How to use Railways in a sentence
The total length of these railways in Bukhara was about 400 m.
Passenger steamers sail from the port of London to the principal ports of she British Isles and northern Europe, and to all parts of the world, but the most favoured passenger services to and from Europe and North America pass through other ports, to which the railways provide special services of trains from London.
The administration of the Servian railways has its factory for repairing engines and principal store of materials in the city, which also possesses an iron foundry.
The Underground Electric Railways Company, which acquired a controlling influence over these concerns, undertook the construction of a great power station at Chelsea; while the Metropolitan Company, which had fallen into line with the District (not without dispute over the system of electrification to be adopted) erected a station at Neasden on the Aylesbury branch.
Deeplevel electric railways (" tubes "), communicating with the surface by lifts, were already familiar in London.Advertisement
Many widenings and other improvements of existing thoroughfares, and extensions of tramways were proposed, and detailed recommendations were made as regards urban and suburban railways, and the rehousing of the working population on the outskirts of London.
The principal railways have wharves and through connexions for goods traffic, and huge warehouses are attached to the docks.
But in a statute punishing with death robbery on the highway, railways were held not to be included in the term.
Switches for turnouts and branches, &c., are similar to but simpler than those for railways.
Albany is a terminus of the New York Central & Hudson River, the Delaware & Hudson and the West Shore railways, and is also served by the Boston & Maine railway, by the Erie and Champlain canals (being a terminus of each), by steamboat lines on the Hudson river and by several inter-urban electric railways connecting with neighbouring cities.Advertisement
It is served by the Louisville & Nashville, and the Chesapeake & Ohio railways, and by electric lines to Covington, Cincinnati, Bellevue, Fort Thomas and Dayton.
Indo-Chinese (1) Tibet-Burman family sub-family (2) Siamese-Chinese sub-family (3) Mon-Annam sub-family Railways Divisional Headquarters O District Headquarters .....
The principal items of revenue in the budget are the land revenue, railways, customs, forests and excise.
Railways were also constructed from Pegu to Martaban, 121 m.
Hastings is served by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago & North-western, the Missouri Pacific and the St Joseph & Grand Island railways.Advertisement
Rhodesian railways and runs through Katanga reached Elisabethville in Oct.
It is served by the Illinois Central, the Mobile & Ohio and the St Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern railways.
It is served by the Baltimore, Chesapeake & Atlantic (which has shops here), and the New York, Philadelphia && Norfolk railways, and by steamers on the Wicomico river, which has a channel 9 ft.
He was president of the Union Pacific railroad from 1884 to 1890, having previously become widely known as an authority on the management of railways.
Tallahassee is served by the Seaboard Air Line and the Georgia, Florida & Alabama railways.Advertisement
In 1870 the site was a cotton field, where two railways, the South & North, and the Alabama & Chattanooga, now part respectively of the Louisville & Nashville and the Southern System, met.
Denver is an important railway centre, being served by nine railways, of which the chief are the Atchison, ' Topeka & Santa Fe; the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy; the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific; the Denver & Rio Grande; the Union Pacific; and the Denver, North-Western & Pacific, Denver lies on the South Platte river, at an altitude exactly m.
He introduced the Thurman Bill, for which he was chiefly responsible, which became law in May 1878, and readjusted the government's relations with the bond-aided Pacific railways.
Construction proceeded under this law, but not with very satisfactory results, and new arrangements had to be made between 1852 and 1857, when the railways were concentrated in the hands of six great companies, the Nord, the Est, the Ouest, the Paris-Lyon-Mditerrane, the Orleans and the Midi.
The Nord, which serves the rich mining, industrial and farming districts of Nord, Pas-de-Calais, Aisne and Somme, connecting with the Belgian railways at several points.Advertisement
The state railways served a large portion of western France, their chief lines being from Nantes via La Rochelle to Bordeaux, and from Bordeauxvia Saintes, Niort and Saumur to Chartres.
Narrow gauge and normal gauge railways of local interest covered 3905 m.
It assigns its quota of taxes (contingent) to each arrondissement, authorizes the sale, purchase or exchange of departmental property, superintends the management thereof, authorizes the construction of new roads, railways or canals, and advises on matters of local interest.
Fully three-fourths of the state contributions is expenditure on military necessities; in addition there are subventions to various colonies and to colonial railways and cables, and the expenditure on the penitentiary establishments; an item not properly chargeable to the colonies.
Both cities are served by the Southern and the Norfolk & Western railways.
The railways are of different gauges, the standard narrow gauge of 4 ft.
In several of the states, New South Wales and South Australia proper, the railways yield more than the interest paid by the government on the money borrowed for their construction.
Excluding coal lines and other lines not open to general traffic, the length of railways in private hands is only 382 m.
The bulk of this indebtedness has been contracted for the purpose of constructing railways, tramways, water-supplies, and other revenue-producing works and services, and it is estimated that only 8% of the total indebtedness can be set down for unproductive services.
Belleville is served by the Illinois Central, the Louisville & Nashville, and the Southern railways, also by extensive interurban electric systems; and a belt line to O'Fallon, Illinois, connects Belleville with the Baltimore & Ohio South Western railway.
Only less important and only less early to be established in Vermont was the quarrying of granite, which began in 1812, but which has been developed chiefly since 1880, largely by means of the building of "granite railroads" which connect each quarry with a main railway line - a means of transportation as important as the logging railways of the Western states and of Canada.
These railways provide outlets for through freight and passenger traffic southward to Boston and New York, and to the north to St Johns and Montreal.
The southern part of the state was early opened to railways, the Sullivan County railway (operated by the Boston & Maine) having been opened in 1849; and in 1850 the state had 290 m.
It is served by the Grand Trunk, the New York, Chicago & St Louis, and the Pennsylvania railways.
At first the use of the telegraph was alm9st entirely confined to railways.
It is served by the Southern Pacific, the Franklin and Abbeville, and the New Iberia & Northern railways.
The taking over of the main lines by the state has of course produced a considerable change in the financial situation of the railways.
Senators and deputies receive no salary but have free passes on railways throughout Italy and on certain lines of steamers.
Roads, indeed, were almost as plentiful as railways at the present day in the basin.
But he did not move so fast in the path of reform as was expected, and agitation continued throughout the papal states.i In 1847 some administrative reforms were enacted, the laity were admitted to certain offices, railways were talked about, and political newspapers permitted.
