Rapid sentence example
Astonished, she watched the rapid battle.
Every year Santa Claus takes a journey over the world in a sleigh drawn by a strong and rapid steed called "Rudolph."
The growth of the two cities has been rapid since 1900.
Rapid fire questions were leveled at Jackson.
The rapid development of Helen's mind is beautiful to watch.Advertisement
When her husband took his place she concluded, from the rapid manner in which after taking up his table napkin he pushed back the tumbler and wineglass standing before him, that he was out of humor, as was sometimes the case when he came in to dinner straight from the farm--especially before the soup.
Flowing into the Pacific Ocean on the east coast there are some fine rivers, but the majority have short and rapid courses.
A dock-side crane unloading cargo with high lifts following one another in rapid succession will require a higher load factor than a workshop traveller with a very short lift and only a very occasional maximum load; and a traveller with a very long longitudinal travel will require a higher load factor for the travelling motor than for the lifting motor.
He walked among the crowd with rapid steps, scanning the various faces he met.
Having taken holy orders his advancement in the Church was very rapid, mainly through the influence of his brother Andrew.Advertisement
It astonished me to find how much easier it is to talk than to spell with the fingers, and I discarded the manual alphabet as a medium of communication on my part; but Miss Sullivan and a few friends still use it in speaking to me, for it is more convenient and more rapid than lip-reading.
At the university he made rapid progress, especially in jurisprudence, though preferring the study of history, literature, juridical science and philosophy.
Plot the line you will take through the rapid, using your identified points of reference.
This should include alternative lines through various parts of the rapid in case of steering errors.
Evaluate the run-out below the rapid for ease in rescue efforts.Advertisement
It is a very rapid river, and subject to sudden swellings and overflowings, which cause great damage to the surrounding country.
His promotion was rapid.
Before sunrise he was awakened by shouts and loud and rapid firing.
After the deaths of her son and husband in such rapid succession, she felt herself a being accidentally forgotten in this world and left without aim or object for her existence.
While the old gent's hasty departure was out of character, his rapid exit caused the Deans no concern.Advertisement
Prince Andrew, out of breath with his rapid ride, spoke quickly.
By mid-afternoon both legs were feeling tight and his breath was coming in rapid puffs each time he tackled one of the ever lengthening climbs.
Cautiously withdrawing her breast, Natasha rocked him a little, handed him to the nurse, and went with rapid steps toward the door.
His successes against the declining revolutionary cause were numerous and rapid.
Many of the species attain a large size, and all are of very rapid growth.Advertisement
Its eastern progress was also rapid.
The industry made rapid progress.
After the war a rapid development began.
The effect of the final Lombard invasion is shown by the resolve to quit the mainland and the rapid building of churches which is recorded by the Cronaca altinate.
This expansion of the trade of Venice resulted in the rapid development of the wealthier classes, with a growing tendency to draw together for the purpose of securing to themselves the entire direction of Venetian politics in order to dominate Venetian commerce.
The, expansion of commerce which resulted from the Fourth Crusade soon made itself evident in the city by a rapid development in its architecture and by a decided strengthening of the commercial aristocracy, which eventually led to the great constitutional reform - the closing of the Maggior Consiglio in 1296, whereby Venice became a rigid oligarchy.
Externally this rapid success awoke the implacable hatred of Genoa, and led to the long and exhausting series of Genoese wars which ended at Chioggia in 1380.
The rapid formation of this land empire, and the obvious intention to expand, called the attention not only of Italy but of Europe to this power which seemed destined to become supreme in north Italy, and eventually led to the league of Cambrai for the dismemberment of Venice.
After the adoption of the North-West Ordinance the work of settlement made rapid progress.
This rapid increase of population led to the establishment of the organized Territorial government in 17 99, to the restriction of that government in Ohio in 1800, and to the admission of the state into the Union in 1803.
The character of the lake, which has no outlet, varies greatly according to the amount of water brought down by its principal feeder, the Dulei, which enters at its north end, being there a fairly rapid stream so yds.
Every "line" of its build is designed and eminently adapted for rapid progression through the water; the muscles massed along the vertebral column are enormously developed, especially on the back and the sides of the tail, and impart to the body a certain rigidity which interferes with abruptly sideward motions of the fish.
The primary function of this poison is to kill the prey upon which they feed, its action being very rapid upon insects.
It is only by such careful and con tinuous selection that the staple of these high-bred strains can be kept up to its present superiority, and if for any reason the selection is interrupted there is a general and rapid decline in quality."
At the close of the war in 1815 the revival of trade led to an increased demand, and the progress of cotton cultivation in America became rapid and continuous, until at length about 85% of the raw material used by English manufacturers was derived from this one source.
Other houses of the Brothers of Common Life, otherwise called the "Modern Devotion," were in rapid succession established in the chief cities of the Low Countries and north and central Germany, so that there were in all upwards of forty houses of men; while those of women doubled that figure, the first having been founded by Groot himself at Deventer.
It is one of the most rapid and economical which can be employed in soft formations, but where hard rock is encountered it is almost useless.
The four seasons are distinctly marked, a rarity in South Africa, where the transition from summer to winter is generally very rapid.
It was a time of rapid expansion, marked by great missionary fervour, and may be called the Circuit Period, for even after the circuits were grouped into districts in 1821 they did not lose their privilege of missionary initiative.
The removal to London was proof that the leaders were alive to the necessity of grappling with the rapid growth of towns and cities, and that the Connexion, at first mainly a rural movement, had also urban work to accomplish.
The rapid loss of the new conquests after 447 proved that Athens lacked a sufficient land-army to defend permanently so extensive a frontier.
Her development since the Persian wars had been extremely rapid, but did not reach its climax till the latter part of the century.
The progress of the Society of Jesus in Loyola's lifetime was rapid (see JEsu1Ts).
Immediately after this rebellion a second distribution of more than 4000 natives foreshadowed the rapid disappearance of those unfortunates, despite the well-meaning regulations of the Council of the Indies.
The advance of the Americans had been rapid and decisive, with a small loss of life - three killed and forty wounded - due to the skill with which the military manoeuvres were planned and executed and the cordial welcome given the invaders by the inhabitants.
It sublimes, but on rapid heating decomposes into carbon dioxide and phenol.
When the salt is taken by the mouth, absorption is extremely rapid, the salt being present in the peripheral blood within ten minutes.
The rapid excretion by the kidneys is one of the cardinal conditions of safety, and also necessitates the very frequent administration of the drug.
Originally the maps were engraved on copper, and the progress of publication was slow; but since the introduction of modern processes, such as electrotyping (in 1840), photography (in 1855) and zincography (in 1859), it has been rapid.
For maps of the Balkan Peninsula we are still largely indebted to the rapid surveys carried on by Austrian and Russian officers.
Augustus set himself against the undue multiplication of manumissions, probably considering the rapid succession of new citizens a source of social instability, and recommended a similar policy to his successor.
