Ranges sentence example

ranges
  • He was studying the mountain ranges intently.
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  • Beyond them mountain ranges faded into shades of blue in the humid air.
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  • The basins of the Parana and Paraguay are separated by low mountain ranges extending north from the sierras of Paraguay.
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  • There are about 320 officers in active service, and the total personnel ranges from 5000 to 6000 men.
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  • So complete is the watershed that no streams pass through these ranges, and there is hardly any communication in this direction between the interior of Asia Minor and the coast.
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  • The elevated plateaus between these ranges are semiarid and inhospitable, and are covered with extensive saline basins, which become lagoons in the wet season and morasses or dry saltpans in the dry season.
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  • Its basin forms the province of Kabul, which includes all northern Afghanistan between the Hindu Kush and the Safed Koh ranges.
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  • This mountainous tract, which has an average breadth of from 50 to 60 m., is bounded west by the plain of Campania, now called the Terra di Lavoro, and east by the much broader and more extensive tract of Apulia or Puglia, composed partly of level plains, but for the most part of undulating downs, contrasting strongly with the mountain ranges of the Apennines, which rise abruptly above them.
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  • The valleys within the hill ranges are fragrant with aromatic shrubs.
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  • Already in 1884 a protocol had been signed between the contending parties, by which it was agreed that the frontier should follow the line where " the highest peaks of the Andine ranges divide the watershed."
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  • Cost of tuition (simply) ranges from f2 to ff6 a year.
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  • The rest of the island is occupied in great part by ranges of moderately elevated hills, on which are found extensive woods of ancient pines, planted by the hand of nature.
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  • Several minor ranges, the topography of which is little known, extend from Cambridge Gulf, behind a very much broken coast-line, to Limmen Bight on the Gulf of Carpentaria.
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  • The interior of the continent west of 135° and north of the Musgrave ranges is usually termed by geographers the Australian Steppes.
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  • The mountains both in Victoria and New South Wales were snow-capped, and glaciers flowed down their flanks and laid down Carboniferous glacial deposits, which are still preserved in basins that flank the mountain ranges, such as the famous conglomerates of Bacchus Marsh, Heathcote and the Loddon valley in Victoria, and cf Branxton and other localities in New South Wales.
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  • These movements in the south-east formed the Great Valley of Victoria, which traverses nearly the whole of the state between the Victorian highlands to the north, and the Jurassic sandstones of the Otway Ranges and the hills of south Gippsland.
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  • The whole residency is mountainous, but there are two main parallel ranges of peaks along the northern boundary and through the middle.
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  • The common or true duiker (C. grimmi) is found in bush-country from the Cape to the Zambezi and Nyasaland, and ranges northward on the west coast to Angola.
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  • The speed of the receiving perforator ranges from 20 to 150 words per minute.
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  • Being built midway between the Sierra de Priego and Sierra Parapanda, and commanding the open valley between these ranges, it became one of the chief frontier fortresses of the Moors in the 15th century.
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  • The principal industry is stock-raising, which dates from the first settlement in 1674 by Domingos Affonso Mafrense, who established here a large number of cattle ranges.
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  • There is no other instance in Europe of a basin of similar extent equally clearly characterized—the perfectly level character of the plain being as striking as the boldness with which the lower slopes of the mountain ranges begin to rise on each side of it.
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  • The line of the highest summits and of the watershed ranges is about 30 to 40 m.
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  • But the Apennines of Central Italy, instead of presenting, like the Alps and the northern Apennines, a definite central ridge, with transverse valleys leading down from it on both sides, in reality constitute a mountain mass of very considerable breadth, composed of a number of minor ranges and groups of mountains, which preserve a generally parallel direction, and are separated by upland valleys, some of them of considerable extent as well as considerable elevation above the sea.
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  • Nor do the highest summits form a continuous ridge of great altitude for any considerable distance; they are rather a series of groups separated by tracts of very inferior elevation forming natural passes across the range, and broken in some places (as is the case in almost all limestone countries) by the waters from the upland valleys turning suddenly at right angles, and breaking through the mountain ranges which bound them.
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  • The northern part of Tuscany is indeed occupied to a considerable extent by the underfalls and offshoots of the Apennines, which, besides the slopes and spurs of the main range that constitutes its northern frontier towards the plain of the Po, throw off several outlying ranges or groups.
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  • Eastward from this the ranges of low bare hills called the Murgie of Gravina and Altamura gradually sink into the still more moderate level of those which constitute the peninsular tract between Brindisi and Taranto as far as the Cape of Sta Maria di Leuca, the south-east extremity of Italy.
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  • Nor, with perhaps the interesting exception of Castanopsis chrysophylla, the solitary representative in the New World of an east Asiatic genus, which ranges from Oregon to California, has it any affinity with the Chino-Japanese sub-region.
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  • Cycads are represented by Cycas itself, which in several species ranges from southern India to Polynesia.
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  • Baccharis, with some 250 species, ranges over the whole continent from the Straits of Magellan and, with seven species, to California.
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  • Elie de Beaumont, in his speculations on the relation between the direction of mountain ranges and their geological age and character, was feeling towards a comprehensive theory of the forms of crustal relief; but his ideas were too geometrical, and his theory that the earth is a spheroid built up on a rhombic dodecahedron, the pentagonal faces of which determined the direction of mountain ranges, could not be proved.'
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  • The relief of the surface typically includes a central plain, Homology sometimes dipping below sea-level, bounded by lateral Homology of con- h i ghlands or mountain ranges, loftier on one side than.
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  • Differences in land forms do not exert great influence on the distribution of living creatures directly, but indirectly such land forms as mountain ranges and internal drainage basins are very potent through their action on soil and climate.
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  • Next in importance comes a mountain range, but here there is often difficulty as to the definition of the actual crest-line, and mountain ranges being broad regions, it may happen that a small independent state, like Switzerland or Andorra, occupies the mountain valleys between two or more great countries.
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  • Ranges of these chapadas form the boundary lines with three states - the Serras dos Irmaos and Vermelha with Piauhy, the Serra do Araripe with Ceara., and the Serra dos Cariris Velhos with Parahyba.
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  • South of the lake two ranges of the Tian-shan, separated by the valley of the Naryn, stretch in the same direction, lifting up their icy peaks to 16,000 and 18,000 ft.; while westwards from the lake the precipitous slopes of the Alexander chain, 9000 to io,000 ft.
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  • Its principal mountain ranges were Cebenna or Gebenna (Cevennes) in the south, and Jura, with its continuation Vosegus or Vogesus (Vosges), in the east.
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  • The hardness ranges from about I to 2, and the sp.gr.
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  • Russia; the Valdai tablelands, where all the great rivers of Russia take their rise; the broad and gently sloping meridional belt of the Ural Mountains; and lastly the Taimyr, Tunguzka and Verkhoyansk ranges in Siberia, which, notwithstanding their sub-Arctic position, do not reach the snow-line.
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  • The infantry and rifles are armed with small-bore magazine rifles, and the active artillery have steel breech-loaders with extreme ranges of 4150 to 4700 yds.
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  • No less than 96% of the world's supply of platinum comes from the Urals; but the total output only ranges between 10,000 and 16,000 lb annually.
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  • They comprise several ranges which the roads from the sea to the interior have to cross at right angles, thereby rendering communication and transport very difficult.
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  • The whole province is traversed in a south-westerly and north-easterly direction by the Nan-shan ranges.
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  • This plateau, however, is not a plain, but contains many buttes and mesas and isolated mountain ranges rising from 1000 to 8000 ft.
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  • Between the ranges lie valleys of about the same width as the bases of the mountains.
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  • Owing to their great height these three ranges receive heavier rainfall than the surrounding country and are feeders to the northern valleys, which constitute the chief agricultural region of the state.