Charles Albert, although mahftaining his reactionary policy, had introduced administrative reforms, built railways, reorganized the army and developed the resources of the country.
By the seizure and sale of Church lands, by th sale of state railways, by economy to the bone and on onc supreme occasion by an appeal to taxpayers to advance a years quota of the land-tax, he had met the most pressing engagements of that troublous period.
With the aid of Sella he concluded conventions for the redemption of the chief Italian railways from their French and Austrian proprietors.
The railway redemption contracts were in fact immediately voted by parliament, with a clause pledging the government to legislate in favor of farming out the railways to private companies.
On the 6th of March 1885 parliament finally sanctioned the conventions by which state railways were farmed out to three private companiesthe Mediterranean, Adriatic and Sicilian.
The railways redeemed in 1875-1876 had been worked in the interval by the government at a heavy loss.
National control of the railways was secured by a proviso that the directors must be of Italian nationality.
Gradually the increase of traffic consequent upon the industrial development of Italy decreased the annual losses of the state, but the position of the government in regard to the railways still remained so unsatisfactory as to render the resumption of the whole system by the state on the expiration of the first period of twenty years in 1905 inevitable.
Railways, roads and harbours which contractors had undertaken to construct for reasonable amounts were frequently made to cost thrice the original estimates.
Extravagant expenditure on railways and public works, loose administration of finance, the cost of colonial enterprise, the growing demands for the army and navy, the impending tariff war with France, and the overspeculation in building and in industrial ventures, which had absorbed all the floating capital of the country, had combined to produce a state of affairs calling for firm and radical treatment.
In October 1907 there was again a general strike at Milan, which was rendered more serious on account of the action of the railway servants, and extended to other cities; traffic was disorganized over a large part of northern Italy, until the government, being now owner of the railways, dismissed the ringleaders from the service.
It is served by the Illinois Central and the Chicago & Alton railways and by the Illinois Traction Interurban Electric line.
In order to provide employment for his soldiers, Corbulo made them cut a canal from the Mosa (Meuse) to the northern branch of the Rhine, which still forms one of the chief drains between Leiden and Sluys, and before the introduction of railways was the ordinary traffic road between Leiden and Rotterdam.
The railway system belongs to the northern section of the State railways, and affords communication with Germany via Winschoten.
Now it is chiefly known as the junction of four railways, the East Indian, Oudh & Rohilkand, Rajputana and Indian Midland, and as a great emporium for harness, shoes and other leather-work.
These are places where the mode of travelling or of transport is changed, such as seaports, river ports and railway termini, or natural resting-places, such as a ford, the foot of a steep ascent on a road, the entrance of a valley leading up from a plain into the mountains, or a crossing-place of roads or railways.'
In countries of uniform surface or faint relief, roads and railways may be constructed in any direction without regard to the configuration.
In places where the low ground is marshy, roads and railways often follow the ridge-lines of hills, or, as in Finland, the old glacial eskers, which run parallel to the shore.
Louis, the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (Pennsylvania system), the Baltimore & Ohio, the Ohio Central, the Norfolk & Western, the Hocking Valley, and the Cleveland, Akron & Columbus (Pennsylvania system) railways, and by nine interurban electric lines.
Portland is served by the Maine Central, the Boston & Maine, and the Grand Trunk railways; by steamboat lines to New York, Boston, Bar Harbor, Saint John, N.B., and other coast ports, and, during the winter season, by the Allan and Dominion transatlantic lines.
Eveleth is served by the Duluth, Missabe & Northern and the Duluth & Iron Range railways.
The railways of the state are the Recife and Sao Francisco (77 m.), Central de Pernambuco (132 m.) and Sul de Pernambuco (120 m.) - all government properties leased to the Great Western of Brazil Railway Co., Ltd., since 1901.
It is served by the Grand Trunk and the Pere Marquette railways.
Boonville is served by the Missouri Pacific, and the Missouri, Kansas & Texas railways.
Its industries include cotton-spinning, brewing, distilling, and the manufacture of tobacco, earthenware and matches; native industry produces carved and inlaid furniture, bronzes and artistic metalwork, silk embroidery, &c. Hanoi is the junction of railways to Hai-Phong, its seaport, Lao-Kay, Vinh, and the Chinese frontier via Lang-Son.
The railways had a length of 1380 m.
The city is served by the Chesapeake & Ohio, the Louisville & Nashville, and the Frankfort & Cincinnati railways, by the Central Kentucky Traction Co.
It is served by the Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville, the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (New York Central System), the Lake Erie & Western (New York Central System), the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (Pennsylvania System) and the Vandalia (Pennsylvania System) railways.
Among other important manufactures are foundry and machine shop products ($6,944,392 in 1905); flour and grist-mill products ($4,428,664); cars and shop construction and repairs by steam railways ($2,502,789); saws; waggons and carriages ($2,049,207); printing and publishing (book and job, $1,572,688; and newspapers and periodicals, $2,715,666); starch; cotton and woollen goods; furniture ($2,528,238); canned goods ($1,693,818); lumber and timber ($1,556,466); structural iron work ($1,541,732); beer ($1,300,764); and planing-mill products, sash, doors and blinds ($1,111,264).
Some impetus was given to the city's growth by the completion of the National Road, and later by the opening of railways, but until after the Civil War its advancement was slow.
Frankfort is served by the Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville, the Lake Erie & Western, the Vandalia, and the Toledo, St Louis & Western railways, and by the Indianapolis & North -Western Traction Interurban railway (electric).
The streets are lighted with electricity; and there are electric street railways and telephones in the city.
This deprives parliament of control over the administrative departments, all the ministries being thus " armour-plated " - to use the cant phrase current in Russia - except that of ways and communications (railways).
A considerable number of new railways, including the Siberian, have been built with money obtained from that source.
Boats could be conveyed over flat and easy portages from one river-basin to another, and these portages were subsequently transformed with a relatively small amount of labour into navigable canals, and even at the present day the canals have more importance for the traffic of the country than have most of the railways.
Artels of one or two hundred carpenters, bricklayers, &c., are common wherever new buildings have to be erected, or railways or bridges constructed; the contractors always prefer to deal with an artel, rather than with separate workmen.
Finally, a great number of artels on the stock exchange, in the seaports, in the great cities, during the great fairs and on railways have grown up, and have acquired the confidence of tradespeople to such an extent that considerable sums of money and complicated banking operations are frequently handed over to an artelshik (member of an artel) without any receipt, his number or his name being accepted as sufficient guarantee.