The great ability of Beaton and the patronage of his uncle ensured his rapid promotion to high offices in the church and kingdom.
To the westward there is a rapid drop to the wellwatered valley of the Yaw River, and then a rise over broken, dry country before the valleys of the Myit-tha and Mon rivers are reached.
There is no doubt that the disintegration caused by monophysitism largely facilitated the rapid and easy victory of Islam in Syria and Egypt.
The 18th century witnessed a rapid development of analysis, and the period culminated with the genius of Lagrange and Laplace.
But the progress in all directions has been too rapid to admit of any one adequate characterization.
The culture of cotton is making rapid progress, immigrants who receive a grant of land being obliged to devote one-fourth of it to cotton culture.
Seeing the rapid increase of the financial burdens of the state, a commission of experts, British, French and Austrian, was charged, (1860) with setting the affairs in order, and with their assistance Fuad Pasha drew up the budget accompanying his celebrated report to the sultan in 1862.
The capture of Veszprem and of Raab (1594) and the failure of the archduke Matthias to take Gran seemed to promise another rapid victory of the Ottoman arms; but Sinan was ill-supported from Constantinople, the situation was complicated by the revolt of Walachia and Moldavia, and the war was destined to last, with varying fortunes, for fourteen years.
With the last century of the caliphates began a more rapid decline.
From the records of that period it seems that the present city is identical in the position of its walls and the space occupied by the town proper with Bagdad at the close of the 12th century, the period when this rapid decline had already advanced so far that the western city is described by travellers as almost in ruins, and the eastern half as containing large uninhabited spaces.
The few remaining fragments produce the impression of vivid and rapid narrative, to which the flow of the native Saturnian verse, in contradistinction to the weighty and complex structure of the hexameter, was naturally adapted.
Cleveland's rapid growth both as a commercial and as a manufacturing city is due largely to its situation between the iron regions of Lake Superior and the coal and oil regions of Pennsylvania and Ohio.
The growth during the Civil War was partly due to the rapid development of the manufacturing interests of the city, which supplied large quantities of iron products and of clothing to the Federal government.
For a period of five years after the financial panic of 1873 the growth was comparatively slow, but in the succeeding two years the recuperation was rapid.
The development of manufacturing industries at Hamburg and its immediate vicinity since 1880, though not so rapid as that of its trade and shipping, has been very remarkable, and more especially has this been the case since the year 1888, when Hamburg joined the German customs union, and the barriers which prevented goods manufactured at Hamburg from entering into other parts of Germany were removed.
Art industries, particularly those which appeal to the luxurious taste of the inhabitants in fitting their houses, such as wall-papers and furniture, and those which are included in the equipment of ocean-going steamers, have of late years made rapid strides and are among the best productions of this character of any German city.
The globules which furnish the cream gradually pass on standing into solid caoutchouc, a process which is facilitated by rapid stirring, or by the addition of an acid or other chemical agent.
It is this Wale ' circumstance that facilitated the rapid invasion of Siberia Wal er l by the Russian Cossacks and hunters; they followed the omm courses of the twin rivers in their advance towards the east, and discovered short portages which permitted them to transfer their boats from the system of the Ob to that of the Yenisei, and from the latter to that of the Lena, a tributary of which - the Aldan - brought them close to the Sea of Okhotsk.
Even within historical times and during the 19th century the desiccation of the lakes has gone on at a very rapid rate.
The rapid growth of the actual population is chiefly due to immigration.
Within eighty years the Russians had reached the Amur and the Pacific. This rapid conquest is accounted for by the circumstance that neither Tatars nor Turks were able to offer any serious resistance.
The rivers of the northern versant, such as the Nera, are, like those of Asturias, for the most part short, rapid and subject to violent floods.
In general the climate, which varies with the configuration of the surface, is moderate and healthy, although subject to rapid changes of temperature.
The extreme pain and rapid swelling of the vocal cords - with threatened obstruction to the respiration - that characterize acute laryngitis may often be relieved by the sedative action of this drug upon the circulation.
An electrically neutral atom is believed to be constituted in part, or perhaps entirely, of a definite number of electrons in rapid motion within a " sphere of uniform positive electrification " not yet explained.
They contain scarcely any water except in the rainy season, when they are very full and rapid, and discharge themselves into the Runn, all along the coast of which the wells and springs are more or less impregnated with common salt and other saline ingredients.
The rapid growth of international arbitration in recent times may be gathered from the following figures.
It continued to be a royal residence during the reigns of her three sons, and hence the first rapid growth of the upper town may be referred to the 12th century.
On severing his connexion with the paper three years later, he opened at Petit Montrouge, near Paris, the great publishing house which brought out in rapid succession numerous religious works at popular prices.
Its course is very tortuous, the current rapid, and the channel much obstructed by snags.
The stoppage of intertribal wars by the British, aided by a great influx of refugees from Zululand, ed to a rapid increase of the population.
The rise of Johannesburg and the opening up of the Dundee coal-fields, as well as the development of agriculture, now caused a rapid increase on both sides of the account.
The rapid growth of the Indian population from about 1890 caused much disquiet among the majority of the white inhabitants, who viewed with especial anxiety the activities 1 The causes, both local and general, are set forth in a despatch by the governor of the 21st of June 1906 and printed in the Blue Book, Cd.
The other tract, known as Categoriae decem, and taken at first for a translation of Aristotle's treatise, is really a rapid summary of it, and certainly does not belong to Augustine.
The success of this enterprise was decisive and rapid, and the "Cobden prints" soon became known through the country as of rare value both for excellence of material and beauty of design.
Occasionally, the whole country suffers much from drought; but disastrous floods not unfrequently occur, particularly in the spring, when the beds of the rivers are inadequate to contain the increased volume of water caused by the rapid melting of the snows on the Carpathians.
Almost simultaneously with the formation of the above-mentioned committee of the academy, the " Natural Science Association " showed signs of renewed animation, and soon advanced with rapid strides in the same direction, but with a more popular aim than the academy.
His power of rapid and exhaustive observation and of accurate pictorial reproduction was phenomenal.
Ten to twenty minims of ether, subcutaneously injected, constitute perhaps the most rapid and powerful cardiac stimulant known, and are often employed for this purpose in cases of syncope under anaesthesia.
Taken internally, ether acts in many respects similarly to alcohol and chloroform, but its stimulant action on the heart is much more marked, being exerted both reflexly from the stomach and directly after its rapid absorption.
Between 1847 and 1858 branch societies were formed in different parts of India, especially in Bengal, and the new society made rapid progress, for which it was largely indebted to the spread of English education and the work of Christian missionaries.
The hostility of certain tribes prevented its rapid settlement.
He soon distinguished himself as a student and made rapid progress, especially in mathematics.