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  • Of these ranges the summit of Mt Latmus alone reaches 4500 ft.
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  • The greater part of the island is occupied by ranges of mountains which form four principal groups.
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  • There are no public buildings of any importance,, and the only places of interest are the bazars, which extend fully a mile in length, and consist of substantially built ranges of shops covered with roofs.
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  • Farmers of the Piedmont Plateau formerly kept large numbers of horses and cattle from April to November in ranges in the Mountain Region, but with the opening of portions of that country to cultivation the business of pasturage declined, except as the cotton plantations demanded an increased supply of mules; there were 25,259 mules in 1850, 110,011 in 1890, 138,786 in 1900, and 181,000 in 1910.
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  • The surface of Minas Geraes is broken by mountain ranges and deeply eroded rivercourses, the latter forming fertile valleys shut in by partly barren uplands, or campos.
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  • The Mantiqueira-Espinhago chain shuts out the streams flowing directly east to the Atlantic, and the boundary ranges on the west shut out the streams that flow into the Tocantins, though their sources are on the actual threshold of the state.
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  • This division is not so clearly marked in the south, especially in the "matta" (forest) regions, where the rainfall ranges from 59 to 65 in.
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  • The surface of the country is uneven, being traversed by the Vindhya ranges, a peak of which near Raysen is upwards of 2500 ft.
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  • The general inclination of the country is towards the north, in which direction most of the streams of the state flow, while others, passing through the Vindhya ranges, flow to the Nerbudda.
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  • This great divide is not always marked by well-defined ranges facing steeply either to the north or south.
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  • There are considerable spaces where the strike, or axis, of the main ranges is transverse to the water-parting, which is then represented by intermediate highlands forming lacustrine regions with an indefinite watershed.
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  • Only a part of this great continental divide (including such ranges as the Hindu Kush, Tian-shan, Altai or Khangai) rises to any great height, a considerable portion of it being below 5000 ft.
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  • Hence the study of the mountain ranges of a continent is, for a proper apprehension of its physical conditions and characteristics, as essential as the examination of its extent and position in relation to the equator and poles, and the configuration of its coasts.
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  • On the west the table-land is prolonged beyond the political limits of Tibet, though with much the same physical features, to about 70°east, beyond which it terminates; and the ranges which are covered with perpetual snow as far west as Samarkand, thence rapidly diminish in height, and terminate in low hills north of Bokhara.
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  • The broad mountainous slope by which it is connected with the lower levels of Hindostan contains the ranges known as the Himalaya; the name Kuen-lun is generally applied to the northern slope that descends to the central plains of the Gobi, though these mountains are not locally known under those names, Kuen-lun being apparently a Chinese designation.
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  • From the eastern extremity of the Tibetan mountains, between the 95th azd tooth meridians, high ranges extend from about 35°N.
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  • Chinese Between these ranges, which are probably permanently region.
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  • West of Ararat high hills extend along the Black Sea, between which and the Taurus range lies the plateau of Asia Minor, reaching to the Aegean Sea; the mountains along the Black Sea, on which are the Olympus and Ida of the ancients, rise to 6000 or 7000 ft.; the Taurus is more lofty, reaching 8000 and 10,000 ft.; both ranges decline in altitude as they approach the Mediterranean.
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  • From the Khingan ranges to the Pacific, south of the Amur, stretch the rich districts of Manchuria, a province which connects Russia with the Korea by a series of valleys formed by the Sungari and its affluents - a land of hill and plain, forest and swamp, possessing a delightful climate, and vast undeveloped agricultural resources.
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  • North of this lies a broad belt in which the Mesozoic deposits and even the lower divisions of the Tertiary system are thrown into folds which extend in a series of arcs from west to east and now form the principal mountain ranges of central Asia.
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  • The Kuen-lun, Nan-shan and the mountain ranges of southern China are, perhaps, of earlier date, but nevertheless they lie in the same belt.
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  • There are, it is true, mountain ranges which are formed of folded beds; but in many cases the direction of the chains is different from that of the folds, so that the ranges must owe their elevation to other causes; and the folds, moreover, are of ancient date, for the most part Archaean or Palaeozoic. The configuration of the region is largely due to faulting, trough-like or tray-like depressions being formed, and the intervening strips, which have not been depressed, standing up as mountain ridges.
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  • In the extreme north, in the Verkhoyansk range and in the mountains of the Taimyr peninsula, there are indications of another zone of folding of Mesozoic or later date, but our information concerning these ranges is very scanty.
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  • Of all the Asiatic ranges the Himalayan is, geologically, the best known; and the evidence which it affords shows clearly that the folds to which it owes its elevation were produced by an overthrust from the north.
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  • Structurally, the folds of this region are of ancient date; but the area is crossed by a series of depressions formed by faults, and the intervening strips, which have not been depressed to the same extent, now stand up as mountain ranges.
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  • They seem almost entirely to have exhausted their northward velocity by the time they have reached the northern extremity of the great Indian plain; they are not felt on the table-lands of Afghanistan, and hardly penetrate into the Indus basin or the ranges of the Himalaya, by which mountains, and those which branch off from them into the Malay peninsula, they are prevented from continuing their progress in the direction originally imparted to them.
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  • Such a reduction of temperature is brought about along the greater part of the coasts of India and of the BurmoSiamese peninsula by the interruption of the wind current by continuous ranges of mountains, which force the mass of air to rise over them, whereby the air being rarefied, its specific capacity for heat is increased and its temperature falls, with a corresponding condensation of the vapour originally held in suspension.
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  • The very small and irregular rainfall in Sind and along the Indus is to be accounted for by the want of any obstacle in the path of the vapour-bearing winds, which, therefore, carry the uncondensed rain up to the Punjab, where it falls on the outer ranges of the western Himalaya and of Afghanistan.
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  • On the outer ranges of the Himalaya the yearly fall amounts to about 200 in.
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  • It is to the greatly reduced fall of snow on the northern faces of the highest ranges of the Himalaya that is to be attributed the higher level of the snow-line, a phenomenon which was long a cause of discussion.
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  • The truly tropical flora of the hotter and wetter regions of eastern India is continuous with that of the Malayan peninsula and islands, and extends along the lower ranges of the Himalaya, gradually becoming less marked and rising to lower elevations as we go westward, where the rainfall diminishes and the winter cold increases.
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  • The vegetation of the higher and therefore cooler and less rainy ranges of the Himalaya has greater uniformity of character along the whole chain, and a closer general approach to European forms is maintained; an increased number of species is actually identical, among these being found, at the greatest elevations, many alpine plants believed to be identical with species of the north Arctic regions.
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  • But within this region there is a very great variation between the vegetation of the more humid and the more arid regions, while the characteristics of the flora on the higher mountain ranges differ wholly from those of the plains.
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  • Born and bred in or near the Western Ghat mountains and the numerous tributary ranges, they have all the qualities of mountaineers.
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  • There are several ranges of hills, but no point within the province attains a great elevation.
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  • From it rise double or triple ranges connected by cross-ridges and spined with outer spurs.
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  • These double and triple ranges, which have a general elevation of 8500-10,000 ft., stretch from the south-east angle of the Black Sea, 400 m.
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  • Various names are given to the different parts of the constituent ranges, or, perhaps more correctly, elongated groups of mountains.
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  • These two sets of parallel ranges are linked together transversely by the cross-ridges of Bezobdal, Pambak, Shah-dagh and Gok-cha.
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  • From it again there shoot away at right angles, one on each side, the ranges of the Dar-alagoz and Bergushet.
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  • Extinct volcanoes are numerous in several of the ranges, e.g.