It is estimated that for domestic purposes nearly 150,000,000 tons of wood are consumed every year, while the steamships, railways and factories consume another 20 or 25 million tons.
At the same time large quantities of petroleum refuse are used as fuel in the railways of S.E.
Between 1895 and 1905 the building of railways proceeded at a rapid rate, the total length nearly doubling within the ten years, namely, from 22,600 to 40,500 m.
A considerable number of new railways, some of great strategic as well as commercial importance, were built during the last twenty years of the 19th century.
The most important of the new railways is the Siberian, of which the first section, Chelyabinsk to Omsk, was opened in December 1895, and which, except for a short section round Lake Baikal, in 1901 was completed right through to Stryetensk, on the Shilka, the head of navigation on the Shilka and the Amur, 2710 m.
Caucasia, having been connected with the Rostov-Vladikavkaz line, has consequently also been brought into touch with the Russian railways.
Not only was the army to be well drilled and the fleet to be carefully equipped, but railways were to be constructed, river-navigation was to be facilitated, manufacturing industry was to be developed, commerce was to be encouraged, the administration was to be improved, the laws were to be codified and the tribunals were to be reorganized.
Railways had their origin in the tramways (q.v.) or wagon-ways which at least as early as the middle of the 16th century were used in the mineral districts of England round Newcastle for the conveyance of coal from the pits to the river Tyne for shipment.
These two systems of constructing railways - the plate-rail and the edge-rail - continued to exist side by side until well on in the 19th century.
In South Wales again, where in 1811 the railways in connexion with canals, collieries and iron and copper works had a total length of nearly 150 miles, the plate-way was almost universal.
It must be remembered, however, that at this time the railways were nearly all worked by horse-traction, and that the use of steam had made but little progress.
The steam locomotive, however, and with it the railways, soon began to make rapid progress.
The Liverpool & Manchester line achieved a success which surpassed the anticipations even of its promoters, and in consequence numerous projects were started for the construction of railways in various parts of Great Britain.
After the reconstruction period of the 1893 panic, however, the tendency for a number of years was to spend larger sums in bettering existing railways rather than in new extensions.
At that time the so-called transcontinental railways, connecting the Pacific coast of the United States with the central portions of the country, and thus with the group of railways reaching the Atlantic seaboard, consisted of five railways within the borders of the United States, and one in Canada.
Thus it will be observed that the five great cities of the Pacific coast-Seattle and Tacoma, Wash., Portland, Ore., and San Francisco and Los Angeles, Cal.-were already well supplied with railways; but the growth of the fertile region lying west of the transcontinental divide was most attractive to American railway builders; and railways serving this district, almost all of them in trouble ten years before, were showing great increases in earnings.
At the same time that these two extensions were being undertaken by old and well-established railways, a new company-the Kansas City, Mexico && Orient-was engaged in constructing a line almost due south-west from Kansas City, Mo., to the lower part of the gulf of California in Mexico; while an additional independent line was under construction from Denver in a north-westerly direction towards the Pacific coast.
In Argentina about 15% of the railways are owned and operated by the government, the balance being in the hands of private companies, largely controlled in England.
The United States of America, with a capital of £3,059,800,000 invested in its railways on the 30th of June 1906, was easily ahead of every other country, and in 1908 the figure was increased to £ 3,443, 02 7, 68 5, of which £2,636,569,089 was in the hands of the public. On a route-mileage basis, however, the capital cost of the British railway system is far greater than that of any other country in the world, partly because a vast proportion of the lines are double, treble or even quadruple, partly because the safety requirements of the Board of Trade and the high standards of the original builders made actual construction very costly.
There can be little doubt but that the United States would long ago have disintegrated into separate, warring republics, had they not been bound together by railways, and standards of safety were 1 These figures are derived from a total.
This difficulty is not peculiar to railways; but it was in the history of railway economy and railway control that certain characteristics which are now manifesting themselves in all directions where large investments of fixed capital are involved were first brought prominently to public notice.
Such duplication of railways involves a waste of capital.
In those parts of the continent of Europe where railways are owned and administered by state authority, the necessity for such agreements is frankly admitted.
In the practical carrying out of this principle, railways divide all articles of freight into classes, the highest of which are charged two or three, or even four times the rates of the lowest.
A state system will be compelled, by the exigencies of the public treasury, to arrange its rates to pay interest on its securities; a private company will generally be prevented, by the indirect competition of railways in other parts of the country which it serves, from doing very much more than this.
As a result of these difficulties there has been, both in the United Kingdom and in the United States, a progressive increase of legislative interference with railways.
On principles governing railway rates in general, and specifically in England, see Acworth, The Railways and the Traders (London, 1891).
From the early days of railways parliament has also been careful to provide for the safety of the public by inserting in the general or special acts definite conditions, and by laying upon the Board of Trade the duty of protecting the public using a railway.
The first act which has reference to the safety of passengers is the Regulation of Railways Act of 1842, which obliges every railway company to give notice to the Board of Trade of its intention to open the railway for passenger traffic, and places upon that public department the duty of inspecting the line before the opening of it takes place..
A code of requirements in regard to the opening of new railways has been drawn up by the department for the guidance of railway companies, and as the special circumstances of each line are considered on their merits, it rarely happens that the department finds it necessary to prohibit the opening of a new railway.
The Regulation of Railways Act of 1871 extends the provisions of the above act to the opening of " any additional line of railway, deviation line, station, junction or crossing on the level " which forms a portion of or is connected with a passenger railway, and which has been constructed subsequently to the inspection of it.
This act has been the means of effecting a considerable reduction in the hours worked by railway men on certain railways, and no case has yet arisen in which a reference to the Commissioners has been necessary.
The public acts of parliament referring to British railways are collected in Bigg's General Railway Acts.
As railway building increased in response to traffic needs, and as the consolidation of short lines into continuous systems proceeded, legislation applicable to railways became somewhat broader in scope and more intelligent.
Roads had been constructed in advance of settlement, and land-seekers had been transported to these frontier sections only to become dependent upon the railways for their very existence.
To the unusual temptations thus offered for favouritism and discriminations in rates, the railways generally yielded.
In this connexion, reference should be made to the Anti-Trust Act of 1890, which, by its judicial interpretation, has been held to include railways and to forbid rate agreements between competing carriers.
In both states, the Commissions have power over electric railways and local public utilities furnishing heat, light and power, as well as over steam railway transportation, and the Wisconsin Commission also has control over telephone companies.