The action is very rapid, and the product, which rises to the top of the acids, is separated and washed successively with cold and then tepid water, and finally with water made slightly alkaline with sodium carbonate or hydroxide, to remove all adhering or dissolved acids which would otherwise render the product very unstable.
Harvey, as is well known, spoke slightingly of the great chancellor, and it is not till the rapid development of physical science in England and Holland in the latter part of the century, that we find Baconian principles explicitly recognized.
In the treatment of effusions into the pleura and, though with less advantage, of pericardial effusions, direct mechanical interference was practised by one physician and another, till these means of attaining rapid and complete cure took their places as indispensable, and were extended from thoracic diseases to those of the abdominal and other inner parts formerly beyond the reach of direct therapeutics.
Charged with all this matter, the Semliki, as it emerges from the region of forest and cataracts (in which, often closely confined by its mountain barriers, the stream is deep and rapid), becomes sluggish, its slope flattens out, and its waters, unable to carry their burden, deposit much of it upon the land.
The reason for the decrease in the resident City population is to be found in the rapid extension of business premises, while the widening ramifications of the outer residential areas are illustrated by the increase in the later years of the population of the Outer Ring.
Vertical shafts are better adapted to rapid hoisting, and have therefore somewhat greater capacity, than inclined shafts.
Steam shovels are not well adapted to deep excavation unless provision is made for the rapid handling of the cars when filled.
The increased mortality seems to be due to the general tendency toward forced speed in development work, which is secured by rapid drilling, and by an increase in the number of machine drills used in a single working-place.
But the routes to be followed were difficult to find in the dark, the ascent was rapid, the ground was much broken, and the enemy opposed a stubborn resistance to the advance, with the result that this was greatly retarded, and that at daybreak the most forward of the columns was not much more than halfway up. The Ottoman staff had, moreover, on the first alarm begun to hurry reinforcements on the Sari Bair from the rear, while the Allied troops were so much exhausted by their nocturnal experiences that all attempts to win the upper ridge failed on the 7th.
It is admitted by the missionaries themselves that Christianity has progressed very slowly among the Burmese in comparison with the rapid progress made amongst the Karens.
An effort at a more direct mechanical process is embodied in the inventions of Foucault which are at present being developed in Germany and Belgium; in this process the glass is drawn from the molten bath in the shape of flat sheets, by the aid of a bar of iron, previously immersed in the glass, the glass receiving its form by being drawn through slots in large fire-bricks, and being kept in shape by rapid chilling produced by the action of air-blasts.
A full account of the process of blowing crown-glass will be found in all older books and articles on the subject, so that it need only be mentioned here that the glass, instead of being blown into a cylinder, is blown into a flattened sphere, which is caused to burst at the point opposite the pipe and is then, by the rapid spinning of the glass in front of a very hot furnace-opening, caused to expand into a flat disk of large diameter.
The advance in its material prosperity has been especially rapid since the incorporation of Saxony in the German Zollverein.
He executed many rapid marches and counter-marches, assaulting isolated bodies of the enemy unexpectedly, and harassing them continually.
A rapid in the Tagus, artificially converted into a weir, renders irrigation easy, and has thus created an oasis in the midst of the barren plateau of New Castile.
It consists for the most part of a shallow and rapid stream, occupying but a small part of its broad, stony bed.
The ascent of water is most rapid through coarse sands, but the height to which it will rise is comparatively small.
It has been found by experiment that the nitrogen needed by practically all farm crops except leguminous ones is best supplied in the form of a nitrate; the rapid effect of nitrate of soda when used' as a top dressing to wheat or other plants is well known to farmers..
Generally speaking the oxide or quicklime has a more rapid and greater effect in modifying the soil than slaked lime, and this again greater than the carbonate or chalk.
The greater the commercial and industrial prosperity of a town, the more rapid was the multiplication of craft gilds, which was a natural result of the ever-increasing division of labour.
Their increase in number and power was particularly rapid in the time of Edward III., whose reign marks an era of industrial progress.
The development of these societies was even more rapid on the continent than in England.
Too rapid drying of the outer tissue of the leaf leads to the formation of " white veins," which injure leaves required for wrapper purposes, otherwise it is not important.
His talent for electrical engineering was soon shown, and his progress was rapid; so that in 1852 he was appointed engineer to the Magnetic Telegraph Company, and in that capacity superintended the laying of lines in various parts of the British Isles, including in 1853 the first cable between Great Britain and Ireland, from Portpatrick to Donaghadee.
Its mountains are insufficient in elevation and extent to attract their full share of the monsoon rains, which fall so abundantly on the Abyssinian highlands on the other side of the Red Sea; for this reason Arabia has neither lakes nor forests to control the water-supply and prevent its too rapid dissipation, and the rivers are mere torrent beds sweeping down occasionally in heavy floods, but otherwise dry.
His son and successor, Abdul Aziz, in a rapid series of successful campaigns, extended his dominion and that of the reformed faith far beyond the limits of Nejd.
This led to his rapid promotion.
While Berlin and Budapest have made the most rapid progress of all European cities, having multiplied their population by nine in the period 1800-90, Vienna - even including the extensive annexations of 1892 - only increased sevenfold.
But the flexibility of a letter-writer, under different moods of feeling, which would naturally lead to rapid transitions, may be adduced as some explanation of the latter phenomena.
The other was the rise and rapid growth of the Mahratta power.
C. atlantica, the Atlas cedar, has shorter and denser leaves than C. Libani; the leaves are glaucous, sometimes of a silvery whiteness, and the cones smaller than in the other two forms; its wood also is hard, and more rapid in growth than is that of the ordinary cedar.
We might conceive the rapid motions of the heavenly bodies to result in some change either in the direction or amount of their gravitation towards each other at each moment; but such is not the case, even in the most rapidly moving bodies of the solar system.
The rapid multiplication that takes place in the larval stage of nearly all endoparasitic forms affects the tissues of the "intermediate" host in which they live.
In other directions also the expansion has been rapid; the village of Bornheim was incorporated in Frankfort in 1877, the former Hessian town of Bockenheim in 1895, and the suburbs of Niederrad, Oberrad and Seckbach in 1900.
As illustrating the rapid development of familiarity with foreign authors, a Japanese retrospect of the Meiji era notes that whereas Macaulays Esfays were ii the curriculum of the Imperial University in 1881-1882, they were studied, five or six years later, in secondary schools, and pupils of the latter were able to read with understanding the works of Goldsmith, Tennyson and Thackeray.
But an undue increase in the number of blocks used, combined with the inferiority of the imported colors and carelessness or loss of skill in printing, brought about a rapid decline soon after 1840.
His preferment was rapid.
If this is as rapid as (or more rapid than) the rate of adaptation, there will be no actual growth of adaptation and so no moral progress.
Such changes are so rapid and on so vast a scale, and the corroding power of the current on the bank so irresistible, that in Lower Bengal it is considered perilous to build any structure of a large or permanent character on its margin.