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  • The Egri-dagh possesses a sharply defined crest, ranges at a general elevation of 8000 ft., is bare of timber, scantily supplied with water, and rugged and deeply fissured.
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  • North of the Caucasus ranges the water-divide between these two seas descends from Mount Elbruz along the Sadyrlar Mountains (11,000 ft.), and finally sinks into the Stavropol "plateau" (1600 ft.).
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  • But the main axis of the transverse upheavals would appear to be continued in a north-eastern direction in the Andi and other parallel ranges of Daghestan, as stated under Caucasus.
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  • Climate.-Owing in part to the great differences in altitude in different regions of Caucasia and in part to the directions in which the mountain ranges run, and consequently the quarters towards which their slopes face, the climate varies very greatly according to locality.
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  • Numerous mineral springs (chalybeate and sulphurous) exist both north and south of the Caucasus ranges, e.g.
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  • The hill ranges in Bellary are those of Sandur and Kampli to the west, the Lanka Malla to the east and the Copper Mountain (3148 ft.) to the south-west.
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  • The character of the landscape ranges from the wild moorland of the Cheshire borders or the grey rocks of the Peak, to the park lands and woods of the Chatsworth district.
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  • The tree is very widely distributed, growing abundantly on most of the mountain ranges of northern and central Europe; while in Asia it occurs at least as far east as the Lena, and in latitude extends from the Altaic ranges to beyond the Arctic circle.
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  • It is abundant in most of the mountain ranges of southern and central Europe, but is not found in the northern parts of that continent.
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  • Schists, as a rule, are found in regions composed mainly of metamorphic rocks, such as the Central Alps, Himalayas, and other mountain ranges, Saxony, Scandinavia, the Highlands of Scotland and north-west of Ireland.
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  • A large and dominant Holoarctic fauna, with numerous subdivisions, ranges over the great northern continents, and is characterized by the abundance of certain families like the Carahidae and Staphylinidae among the Coleoptera and the Tenthredinidae among the Hymenoptera.
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  • In the same direction the government is traversed by two ranges of hills separated by the Bug, ramifications of the Avratynsk heights.
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  • Physically the country is divided into two regions, the one a series of mountain ranges occupying the northern and eastern portions of the kingdom, and the other a plain which stretches southwards from Mukden, the capital, to the Gulf of Liao-tung.
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  • A system of parallel ranges of mountains, culminating in the Chinese Chang pai Shan, " the long white mountains," on the Korean frontier, runs in a north-easterly direction from the shores of the Gulf of Liao-tung.
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  • The colour ranges from pale yellow through red and brown to black or greenish, while by reflected light it is, in the majority of cases, of a green hue.
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  • Thus the centi-ampere balance ranges from i to ioo centi-amperes, the deci-ampere balance from i to ioo deci-amperes, the ampere balance from i to ioo amperes, the deka-ampere balance from i to ioo amperes, the hecto-ampere balance from 6 to 600 amperes, and the kilo-ampere balance from ioo to 2500 amperes.
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  • Physically Moravia may be described as a mountainous plateau sloping from north to south, just in the opposite direction of the adjoining Bohemia plateau, which descends from south to north, and bordered on three sides by mountain ranges.
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  • Mount Morrison, being surrounded by high ranges, is not a conspicuous object.
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  • To the south the province is shut in by the wide mountainous tract which stretches from the Bay of Bengal through Bastar to the Godavari, and west of that river is continued onward to the rocky ridges and plateaus of Khandesh by a succession of ranges that enclose the plain of Berar along its southern border.
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  • Starkenburg occupies the angle between the Main and the Rhine, and in its south-eastern part includes some of the ranges of the Odenwald, the highest part being the Seidenbucher Hohe (1965 ft.).
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  • Between the Harrar plateau and Cape Guardafui the coast ranges maintain a mean altitude of from 4000 to 5000 ft., and fall generally in steep escarpments down to the narrow strip of sandy lowlands skirting the Gulf of Aden.
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  • South of Berbera are two ranges nearly parallel with the coast.
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  • The country between the two ranges is known as Guban.
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  • To this succeeds the Nogal district, separated both from the Sorl and the Haud by ranges of low hills.
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  • The mean annual rainfall is greater on the slopes of the ranges by which the moisturebearing clouds are intercepted.
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  • The galleries are not the way of access to the cemeteries, but are themselves the cemeteries, the dead being buried in long low horizontal recesses, excavated in the vertical walls of the passages, rising tier above tier like the berths in a ship, from a few inches above the floor to the springing of the arched ceiling, to the number of five, six or even sometimes twelve ranges.
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  • The number of front toes ranges from four to one, and of hind ones from three to one.
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  • Its breadth along the Mississippi within Louisiana ranges from to to 50 or 60 m., and that along the Red river and the Ouachita has an average breadth of to m.
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  • In comparison with other French officials, they are well paid (the salary nowadays ranges from 39,000 to 18,000 francs according to the class).
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  • Its length from Cape Maisi to Cape San Antonio along a medial line is about 730 m.; its breadth, which averages about 50 m., ranges from a maximum of 160 m.
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  • Grasses grow luxuriantly, and the savannahs of central Cuba are, in this respect, excellent cattle ranges.
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  • The droughts to which the island is recurrently subject are, however, a not unimportant drawback to the industry; and though the best ranges, under favourable conditions, are luxuriant, nevertheless the pastures of the island are in general mediocre.
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  • The depth of the harbour ranges from 21 to 26 ft.; and by improving this entrance, so as to make it 700 ft.
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  • The Atlas consist of many distinct ranges, but they can be roughly divided into two main chains: (I) the Maritime Atlas, i.e.
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  • The western inner ranges are the most important of the whole system, and in the present article are described first as the Moroccan Ranges.
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  • The maritime Atlas and the inner ranges in Algeria and Tunisia are then treated under the heading Eastern Ranges.
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  • The two more or less parallel ranges which complete the western system are less important: - (4) the Jebel Bani, south of the Anti-Atlas, a low, narrow rocky ridge with a height of 3000 ft.
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  • In Algeria the Maritime Atlas has five chief ranges, several mountains rising over 5000 ft.
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  • On its western extremity it is linked by secondary ranges to the mountain system of Morocco.
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  • Such were parts of the first and middle ranges, crossed once; three routes over the Great Atlas, which was, moreover, followed along both flanks for nearly its whole length; and six journeys across the Anti-Atlas, with a general survey of the foot of this range and several passages over the Jebel Bani.
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  • In 1901 and again in 1905 the marquis de Segonzac, a Frenchman, made extensive journeys in the Moroccan ranges.
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  • He crossed the Great Atlas in its central section, explored its southern border, and, in part, the Middle and Anti-Atlas ranges.
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  • The climate of the interior has been found to be of a continental character, with large ranges of temperature, and with an almost permanent anti-cyclonic region over the interior of the inland ice, from which the prevailing winds radiate towards the coasts.
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  • Although the iron ranges in the north-east had been explored about 1860 and were known to contain a great wealth of ore, it was not until 1884 that mining was actually begun on the Vermilion Range.
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  • The quality of ore in the two ranges differs somewhat, that mined from the Vermilion Range being a hard specular or red haematite, while that taken from the Mesabi Range, largely red haematite, is much softer and in many localities quite finely comminuted.
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  • The value of domestic animals on farms and ranges was $86,620,643.
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  • Iron shipments from the Mesabi and Vermilion ranges, cereals from the Northwest, fruits and vegetables from the Pacific coast, and Oriental products obtained via the great northern railways, are also elements of great importance in the state's commerce.
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  • According to the direction, or strike, of its principal ranges the Elburz may be divided into three sections: the first 120 m.
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  • The Elburz then splits into three principal ranges running parallel to one another and connected at many places by secondary ranges and spurs.