Collisions, on the other hand, are preventable, and derailments nearly so, and the records of deaths and injuries in this class in successive years are therefore justly taken as an index to the efficiency with which the railways are managed.
The duty of a railway with deficient plant or facilities would seem to be to make up for their absence by moderating the speeds of its trains, but public sentiment in America appears so far to have approved, at least tacitly, the combination of imperfect railways and high speeds.
On British railways the duty of the companies to provide all practicable safeguards and to educate and caution the servants may be said to have been faithfully performed, and the accident totals must be taken as being somewhat near the " irreducible minimum" - unless some of the infirmities of the human mind can be cured.
Workmen are killed and injured in this way, both while on duty and when going to and from their work; passengers, with or without right, go in front of trains at stations and at highway crossings at grade level; and trespassers are killed and injured in large numbers on railways everywhere, at and near stations, at crossings, and out on the open road, where they have no shadow of right.
The Federal government, having authority in railway matters only when interstate traffic is affected, gathers statistics and publishes them; but in the airing of causes-the field in which the British Board of Trade has been so useful-nothing so far has been done except to require written reports monthly from the railways.
In any comparison between British and American records the first point to be borne in mind is the difference in mileage and traffic. The American railways aggregate approximately ten times the length of the British lines; but in train miles the difference is far less.
The length of railways in the republic was 39,963 km.
The French secretary of Public Works, who has furnished these statistics, keeps also similar records of the local or light railways, on which the number of fatal accidents appears to be exceedingly small.
The number of persons killed on the railways of the German Empire in the year 1907 was 1249, classified as in Table XVII.
Railways may be built for military reasons or for commercial reasons, or for a combination of the two.
To a less degree, the same is true of railways built for a special instead of a general commercial interest.
The American railways do not have to face this situation; but, after a long term of years, when they were allowed to do much as they pleased, they have now been brought sharply to book by almost every form of constituted authority to be found in the states, and they are suffering from increased taxation, from direct service requirements, and from a general tendency on the part of regulating authorities to reduce rates and to make it impossible to increase them.
The railways are prospering because they are managed with great skill and are doing increasing amounts of business, though at lessening unit profits.
The attitude of the courts is not that the railways should work without compensation, but that the compensation should not exceed a fair return on funds actually expended by the railway.
The growth of railways has been accompanied by a world-wide tendency toward the consolidation of small independent ventures into large groups of lines able to aid one another in the exchange of traffic and to effect economies in administration and in tl-_e purchase of supplies.
Larger rivers, canals, roads, other railways and sometimes deep narrow valleys are crossed by bridges (q.v.) of timber, brick, stone, wrought iron or steel, and many of these structures rank among the largest engineering works in the world.
Sometimes also a viaduct consisting of a series of arches is preferred to an embankment when the line has to be taken over a piece of fiat alluvial plain, or when it is desired to economize space and to carry the line at a sufficient height to clear the streets, as in the case of various railways entering London and other large towns.
In connexion with a railway many bridges have also to be constructed to carry public roads and other railways over the line, and for the use of owners or tenants whose land it has cut through (" accommodation bridges ").
In many instances old level crossings have been replaced by over-bridges with long sloping approaches; in this way considerable expenditure has been involved, justified, however, by the removal of a danger to the public and of interruptions to the traffic on both the roads and the railways.
In rack railways a cog-wheel on the engine engages in a toothed rack which forms part of the permanent way.
The subsequent development of rack railways is especially associated with a Swiss engineer, Nicholas Riggenbach, and his pupil Roman Abt, and the forms of rack introduced by them are those most commonly used.
For surmounting still steeper slopes, cable railways may be employed.
The curves on railways are either simple, when they consist of a portion of the circumference of a single circle, or compound, when they are made up of portions of the circumference of two or more circles of different radius.
In North America, except for small industrial railways and some short lines for local traffic, chiefly in mountainous country, it has become almost universal; the long lines of 3 ft.
In Great Britain railways are built to gauges other than 4 ft.
Stone blocks were tried as sleepers in the early days of railways, but they proved too rigid, and besides, it was found difficult to keep the line true with them.
In Germany, where they have met with greater favour, there were over 261 millions in use in 1905, 1 and they I ave been tried by some American railways.
The substitution of steel for iron as the material for rails which made possible the axle loads and the speeds of Lto-day, and, by reducing the cost of maintenance, contributed enormously to the economic efficiency of railways, was one of the most important events in the history of railways, and a scarcely less important element of progressive economy has been the continued improvement of the steel rail in stiffness of section and in toughness and hardness of material.
At stations on double-track railways which have a heavy traffic four tracks are sometimes provided, the two outside ones only having platforms, so that fast trains get a clear road and can pass slow ones that are standing in the station.
The platforms on British railways have a standard elevation of 3 ft.
British railways also undertake the collection and delivery of freight, in addition to transporting it, and thus an extensive range of vans and wagons, whether drawn by horses or mechanically propelled, must be provided in connexion with an important station.
Still used by several railways in Great Britain for express passenger service, but going out of favour; it is also found in France, and less often in Germany, Italy, and elsewhere in Europe.
Used on several English lines for fast passenger traffic, and also on many European railways.
The distinction into classes was made almost as soon as the railways began to carry passengers.
But though by an act of 1844 the railways were obliged to run at least one train a day over their lines, by which the fares did not exceed the " Parliamentary " rate of id.
In the United States there is in most cases nominally only one class, denominated first class, and the average fare obtained by the railways is about id.
It will be seen from these particulars - which are typical of what has happened not only on other British railways, but also on those of other countries - that much more space has to be provided and more weight hauled for each passenger than was formerly the case.
Cars of this saloon type have been introduced into England for use on railways which have adopted electric traction, but owing to the narrower loading gauge of British railways it is not usually possible to seat four persons across the width of the car for its whole length, and at the ends the seats have to be placed along the sides of the vehicle.
Cars built almost entirely of steel, in which the proportion of wood is reduced to a minimum, are used on some electric railways, in order to diminish danger from fire, and the same mode of construction is also being adopted for the rolling stock of steam railways.
On electric railways the trains are heated by electric heaters.
In Great Britain the mineral trucks can ordinarily hold from 8 to io tons (long tons, 2240 lb), and the goods trucks rather less, though there are wagons in use holding 12 or 15 tons, and the specifications agreed to by the railway companies associated in the Railway Clearing House permit private wagon owners (who own about 45% of the wagon stock run on the railways of the United Kingdom) to build also wagons holding 20, 30, 40 and 56 tons.
