Railway sentence example
The city has a station on the North Western railway 32 m.
Kyaukse town is situated on the Zawgyi River and on the Rangoon-Mandalay railway line, and is well laid out in regular streets, covering an area of about a square mile.
The most attractive parts are the American quarter, where the employes of the Panama railway have their homes, and the old French quarter, where dwelt the French officers during their efforts to build the canal.
Among Servian cities, Nish is only surpassed by Belgrade in commercial and strategic importance; for it lies at the point where several of the chief Balkan highroads converge, and where the branch railway to Salonica leaves the main line between Belgrade and Constantinople.
It is an important station on the Oudh & Rohilkhand railway, with a junction for Aligarh.Advertisement
The railway system of Sardinia is in the hands of two companies - the Compagnia Reale delle Ferrovie Sarde, and the Compagnia delle Ferrovie Secondarie della Sardegna.
Asheville is situated at the junction of three branches of the Southern railway, on a high terrace on the east bank of the French Broad river, at the mouth of the Swannanoa, about 2300 ft.
The main line of the Orleans railway passes through a tunnel beneath the town.
Its line is followed closely by the modern highroad and railway.
The railway runs through the centre of the rice-producing area, and feeder roads open up the country as far as the Shan foot-hills.Advertisement
The department is served chiefly by the lines of the Northern railway; in addition, the main line of the Eastern railway to Strassburg traverses the extreme south.
Several railway lines have been projected, but there is no great probability of their construction under existing political conditions.
It has stations on the London & North-Western and the Lancashire & Yorkshire railways, with running powers for the Midland railway.
Colon dates its origin from the year 1850, when the island of Manzanillo was selected as the Atlantic terminus of the Panama railway.
The difference between English and Roman miles would be compensated for by the more devious course taken by the railway.Advertisement
It is the western terminus of the Canadian Pacific railway.
The town has a station on the Southern Mahratta railway.
The centres of the cotton trade are Hubli and Gadag, junctions on the Southern Mahratta railway, which traverses the district in several directions.
The building of the Canadian Pacific railway through almost continuous rocks for 800 miles was one of the greatest engineering feats of modern times.
Immediately on the‘ formation of the Canadian Pacific railway company branch lines were begun at Winnipeg and there are eight radial lines running from this centre to all parts of the country.Advertisement
In opposition to the Canadian Pacific railway a southern line was built from Winnipeg to the American boundary.
This fell into the hands of the Northern Pacific railway, but was purchased by the promoters of the Canadian Northern railway.
This railway has six radiating lines leaving the city of Winnipeg, and its main line connects Port Arthur on Lake Superior with Edmonton in the west.
The Canadian Northern railway has a remarkable network of railways connecting Winnipeg with every corner of Manitoba.
The Great Northern railway has also three branch lines in Manitoba and one of these has Winnipeg as its terminus.Advertisement
In the charter granted by the Canadian parliament to the Canadian Pacific railway a clause giving it for twenty years control over the railway construction of the province led to a fierce agitation, till the clause was repealed in 1888.
Denver is an important railway centre, being served by nine railways, of which the chief are the Atchison, ' Topeka & Santa Fe; the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy; the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific; the Denver & Rio Grande; the Union Pacific; and the Denver, North-Western & Pacific, Denver lies on the South Platte river, at an altitude exactly m.
The prosperity of the city depends on that of the rich mining country about it, on a very extensive wholesale trade, for which its situation and railway facilities admirably fit it, and on its large manufacturing and farming interests.
Until 1870, when it secured a branch railway from the Union Pacific line at Cheyenne (Wyoming), the city was on one side of the transcontinental travelroutes.
It is served by the Morris & Essex division of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western railway and by the Orange branch of the Erie (the former having three stations in the city - Grove Street, East Orange and Brick Church), and is connected with Newark, Orange and West Orange by electric line.
Railways.The first important line in France, from Paris to Rouen, was constructed through the instrumentality of Sir Edward Blount (1809-1905), an English banker in Paris, who was afterwards for thirty years chairman of the Ouest railway.
The contract for building the railway was put in the hands of Thomas Brassey; English navvies were largely employed on the work, and a number of English engine-drivers were employed when traffic was begun in 1843.