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  • Many peaks of the ranges in this section have an altitude of 11,000 to 13,000 ft., and the elevation of the passes leading over the ranges varies between 7000 and io,000 ft.
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  • The third section of the Elburz, with its principal ranges striking S.W.
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  • For about two thirds of its length - from its beginning to Khush Yailak - the third section consists of three principal ranges connected by lateral ranges and spurs.
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  • The higher ranges of the Elburz are snow-capped for the greater part of the year, and some, which are not exposed to the refracted heat from the arid districts of inner Persia, are rarely without snow.
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  • The greatest elongation of Venus is about 45°; that of Mercury generally ranges between 18° and 27°.
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  • With the exception of Madagascar, the genus Mus ranges over practically the whole of the Old World, having indigenous representatives even in Australasia; while the house-mouse, with man's involuntary aid, has succeeded in establishing itself throughout the civilized world.
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  • In a good rubber this ranges from 70-90% and over.
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  • The loss on washing ranges from 10-15% with " fine Para " to 40% with other " wild " rubbers.
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  • W., outside of the ranges just mentioned.
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  • In the depression between the Bureya range and the coast ranges it suffers greatly from the heavy July and August rains, and from inundations, while on the lower Amur the agriculturists barely maintain themselves by growing cereals in clearances on the slopes of the hills, so that the settlements on the lower Amur and Usuri continually require help from government to save them from famine.
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  • Galicia is traversed by mountain ranges, sometimes regarded as a continuation of the Cantabrian chain; and its surface is further broken in the east by the westernmost ridges of that system, which, running in a south-westerly direction, rise above the basin of the Mino.
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  • Bangor has various manufactures, the most important of which (other than those dependent upon lumber) are boots and shoes (including moccasins); among others are trunks, valises, saws, stoves, ranges and furnaces, edge tools and cant dogs, saw-mill machinery, brick, clothing, cigars, flour and dairy products.
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  • Among the manufactures are cut glass, stoves and ranges, kitchen furniture, guns, thread-cutting machines, brooms and agricultural implements.
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  • The value of the constant / 7 ranges in different metals from about o ooI to 0.04; in soft iron and steel it is said to be generally not far from 0.002.
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  • The field due to a coil can be made as nearly uniform as we please throughout a considerable space; its intensity, when the constants of the coil are known, can be calculated with ease and certainty and may be varied at will'through wide ranges, while the apparatus required is of the simplest character and can be readily constructed to suit special purposes.
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  • The critical temperature for various samples of iron and steel ranges from 690° C. to 870° C.; it is the temperature at which Barrett's " recalescence " occurs.
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  • Elie de Beaumont's name is widely known to geologists in connexion with his theory of the origin of mountain ranges, first propounded in a paper read to the Academy of Sciences in 1829, and afterwards elaborated in his Notice sur le systeme des montagnes (3 vols., 1852).
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  • According to his view, all mountain ranges parallel to the same great circle of the earth are of strictly contemporaneous origin, and between the great circles a relation of symmetry exists in the form of a pentagonal reseau.
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  • The theory has not found general acceptance, but it proved of great value to geological science, owing to the extensive additions to the knowledge of the structure of mountain ranges which its author made in endeavouring to find facts to support it.
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  • In this part of its course the river receives from the south the streams, often intermittent, which rise on the northern slopes of the Stormberg, Zuurberg and Sneeuwberg ranges - the mountain chain which forms the water-parting between the coast and inland drainage systems of South Africa.
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  • Water is scarce and brackish, and is chiefly found at the bottom of low ranges of hills, which abound in some parts; and the inhabitants of the extensive sandy tracts suffer greatly from the want of it.
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  • The coral is generally reddish, but the colouring ranges from light yellow to chocolate-brown.
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  • This watershed includes the ranges running eastward and northward under the names of Imeri, Tapiira-peco, Curupira, Parima and Pacaraima, the Venezuelan section terminating at Mt.
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  • The ranges gradually diminish in elevation towards the east, the highest point of the Tumuc-Humac range, on the frontier of French Guiana, being about 2600 ft.
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  • The Brazilian plateau slopes southward and eastward, traversed by broken ranges of low mountains and deeply eroded by river courses.
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  • Its semi-arid character is due to the mountain ranges on its northern frontier, which extract the moisture from the north-east trades and leave the Brazilian plateau behind them with a very limited rainfall, except near the Atlantic coast.
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  • These chapadas and elevations, which are usually described as mountain ranges, are capped by horizontal strata of sandstone and show the original surface, which has been worn away by the rivers, leaving here and there broad flat-topped ridges between river basins and narrower ranges of hills between river courses.
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  • The first consists of an almost continuous range crossing the northern end of Rio Grande do Sul and following the coast northward to the vicinity of Cape Frio, and thence northward in broken ranges to the vicinity of Cape St Roque, and a second parallel range running from eastern Sao Paulo northeast and north to the eastern margin of the Sao Francisco basin in northern Bahia, where that river turns eastward to the Atlantic. The first of these is generally known as the Serra do Mar, or Coast Range, though it is locally known under many names.
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  • A considerable part of it has been excavated by these rivers to a level which gives their valleys the elevation and character of lowlands, though isolated hills and ranges with the characteristic overlying horizontal sandstone strata of the ancient plateau show that it was once a highland region.
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  • The mountain ranges of the east of Brazil, from Cape St Roque to the mouth of the river Plate, are composed chiefly of crystalline and metamorphic rocks.
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  • In both of these states, however, the nights are cool, and the mean annual temperature ranges from 68° to 77°, the northern districts of Minas Geraes being much warmer than the southern.
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  • In the Rio Branco region of Amazonas and in Piauhy, where the national government has long been the owner of extensive cattle ranges, the industry is in a state of decadence.
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  • Ranges of hills lead to the first plateau, which has an average elevation of 2000 ft.
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  • Although the division of the country into terraces separated by ranges of hills is clearly marked in various districts, as for instance between Durban and Colenso, the province is traversed by many secondary chains, as well as by spurs of the Drakensberg.
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  • Secondary ranges with heights of 5000 and more feet are numerous, whilst lofty isolated mountains rise from the plateaus.
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  • All the rivers of Natal not purely coast streams have their origin in the Drakensberg or its secondary ranges.
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  • It appears, however, from Russian explorations during the last third of the 19th North- century, that it has all the characteristics of an elevated western plateau, of a rhomboid shape (like Bohemia), bounded by four mountain ranges; namely, the Russian Altai on the N.W., the Sayans on the N.E., the Kentei range on the S.E., and the Ektagh Altai on the S.W.
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  • The remainder of this extensive territory ranges at altitudes of 3000 to 4500 ft., even in the bottoms of the river valleys and in the lower plains; while the ridges which constitute the water-partings rise about 2000 ft.
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  • From the Dorah eastwards the crest of the Hindu Kush again becomes the boundary till it effects a junction with the Murtagh and Sarikol ranges, which shut off China from Russia and India.
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  • This edge is marked by ranges of hills such as the Witwatersrand, Witwatersberg and Magaliesberg; the Witwatersrand, which extends eastward to Johannesburg, forming the watershed between the rivers flowing to the Atlantic and Indian Ocean.
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  • Thence issue many streams which in their way to the ocean have forced their way through the ranges of hills which mark the steps in the plateau, forming the narrow passes or poorts characteristic of South African scenery.
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  • The forest patches are confined to the deep kloofs of the mountains, to the valleys of the larger rivers and to the seaslopes of the Drakensberg and other ranges, where they flourish in.
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  • Beyond the Cojedes begin two parallel ranges known as the Maritime Andes of Venezuela, which stretch east and west along the coast.