In the United States the Safety Appliance Act of 1893 also forbade the railways, after the 1st of January 1898, to run trains which did not contain a " sufficient number " of cars equipped with continuous brakes to enable the speed to be controlled from the engine.
This minimum was at first fixed at 50%, but on and after the 1st of August 1906 it was raised to 75%, with the result that soon after that date practically all the rolling stock of American railways, whether passenger or freight, was provided with compressed air brakes.
Intra-urban railways, as compared with ordinary railways, are characterized by shortness of length, great cost per mile, and by a traffic almost exclusively passenger, the burden of which is enormously heavy.
Later intra-urban railways in nearly every case have been built, so far as possible,.
The actual beginning of the construction of intra-urban railways was in 1853, when powers were obtained to build a line, 24 m.
These railways, which in part are operated jointly, were given a circular location, but the shortcomings of this plan soon became apparent.
The Metropolitan and Metropolitan District railways followed the art of railway building as it existed at the time they were laid out.
The next development in intra-urban railways was an elevated line in the city of New York.
These elevated railways as a rule follow the lines of streets, and are of two general types.
Its promoters recognized the unsuitability of ordinary steam locomotives for underground railways, and intended to work it by means of a moving cable; but before it was completed, electric traction had developed so far as to be available for use on such lines.
This arrangement was expected to ensure a sufficient change in air to keep such railways properly ventilated, but experience has proved it to be ineffective for the purpose.
This method of construction has been used for building other railways in Glasgow and London, and in the latter city alone the " tube railways " of this character have a length of some 40 m.
The later examples of these railways have a diameter ranging from 13 to 15 ft.
The fourth step in the development of intra-urban railways was to go to the other extreme from the deep tunnel which Greathead introduced.
One pair of tracks is used for a local service with stations about one-quarter of a mile apart, following the general plan of operation in vogue on all other intra-urban railways.
The third type is the intermediate one between those two, followed by the Metropolitan and Metropolitan District railways, in London, where the railway has an arched roof, built usually at a sufficient distance below the surface of the street to permit the other subsurface structures to lie in the ground above the crown of the arch, and where the station platforms are from 20 to 30 ft.
The distance between stations on intra-urban railways is governed by the density of local traffic and the speed desired to be maintained.
The cost of intra-urban railways depends not only on the type of construction, but more especially upon local conditions, such as the nature of the soil, the presence of subsurface structures, like sewers, water and gas mains, electric conduits, &c.; the necessity of permanent underpinning or temporary supporting of house foundations, the cost of acquiring land passed under or over when street lines are not followed, and, in the case of elevated railways, the cost of acquiring easements of light, air and access, which the courts have held are vested in the abutting property.
The cost of the Metropolitan and Metropolitan District railways of London varied greatly on account of the variations in construction.
The term light railways is somewhat vague and indefinite, and therefore to give a precise definition of its significance is not an easy matter.
No adequate definition is to be found even in the British statute-book; for although g parliament has on different occasions passed acts dealing with such railways both in Great Britain and Ireland, it has not inserted in any of them a clear and sufficient statement of what it intends shall be understood by the term, as distinguished from an ordinary railway.
Since the passing of the Light Railways Act of 1896, which did not apply to Ireland, it is possible to give a formal definition by saying that a light railway is one constructed under the provisions of that act; but it must be noted that the commissioners appointed under that act have authorized many lines which in their physical characteristics are indistinguishable from street tramways constructed under the Tramways Act, and to these the term light railways would certainly not be applied in ordinary parlance.
Economy in capital outlay and cheapness in construction is indeed the characteristic generally associated with light railways by the public, and implicitly attached to them by parliament in the act of 1896, and any simplifications of the engineering or mechanical features they may exhibit compared with the standard railways of the country are mainly, if not entirely, due to the desire to keep down their expenses.
In regard to fencing and precautions at level-crossings, less rigid requirements may be enforced than with standard railways; and in some cases where trains are likely to be few, it has been provided that the normal position of the gates at crossings shall be across the line.
The Light Railways Act 1896 was to remain in force only until the end of 1901 unless continued by parliament, but it was continued year by year under the Expiring Laws Continuance Act.
Towards the end of 1901 a departmental committee of the Board of Trade was formed to consider the Light Railways Act, and in 1902 the president of the Board of Trade (Mr Gerald Balfour) stated that as a result of the deliberations of this committee, a new bill had been drafted which he thought would go very far to meet all the reasonable objections that had been urged against the present powers of the local authorities.
In July 1903, Lord Wolverton, on behalf of the Board of Trade, introduced a bill to continue and amend the Light Railways Act.
The bill was withdrawn on the 11th of August 1903, Lord Morley appealing to the Board of Trade to bring in a more comprehensive measure to amend the unsatisfactory state of legislation in relation to tramways and light railways.
According to the light railway commissioners, experience satisfied them (a) that light railways were much needed in many parts of the country and that many of the lines proposed, but not constructed, were in fact necessary to admit of the progress, and even the maintenance, of existing trade interests; and (b) that improved means of access were requisite to assist in retaining the population on the land, to counteract the remoteness of rural districts, and also, in the neighbourhood of industrial centres, to cope with the difficulties as to housing and the supply of labour.
They expressed the opinion that an improvement could be effected enabling the construction of many much-needed lines by an amendment of some of the provisions of the Light Railways Act, and by a reconsideration of the conditions under which financial or other assistance should be granted to such lines by the state and by local authorities.
The so-called light railways in the United States and the British colonies have been made under the conditions peculiar to new countries.
Their primary object being the development and peopling of the land, they have naturally been made as cheaply as possible; and as in such cases the cost of the land is inconsiderable, economy has been sought by the use of lighter and rougher permanent way, plant, rolling stock, &c. Such railways are not " light " in the technical sense of having been made under enactments intended to secure permanent lowness of cost as compared with standard lines.
On the continent of Europe many countries have encouraged railways which are light in that sense.
In France the lines which best correspond to British light railways are called Chemins de fer d'interit local.
As far as possible, these railways are laid beside roads, in preference to independent formation; the permanent way costs £977 per mile in the former as against £793 in the latter.
In Italy many railways which otherwise fulfil the conditions of a light railway are constructed with a gauge of 4 ft.
In Italy these railways are called " economic railways," and are divided into five types.
In Germany the use of light railways (Klein-bahnen) has made great strides.