It is often exserted with a rapid motion, sometimes with the object of feeling some object, sometimes under the influence of anger or fear.
If the patient survives the coma, recovery is complete and as a rule rapid, without secondary symptoms.
Their motions in the water are almost as rapid as they are uncertain and awkward when the animals are removed out of their proper element.
We then extract one ingot after another at successively lower temperatures and chill each ingot by dropping it into water or by some other method of very rapid cooling.
But it was rather in the chants and litanies of the ancient religion, such as those of the Salii and the Fratres Arvales, and the dirges for the dead (neniae), and in certain extemporaneous effusions, that some germs of a native poetry might have been detected; and finally in the use of Saturnian verse, a metre of pure native origin, which by its rapid and lively movement gave expression to the vivacity and quick apprehension of the Italian race.
In the two preceding periods the rapid diffusion of literary culture following the Social War and the first Civil War was seen to awaken into new life the elements of original genius in Italy and Cisalpine Gaul.
After absorption, which is very rapid, alcohol exerts a marked action upon the blood.
The exploitation of the mines led to a rapid development of the town during the next three years.
Making rapid progress, he was soon qualified to give a course of lectures on archaeology, which was attended by the principal artists then at Rome.
With closed eyes, between sleeping and waking, many people see faces, landscapes and other things flash upon their view, pictures often brilliant, but of very brief duration and rapid mutation.
Except in the larger nuggets, which may be more or less angular, or at times even masses of crystals, with or without associated quartz or other rock, gold is generally found bean-shaped or in some other flattened form, the smallest particles being scales of scarcely appreciable thickness, which, from their small bulk as compared with their surface, subside very slowly when suspended in water, and are therefore readily carried away by a rapid current.
A high current-density being employed, the turn-over of gold is rapid - an essential factor of success when the costliness of the metal is taken into account.
In Germany the towns of 10,000 and over show a much more rapid increase than the rural districts; and the same fact is generally true of the other countries of Europe.
This more rapid increase of population in cities is due only in part to migration from the country.
Later in the century the rapid development of Athenian trade and naval power became a serious menace.
The tuft of hairs at the base facilitates rapid dispersion of the seed, early germination of which is rendered desirable owing to its tenuity.
Mulholland in 1830, a rapid extension of the industry at once resulting.
The population now made rapid strides as well by ordinary extension as by immigration from the rural districts.
At this period much money was spent on the Marsa extension of the Grand Harbour, but the rapid increase in the size of steamships made the scheme inadequate, and limited its value prematurely.
In its lower course the river is a rapid stream flowing between steep jungle-clad hills, with one fall of 50 feet,, and is of little use for navigation.
The history of France, of Italy, of Spain, of Germany, and of the Greek and Saracenic empires, sketched in rapid and general terms, is the subject of five separate chapters.
It was hoped that the assembly of the attacking troops in the restricted zone opposite the crossing point, the rapid bridging of the dry canal, and the pushing forward of guns to cover the farther advance, and of reinforcements, ammunition and supplies to support it, could all be carried out with the necessary speed and security, although the difficulties to be faced were very great and the possible causes of contretemps numerous.
The important part played by the residual air in the globe had also been deduced by Osborne Reynolds from observing that on turning off the light, the vanes came to rest very much sooner than the friction of the pivot alone would account for; in fact, the rapid subsidence is an illustration of Maxwell's great theoretical discovery that viscosity in a gas (as also diffusion both of heat and of the gas itself) is sensibly independent of the density.
On the Dutch side much damage had to be repaired, and their complicated administration, by five independent admiralty boards, rendered rapid work impossible.
In 1668 the French under Conde made a rapid conquest of Franche-Comte.
He was admitted to the Ecole Polytechnique in 1812, and late in 1814 he left with a commission in the Engineers and with prospects of rapid advancement in his profession.
The more secure control which the Romans now maintained over the territory within the limes tended to its rapid civilization, and the Roman influence, if not the Roman arms, soon began to affect powerfully the regions beyond.
Finally the hand-wheel 80 is connected by gearing to the rod carrying the hand-wheel 79, and it can thus be used to give the latter a more rapid motion than if used direct; this constitutes the third speed of movement.
In recent times, especially since the rapid increase in the study of the exact sciences during the 19th century, observations at sea with accurate instruments have become common, and the ships' logs of to-day are provided with headings for entering daily observations of the phenomena of the seasurface.
Being protected by the water from the rapid subaerial erosion which sharpens the features of the land, and subjected to the regular accumulation of deposits, the whole ocean floor has assumed some approach to uniformity.
To this inconceivably slowly-growing deposit of inorganic material over the ocean floor there is added an overwhelmingly more rapid contribution of the remains of calcareous and siliceous planktonic and benthonic organisms, which tend to bury the slower accumulating material under a blanket of globigerina, pteropod, diatom or radiolarian ooze.
This fact, together with the extraordinarily rare occurrence of such remains and meteoric particles in globigerina ooze, although there is no reason to suppose that at any one time they are unequally distributed over the ocean floor, can only be explained on the assumption that the rate of formation of the epilophic deposits through the accumulation of pelagic shells falling from the surface is rapid enough to bury the slowgathering material which remains uncovered on the spaces where the red clay is forming at an almost infinitely slower rate.
Such, for instance, were those of Spindler and Wrangell in the Black Sea by sinking an electric lamp, those of Paul Regnard by measuring the change of electric resistance in a selenium cell or the chemical action of the light on a mixture of chlorine and hydrogen, by which he found a very rapid diminution in the intensity of light even in the surface layers of water.
During the rapid formation of ice the still unfrozen brine is often imprisoned between the little plates of frozen water; hence without some special treatment sea-ice is not suitable as a source of drinking water.
Ice is a very poor conductor of heat and accordingly protects the surface of the water beneath from rapid cooling; hence new-formed pancake ice does not increase excessively in thickness in one winter, and even in the centre of the Arctic Basin the ice-covering only amounts to 6 or at most 9 ft.
In the thick coal workings in South Staffordshire the slack left behind in the sides of work is especially liable to fire from so-called spontaneous combustion, due to the rapid oxidization that is set up when finely divided coal is brought in contact with air.
The result is that although the forms of apparatus utilized for this purpose are all based on the one fundamental principle of bringing about the contact of the carbide with the water which is to enter into double decomposition with it, they have been multiplied in number to a very large extent by the methods employed in order to ensure control in working, and to get away from the dangers and inconveniences which are inseparable from a too rapid generation.
Though his recovery was rapid and complete, he did not choose to prolong his stay abroad.
An essential feature of the modern view of the structure of matter is that the molecules are supposed to be in rapid motion relatively to one another.
His rapid rise to power made him a host of enemies, who looked upon him as but a second Concini.