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  • The valley between these two ranges is the most densely peopled part of Venezuela.
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  • Behind the wide bay between Cape Codera and Cumana there is an interruption in the Maritime Andes; but both ranges reappear between Cumana and the Gulf of Paria.
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  • West of the Maritime Andes low ranges (3500-5000 ft.) trend northwards from the end of the Sierra de Merida towards the coast on the east side of the Lake of Maracaibo, while the region on the west of that lake consists of lagoon-studded lowlands.
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  • Some of the culminating points in these ranges are the Cerros Yaparana (7175 ft.) and Duida (8120 ft.) in the Parima sierras near the upper Orinoco, the Sierra de Maraguaca (8228 ft.), and the celebrated flat-topped Mt Roraima (8530 ft.) in the Pacaraima sierras on the boundary line with Brazil and British Guiana.
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  • These ranges appear to belong to two systems. The Cordillera of Merida is one of the branches of the Andes, and the strike of the folds which compose it is usually from south-west to north-east.
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  • The Cerro de Oro series is the most important group of these beds and takes a considerable share in the formation of the mountain ranges.
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  • The surface of the state is much broken by the Sierra Madre Occidental, which extends through it from north to south and covers its entire width with parallel ranges, enclosing fertile valleys.
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  • The longest is the Yaqui, which has its source on the eastern side of the Sierra Tarahumare in Chihuahua and breaks through several ranges of the Sierra Madre before reaching the gulf near Guaymas.
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  • The surrounding region, lying on the eastern slopes of one of the lateral ranges of the Serra do Espinhaco, is rough and barren, but.
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  • From Basel to Mainz the Rhine flows through a wide and shallow valley, bordered on the east and west by the parallel ranges of the Black Forest and the Vosges.
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  • The mean annual rainfall ranges in different parts of the metropolis from about 202 to 272 in.
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  • The rest of the country is occupied by ranges of hills and plateaus 2000 to 4000 ft.
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  • In Europe the capacity ranges from 1000 to Isoo lb, though the tendency is to increase the size of the cars used.
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  • The island is mountainous, the highest points being Slieve Croaghaun (2192 ft.) in the west, and Slievemore (2204 ft.) in the north; the extreme western point is the bold and rugged promontory of Achill Head, and the northwestern and south-western coasts consist of ranges of magnificent cliffs, reaching a height of Boo ft.
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  • Burma proper is encircled on three sides by a wall of mountain ranges.
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  • They then form part of a system of ranges which curve north of the sources of the Chindwin river, and with the Kumon range and the hills of the Jade and Amber mines, make up a highland tract separated from the great Northern Shan plateau by the gorges of the Irrawaddy river.
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  • Compared with these ranges the Pegu Yomas assume the proportions of mere hills.
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  • Snow is seldom seen either in the Chin or Shan hills, but there are snow-clad ranges in the extreme north of the Kachin country.
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  • West of this line the rocks are chiefly Tertiary and Quaternary; east of it they are mostly Palaeozoic or gneissic. In the western mountain ranges the beds are thrown into a series of folds which form a gentle curve running from south to north with its convexity facing westward.
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  • Intrusions of a serpentine-like rock break through the Miocene strata north of Bhamo, and similar intrusions occur in the western ranges.
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  • Processes of annealing, or very gradual cooling, are intended to relieve these strains, but such processes are only completely effective when the cooling, particularly through those ranges of temperature where the glass is just losing the last traces of plasticity, is extremely gradual, a rate measured in hours per degree Centigrade being required.
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  • It is still common in the dense forests which clothe the mountain ranges as high as 8000 feet.
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  • North of the plateau rises a well-watered and undulating belt of country, into which run low ranges of limestone hills, sometimes arid, sometimes covered with dwarf-oak, and often shutting in, between their northern and north-eastern flank and the main mountain-line from which they detach themselves, rich plains and fertile valleys.
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  • Behind them tower the massive ridges of the Niphates and Zagros ranges, where the Tigris and Euphrates take their rise, and which cut off Assyria from Armenia and Kurdistan.
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  • The whole of Pisidia is an elevated region of table-lands or upland valleys in the midst of the ranges of Mt Taurus which descends abruptly on the side of Pamphylia.
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  • The only rivers of importance are the Cestrus and the Eurymedon, both of which take their rise in the highest ranges of Mt Taurus, and flow down through deep and narrow valleys to the plain of Pamphylia, which they traverse on their way to the sea.
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  • At the two extremities of New Caledonia, parallel longitudinal ranges of mountains enclose valleys; for the rest the island consists essentially of confused masses and ranges of mountains, rising to an extreme elevation of 5387 ft., the plains being chiefly the deltas of rivers.
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  • It is most abundant in the open districts of Patagonia, but also ranges on to the Argentina Pampas, where it is now scarce.
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  • From the Pir-Panjal range of Kashmir the markhor extends westwards into Baltistan, Astor, Hunza, Afghanistan and the trans-Indus ranges of the Punjab.
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  • The twist of the horns varies to a great extent locally, the spiral being most open and corkscrew-like in the typical Astor animal, and closest and most screw-like in the race (C. falconeri jerdoni) inhabiting the Suleiman and adjacent ranges.
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  • Aja, the western and higher of the two ranges, has a length of about 100 m.
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  • The town, which has risen with the fortunes of the Ibn Rashid family to be the capital of Upper Nejd, is at the mouth of the valley between the twin ranges, about 2 m.
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  • Near Lima one of the low ranges is brightened by the beautiful yellow lily called amancaes (Ismene Amancaes).
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  • The Maritime Cordillera of Peru has no connexion with the coast ranges of Chile, but is a continuation of the Cordillera Occidental of Chile, which under various local names forms the eastern margin of the coastal desert belt from Atacama northward into Peru.
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  • But throughout the length of Peru the three ranges are clearly defined.
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  • For purposes of description the sierra of Peru may be divided into four sections, each embracing portions of all three ranges.
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  • It receives a number of short streams from the ranges shutting in the upper end of the valley; the largest is the Ramiz, formed by the two streams of Pucara and Azangaro, both coming from the Knot of Vilcanota to the north.
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  • Geology.'--The Eastern Cordillera., which, however, is but little known, appears to consist, as in Bolivia, chiefly of Palaeozoic rocks; the western ranges of the Andes are formed of Mesozoic beds, together with recent volcanic lavas and ashes; and the lower hills near the coast are composed of granite, syenite and other crystalline rocks, sometimes accompanied by limestones and sandstones, which are probably of Lower Cretaceous age, and often covered by marine Tertiary deposits.
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  • Sheep ranges under the care of Scottish shepherds have also been established in the department of Junin, the stock being imported from southern Patagonia, England and Australia.
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  • Generally the components of a mixture will be vaporized in the order of their boiling-points; consequently if the condensates or "fractions" corresponding to definite ranges of temperature be separately collected, it is obvious that a more or less partial separation of the components will be effected.
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  • His reading ranges from Arabian philosophers and naturalists to Aristotle, Eusebius, Cicero, Seneca, Julius Caesar (whom he calls Julius Celsus), and even the Jew, Peter Alphonso.
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  • This was found breeding in the extreme north of Siberia by Dr von Middendorff, and ranges to Australia, whence it was, like the last, first described by Gould.
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  • Among the mountains, of Japan there are three volcanic ranges, namely, that of the Kuriles, that of Fuji, and that of Kirishima.
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  • The black rhinoceros (Rhinoceros (Diceros) bicornis) is the smaller of the two, and has a pointed prehensile upper lip. It ranges through the wooded and watered districts of Africa, from Abyssinia in the north to the Cape Colony, but its numbers are yearly diminishing, owing to the opening up of the country.