Next year a large programme of railway expansion was adopted, at an estimated cost to the state of 14o,000,000, and from 1880 to 1882 nearly 40,000,000 was expended and some 18cc m.
As before, the sums paid out in respect of guaranteed dividend were to be regarded as advances which were to be paid back to the state out of the profits made, when these permitted, and when the advances were wiped out, the profits, after payment of a certain dividend, were to be divided between the state and the railway, two-thirds going to the former and one-third to the latter.
By the 1859 conventions the state railway system obtained an entry into Paris by means of running powers over the Ouest from Chartres, and its position was further improved by the exchange of certain lines with the Orleans company.
The group specially described as indirect taxes includes those on alcohol, wine, beer, cider and other alcoholic drinks, on passenger and goods traffic by railway, on licences to distillers, spirit-sellers, &c., on salt and on sugar of home manufacture.
Guarantees to railway companies, &c. (in capital) 89,724,080
Since July 1899, when the post office in Salem was made a sub-station of that of Winston, the cities (officially two independent municipalities) have been known by postal and railway authorities as Winston-Salem.
The town has a station on the Anatolian railway, about 60 m.
It has manufactures of coarse cloth, spirits and soap. The nearest railway station is Calasparra, 6 m.
Morelia is served by a branch of the Mexican National railway; its station is outside the city, with which it is connected by a small tramway line.
A steam railway ferry connects it with the island railway on Riigen, and so with Sassnitz, whence a regular steamboat mail service affords communication with Trelleborg in Sweden.
The Ballycastle railway joins the main line here.
Falun has also railway rolling-stock factories.
Tsaritsyn is the terminus of a railway which begins at Riga and, running south-eastwards, intersects all the main lines which radiate from Moscow to the south.
Corn from middle Russia for Astrakhan is transferred from the railway to boats at Tsaritsyn; timber and wooden wares from the upper Volga are unloaded here and sent by rail to Kalach; and fish, salt and fruits sent from Astrakhan by boat up the Volga are here unloaded and despatched by rail to the interior of Russia.
The town has grown rapidly since the completion of the railway system, and has a large trade in petroleum from Baku.
Railway connexion with the port of La Guaira was opened in 1883 by means of a line 23 m.
The city is connected with its port, Jaffa, by a carriage road, 41 m., and by a metre-gauge railway, 54 m., which was completed in 1892, and is worked by a French company.
The growth has been chiefly towards the north and north-west; but there are large suburbs on the west, and on the southwest near the railway station on the plain of Rephaim.
Without the walls carriage roads have been made to the mount of Olives, the railway station, and various parts of the suburbs, but they are kept in bad repair.
A few miles above this point the river is spanned by the magnificent bridges of Cubzac-lesPonts, which carry a road and railway.
The chief mines belong to the Mount Lyell Mining & Railway Co., and are situated on the west side of the island with an outlet by rail to Strahan on the west coast.
The first of these comprises chiefly the mines of the Hunter river districts; the second includes the Illawarra district, and, generally, the coastal regions to the south of Sydney, together with Berrima, on the tableland; and the third consists of the mountainous regions on the Great Western railway and extends as far as Dubbo.
Almost the whole of the railway lines in Australia are the property of the state governments, and have been constructed and equipped wholly by borrowed capital.
The divergence of policy of that state from that pursued by the other states was caused by the inability of the government to construct lines, when the extension of the railway system was urgently needed in the interests of settlement.
In 1906 a light railway was opened to Pandharpur from Barsi Road on the Great Indian Peninsula railway.
It is served by the Maine Central railway, by several electric lines, and by steamboat lines to Portland, Boston and several other ports.
In 1873 he became interested in a project for uniting Europe and Asia by a railway to Bombay, with a branch to Peking.
It is served by the Tuskegee railway, which connects it with Chehaw, 5 m.
There are practically no branch roads in Turkestan, and the only means of transport in bulk is either by wagon on the few main roads, or by railway.
The Panislamic propaganda was encouraged; the privileges of foreigners in the Ottoman Empire - of ten an obstacle to government - were curtailed; the new railway to the Holy Places was pressed on, and emissaries were sent to distant countries preaching Islam and the caliph's supremacy.