A rapid composer and a workman full of resource, Franklin was soon recognized as the master spirit of the shop. Sir William Keith (1680-1749), governor of the province, urged him to start in business for himself, and when Franklin had unsuccessfully appealed to his father for the means to do so, Keith promised to furnish him with what he needed for the equipment of a new printing office and sent him to England to buy the materials.
For the stately declamation, the sonorous, and beyond a doubt impressive, chant of Quin and his fellows, Garrick substituted rapid changes of passion and humour in both voice and gesture, which held his audiences spellbound.
It occupies a leading position among the industrial and commercial towns of the empire, and of, recent years has made rapid progress in prosperity.
In proportion as such conversion was facile and rapid, it was probably imperfect.
Pop. (1880) 11,183, (1890) 50,395, (1900) 102,479, of whom 19,964 were foreign-born; s the growth in population since 1900 has been very rapid and in 1 9 10 it was 31 9, 1 9 8.
In July 1518 a diet assembled in Augsburg to consider the new danger from the Turks, who were making rapid conquests under Sultan Selim I.
Lutheranism continued to make rapid progress, and Christian's successor permitted the clergy to marry, appropriated the annates and protected the Lutherans.
The Housatonic, in portions placid, in others wild and rapid, winding along the deflecting barrier of the Hoosac Hills, is the most beautiful river of the state, despite the mercantile use of its water-power.
Changes are often sudden, and the passage from winter to summer is through a rapid spring.
The decline of commerce, however, had already begun, manufacturing supplanting it in importance; and this decline was rapid by 1850.
The patriotic action of the council and its attendant popularity enabled it to recover considerable administrative control, which it continued to exercise for the next eighteen years, although its deterioration in ability, becoming every year more noticeable, as well as the rapid rise of democratic ideas, prevented it from fully re-establishing the supremacy which Aristotle, with some exaggeration, attributes to it for this period.
While the English plantations were striking root along the coast, by somewhat prosaic but fruitful industry, and were growing in population with rapid strides, two other movements were in progress.
In addition to this most delicate and rapid craft, he had his umiak or freight boat, sometimes called woman's boat.
Smokeless powder also made rapid firing a possibility and a necessity.
Vegetation is very rapid, and the soil is clad in a mantle of almost perpetual green.
Although the emperor wrote to Ney again at noon, from Ligny, that troops had now been placed in position at Marbais to second the marshal's attack on Quatre Bras, yet Ney remained quiescent, and Wellington effected so rapid and skilful a retreat that, on Napoleon's arrival at the head of his supporting corps, 1 There appears to be no reason to believe that Grouchy pushed any reconnaissances to the northward and westward of Gentinnes on June 17; had he done so, touch with Blucher's retiring columns must have been established, and the direction of the Prussian retreat made clear.
But the rapid advance of the allies gave France no time to rally.
In the House of Representatives seats were to be distributed in proportion to the population, and the convention, foreseeing rapid changes of population, ordained an enumeration of the inhabitants and a redistribution or reapportionment of seats in the House of Representatives every ten years.
Since 1870 the development of census work in the United States has been steady and rapid.
A common called the Stray, of 200 acres, secured by act of parliament from ever being built upon, stretches in front of the main line of houses, and on this account Harrogate, notwithstanding its rapid increase, has retained much of its rural charm.
After a rapid career in the financial administration he was, in 1882, appointed councillor of state and elected to parliament.
New York was in 1904 more extensively engaged in oyster culture than any other state, and was making more rapid progress in the cultivation of hard clams. In 1909 there were distributed from state fish hatcheries 1 531,293,721 fishes (mostly smelt, pike-perch, and winter flatfish); a large number of fish and eggs were also placed in New York waters by the United States Bureau of Fisheries.
Since the middle of the 19th century an attempt has been made to meet the problems arising from a rapid industrial and social development by creating bureaus or commissions to exercise a central control over local officials, corporations and even private individuals, and as most of the heads of these bureaus and the commissions are appointed by the governor the importance of that officer has increased.
The result was the rapid promotion of Williams in the church; he obtained several livings besides prebends at Hereford, Lincoln and Peterborough.
After the Committee had suppressed the counter-revolution, and was firmly seated in the saddle, events moved by regular and rapid steps to the end of the empire.
These were rapid and remarkable triumphs, but they did not affect decisively the outcome of the war; they took from Turkey two outlying provinces; they did not strike at the heart of Turkish resistance.
To that, and to the annual gain by immigration, the fairly rapid rate of increase is due.
In the first three years after enactment of the law the growth of the number of pensioners was very rapid; in the next five it was remarkably slow - only 481 altogether.
This first coalition had now accomplished its temporary purpose, but so closely were parties divided at this period, that the defeat and reinstatement of governments followed each other in rapid succession.
Coal, iron, silver and other minerals are found in the adjoining hills; and the city possesses a government tobacco factory, a brewery, cloth-mills, gunpowder-mills, a model farm and many corn-mills, worked by the two rapid rivers.
S., led to the rapid rise of Banjaluka, which was thenceforward the scene of many encounters between Austrians and Turks; notably in 1527, 1688 and 1737.
Here Haydn wrote, in rapid succession, eighteen divertimenti which include his first symphony and his first quartet; the two earliest examples of the forms with which his name is most closely associated.
The development of the agricultural resources of Washington was exceedingly rapid after 1880.
Olympia was chosen as the temporary seat of government, and Governor Stevens at once set to work to extinguish the Indian titles to land and to survey a route for a railway, which was later to become the Northern Pacific. The Indians, alarmed by the rapid growth of the white population, attempted to destroy the scattered settlements and the wandering prospectors for gold, which had been discovered in eastern Washington in 1855.
Rapid growth in population and wealth led to agitation for statehood, and a constitution was adopted in 1878, but Congress declined to pass an enabling act.
Wien also used the apparatus to find the decrease of intensity with increase of distance, and found that it was somewhat more rapid than the inverse square law would give.
There was a rapid increase of stock after the close of hostilities.
Stakelberg was to crush expedi- by a rapid and energetic advance the covering forces Lion.
The growth of the corporation as an industrial machine had in recent years been very rapid in the United States.
His promotion was now almost disquietingly rapid.
The leading state institutions are the state university (1882) at Vermilion, the agricultural college (1884) and the agricultural experiment station at Brookings, the state school of mines (1886) at Rapid City, and normal schools at Spearfish, Madison, Aberdeen and Springfield.
A railway (part of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul system) was built from Sioux City to Yankton in 1872-1873, and in 1874 General Custer led an exploring expedition into the Black Hills, which resulted in the discovery of gold and the rapid settlement of a considerable portion of the west of the territory.
Subsequently, notwithstanding a temporary set-back due to the panic of 1893, there was a rapid increase of population and wealth.
Its upper course is rapid.
Like his predecessor, Prince Gorchakov, he was educated at the lyceum of Tsarskoye Selo, near St Petersburg, but his career was much less rapid, because he had no influential protectors, and was handicapped by being a Protestant of Teutonic origin.