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  • Stock-raising receives considerable attention; there are about a score of large cattle ranges, and there is a considerable export of live cattle to Texas and to various Mexican states.
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  • Chersydrus ranges from Madras to New Guinea; the body and tail are laterally compressed and form a ventral fold which is covered with tiny scales like the rest of the body.
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  • The moccasin-snake ranges fromMassachusetts and Kansas to Florida and Texas and into Mexico, preferring swampy localities or meadows with high grass, where it hunts for small mammals and birds.
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  • In general the main elevations of the two ranges form pairs lying opposite one another; the forms of both ranges are monotonous, but the colouring is splendid, especially when viewed from a distance; when seen close at hand only a few valleys with perennial streams offer pictures of landscape beauty, their rich green contrasting pleasantly with the bare brown and yellow mountain sides.
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  • It is the centre of a large gold-field consisting of quartz ranges, with some alluvial deposits, and many of the mines are deep-level workings.
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  • It consists of a series of ranges, io to 15 m.
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  • Its surface is roughly broken by mountain ranges extending southward from the Sierra de Ajusco, forming numerous valleys opening southward.
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  • They are a monotonous sandstone range, covered with extensive forests, which up to the sources of the rivers Ung and San are also called the eastern Beskids, and are formed of small parallel ranges.
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  • It drains the tract between the Yamdok Tso and Tigu Lakes, and is fed by the glaciers of the Kulha Kangri and other great ranges.
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  • The lower ranges of the hills abound in animal life.
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  • Between June and September the temperature ranges from to 90 0; the mean for December, January and February is 56°; March, May and November are mild.
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  • The Tegean territory occupied the southern part of this space; the northern half, sundered by projecting spurs from the parallel ranges, belonged to Mantineia.
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  • Uskiib occupies a picturesque and strategically important position at the foot of a valley which severs two mountain ranges, the Shar Planina and Kara Dagh.
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  • The annual rainfall, greater on the coast than inland, ranges from 40 to 45 in.
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  • In the same figure is also shown the method of working whole coal and pillars at the same time, a barrier of two or three ranges of pillars or a rib of solid coal being left between the working in the solid and those in the pillars.
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  • The plain of Chih-li is formed principally by detritus deposited by the Pei-ho and its tributary the Hun-ho ("muddy river"), otherwise known as the Yungting-ko, and other streams having their sources in mountains of Shan-si and other ranges.
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  • The mountain ranges to the north of the province abound with coal, notably at Chai-tang, Tai-gan-shan, Miao-gan-ling, and Fu-tao in the Si-shan or Western Hills.
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  • The plains of Bundelkhand are intersected by three mountain ranges, the Bindhachal, Panna and Bander chains, the highest elevation not exceeding 2000 ft.
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  • Beyond these ranges the country is further diversified by isolated hills rising abruptly from a common level, and presenting from their steep and nearly inaccessible scarps eligible sites for castles and strongholds, whence the mountaineers of Bundelkhand have frequently set at defiance the most powerful of the native states of India.
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  • In the value of live stock on farms and ranges, Texas ranked seventh among the states in 1880 and second in 1900, with a value of $240,576,955.
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  • The value of all domestic animals on farms and ranges in 1900 was $236,227,934, Texas ranking second in this respect among the states.
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  • The censuses from 1860 to 1900 showed a far greater number of neat cattle on farms and ranges in Texas than in any other state or Territory; in 1900 the number was 7, 2 79,935 (excluding spring calves); and in 1910 there were 8,308,000 neat cattle including 1,137,000 milch cows.
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  • The common squirrel, whose habits are too well known to need special description, ranges over the whole of Europe and Northern Asia, from Ireland to Japan, and from Lapland to North Italy; but specimens from different parts of this wide range differ so much in colour as to constitute distinct races.
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  • Let all possible states of the system be divided into small ranges of equal extension, and of State.
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  • The number of molecules of the first kind of gas, whose components of velocity lie within the ranges between u and u+du, v and v+dv, w and w+dw, will, by formula (5), be v?l (h 3 m 3 /7 3)e hm (u2+v2+w2)dudvdw (9) per unit volume.
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  • This equation is found experimentally to be capable of representing the relation between p, v, and T over large ranges of values.
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  • From this region the country slopes towards the north-west, and is not distinguished by any considerable mountain ranges.
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  • This is the case with all the other lakes except Rudolf, Albert Nyanza and Albert Edward, in which the water ranges from salt to slightly brackish.
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  • Other ranges, mostly of lower altitude, run parallel mainly to the east and west coasts.
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  • Still farther east, the plateaus of the Finisterre ranges are highly cultivated and artificially irrigated by a comparatively fair people.
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  • In stature, the tall tribes exceed 170 cm.; middle stature ranges between 166 and 170; and short tribes are under 166 cm.
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  • As the tangent sight was placed in the line of metal, hence directly over the cascable, very little movement could be given to it, so that a second sight was required for long ranges.
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  • The amount of drift for each nature of gun at different ranges was determined by actual firing.
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  • Other improvements were: the gun was sighted on each side, tangent scales dropping into sockets in a sighting ring on the breech, thus enabling a long scale for all ranges to be used, and the foresights screwing into holes or dropping into sockets in the trunnions, thus obviating the fouling of the line of sight, and the damage to FIG.
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  • In this sight both hind and fore sights are fixed on a rigid bar pivoted about the centre; the rear end is raised or depressed by a rack worked by a hand-wheel; ranges are read from the periphery of a drum; the fore-sight and leaf of the hind-sight are provided with small electric glow lamps for night firing.
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  • The advantages compared with a tangent sight are that only half the movement is required to raise the sight for any particular range; the ranges on the drum are easier to read, and if necessary can be set by another man, so that the layer need not take his eye from the telescope.
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  • A higher power glass has since been introduced for long ranges.
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  • To facilitate the setting of the range the ranges are shown on a dial which can be read from the side of the mounting, from where also the sight can be set.
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  • Aragon consists of a central plain, edged by mountain ranges.
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  • On the south, east and west, these ranges, though wild and rugged, are of no great elevation, but on the north the Pyrenees attain their greatest altitude in the peaks of Aneto (11,168 ft.) and Monte Perdido (10,998 ft.) - also known as Las Tres Sorores, and, in French, as Mont Perdu.
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  • It is chiefly mountainous, being intersected by numerous ranges running N.W.-S.E.
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  • Between the higher ranges are many fertile plains and low hilly districts, well watered but comparatively little cultivated in consequence of intertribal feuds.
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  • Bears, leopards and musk deer are found on the higher mountains, deer on the lower ranges, and a few elephants and tigers on the slopes nearest to the plains.
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  • Fremont is situated in a good agricultural region; oil and natural gas abound in the vicinity; and the city has various manufactures, including boilers, electro-carbons, cutlery, bricks, agricultural implements, stoves and ranges, safety razors, carriage irons, sash, doors, blinds, furniture, beet sugar, canned vegetables, malt extract, garters and suspenders.
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  • East of the Taupo plateau and south of Opotiki on the Bay of Plenty the steep thickly-timbered ranges held by the Uriwera tribe still show scenery quite unspoiled by white intrusion.
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  • In the last-named region some fifteen salt-water gulfs penetrate into the very heart of the mountains, winding amid steep, cloudcapped ranges, and tall, richly-clothed cliffs overhanging their calm waters.
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  • The rainfall in most of the settled districts ranges from 30 to 50 ins.
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  • Between Miinden and Minden its course lies through a picturesque valley flanked by irregular and disjointed ranges of hills (Reinhardswald, Sollinger Wald, Weser Hills, &c.); but after it emerges from these mountains by the narrow pass called the "Porta Westfalica," near Minden, its banks become flat and uninteresting.