Belleville is served by the Illinois Central, the Louisville & Nashville, and the Southern railways, also by extensive interurban electric systems; and a belt line to O'Fallon, Illinois, connects Belleville with the Baltimore & Ohio South Western railway.
Only less important and only less early to be established in Vermont was the quarrying of granite, which began in 1812, but which has been developed chiefly since 1880, largely by means of the building of "granite railroads" which connect each quarry with a main railway line - a means of transportation as important as the logging railways of the Western states and of Canada.
The first important industry of the state was "rafting" lumber from Vermont through Lake Champlain and the Richelieu and St Lawrence rivers to Quebec. Burlington became a great lumber market for a trade moving in the direction of Boston after the Richelieu river was blocked to navigation and railway transportation began, and in 1882 Burlington was the third lumber centre in the United States.
Railway transportation is supplied to Vermont by parallel lines crossing diagonally every part of the state at about equal intervals and running in general in a N.W.
The railway map of the state thus has roughly the appearance of a gridiron.
The southern part of the state was early opened to railways, the Sullivan County railway (operated by the Boston & Maine) having been opened in 1849; and in 1850 the state had 290 m.
The principal towns are Bandung, the capital of the residency, Sukabumi, Chianjar, Sumedang, Chichalengka, Garut, Tasik Malaya and Manon Jaya, all with the exception of Sumedang connected by railway.
On the quay are the landing-stages, the custom-house and the railway station.
The Sligo, Leitrim & Northern Counties railway connects with the Great Northern at Enniskillen, and the Clogher Valley light railway connects southern county Tyrone with the Great Northern at Maguiresbridge.
Benevento is a station on the railway from Naples to Foggia, and has branch lines to Campobasso and to Avellino.
It is served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford railway, and is primarily a residential suburb of Boston, with which it is connected by electric lines.
It is the terminus of a branch of the Great Western railway from Uffington.
A light tramway connects the city and port, and a railway - the Alagoas Central - connects the two with various interior towns.
Subsequently Green was engaged in railway building in Georgia and Alabama.
Barmouth is a favourite bathing place, on the Cambrian railway.
The main railway from Belgrade to Constantinople skirts the Maritza and Ergene valleys, and there is an important branch line down the Maritza valley to Dedeagatch, and thence coastwise to Salonica.
When the consolidation of the Dominion by means of railway construction was under discussion in 1872, Grant travelled from the Atlantic to the Pacific with the engineers who surveyed the route of the Canadian Pacific railway, and his book Ocean to Ocean (1873) was one of the first things that opened the eyes of Canadians to the value of the immense heritage they enjoyed.
It is provided with a jetty, is the sea terminus of the railway systems, the residence of the governor, and has churches, schools, hospitals and large business houses.
About 1880, while the Gediz Chai was throwing its silt unchecked into the Gulf of Smyrna and gradually filling the navigable channel, there was talk of reviving Fokia as a new port for Smyrna, and connecting it with the Cassaba railway.
The branch railway connecting Whitstable with Canterbury was one of the earliest in England, opened in 1830.
It has iron foundries, machinery factories, railway workshops and a considerable trade in cattle, and among its other industries are weaving and malting and the manufacture of cloth.
Manchester is served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford railway and by electric line connecting with Hartford, Rockville and Stafford Springs.
In front of the Royal Engineers' Institute is a statue (1890) of General Gordon, and near the railway station another (1888) to Thomas Waghorn, promoter of the overland route to India.
It is served by the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western railway, and by the Oneonta & Mohawk Valley electric line connecting with the New York Central railway at Herkimer.
Where, however, there are a number of cranes all belonging to the same installation, and these are placed so as to be conveniently worked from a central power station, and where the work is rapid, heavy and continuous, as is the case at large ports, docks and railway or other warehouses, experience has shown that it is best to produce the power in a generating station and distribute it to the cranes.
When portable cranes are fitted with springs and axle-boxes, drawgear and buffers, so that they can be coupled to an ordinary railway train, they are called " breakdown " or " wrecking " cranes.
It is often very desirable to have the quay space as little obstructed by the cranes as possible, so as not to interfere with railway traffic; this has led to the introduction of cranes mounted on high trucks or gantries, sometimes also called " portal " cranes.