A period of rapid development in the Red river basin followed the entrance of the Northern Pacific railway into this region in 187 2.
The Meping and Mewang on the W., rising among the loftiest ranges, are rapid and navigable only for small boats, while the Meyom and Menam, the eastern pair, afford passage for large boats at all seasons and for deep draught river-steamers during the flood-time.
It is a rapid, shallow stream, subject to sudden rises, and navigable for small boats only.
It is deep, fairly rapid, subject to a regular rise and flood every autumn, but not to sudden freshets, and is affected by the tide 50 m.
The Staten Island Rapid Transit railway extends along the north shore and the south-east side, and there are several electric lines and pleasant drives.
In the second half of the 17th century the monopoly system and the employment of slaves and forced labour gave rise to many abuses, and there was a rapid decline in the revenue from sugar, coffee and opium, while the competition of the British East India Company, which now exported spices, indigo, &c. from India to Europe, was severely felt.
Brussels has been growing at such a rapid rate that the inclusion of this ridge, and more particularly at Koekelberg, within the town limits, was contemplated in 1908.
It is interspersed with many islands, and with its numerous smaller tributaries affords easy and rapid communication.
It has further been verified by Sir Oliver Lodge that even in very narrow spaces the aether is not entrained by its surroundings when they are put into rapid motion.
Maxwell had himself, at an early stage of his theory, tested the absorbing power of gold-leaf for light, and found that the effective conductivity for luminous vibrations must be very much greater than its steady ohmic value; it is, in fact, there a case of incipient conductivity, which is continually being undone on account of the rapid alternation of force before it is fully established.
One result of this foreign immigration, particularly from France and Italy, has been the rapid increase of Romanists, who now form the majority in the canton, while in the city they were still slightly less numerous than the Protestants in 1900; later (local) statistics give in the Canton 75,400 Romanists to 64,200 Protestants, and in the city 52,638 Romanists to 51,221 Protestants.
There are no permanent rivers; but during the rainy season, from August to October, heavy floods convert the water-courses in the hollows of the mountains into broad and rapid streams. Numerous wells supply the wants of the people and their cattle.
His abilities, and his zeal as a champion of the church, secured him rapid promotion.
In this rapid glance at some of the chief priesthoods of antiquity we have hitherto passed over the pure Semites, whose priesthoods call for closer examination because of the profound influence which one of them - that of the Jews - has exercised on Christianity, and so on the whole history of the modern world.
The democratic sentiment of the Czechoslovak nation, and its maturity in social matters, resulted in the adoption of a social policy which, while proceeding without undue haste, was characterized by a comparatively rapid course of reform.
New life was infused into the city after its annexation by Prussia at the second partition of Poland in 1 793, and since this date its growth has been rapid.
This virus causes the rapid enlargement and subdivision of the cells affected by it, so as to form the tissues of the gall.
The great increase in population since the middle of the 18th century had made England a cornimporting country, especially with the rapid growth of manufactures in the early years of the 19th century.
Successive governments in France made endeavours to break with the prohibitive system, but naturally met with strong opposition from the manufacturing interests, not prepared to meet the competition of Great Britain, whose industries had made, and were continually making, rapid strides.
Excited to emulation and employing the more rapid wet-collodion process, he succeeded before long in obtaining exquisitely defined lunar pictures, which remained unsurpassed until the appearance of the Rutherfurd photographs in 1865.
He at once made peace with his cousin; restored him his patrimony; and, to secure Lithuania against the future vengeance of the Knights, Jagiello made overtures to Poland for the hand of Jadwiga, and received the Polish crown along with it, as already mentioned Before proceeding to describe the Jagiellonic period of Polish history, it is necessary to cast a rapid glance at the social and political condition of the country in the preceding Piast period.
If high-church doctrines, however, met with opposition at Oxford, they were relished elsewhere, and Laud obtained rapid advancement.
This was followed by a long series of popular treatises in rapid succession, amongst the more important of which are Light Science for Leisure Hours and The Sun (1871); The Orbs around Us and Essays on Astronomy (1872); The Expanse of Heaven, The Moon and The Borderland of Science (1873); The Universe and the Coming Transits and Transits of Venus (1874);(1874); Our Place among Infinities (1875); Myths and Marvels of Astronomy (1877); The Universe of Stars (1878); Flowers of the Sky (1879); The Peotry of Astronomy (1880); Easy Star Lessons and Familiar Science Studies (1882); Mysteries of Time and Space and The Great Pyramid (1883); The Universe of Suns (1884); The Seasons (1885); Other Suns than Ours and Half-Hours with the Stars (1887).
The rapid extension of these time-Indulgences is one of the most remarkable facts in the history of the subject.
His advancement was rapid.
The system of representation that, with the rapid growth of population in the north-east sections, especially in the city of Baltimore, placed the government in the hands of a decreasing minority also began to be attacked about this time; but the fear of that minority which represented the tobacco-raising and slave-holding counties of south Maryland, with respect to the attitude of the majority toward slavery prevented any changes until 1837, when the opposition awakened by the enthusiasm over internal improvements effected the adoption of amendments which provided for the election of the governor and senators by a direct vote of the people, a slight increase in the representation of the city of Baltimore and the larger counties, and a slight decrease in that of the smaller counties.
These rapid successes paralysed the Federal offensive.
The supply of oil in this area was estimated at from 15,000,000,000 to 20,000,000,000 barrels; and the National Conservation Commission of 1908 expressed the opinion that in view of the rapid increase of production and the enormous loss through misuse the supply cannot be expected to last beyond the middle of this century.
The progress toward better conditions has, however, been in late years rapid.
Owing its real origin, as a distinct foundation of reformed Benedictines, in the year 1098, to Stephen Harding (a native of Dorsetshire, educated in the monastery of Sherborne), and deriving its name from Citeaux (Cistercium), a desolate and almost inaccessible forest solitude, on the borders of Champagne and Burgundy, the rapid growth and wide celebrity of the order are undoubtedly to be attributed to the enthusiastic piety of St Bernard, abbot of the first of the monastic colonies, subsequently sent forth in such quick succession by the first Cistercian houses, the far-famed abbey of Clairvaux (de Clara Valle), A.D.
The development of the Michigan salt deposits and (after 1880) of the deposits in Wyoming, Genesee and Livingston counties in New York caused a rapid decline in the Onondaga product.
Thus canoe navigation may be carried on for hundreds of miles, with here and there a waterfall or a rapid requiring a portage of a few hundred yards or at most a mile or two.
All of these are rapid and shallow, affording navigation only for canoes; but the largest of them, Nelson river, drains the great Manitoban lakes, Winnipeg, Winnipegosis and Manitoba, which are frequented by steamers, and receive the waters of Lake-of-the-Woods, Lake Seul and many others emptying into Winnipeg river from Ontario; of Red river coming in from the United States to the south; and of the southern parts of the Rocky Mountains and the western prairie provinces drained by the great Saskatchewan river.