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  • Oliiro k?i rbotiaaor C agricultural wealth of Washington, but the raising of live-stock on ranges is less common than when large herds grazed free on government lands.
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  • Taking the squares of the amplitude to represent the intensity or loudness of the sound which would be heard by an ear at the point, this is 4a 2 cos t ir(ni - n2)t =2a 2 {1 -cos 27r(n l - n2)t}, a value which ranges between o and 4a 2 with frequency .n1 - n2.
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  • To the east and north-east of the Bitterroot Mountains is a considerable basin or peneplain dissected by short ranges having a northwest and south-west trend.
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  • To the south-east of this basin are the greatest mountain masses of the state; lofty and rugged ranges radiate in all directions, and in many instances rise to heights of 10,000-11,000 ft., the highest peak in the state being Granite Peak (12,834 ft.) in Carbon county.
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  • In the north the Rocky Mountains consist principally of two parallel ranges, the Lewis and Clark Range to the east, and the Livingston Range to the west, which were formed by a great overthrust; between them is the Waterton-McDonald valley, 8-15 m.
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  • The average annual precipitation ranges from 10 to 15 in.
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  • Let t be the statical breaking strength of a bar, loaded once gradually up to fracture (t = breaking load divided by original area of section); u the breaking strength of a bar loaded and unloaded an indefinitely great number of times, the stress varying from u to o alternately (this is termed the primitive strength); and, lastly, let s be the breaking strength of a bar subjected to an indefinitely great number of repetitions of stresses equal and opposite in sign (tension and thrust), so that the stress ranges alternately from s to -s.
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  • The surface of this plain, however, ranges from level river valleys in the east to irregular plateaus broken by buttes and scored by canons in the west.
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  • The northern section includes the Shickshock Mountains and Notre Dame Range in Quebec, scattered elevations in Maine, the White Mountains and the Green Mountains; the central comprises, besides various minor groups, the Valley Ridges between the Front of the Allegheny Plateau and the Great Appalachian Valley, the New York-New Jersey Highlands and a large portion of the Blue Ridge; and the southern consists of the prolongation of the Blue Ridge, the Unaka Range, and the Valley Ridges adjoining the Cumberland Plateau, with some lesser ranges.
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  • The Appalachian belt includes, with the ranges enumerated above, the plateaus sloping southward to the Atlantic Ocean in New England, and south-eastward to the border of the coastal plain through the central and southern Atlantic states; and on the north-west, the Allegheny and Cumberland plateaus declining toward the Great Lakes and the interior plains.
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  • A remarkable feature of the belt is the longitudinal chain of broad valleys - the Great Appalachian Valley - which, in the southerly sections divides the mountain system into two subequal portions, but in the northernmost lies west of all the ranges possessing typical Appalachian features, and separates them from the Adirondack group. The mountain system has no axis of dominating altitudes, but in every portion the summits rise to rather uniform heights, and, especially in the central section, the various ridges and intermontane valleys have the same trend as the system itself.
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  • The Unaka Ranges (including the Black and Smoky Mountains) have eighteen peaks higher than 5000 ft., and eight surpassing 6000 ft.
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  • Between these ranges and on both sides of the Mu is a plain, unbroken except for some isolated hills in the north and north-east and the low Sadaung-gyi range in the south-east.
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  • There are no mountains, forests or large bodies of water to moderate the extremes of summer and winter, and the uniformity of topography makes the ranges of temperature for different parts of the state very nearly the same.
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  • Between these ranges flow the rivers Meping, Mewang, Meyom and Menam, turbulent shallow streams in their upper reaches, but slow-moving and deep where they near the points of junction.
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  • The Meping and Mewang on the W., rising among the loftiest ranges, are rapid and navigable only for small boats, while the Meyom and Menam, the eastern pair, afford passage for large boats at all seasons and for deep draught river-steamers during the flood-time.
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  • In the mountains behind Chantabun a small tribe called Chong is found, and in southern Siam the Sakei and Semang inhabit the higher ranges.
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  • In Patani the common language is still Malay, while in the upper parts of northern, and the outlying parts of eastern, Siam the prevailing language is Lao, though the many hill tribes which occupy the ranges of these parts have distinct languages of their own.
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  • The north-east quarter is broken by two ranges of hills having a precipitous east slope and rising to a maximum height of about 400 ft., 1 m.
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  • Diamonds are obtained in Borneo, garnets in Sumatra, Bachian and Timor, and topazes in Bachian, antimony in Borneo and the Philippines; lead in Sumatra, Borneo and the Philippines; copper and malachite in the Philippines, Timor, Borneo and Sumatra; and, most important of all, tin in Banka, Billiton and Singkep. Iron is pretty frequent in various forms. Gold is not uncommon in the older ranges of Sumatra, Banka, Celebes, Bachian, Timor and Borneo.
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  • But although the crests of its component ranges reach altitudes of 21,500 to 22,000 ft., they are not as a rule overtopped by individual peaks of commanding and towering elevation, as the Himalayas are, but run on the whole tolerably uniform and relatively at little greater altitude than the lofty valleys which separate them one from another.
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  • This double borderridge is continued east of the meridian of Yarkand or Yarkent (77° E.) by a succession of twin ranges, all running, though under different names, from the W.N.W.
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  • Bogdanovich, the same fossils occur in both sets of border ranges, in the Sarik-kol and in their eastward continuations, e.g.
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  • These eastward continuations of the double border-range of the Pamirs are the constituent ranges of the Kuen-lun proper.
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  • From the East Turkestan lowlands on the north the ascent is very steep, and the passes across both sets of ranges lie at great altitudes; for example, the pass of Sanju-davan in the lower range is 16,325 ft.
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  • Altogether this western extremity of the Kuen-lun system is a very rugged mountainous region, a consequence partly of the intricacy of the flanking ranges and spurs, partly of the powerful lateral compression to which they have been subjected, and partly of the great and abrupt differences in vertical elevation between the crests of the ranges and the bottoms of the deep, narrow, rugged glens between them.
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  • In the broad orographical disposition of the ranges there is considerable similarity between north Tibet and west Persia, in that in both cases the ranges are crowded together in the west, but spread out wider as they advance towards the east.
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  • Dutreuil de Rhins on his journey in 1890-1895, gives the names the Altyn-tagh and Ustun-tagh, though he names no less than six parallel ranges altogether.
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  • Now as Altyn-tagh 2 is an accepted, though in point of fact erroneous, name for Astin-tagh, it is clear that Grenard considers the main Kuen-lun ranges to be continued directly by the Astin-tagh.
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  • And here at least four principal ranges or groups of ranges admit of being discriminated, namely the Astin-tagh, the Chimen-tagh, the Kalta-alaghan and the Arka-tagh, all belonging to the mountainous country which borders on the north the actual plateau region of Tibet.
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  • Although these several ranges, or systems of ranges, differ considerably in their orographical characteristics, the following description will apply generally to the entire region from the Astin-tagh southwards to the Arka-tagh.
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  • As a rule the crests of the ranges are worn down by aerial denudation and have the general appearance of rounded domes.
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  • The flanks of the mountains are so deeply buried in disintegrated material that the difference in vertical altitude between the floors of the valleys and the summits of the ranges is comparatively small.
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  • But as each successive range, proceeding south, represents a higher step in the terraced ascent from the desert of Gobi to the plateau of Tibet, the ranges when viewed from the north frequently appear like veritable upstanding mountain ranges, and this appearance is accentuated by the general steepness of the ascent; whereas, when viewed on the other hand from the south, these several ranges, owing to their long and gentle slope in that direction, have the appearance of comparatively gentle swellings of the earth's service rather than of well-defined mountain ranges.
