greater part of the peninsula was added to Italy, and, when the seat of empire was removed to Ravenna, Istria reaped many benefits from the proximity of the capital.
Vitale at Ravenna; in this case, however, the dalmatic has been confused with the surplice.
Ravenna was Valentinian's usual residence; but he fled to Rome on the approach of Attila, who, after ravag- ing the north of Italy, died in the following year (4J3).
In the partial settlement which followed the battle of Ravenna, Massimiliano Sforza, a protege of the emperor, was restored to the throne of Milan, and held it by the help of the .Swiss till 1515, when Francis I.
We may note that, owing to the growth of the temporal power of the popes, there was never a dux Romae dependent on the exarchate of Ravenna, similar to those established by Narses in the other districts of Italy.
He had not indeed "penetrated to the city," but his invasion of Italy had produced important results; it had caused the imperial residence to be transferred from Milan to Ravenna, it had necessitated the withdrawal of the Twentieth Legion from Britain, and it had probably facilitated the great invasion of Vandals, Suevi and Alani into Gaul, by which that province and Spain were lost to the empire.
Yet large as the terms were, the emperor would probably have been well advised to grant them; but Honorius was one of those timid and feeble folk who are equally unable to make war or peace, and refused to look beyond the question of his own personal safety, guaranteed as it was by the dikes and marshes of Ravenna.
Henry then carried the war into Italy; in 1084 he was crowned emperor in Rome by Wibert, archbishop of Ravenna, whom, as Clement III., he had set up as an anti-pope, and in 1085 Gregory died an exile from Rome.
Being connected by marriage with Leo I., emperor of the East, he was selected by him to succeed Olybrius on the Western throne, and proclaimed at Ravenna.
In 475 Orestes, father of Augustulus, afterwards the last emperor of the West, raised the standard of revolt and marched against Nepos at Ravenna.
Gregory's Letters are largely occupied with the affairs of the great Sicilian estates held by the Roman church, as by the churches of Milan and Ravenna.
Vitale at Ravenna, though built in Justinian's reign, and containing mosaic pictures of him and Theodora, does not appear to have owed anything to his mind or purse.
Belisarius pursued his diminished army northwards, shut him up in Ravenna, and ultimately received the surrender of that impregnable city.
He moved from place to place during several years, but saw city after city captured by or open its gates to Totila, till only Ravenna, Otranto and Ancona remained.
The authorities for the history of Alboin are Procopius, Paulus Diaconus and Agnellus (in his history of the church of Ravenna).
Shortly after holding a council along with the emperor at Ravenna in 967, he gave the imperial crown to Otto II.
Among the former it appears to have become a sort of ex officio title of the Byzantine vicegerents of Italy, the exarchs of Ravenna; among the barbarian chiefs who were thus dignified were Odoacer, Theodoric, Sigismund of Burgundy, Clovis, and even in later days princes of Bulgaria, the Saracens, and the West Saxons.
In early life he appears to have been received into the Camaldulian monastery of Classe near Ravenna, whence he afterwards removed to that of San Felice in Bologna, where he spent many years in the preparation of the Concordia.
He concluded a concordat with Rudolph of Habsburg in May 1278, by which the Romagna and the exarchate of Ravenna were guaranteed to the pope; and in July he issued an epochmaking constitution for the government of Rome, which forbade foreigners taking civil office.
The struggle was accompanied by an armed outbreak in the exarchate of Ravenna (727), which Leo finally endeavoured to subdue by means of a large fleet.
But the destruction of the armament by a storm decided the issue against him; his south Italian subjects successfully defied his religious edicts, and the province of Ravenna became detached from the empire.
His daring march had alarmed the Goths for Ravenna, and induced them to raise the siege of Rome; but he himself was now shut up in Rimini, and on the point of being forced by famine to surrender.
Having mustered all his forces at Ravenna, he marched southward.
In the main the thirteen years after the battle of Capua (554-567) were years of peace, and during them Narses ruled Italy from Ravenna with the title of prefect.'
It appears first in a document of Aistulf of 753 or 754 as a city forming part of the exarchate of Ravenna.
In 1509 he was excommunicated by Julius II., and attacked the pontifical army in 1512 outside Ravenna, which he took.
Ferrara is on the main line from Bologna to Padua and Venice, and has branches to Ravenna and Poggio Rusco (for Suzzara).
The churches were adorned with frescoes, wall and floor mosaics, some well preserved, and marble carvings similar to work found at Ravenna.
Having distinguished himself in classics at Trinity College, Dublin, Oscar Wilde went to Magdalen College, Oxford, in 1874, and won the Newdigate prize in 1878 with his poem "Ravenna," besides taking a first-class in classical Moderations and in Literae Humaniores.
Of these, the most important were the exarchs of Ravenna.