What are known as " portable railways " should be included in the same category as light railways.
It is served by the Erie, the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, and the Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley (electric) railways.
Car construction and general shop work of steam railways was the leading manufacturing industry in 1905; next in importance were the flour and grist milling industry and the printing and publishing of newspapers and periodicals.
It is served by the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, the Cincinnati Northern (New York Central system), and a branch of the Cincinnati, Lebanon & Northern (Pennsylvania system) railways.
Parkersburg is served by the Baltimore & Ohio, the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern, and the Little Kanawha railways, by electric railway to Marietta, Ohio, and by passenger and freight boats to Pittsburg, Cincinnati, intermediate ports, and ports on the Little Kanawha.
Chickasha is served by the St Louis & San Francisco, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific and the Oklahoma Central railways.
Marshalltown is served by the Chicago & North-Western, the Chicago Great Western, and the Iowa Central railways, the last of which has machine shops here.
The railways include the three lines of the United Railways of Yucatan (373 m.), and a line from Merida to Peto (145 m.).
Buying up the stock of the Missouri Pacific he built up, by means of consolidations, reorganizations, and the construction of branch lines, the "Gould System" of railways in the south-western states.
Besides, he obtained a controlling interest in the Western Union Telegraph Company, and after 1881 in the elevated railways in New York City, and was intimately connected with many of the largest railway financial operations in the United States for the twenty years following 1868.
The principal systems of railways are the Southern, the Atlantic Coast Line, the Norfolk & Southern and the Seaboard Air Line.
The lease system does not prevail, but the farming out of convict labour is permitted by the constitution; such labour is used chiefly for the building of railways, the convicts so employed being at 'all times cared for and guarded by state officials.
It is served by the Chicago Great Western and the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul railways.
Cloquet is served by the Northern Pacific, the Great Northern, the Duluth & North-Eastern, and (for freight only) the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul railways.
This fact possesses great significance in connexion with the development of Asiatic railways.
Clearly such alterations as the construction of railways in nearly all parts of the continent, and the establishment of peace over formerly disturbed areas like India, are of enormous importance, and must change the life of the people.
It is served by the Lehigh Valley and the Philadelphia & Reading railways, and by the electric lines of the Schuylkill Railway Company and the Shamokin & Mount Carmel Transit Company.
It is served by the Chicago & North-Western, the Northern Pacific, the Chicago, St Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha, and the Wisconsin Central railways, and by several steamboat lines on the Great Lakes.
It is served by the Baltimore & Ohio, and the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern railways.
Pop. (1900) 10,588, of whom 1804 were foreign-born; (1 9 10 census) 9535 It is served by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, and the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific railways, by interurban electric railways, and by the Illinois & Michigan Canal.
Elche is the meetingplace of three railways, from Novelda, Alicante and Murcia.
It is served by the International & Great Northern and the Missouri, Kansas & Texas railways.
The city is served by the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, and the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis railways, and is connected with Indianapolis and with Louisville, Ky., by an electric interurban line.
The Alsatian railways were reorganized and provided with a staff of German officials.
It is served by the Tampa Northern, the Atlantic Coast Line and the Seaboard Air Line railways, and by lines of steamers to the West Indies and to the Gulf and Atlantic ports of the United States.
The district is traversed by the Madras and Southern Mahratta railways, meeting on the eastern border at Guntakal junction, where another line branches off to Bezwada.
It is served by the Chicago & North-Western, and the Wisconsin Central railways; by ferry across the lake to Frankfort, Mich., and Ludington, Mich.; by the Ann Arbor and the Pere Marquette railways; and by the Goodrich line of lake steamers.
Richmond is served by the Atlantic Coast Line, the Chesapeake & Ohio, the Seaboard Air Line, the Southern and the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac railways, and by the Old Dominion, the Virginia Navigation and the Chesapeake steamship lines.
The Light Railways Act and the Locomotives on Highways Act were added to the statute book in 1896, and various clauses in the Finance Act effected reforms in respect of the death duties, the land-tax, farmers' income-tax and the beer duty.
Although the British Empire contains within itself every known species of railway enterprise, the study of railways and other means of transport, and their relation to the business, the commerce and the social life of the country, is deplorably backward.
It is served by the Missouri Pacific and the Chicago & Alton railways.
Before the completion of the Miami & Erie Canal to Toledo, the building of railways was begun in this region, and in 1836 a railway was completed from that city to Adrian, Michigan.
Among the railways are the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the Baltimore & Ohio, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the New York, Chicago & St Louis, the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (Pennsylvania), the Pittsburgh, Ft.
As the building of steam railways lessened, the building of suburban and interurban electric railways was begun, and systems of these railways have been rapidly extended until all the more populous districts are connected by them.
It is served by the Pere Marquette and the Grand Rapids & Indiana railways.
Salisbury is served by the Central New England, and the New York, New Haven, & Hartford railways.
The former (the North, or Union station, 1893) covers 9 acres and has 23 tracks; the latter (the South Terminal, 1898), one of the largest stations in the world, covers 13 acres and has 32 tracks, and is used by the Boston & Albany and by the New York, New Haven & Hartford railways.
There are many large slate quarries in this parish, especially at Blaenau Festiniog, the junction of three railways, London & North Western, Great Western and Festiniog, a narrow-gauge line between Portmadoc and Duffws.
Cairo is served by the Illinois Central, the Mobile & Ohio, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the St Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern, and the St Louis South-Western railways, and by river steamboat lines.
The second quarter of the 19th century was the period of development of railways and manufactures.
The country offers a fairly promising field for development, especially now that arrangements have been made for providing the necessary means of transport by the construction of the new railways.
It is served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford and the Boston & Albany (New York Central & Hudson River) railways, and by two inter-urban electric lines.
A steel bridge across the Missouri (built in 1872; rebuilt in 1906) connects the city with Elwood, Kansas (pop. 1905, 711), and is used by two railways.
It is served by the Chesapeake & Ohio (being a terminal of the Lexington and Big Sandy Divisions) and the Norfolk & Western railways, and is connected with Huntington, West Virginia, by an electric line.
In the southwest of Manchuria a line of the imperial railways of Northern China gives connexion from Peking, and branches at Kou-pang-tsze to Sin Population.
Sterling is served by the Chicago & Northwestern and the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy railways, and by inter-urban electric railway to Dixon, 12 m.