Since 1901 the increase has been more rapid, and in 1 9 05 alone 1 4 4,621 emigrants entered Canada, of whom about two-fifths were from Great Britain and one-third from the United States.
Macdonald continuing from that time without a break until his death in 1891, while his party remained in power till 1896» This long-continued Conservative supremacy was apparently due to the policy of bold and rapid development which it had adopted, and which appealed to a young and ambitious country more strongly than the more cautious proposals of the Liberal leaders.
In bringing about a system of penny postage throughout the empire; in forwarding the construction of the Pacific cable to secure close and safe imperial telegraphic connexion; in creating rapid and efficient lines of steamship communication with the motherland and all the colonies; in granting tariff preference to British goods and in striving for preferential treatment of inter-imperial trade; in assuming responsibility for imperial defence at the two important stations of Halifax and Esquimalt, - Canada, under the guidance of Sir Wilfrid Laurier and his party, took a leading part and showed a truly national spirit.
With the rapid increase of population, production in Canada also greatly increased; exports, imports and revenue constantly expanded, and capital, finding abundant and profitable employment, began to flow freely into the country for further industrial development.
The establishment of a steamboat line to Savannah in 1817 aided Augusta's rapid commercial development.
Within recent years the port has made rapid advance in wealth and importance.
All of these rise in the upper part of the Piedmont Plateau, through which they pursue a rapid course over rocky beds, and are navigable only south of the " fall-line," at which and north of which they furnish an abundance of water-power.
The larch, from its lofty straight trunk and the high quality of its wood, is one of the most important of coniferous trees; its growth is extremely rapid, the stem attaining a large size in from sixty to eighty years, while the tree yields good useful timber at forty or fifty; it forms firm heartwood at an early age, and the sapwood is less perishable than that of the firs, rendering it more valuable in the young state.
The growth of the larch while young is exceedingly rapid; in the south of England it will often attain a height of 25 ft.
The "six towns" were severely punished for their share in the war of the league of Schmalkalden, and about this time the reformed teaching made very rapid progress in Lusatia, the majority of the inhabitants becoming Protestants.
With the rise of the Medici came a rapid increase of prosperity; Cosmo, Francis and Ferdinand erected fortifications and harbour works, warehouses and churches, with equal liberality, and the last especially gave a stimulus to trade by inviting "men of the East and the West, Spanish and Portuguese, Greeks, Germans, Italians, Hebrews, Turks, Moors, Armenians, Persians and others," to settle and traffic in the city, as it became in 1606.
The full development of the method belongs, however, to the post-canonical literature, and was naturally much less regular and rapid than the growth of the legal traditions of the scribes.
In this group the enamel extends partially to the back of the incisors, but in all the rest it is restricted to the front surface, so that, by the more rapid wearing-away of the softer structures behind, a chisel-shaped edge is maintained.
The rapid growth of San Antonio dates from 1878, when the first railway entered the city.
The definite course is not occasioned so much from the ferments which exist in the leaves themselves, but from an arrest of the digestive process which allows the rapid multiplication of the former in the intestines.
After protracted experimenting Sir Thomas Wardle was able in 1873 to show a series of tussurs well dyed in all the darker shades of colour, but the lighter and bright blues, pinks, scarlets, &c., he could not produce, Subsequently Tessie du Motay found that the fawn colour of natural tussur could be discharged by solution of permanganate of potash, but the oxidizing action was so rapid and violent that it destroyed the fibre itself.
The general public, more particularly in Great Britain and France, shows an ever-increasing distrust of the rapid growth of armaments as a possible cause of grave economic troubles.
If we widen the slit still further rapid loss of purity results, with very little gain in light, the maximum luminosity obtainable with an indefinitely wide slit being four times that obtained with the normal one.
The rapid variation in the intensity of the magnetic field causes a brilliant electrodeless discharge which is seen in the form of a ring passing near the inner walls of the bulb when the pressure is properly adjusted.
The method adopted consisted in photographing the spectrum on a film which was kept in rapid motion by being attached to the front of a rotating disk.
The rapid growth of the city, the character of the soil, and the high prices of material for street construction have led to a large and expensive civic organization.
Physostigmine, indeed, stimulates nearly all the non-striped muscles in the body, and this action upon the muscular coats of the arteries, and especially of the arterioles, causes a great rise in blood-pressure shortly after its absorption, which is very rapid.
Subsequently the increase of the Japanese element in the population was rapid.
Other works are A Discourse concerning a New Planet (1640); Mercury, or the Secret and Swift Messenger (1641), a work of some ingenuity on the means of rapid correspondence; and Mathematical Magick (1648).
This is fortunate, as the result of injecting a solution of a magnesium salt into a vein is rapid poisoning.
In it de Gerando, after a rapid review of ancient and modern speculations on the origin of our ideas, singles out the theory of primary ideas, which he endeavours to combat under all its forms. The latter half of the work, devoted to the analysis of the intellectual faculties, is intended to show how all human knowledge is the result of experience; and reflection is assumed as the source of our ideas of substance, of unity and of identity.
The splendid commercial position of Corcyra on the highway between Greece and the West favoured its rapid growth, and, influenced p erhaps by the presence of non-Corinthian settlers, its people, quite contrary to the usual practice of Corinthian colonies, maintained an independent and even hostile attitude towards the mother city.
The first cause was the rapid progress of natural science, e.g.
The province is watered by numerous streams and rivers, which have hollowed out deep valleys; but owing to the narrowness of the level tract, their courses are short, rapid and subject to floods.
The rapid progress of the Transvaal and Swaziland missions has been almost embarrassing.
Its progress was rapid, but in 1849 there came a disastrous check.
The river is navigable for large steamers up to the raudal or rapid of Cariben, 700 m.
A cable sent to India in the evening may bring a reply next morning, and in these days of rapid cotton fluctuations mail advices are confined mainly to general discussion, hypothetical inquiry, advice, admonition and complaint.
By liberal endowments and minute but judicious regulations he brought about a rapid development of Silesian industries; in particular he revived the mining and weaving operations which at present constitute the country's chief source of wealth.
In the mountain region and in the vicinity of Lake Erie there is often a fall of several inches of snow during the winter months and the rapid melting of this produces floods on the Delaware, Susquehanna and Ohio rivers and some of their tributaries.
But, if no solid be present initially, or if the cooling be rapid, the liquid of composition x becomes supersaturated and may cool till the supersaturation curve is reached at b, and a cloud of A crystals comes down.
Borga, was once a city of great dignity and importance, but the rapid growth of Helsingfors has somewhat eclipsed it.
Under his authority the colony of Massachusetts Bay made rapid progress, and except in the matter of religious intolerance - he showed great bigotry and harshness, particularly towards the Quakers - his rule was just and praiseworthy.