On account of his knowledge of civil and canon law, he was made papal vice-chamberlain and archbishop of Ravenna by Urban VI., and appointed by Boniface IX.
In 428 or 429 the whole nation set sail for Africa, upon an invitation received by their king from Bonifacius, count of Africa, who had fallen into disgrace with the court of Ravenna Gunderic was now dead, and supreme power was in the hands of his bastard brother, who is generally known in history as Genseric, though the more correct form of his name is Gaiseric. This man, short of stature and with limping gait, but with a great natural capacity for war and dominion, reckless of human life and unrestrained by conscience or pity, was for fifty years the hero of the Vandal race and the terror of Constantinople and Rome.
In 1512 at the battle of Ravenna, where his father and elder brother were killed, he displayed prodigies of valour, and received the highest honours of chivalry from his imperial cousin, who conferred upon him with his own hands the spurs, the collar and the eagle of gold.
Gregory, who despaired of any serious effort on the part of the Greek emperors to expel the Lombards, endeavoured to promote peace between the Italians and Agilulf; and, in spite of the feeble hostility of the exarchs of Ravenna, the pope and the king of the Lombards became the two real powers in the north and centre of Italy.
For a time, but only for a time, he deprived the Greeks of Ravenna.
In return for the transfer by the pope of the Frank crown from the decayed line of Clovis to his own, Pippin crossed the Alps, defeated Aistulf and gave to the pope the lands which Aistulf had torn from the empire, Ravenna and the Pentapolis (754-756).
By 493 Ravenna was taken; Odoacer was killed by Theodoric's own hand; and the East Gothic power was fully established over Italy, Sicily, Dalmatia and the lands to the north of Italy.
Nothing came of the proposed engagement, but the wrongs of Honoria, his affianced wife, served as a convenient pretext for some of the constantly recurring embassies with which Attila, fond of trampling on the fallen majesty of Rome, worried and bullied the two courts of Constantinople and Ravenna.
After a short stay at Ravenna he removed to Salzburg, whence, his illness continuing, he sent in his resignation as president of the Royal Society.
Leaden seals were also used by the archbishops of Ravenna and other prelates of Italy; also to some extent by officials of a lower rank, and by certain communes.
In 650 the papal legate, John of Ravenna, was created bishop of Spalato, as the new city was named.
About this period he saw his daughter Francesca happily married, and undertook the education of a young scholar from Ravenna, whose sudden disappearance from his household caused him the deepest grief.
This youth has been identified, but on insufficient grounds, with that Giovanni Malpaghini of Ravenna who was destined to form a most important link between Petrarch and the humanists of the next age of culture.
What he lacked was that insight into the best classical masterpieces, that command of the best classical diction, which is the product of successive generations of scholarship. To attain to this, Giovanni da Ravenna, Colluccio Salutato, Poggio and Filelfo had to labour, before a Poliziano and a Bembo finally prepared the path for an Erasmus.
Vexation at an insult offered him by Louis is said to have hastened his death, which took place on the 19th of November 1472, at Ravenna.
In 542 Totila besieged it and compelled it to surrender, but being soon after recovered by Narses, it remained long a dependency of the exarchate of Ravenna, under the immediate government of a duke, appointed by the East Roman emperors.
The hold of the French on Lombardy was rudely shaken by hostile political powers, then confirmed again for a while by the victories of Gaston de Foix, and finally destroyed by the battle in which that hero fell under the walls of Ravenna.
They are generally decorated with a series of niches with figures in them, divided by small attached shafts with semicircular or sloping covers carved with religious emblems, one of the best examples being the sarcophagus of Sta Barbara, dating from the beginning of the 6th century, at Ravenna, where there are many others.
In 568 the Lombards found Mantua a walled town of some strength; recovered from their grasp in 590 by the exarch of Ravenna, it was again captured by Agilulf in 601.
It was during his papacy that the siege of Rome by Alaric (408) took place, when, according to a doubtful anecdote of Zosimus, the ravages of plague and famine were so frightful, and help seemed so far off, that papal permission was granted to sacrifice and pray to the heathen deities; the pope was, however, absent from Rome on a mission to Honorius at Ravenna at the time of the sack in 410.
Other causes of trouble probably existed, for in 1231 Henry not only refused to appear at the diet at Ravenna, but opposed the privileges granted by Frederick to the princes at Worms. In 1232, however, he submitted to his father, promising to adopt the emperor's policy and to obey his commands.
In 1026 Conrad set out for Italy, and supported by Heribert, archbishop of Milan, assumed the Lombard crown in that city, and afterwards overcame the resistance which was offered by Pavia and Ravenna.
The struggle was complicated throughout its course by political and other considerations; there were repeated rebellions of German nobles, constant strife between rival imperial and papal factions in the Lombard cities and at Rome, and creation of several anti-popes, of whom Guibert of Ravenna (Clement III.) and Gregory VIII.