The country is traversed throughout by the Rajputana railway, with its Malwa branch in the south, and diverging to Agra and Delhi in the north.
It rises in the northern slopes of the Koh-i-Baba to the west of Kabul, and finally loses itself in the Tejend oasis north of the Trans-Caspian railway and west of Merv.
This telegraph required six wires, and was shortly afterwards displaced by the single-needle system, still to a large extent used on railway and other less important circuits.
The form in general use on the British postal lines is the " Cordeaux screw," but the " Varley double cup " is still employed, especially by the railway companies.
The earliest practical trial of electrical telegraphy was made in 1837 on the London and North Western Railway, and the first public line under the patent of Wheatstone and Cooke was laid from Paddington to Slough on the Great Western Railway in 1843.
For some time it restricted its operations to constructing and maintaining railway telegraphs and was not commercially successful.
Both the telegraph companies and the railway companies had incurred heavy commercial risks in developing the telegraph services of the country and only moderate profits were earned.
In 1868 the length of electric telegraph lines belonging to the companies was 16,643 m., and of those belonging to the railway companies 4872 m., or a total of 21,515.
Smith, worked out a system of communicating between railway stations and moving trains.
Thus, in the case of one station and one moving railway carriage, there is a circuit consisting partly of the earth, partly of the ordinary telegraph wires at the side of the track, and partly of the circuits of the telephone receiver at one place and the secondary of the induction coil at the other, two air gaps existing in this circuit.
The opening of the railway enabled it to compete successfully with Alicante, and revived the mining and metallurgical industries, while considerable sums were expended on bringing the coast and land defences up to date, and adding new quays, docks and other harbour works.
The price is to be fixed by the Railway and Canal Commissioners as arbitrators on the basis of the " then value," exclusive of any allowance for past or future profits or any compensation for compulsory sale or other consideration.
Great progress has been made in the manufacture of machinery; locomotives, railway carriages, electric tram-cars, &c., and machinery of all kinds, are now largely made in Italy itself, especially in the north and in the neighborhood of Naples.
Milan 4s the most important railway centre in the country, and is followed by Turin, Genoa, Verona, Bologna, Rome, Naples.
By the act of 1903 the state contributes half and the province a quarter of the cost of roads connecting communes with the nearest railway stations or landing places.
The number of state telegraph offices was 4603, of other offices (railway and tramway stations, which accept private telegrams for transmission) 1930.
Outside the all-important domain of finance, the attention of Minghetti and his colleagues was principally absorbed by strife between church and state, army reform and railway redemption.
The long-promised abolition of the grist tax was not explicitly mentioned, opposition to the railway redemption contracts was transformed into approval, and the vaunted reduction of taxation replaced by lip-service to the Conservative deity of financial equilibrium.
The railway redemption contracts were in fact immediately voted by parliament, with a clause pledging the government to legislate in favor of farming out the railways to private companies.
Notwithstanding this prospective loss of revenue, parliament showed great reluctance to vote any new impost, although hardly a year previously it had sanctioned (3oth June 1879) Depretiss scheme for spending during the next eighteen years 43,200,000 in building 5000 kilometres of railway, an expenditure not wholly justified by the importance of the lines, and useful principally as a source of electoral sops for the constituents of ministerial deputies.
The rivalry between these two officials in Tunisia contributed not a little to strain FrancoItalian relations, but it is doubtful whether France would have precipitated her action had not General Menabrea, Italian ambassador in London, urged his government to purchase the Tunis-Goletta railway from the English company by which it had been constructed.
A French attempt to purchase the line was upset in the English courts, and the railway was finally secured by Italy at a price more than eight times its real value.
Unfortunately, the calculation of probable railway revenue on The railwhich the conventions had been based proved to be way C0fl enormously exaggerated.
Intimately bound up with the forced currency, the railway conventions and public works was the financial question in general.
In the spring of 1887 Genala, minister of public works, was taken to task for having sanctioned expenditure of 80,000,000 on railway construction while only 40,000,000 had been included in the estimates.