After the destruction of Furness Abbey, Ulverston succeeded Dalton as the most important town in Furness, but the rapid rise of Barrow surpassed it in modern times.
It was left to him to develop the geometry of Monge, and to him also is due in great measure the rapid advancement which France made soon after the establishment of the Ecole Polytechnique in the construction of machinery .
Its modern growth has been very rapid, the population being in the main of the artisan class.
The modern practice is to take rapid observations rather than to keep the periscope above the water all the time.
Those who only know the Snipe as it shows itself in the shooting-season, when without warning it rises from the boggy ground uttering a sharp note that sounds like scape, scape, and, after a few rapid twists, darts away, if it be not brought down by the gun, to disappear in the distance after a desultory flight, have no conception of the bird's behaviour at breeding-time.
A rapid extension of the city to the north-west took place, and in 1860 an elaborate plan for the laying out of new districts received the royal sanction.
During the next eight years the progress of the sect was rapid, and communities were founded in many of the principal towns in England.
It is rapid in its action, but its effects are not very permanent.
Most bulbs do so naturally to a limited but variable extent; when more rapid increase is wanted the heart is destroyed, and this induces the formation of a larger number of offsets.
Many of the free-growing soft-wooded plants may also be grown from cuttings of single joints of the young wood, where rapid increase is desired; and in the case of opposite-leaved plants two cuttings may often be made from one joint by splitting the stem longitudinally, each cutting consisting of a leaf and a perfect bud attached to half the thickness of the stem.
The rapid victory of the Prussians and the wise moderation of Bismarck paved the way for a complete revolution in Bavaria's relation to Prussia and the German question.
Its rapid increase in size in the last decade of the 19th century was owing to the popularity which it attained as a place of residence for London business men.
The sea had gained somewhat at the beginning of the Carboniferous period in western Europe, but the effect of these movements, combined with the rapid formation of detrital deposits from the rising land areas, was to drive the sea steadily from the north towards the south, until the open sea (with limestones) was relegated to what is now the Mediterranean and to Russia and thence eastward.
The example once given was infectious, and was followed in rapid succession by Holland, Utrecht and Overysel.
Then a hollow appears in the centre owing to the more rapid extension of the outer parts, and into this hollow the cells lining it put forth short sporogenous branches, from the tips of which the spores (stylospores, c nidia, spermatia) are abstricted.
It is the rapid spread of these yeast-conidia in manure and soil waters which makes it so difficult to get rid of smuts, &c., in the fields, and they, like the ordinary conidia, readily infect the seedling wheat, oats, barley or other cereals.
They are characterized by their unicellular nature, their power of rapid budding, their capacity for fermenting various sugars, and their power of forming endogenous From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik, by permission of Gustav Fischer.
The rapid advance in mechanical engineering in the latter part of this second period stimulated the iron industry greatly, giving it in 1728 Payn and Hanbury's rolling mill for rolling sheet iron, in 1760 John Smeaton's cylindrical cast-iron bellows in place of the wooden and leather ones previously used, in 1783 Cort's grooved rolls for rolling bars and rods of iron, and in 1838 James Nasmyth's steam hammer.
In 1856 Bessemer not only invented his extraordinary process of making the heat developed by the rapid oxidation of the impurities in pig iron raise the temperature above the exalted melting-point of the resultant purified steel, but also made it widely known that this steel was a very valuable substance.
Osmond showed that the wonderful changes which thermal treatment andthe presence of certain foreign elements cause were due to allotropy, and from these and like teachings have come a rapid growth of the use of the so-called " alloy steels " in which, thanks to special composition and treatment, the iron exists in one or more of its remarkable allotropic states.
Slow cooling, slow solidification, the presence of an abundance of carbon, and the presence of silicon, all favour the formation of graphite; rapid cooling, the presence of sulphur, and in most cases that of manganese, favour the formation of cementite.
The two great essential discoveries were first that the rapid passage of air through molten cast iron raised its temperature above the melting point of low-carbon steel, or as it was then called " malleable iron," and second that this low-carbon steel, which Bessemer was the first to make in important quantities, was in fact an extraordinarily valuable substance when made under proper conditions.
The two metallic masses coalesce, and the reaction between the oxygen of one and the carbon of the other is therefore extremely rapid because it occurs throughout their depth, whereas in common procedure oxidation occurs only at the upper surface of the bath of cast iron at its contact with the overlying slag.
Second, though the brittleness should be lessened somewhat by the decrease in the extent to which the continuity of the strong matrix is broken up by the graphite skeleton, yet this effect is outweighed greatly by that of the rapid substitution in the matrix of the brittle cementite for the' very ductile copper-like ferrite, so that the brittleness increases continuously (RS), from that of the very grey graphitic cast irons, which, like that of soapstone, is so slight that the metal can endure severe shock and even indentation without breaking, to that of the pure white cast iron which is about as brittle as porcelain.
Beyond this, rapid cooling and the presence of sulphur both oppose the formation of graphite, and hence in cast iron rich in sulphur, and in thin and therefore rapidly cooling castings, the silicon-content must be greater than in thick ones and in those freer from sulphur.
The permissible phosphorus-content is lessened by the presence of either much sulphur or much manganese, and by rapid cooling, as for instance in case of thin castings, because each of these three things, by leading to the formation of the brittle cementite, in itself creates brittleness which aggravates that caused by phosphorus.
Later on the cooling of the inner layers becomes more rapid than that of the outer ones, and on this account their contraction tends to become .greater than that of the outer ones.
Berlin Falls, on the picturesque Androscoggin river, furnishes an immense water-power, the development of which for manufacturing purposes accounts for the rapid growth of the city.
A rapid British attack would in any case forestall the concentration of these heterogeneous squadrons.
Hydrogen peroxide can also react as a reducing agent, thus silver oxide is reduced with, a rapid evolution of oxygen.
Leaving the citizens of Dundee to continue the siege of the castle, he made a rapid march to Stirling.
The history of the male communities is to a certain extent parallel with the female, but they were never so numerous and their degeneration was far more rapid.
In 1852 a movement was made to develop it as a seaside resort for Philadelphia, and after the completion of the Camden & Atlantic City railway in 1854 the growth of the place was rapid.
The mineral wealth of the country was largely developed, the iron manufactures of Liege made rapid advance, the woollen manufactures of Verviers received a similar impulse, and many large establishments were formed at Ghent and other places, where cotton goods were produced which rivalled those of England and surpassed those of France.
It remains to consider the literature written by Belgians in French during the 19th century, and its rapid development since the revolution of 1831.
But the maintenance of the " servitudes," the want of pasture-land, the lack of money for improvements, and the very rapid increase in the price of land, all helped to counteract the benefits of the agrarian measures of 1864.
As a member of the league of the Rhenish cities which took its rise in the 13th century, Coblenz attained to great prosperity; and it continued to advance till the disasters of the Thirty Years' War occasioned a rapid decline.