Bulk barges were soon introduced on the larger rivers, but the use of these was partially rendered unnecessary by the introduction of railways, when the oil was at first transported in barrels on freight cars, but later in tank-cars.
Railways run from Beirut to Homs, Hamah, Aleppo and Damascus (French), and to the latter also from Haifa (Turkish).
A small proportion go to the Johannesburg gold mines, and others obtain employment on the railways.
An important influence has been the railways.
Plant (1819-1899) and once formed a part of the so-called " Plant System " of railways.
The Seaboard Air Line, the Louisville & Nashville, and the Georgia Southern & Florida are the other important railways.
It is served by the Central Indiana, the Chicago & Eastern Illinois, the Evansville & Indianapolis and the Vandalia railways, and is connected with Indianapolis, Terre Haute and other cities by an interurban electric line.
It is served by the International & Great Northern, the National of Mexico, the Texas Mexican and the Rio Grande & Eagle Pass railways, and is connected by bridges with Nuevo Laredo.
It is served by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago & North-Western, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, the Chicago, Milwaukee & Gary ("Rockford Route") and the Illinois Central railways, and is connected by interurban electric railway with Chicago and Freeport, Illinois, and Janesville, Wisconsin.
The work done includes a concrete dock, mechanically equipped to convey freight between river and railways.
It is served by the Chicago, Milwaukee & Saint Paul, the Chicago & North-Western, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific (which has repair shops here), and the Illinois Central railways, and by interurban electric lines.
N.E., which is served by the Norfolk & Western and the Tidewater & Western railways.
It is served by the Southern, the Central of Georgia, the Georgia, the Seaboard Air Line, the Nashville, Chattanooga & St Louis (which enters the city over the Western & Atlantic, one of its leased lines), the Louisville & Nashville, the Atlanta, Birmingham & Atlantic, and the Atlanta & West Point railways.
It is served by the Arkansas, Louisiana & Gulf, the Little Rock & Monroe, the% Vicksburg, Shreveport & Pacific (Queen & Crescent), and the St Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern railways, and by river steamers plying between New Orleans and Camden, Arkansas.
It is the eastern terminus of the Pennsylvania, the Lehigh Valley, the West Shore, the Central of New Jersey, the Baltimore & Ohio, the Northern of New Jersey (operated by the Erie), the Erie, the New York, Susquehanna & Western, and the New Jersey & New York (controlled by the Erie) railways, the first three using the Pennsylvania station; and of the little-used Morris canal.
Jersey City is served by several inter-urban electric railways and by the tunnels of the Hudson & Manhattan railroad company to Dey St.
It is the junction between the Oudh & Rohilkhand and East Indian railways, the Ganges being crossed by a steel girder bridge of seven spans, each 350 ft.
It is served by the Boston & Maine and (for freight) by the Boston & Albany railways.
Large portions, however, in the hilly centre and in the south-east, are still remote from railways.
The public debt, practically the whole of which is on railways, amounted to 1 9, 0 97,4 68 in 1907.
It stands at the junction of several important roads and railways from Maaseyck, Maastricht and Liege.
Many industries flourish on the outskirts of the town, including rope and net manufactures, flour mills, saw mills, mining railways, paper mills.
Having started as a tanner and merchant at Havre, he acquired considerable wealth, was elected to the National Assembly on the 21st of August 1881, and took his seat as a member of the Left, interesting himself chiefly in matters concerning economics, railways and the navy.
In Asiatic Turkey several districts of historical interest have been surveyed, and surveys have likewise been made in the interest of railways, or by boundary commis- Asia.
The details given are considered sufficient to admit of the selection of general routes for railways or other public works.
Louisiana is served by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy and the Chicago & Alton railways, and by several lines of river steamboats.
It is served by the railways of the Western and the Orleans Companies and by those of the state, but it has no navigable waterways.
Lancaster is served by the Hocking Valley, the Columbus & Southern and the Cincinnati & Muskingum Valley (Pennsylvania Lines) railways, and by the electric line of the Scioto Valley Traction Company, which connects it with Columbus.
The town is the terminus of railways to north and south.
It is served by the Baltimore & Ohio South-Western, the Chicago & Alton, the Chicago, Peoria & St Louis, the Illinois Central, the Wabash, and the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton railways, and by inter-urban electric lines.
The Wabash and the Chicago, Peoria & St Louis railways have large repair shops here.
For transportation the North Saskatchewan is to some extent depended on for carrying freight by steamboats, but railways are widespread in the province.
It is served by the Baltimore & Ohio and the Pennsylvania railways, and is connected by an electric line with Byesville (pop. in 1900, 1267), about 7 m.
There are no steam railways, but an electric line connects South Hadley and South Hadley Falls with the New York, New Haven & Hartford and the Boston & Maine railways at Holyoke.
He provided a steady revenue by the levying of a tax of 10% on the annual net produce of the gold mines, and devoted special attention to the repatriation of the Boers, land settlement by British colonists, education, justice, the constabulary, and the development of railways.
The competition of the water lines is felt by all the railways, and the importance of water transportation is rapidly increasing.
Under the conditions of free labour, the development of railways abroad, the improvement of machinery both in cane and beet producing countries, the general competition of the beet, and the fall of prices, it was impossible for the Cuban industry to survive without radical betterment of methods.
The policy of the railways was always one rather of extortion than of fairness or of any interest in the development of the country, but better conditions have begun..
In 1900 the total length of railways was 2097 m., of which 1226 were of 17 public roads and 871 m.
In August 1908 the mileage of all railways (including electric) in Cuba was 232 9.8 m.
The state owes to this ruler the opening up of new railways across the great desert, which was formerly passable only by camels, and the tapping of the valuable coal deposits that occur in the territory.
The Bahamas are without railways, but there are good roads.
The territory is traversed throughout its length by the North-Western and Southern Punjab railways.
It is served by the Mobile & Ohio and the Southern railways; and by a branch of the Illinois Central connecting Jackson, Miss., and Birmingham, Ala.
Two railways were also built, in connexion with the Hungarian state system.
Up to this point the railways of the occupied territory were complete in 1901.
A considerable hindrance to the development of the empire's resources has been the lack of an adequate system of communications; but although it is still deficient in good roads, much has been done of late years to develop railways, extend canals and improve river communications.
From 1250 in 1885, of which 903 were in Europe and 347 in Asia, the mileage of railways had increased to some 4440 in 1909, of which 1377 are in Europe, 1810 in Asia Minor, 418 in Syria and 835 fall to the share of the Hejaz railway, including the Ed-Dera-Haifa branch.