Besides the realization of the formal programme of the Left, consisting of the repeal of the grist tax, the abolition of the forced currency, the extension of the suffrage and the development of the railway system Depretis laid the foundation for land tax re-assessment by introducing a new cadastral survey.
The corn duty was reduced to meet the emergency, but the disturbed area extended to Naples, Foggia, Ban, MinervinoRiots of Murge, Molfetta and thence along the line of railway 1898.
The most serious movement at this time was that of the railway servants.
On the 4th of January 1902, the employees of the Mediterranean railway advanced these demands at a meeting at Turin, and threatened to strike if they were not satisfied.
The government called out all the railwaymen who were army reservists, but continued to keep them at their railway work, exercising military discipline over them and thus ensuring the continuance of the service.
At Genoa, which was in the hands of the teppisti for a couple of days, three persons were killed and 50 wounded, including 14 policemen, and railway communications were interrupted for a short time.
Early in 1905 there was a fresh agitation among the railway servants, who were dissatisfied with the clauses concerning the personnel in the bill for the purchase of the lines Unrest of.
On the 17th of April a general railway strike was ordered by the union, but owing to the action of the authorities, who for once showed energy, the traffic was carried on, Other disturbances of a serious character occurred among the steelworkers of Terni, at Grammichele in Sicily and at Alessandria.
In October 1907 there was again a general strike at Milan, which was rendered more serious on account of the action of the railway servants, and extended to other cities; traffic was disorganized over a large part of northern Italy, until the government, being now owner of the railways, dismissed the ringleaders from the service.
This had the desired effect, and although the Sindacato dci ferrovieri (railway servants union) threatened a general railway strike if the dismissed men were not reinstated, there was no further trouble.
Weaving is taught in the girls' school, and fairs are held for the sale of farm produce; but the absence of a railway and the badness of the roads retard commerce.
It is served by the Virginia and Truckee railway, which has repair shops here, and by stage to Lake Tahoe, 12 m.
The railway system belongs to the northern section of the State railways, and affords communication with Germany via Winschoten.
Rhayader is a station on the Cambrian railway.
The district is watered by four branches of the Ganges canal, and traversed by two lines of railway.
It is served by the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac railway, and is a favourite resort from Richmond.
Westboro is served by the Boston & Albany railway and by interurban electric lines.
The Eastern railway has works at Romilly, and there are iron works at Clairvaux and wire-drawing works at Plaines; but owing to the absence of coal and iron mines, metal working is of small importance.
The exports of Aube consist of timber, cereals, agricultural products, hosiery, wine, dressed pork, &c.; its imports include wool and raw cotton, coal and machinery, especially looms. The department is served by the Eastern railway, of which the main line to Belfort crosses it.
These are places where the mode of travelling or of transport is changed, such as seaports, river ports and railway termini, or natural resting-places, such as a ford, the foot of a steep ascent on a road, the entrance of a valley leading up from a plain into the mountains, or a crossing-place of roads or railways.'
It is served by the Chicago & North-Western railway, by interurban electric lines connecting with Chicago and Milwaukee, and by freight and passenger steamship lines on Lake Michigan.
The construction of the Grand Trunk Pacific railway through this district has made it of some importance.
Columbus is an important railway centre and is served by the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St.
Immediately outside the city limits in 1905 were various large and important manufactories, including railway shops, foundries, slaughterhouses, ice factories and brick-yards.
In 1905 Portland was the first manufacturing city of the state, with a factory product valued at $9,132,801 (as against $8,527,649 for Lewiston, which outranked Portland in 1900); here are foundries and machine-shops, planing-mills, car and railway repair shops, packing and canning establishments - probably the first Indian corn canned in the United States was canned near Portland in 1840 - potteries, and factories for making boots, shoes, clothing, matches, screens, sleighs, carriages, cosmetics, &c. Shipbuilding and fishing are important industries.
The Rhone and the Saone are navigable for considerable distances in the department; the chief railway is that of the Paris-LyonMediterranee Company, whose line from Macon to Culoz traverses the department.
A railway from Buenaventura will give Cali and the valley behind it, with which it is connected by over 200 m.
It stands near the border of Victoria, on the right bank of the Murray river, here crossed by two bridges, one built of wood carrying a road, the other of iron bearing the railway.