Qualified by letters of the papal chancery as liberator and defender of the Church, his armies twice (75.4 756) crossed the Alps, despite the opposition of the Frankish aristocracy, and forced Aistuif, king of the Lombards, to cede to him the exarchate of Ravenna and the Pentapolis.
At one time the mosques were covered with mosaics, analogous to those of Ravenna, depicting scenes from the life of Mahomet and the prophets.
A further attack on the Lombard cities at the diet of Ravenna in 1231 was answered by a renewal of their league, and was soon connected with unrest in Germany.
They were, however, compelled to retreat before the reinforcements sent by Belisarius and Narses; thus the Byzantines, after various vicissitudes, became masters of the town, appointed a duke as its governor, and included it in the exarchate of Ravenna.
Giovanni the Lame (Sciancato), a man of a daring impetuosity only equalled by his ugliness, had proved so useful a general to Giovanni da Polenta of Ravenna as to win in reward the hand of that potentate's beautiful daughter, known to history as Francesca da Rimini.
Being eager to adorn his temple with the most precious marbles, Sigismondo's veneration for antiquity did not prevent him from pillaging many valuable classical remains in Rimini, Ravenna and even in Greece.
Thereupon the pope, having accomplished his own ends, made alliance with the Venetians, who were now prostrate at his feet, and, with them, the Spaniards and the Swiss, fought against the French at Ravenna in 1512.
Here he was successful in obtaining the restitution to the pope of the Marches (Ancona, Treviso and Fermo) and Legations (Bologna, Ferrara and Ravenna), but he failed to prevent Austria from annexing the ancient papal possessions on the left bank of the Po and obtaining the right to garrison Ferrara and Comacchio.
An agricultural colony, founded at Ostia after 1875, and consisting mainly of cultivators from the neighbourhood of Ravenna, has produced a great change for the better in the condition of the place.
Accordingly, Belisarius invaded Sicily; and, after storming Naples and defending Rome for a year against almost the entire strength of the Goths in Italy, he concluded the war by the capture of Ravenna, and with it of the Gothic king Vitiges.
The other small streams east of this—of which the most considerable are the Solaro, the Santerno, flowing by Imola, the Lamone by Faenza, the Montone by ForlÃƒ¬, all in Roman times tributaries of the Po—have their outlet in like manner into the Po di Primaro, or by artificial mouths into the Adriatic between Ravenna and Rimini.
Pippin twice crossed the Alps, and forced Aistolf to relinquish his acquisitions, including Ravenna, Pentapolis, the coast towns of Romagna and some cities in the duchy of Spoleto.
All we know for certain is that1 at this epoch, Rome attempts to ruin Tivoli, and Venice Pisa; Milan fights with Cremona, Cremona with Crema, Pavia with Verona, Verona with Padua, Piacenza with Parma, Modena and Reggio with Bologna, Bologna and Faenza with Ravenna and Imola, Florence and Pisa with Lucca and Siena, and so on through the whole list of cities.
In spite of the fact that he was pursued by the armies of four Powers, he succeeded in reaching San Marino; but his force melted away and, after hiding in the marshes of Ravenna, he fled across the peninsula, assisted by nobles, peasants and priests, to the Tuscan coast, whence he reached Piedmont and eventually America, to await a new call to fight for Italy (see GARIBALDI).
Either as a colonia or a municipium, Ravenna remained for more than two centuries an inconsiderable city of Gallia Cisalpina, chiefly noticeable as the place in which Caesar during his ten years' command in Gaul frequently resorted in order to confer with his friends from Rome, and from which he started for his advance into Italy.
On the other hand, good water was proverbially difficult to obtain at Ravenna - dearer than wine, says Martial, who has two epigrams on the subject.
Through all these changes Ravenna maintained its character as an impregnable "city in the sea," not easily to be attacked even by a naval power on account of the shallowness and devious nature of the channels by which it had to be approached.
In 1512 (see below) the French army under Gaston de Foix fought a fierce battle with the Spanish, Venetian, and papal troops on the banks of the Ronco about two miles from Ravenna.
After its reconstruction with the help of Narses (see IGUvIUM) the town remained subject to the exarchs of Ravenna, and, after the destruction of the Lombard kingdom in 774, formed part of the donation of Charlemagne to the pope.
After completing a brilliant university course at Bologna, which he interrupted to take part in the revolution of 1831 (see Carbonari), he practised as a physician at Russi and at Ravenna.
But mosaic designers like Sara Baldwin of New Ravenna are using new materials to create fun and innovative patterns.
Creswick Farms - Located in Ravenna, Michigan, Creswick Farms offers organic beef, pork, chicken, and eggs directly to customers.