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  • The vegetation consists almost entirely of scrubby bushes of several varieties, including tamarisks and wild briers, of reeds (kamish), and of grass on the yaylaks (pasture-grounds) of the middle ranges.
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  • The nomenclature of the numerous ranges in this part of the Kuen-lun is extremely confusing, owing to different travellers having applied the same name to different ranges and to different travellers have applied different names to what is probably often identically the same range.
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  • Nevertheless, owing to the fact that nearly all the longer and more important crossings of Tibet and its northern montane region have been made from north to south, or vice versa, that is, transversely across the ranges, and comparatively few from east to west along the intermont latitudinal valleys, the identifications between ranges in the east and ranges in the west are in more than one instance more or less doubtful.
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  • It is not however a single, long, continuous chain, as it is shown, for example, on the map of the Russian general staff, but consists of two parallel main ranges, and in the east of three, and even to the N.E.
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  • But on the east of the Anambaruin-ula it once more contracts to two main ranges, the more southerly being that which Przhevalsky called the Humboldt Range (crossed by a pass at 13,200 ft.).
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  • But there exists a striking difference between the crests of the Astin-tagh and those of the ranges which give rise to the gigantic ridge and furrow arrangement on the Tibetan plateau.
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  • On the Tibetan plateau, on the other hand, most of the ranges are distinguished by their rounded outlines and soft consistency, and their striking poverty in hard rock, which in the best cases only crops out near the summits.
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  • It is possible however that the Muzluk-tagh belongs more intimately to the Chimen-tagh system, that is, to the Moscow or Achik-kol ranges.
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  • Tibet, the Kalta-alaghan does not decrease, but it increases in elevation towards the east, where, like the Chimen-tagh, it abuts upon and merges in the ranges that border Tsaidam on the south.
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  • Of great length, the Arka-tagh, which is a mountain-system rather than a range, varies greatly in configuration in different parts, sometimes exhibiting a sharply defined main crest, with several lower flanking ranges, and sometimes consisting of numerous parallel crests of nearly uniform altitude.
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  • Amongst these it is possible to distinguish in the middle of the system four predominant ranges, of which the second from the north is probably the principal range, though the fourth is the highest.
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  • The crests of the ranges lie comparatively little higher than the valleys which separate them, the altitudes in the latter running at 14,940 to 16,700 ft., if not higher, and being only 500 to moo ft.
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  • The Arka-tagh ranges do not culminate in lofty jagged, pinnacled peaks, but in broad rounded, flattened domes, a characteristic feature of the system throughout.
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  • The culminating summits of the ranges generally present the appearance of a flat, rounded swelling, and when they are crowned with glaciers, as many of them are, these shape themselves into what may be described as a mantle, a breastplate, or a flat cap, from which lappets and fringes project at intervals; nowhere do there exist any of the long, narrow, winding glacier tongues which are so characteristic of the Alps of Europe.
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  • In the vicinity of the Ullughmuz-tagh there exist numerous indications of former volcanic activity, the eminences and summits frequently being capped with tuff, and smaller fragments of tuff are scattered over other parts of the Arka-tagh ranges.
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  • The succession of ranges which follow one another from the deserts of Takla-makan and Gobi up to the plateau proper of Tibet rise in steps or terraces, each range being higher than the range to the north of it and lower than the range to the south of it.
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  • The difference in altitude between the lowest, most northerly range, the Lower Astin-tagh, and the most southerly of the Arka-tagh ranges amounts to nearly 7500 ft.
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  • The ranges of the Arkatagh, again, run at pretty nearly the same absolute general altitudes, namely, 16,470 to 17,260 ft.
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  • Hence these ten parallel ranges of the middle Kuen-lun system may be grouped in three divisions - (1) the more strictly border ranges of the Upper and Lower Astin-tagh and the Akatotagh; (2) the three ranges of Chimen-tagh, Ara-tagh and Kaltaalaghan, which may be considered as forming a transitional system between the foregoing and the third division; (3) the Arka-tagh, which constitute the elevated rampart of the Tibetan plateau proper.
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  • Next a succession of narrow ranges intervene between this lower border terrace and the higher terrace (12,000-13,500 ft.).
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  • It includes, in fact, several other parallel ranges - e.g.
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  • In fact, the region is dominated by three ranges of nearly equal altitude, all lifting many of their peaks above the snow-line.
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  • The western border of the state is traversed by low ranges of mountains forming a northward continuation of the Serra do Mar.
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  • The longest and most prominent of these ranges, which are for the most part the eastern escarpments of the great Brazilian plateau, is the Serra dos Aymores, which extends along fully two-thirds of the western frontier.
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  • The eastern and larger part of the state belongs to the coastal plain, in great part low and swampy, with large areas of sand barrens, and broken by isolated groups and ranges of hills.
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  • The country generally is of sandstone or granite formation, with occasional trachyte and basaltic ranges.
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  • South of these ranges lie fertile and well-watered plains and lowlands extending to the borders of Austria, Hungary and Rumania.
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  • The mountain ranges in the south are largely inhabited by Miao-tsze, who are the original owners of the soil and have been constantly goaded into a state of rebellion by the oppression to which they have been subjected by the Chinese officials.
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  • Both of these ranges belong to that border of mountains which bounds the great tableland of Asia Minor.
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  • The specific gravity of milk ordinarily ranges from i 029 to 1.033, very seldom reaching 1 035 or falling so low as 1.027.
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  • After passing Lanchow-fu, the capital of this province, the river takes an immense sweep to the north and north-east, until it encounters the rugged barrier ranges that here run north and south through the provinces of Shansi and Chihli.
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  • By these ranges it is forced due south for 500 m., forming the boundary between the provinces of Shansi and Shensi, until it finds an outlet eastwards at Tung Kwan - a pass which for centuries has been renowned as the gate of Asia, being indeed the sole commercial passage between central China and the West.
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  • Cripple Creek is situated on a mountain slope in a pocket amid the ranges, about 9600 ft.
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  • The country is traversed by lofty ranges of the Atlas system, which run nearly parallel to the coast, and rise in places over 7000 ft.
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  • The chief ranges are Ksur and Amur in the west and the Aures in the east.
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  • The Little Atlas, otherwise the Tell or Maritime Atlas, lies between the sea and the Saharan Atlas, and is composed of many distinct ranges, generally of no great elevation and connected by numerous transverse chains forming extensive table-lands and elevated valleys.
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  • The principal ranges of the Little Atlas - from west to east - are the Tlemcen (5500 ft.); the Warsenis (with Kef Sidi Omar, 650o ft.); the Titeri (4900 ft.); the Jurjura, with the peak of Lalla Kedija (7542 ft.) and Mount Babor (6447 ft.); and the Mejerda (3700 ft.), which extends into Tunisia.
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  • In south Oran they determine the principal axes of the mountain ranges.
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  • The more southerly of the two Costa Rican ranges, known as the Cordillera de Talamanca, rises south of the Gulf of Nicoya, and extends midway between the two oceans towards the south-east.
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  • The mean annual precipitation ranges from about 38 in.
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  • The family ranges all through the neotropical region, inclusive of the Galapagos and the Antilles, into the southern and western states of North America.
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  • Next it is found at Troy (44) in three cases, all high examples of 68.2 to 68.7; and these are very important, since they cannot be dissociated from the Greek Attic unit, and yet they are of a variety as far removed as may be from the half of the Assyrian, which ranges there from 123.5 to 131; thus the difference of unit between Assyrian and Attic in these earliest of all Greek weights is very strongly marked.
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  • The depth ranges from 18 to 19 fathoms at the entrance to 42 fathoms along the inner shore line.
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  • The Stellenbosch valley is closed in by ranges of hills beyond which, eastward, lies Frenchhoek valley, with a village of the same name.
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