With the opening of the Russian railway from the Caspian to Merv, Bokhara and Samarkand in 1886-1887, Russian manufacturers were enabled to compete in Central Asia with their western rivals, and the value of European manufactures passing Meshed in transit was much reduced.
In 1894 the Russian government enforced new customs regulations, by which a heavy duty is levied on Anglo-Indian manufactures and produce, excepting pepper, ginger and drugs, imported into Russian Asia by way of Persia; and the importation of green teas is altogether prohibited except by way of Batum, Baku, Uzunada and the Transcaspian railway.
The railways of the state are the Recife and Sao Francisco (77 m.), Central de Pernambuco (132 m.) and Sul de Pernambuco (120 m.) - all government properties leased to the Great Western of Brazil Railway Co., Ltd., since 1901.
This afterwards declined, but it is now one of the principal points of communication between England and France, the railway company maintaining a daily service of fast steamers to Dieppe in connexion with the Chemin de fer de 1'Ouest.
The city is a trade centre for a rich farming district, has car-shops (of the Pere Marquette railway) and iron foundries, and manufactures wagons, pottery, furniture and clothing.
Small vessels carry cargo to Braila and Galatz, and a branch railway from Calarashi traverses the Steppe from south to north, and meets the main line between Bucharest and Constantza.
He was afterwards attached to the administration of the railway from Lyons to the Mediterranean.
It is served by the Southern Pacific railway.
The river is embanked and is crossed by the Pont Doumer, a fine railway bridge over i m.
Trade is controlled by foreigners, the British being prominent in banking, finance, railway work and the higher branches of commerce; Spaniards, Italians and French in the wholesale and retail trade.
At the same time the interest guaranteed to the railway companies was reduced from 7 to 32%.
It is a station on the East Indian railway, 368 m.
From 1847, when the first railway entered the city, Indianapolis has steadily grown in importance as a railway centre.
Other noteworthy buildings are the Federal building (containing post-office, custom-house and Federal court-rooms; erected at a cost of $3,000,000); Tomlinson Hall, capable of seating 3000 persons, given to the city by Daniel Tomlinson; the Propylaeum, a club-house for women; the Commercial club; Das Deutsche Haus, belonging to a German social club; the Maennerchor club-house; the Union railway station; the traction terminal building; the city hall, and the public library.
The city's central geographical position, its extensive' railway connexions, and its proximity to important coal-fields have combined to make it one of the principal industrial centres of the Middle West.
Bulacán is served by the Manila-Dagupan railway.
Part of the shore is skirted by the West Highland railway, opened in 1894, which has stations on the loch at Tarbet and Ardlui, and Balloch is the terminus of the lines from Dumbarton and from Stirling via Buchlyvie.
It is served by the Madras railway, and is the chief seaport on the Malabar coast, and the principal exports are coffee, timber and coco-nut products.
Frankfort is served by the Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville, the Lake Erie & Western, the Vandalia, and the Toledo, St Louis & Western railways, and by the Indianapolis & North -Western Traction Interurban railway (electric).
The city is a division point on the Toledo, St Louis & Western railway, which has large shops here.
It also contains the workshops of the Great North of Scotland railway.
A railway, built in 1909-1910, connects Khartum, Wad Medani and Sennar with Kordofan, the White Nile being bridged near Goz Abu Guma.
Sibonga is an agricultural town with a port for coasting vessels, and is served by a railway.
It contains breweries, tanneries, sugar, tobacco, cloth, and silk factories, and exports skins, cloth, cocoons, cereals, attar of roses, "dried fruit, &c. Sofia forms the centre of a railway system radiating to Constantinople (300 m.), Belgrade (206 m.) and central Europe, Varna, Rustchuk and the Danube, and Kiustendil near the Macedonian frontier.
But since 1894 all extraordinary items of expenditure, with the exception of those for the construction of new lines of railway, have been defrayed out of ordinary revenue.
At the same time the chief lines of railway which had been built by public companies with a state guarantee, and which represented a loss to the empire of £3,171,250 per annum, as well as a growing indebtedness, were bought by the state.
At the Pacific end of the Siberian railway a line connecting Vladivostok with Khabarovsk (479 m.) at the junction of the Amur and the Usuri, was first of all built, following the valley of the Usuri.