Finally, various receipts of which the principal separately specified are government share of railway receipts (Oriental railways and Smyrna-Cassaba railway), ET201,710, and " subscriptions " for the Hejaz railway, ET264,600, form Section VIII.
The want of railways in Asia Minor was urgently felt, but no capitalists were willing to risk their money in Turkish railways without a substantial guarantee, and a guarantee of the Turkish government alone was not considered substantial enough.
In 1888 it was proposed by the public debt administration to undertake the collection of specified revenues to be set aside for the provision of railway guarantees, the principle to be followed being, generally, that such revenues should consist of the tithes of the districts through which the railways would pass, and that the public debt should hand over to guaranteed railway companies the amounts of their guarantees before transmitting to the imperial government any of the proceeds of the revenue so collected.
The government adopted this proposal, and laid down as a principle that it would guarantee the gross receipts per kilometre of guaranteed railways, such gross receipts to be settled for each railway on its own merits.
The economic effect of the railways upon the districts through which they run is apparent from the comparative values of the tithes in the regions traversed by the Anatolian railway in 1889 and 1898 in which years it so happened that prices were almost at exactly the same level, and again in 1908-1909, when they were only slightly higher.
This raised strong objections on the part of Russia, and led to the Black Sea Basin agreement reserving to Russia the sole right to construct railways in the northern portion of Asia Minor.
The Bagdad railway must for much time be a heavy Ottoman Railways worked at end of 1908.
The tables on p. 440 show the respective lengths of the various Ottoman railways open and worked at the end of 1908 and the amount of kilometric guarantees which they carried - and the lengths, &c., of railways worked by the various companies according to the nationality of the concessionaire groups.
The city is served by the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern; the New York, Chicago & St Louis; the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis; the Pennsylvania; the Erie; the Baltimore & Ohio; and the Wheeling & Lake Erie railways; by steamboat lines to the principal ports on the Great Lakes; and by an extensive system of inter-urban electric lines.
The building of railways during the decade 1850-1860 greatly increased this importance, and the city grew with great rapidity.
Both in the east (at Batna) and the west (at Ain Sefra) the mountains are traversed by railways, which, starting from Mediterranean seaports, take the traveller into the Sahara.
The railways belong chiefly to the Orleans and Paris-Lyons-Mediterranean companies.
It is served by the Boston & Maine and the Central Vermont railways, and by interurban electric railways to Northampton, Holyoke, Sunderland and Pelham.
Iron shipments from the Mesabi and Vermilion ranges, cereals from the Northwest, fruits and vegetables from the Pacific coast, and Oriental products obtained via the great northern railways, are also elements of great importance in the state's commerce.
The port is connected with Lima by two railways and an electric tramway, with Oroya by railway 138 m.
The appendix de Benedictionibus to the Rituale Romanum contains formulae, often of much simple beauty, for blessing all manner of persons and things, from the congregation as a whole and sick men and women, to railways, ships, blast-furnaces, lime-kilns, articles of food, medicine and medical bandages and all manner of domestic animals.
It is of modern growth, possessing a town hall, market hall, free library, technical school, pleasant park and recreation grounds, and an extensive system of electric tramways and light railways, connecting with Burnley and Colne.
It is served by the Missouri Pacific, the Chicago & Alton, and the Missouri, Kansas & Texas railways.
The fortifications as such were removed in 1815, but they have left their trace in a fine girdle of green round the city, though too many inroads on its completeness have been made by railways and roadways.
The city is served by the International & Great Northern, and the Missouri, Kansas & Texas railways.
It is pleasantly situated between two bays of the great Lake Mjosen, and is the junction of the railways to Trondhjem (N.) and to Otta in Gudbrandsdal (N.W.).
The first railway to reach Siberia was built in 1878, when a line was constructed between Perm, at which point travellers for Siberia Railways.
It is served by the Lehigh Valley and the New York Central & Hudson River railways, and by inter-urban electric lines.
It is served by the Lancashire & Yorkshire and London & North-Western railways, and by the Southport & Cheshire Lines Extension system.
Bowling Green is served by the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton and the Toledo & Ohio Central railways, and by the Toledo Urban & Interurban and the Lake Erie, Bowling Green & Napoleon electric lines, the former extending from Toledo to Dayton.
Huntington is served by three railways - the Wabash, the Erie (which has car shops and division headquarters here) and the Cincinnati, Bluffton & Chicago (which has machine shops here), and by the Fort Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Company, whose car and repair shops and power station are in Huntington.
It is served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford railroad and by interurban electric railways.
He was specially identified with measures concerning trusts and railways, and had a leading part in drafting the so-called Esch-Cummins bill under which the Government in 1920 handed back to private control the railways of the United States.
It is served by the Grand Trunk and the Pontiac, Oxford & Northern railways (being the southern terminus of the latter), and by the Detroit & Pontiac and the North-Western electric inter-urban lines.
It is an important station on the Great Northern railway, whose principal locomotive and carriage works are here, and it is also served by the North Eastern, Great Eastern, Great Central, Lancashire & Yorkshire, and Midland railways.
It is served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford, and the Rhode Island Suburban railways, and is connected with the island of Rhode Island by ferry.
It is served by the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the Illinois Central, the Chicago Great Western, and the Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern railways.
To encourage the investment of private capital in the construction of railways, the general railway law of 1853 authorized the national government to grant guarantees of interest on the capital invested.
The department of industry, communications and public works takes the next highest proportion, but about half its expenditures are met by special taxes, as in the case of port works and railway inspection, and by the revenues of the state railways, telegraph lines and post office.
The purchase of guaranteed railways owned by foreign companies likewise added largely to the bonded indebtedness, though the onus was in existence in another form.
It is served by the Grand Trunk and the Pere Marquette railways, and by an electric line, the Detroit United railway, connecting with Detroit.
The two trunk railways serving Edinburgh are the North British and the Caledonian.
In Scott's early days a journey to London was beset with difficulties and even dangers; but railways have now brought it within a few hours' distance, and Scottish artists and literary men are tempted to seek a wider field.
The unsuitability of the harbour for modern steamers, the bad anchorage outside and the extension of railways from Smyrna have greatly lessened its former importance as an emporium for west central Anatolia.
In addition to the industries connected with the shipping, large numbers of hands are employed in the government railway works, where the locomotives and rolling stock used by the state railways are manufactured.