Consequently a company was formed by the Russian government in 1896 to construct, with the consent of the Chinese government, a railway from Vladivostok across Manchuria to Karymskaya near Chita in Transbaikalia.
The first portion of the Manchurian railway, built by Russian engineers, with Chinese labour, was finished in 1902.
Chelyabinsk was linked by a transverse line with the middle Urals railway, which connects Perm, the head of navigation in the Volga basin, with Tyumen, the head of navigation on the Ob and Irtysh, passing through Ekaterinburg and other mining centres of the middle Urals.
This railway has become important for the export of raw cotton from Central Asia to Russia.
A third line of great importance is the junction line between the Transcaucasian railway - which runs from Batum and Poti to Baku, via Tiflis, with a branch line to Kars - and the railway system of Russia proper.
In Asia, after the accession of Nicholas II., the expansion of Russia, following the line of least resistance and stimulated by the construction of the Trans-Siberian railway, took the direction of northern China and the effete little kingdom of Korea.
A great part of the eastern section of the railway was constructed on Chinese territory, and elaborate preparations were made for bringing Manchuria within the sphere of Russian influence.
With great reluctance the tsar consented to convoke a consultative chamber of deputies as a sop to public opinion, but that concession stimulated rather than calmed public opinion, and shortly after the conclusion of peace the Liberals and the Revolutionaries, combining their forces, brought about a general strike in St Petersburg together with the stoppage of railway communication all over the empire.
In time it became a common practice to cover them with a thin sheathing or plating of iron, in order to add to their life; this expedient caused more wear on the wooden rollers of the wagons, and, apparently towards the middle of the 18th century, led to the introduction of iron wheels, the use of which is recorded on a wooden railway near Bath in 1734.
In most parts of England the plate-rail was preferred, and it was used on the Surrey iron railway, from Wandsworth to Croydon, which, sanctioned by parliament in 1801, was finished in 1803, and was the first railway available to the public on payment of tolls, previous lines having all been private and reserved exclusively for the use of their owners.
On the Liverpool && Manchester railway they were usually 12 ft.
Brunel on the Great Western railway, where, however, it was abandoned after the line was converted from broad to standard gauge in 1892.
The iron tramway or railway had been known for half a century and had come into considerable use in connexion with collieries and quarries before it was realized that for the carriage FIG.
On the Stockton & Darlington railway, which was authorized by parliament in 1821, animal power was at first proposed, but on the advice of Stephenson, its engineer, steam-engines were adopted.
The example of the Stockton & Darlington line was followed by the Monklands railway in Scotland, opened in 1826, and several other small lines - including the Canterbury & Whitstable, worked partly by fixed engines and partly by locomotives - quickly adopted steam traction.
But the Liverpool & Manchester railway, opened in 1830, first impressed the national mind with the fact that a revolution in the methods of travelling had really taken place; and further, it was for it that the first high-speed locomotive of the modern type was invented and constructed.
After the success of the Rocket, the Stephensons received orders to build seven more engines, which were of very similar design, though rather larger, being four-wheeled engines, with the two driving wheels in front and the cylinders behind; and in October 1830 they constructed a ninth engine, the Planet, also for the Liverpool & Manchester railway, which still more closely resembled the modern type, since the driving wheels were placed at the fire-box end, while the two cylinders were arranged under the smoke-box, inside the frames.
The amount of capital which parliament authorized railway companies to raise was about 42 millions on the average of the two years 1842-1843, 174 millions in 1844, 60 millions in 1845, and 132 millions in 1846, though this last sum was less than a quarter of the capital proposed in the schemes submitted to the Board of Trade; and the wild speculation which occurred in railway shares in 1845 contributed largely to the financial crisis of 1847.
Canada had no railway till 1853, and in South America construction did not begin till about the same time.
Unjustifiable railway expansion had much to do with the American commercial panics of 1884 and 1893.
Thus it may fairly be said that the railway system of the United States was reconstructed between 1896 and 1905, so far as concerns rails, sleepers, ballast and the general capacity of a given group of lines to perform work.
Within the boundaries of the United States the northernmost of the transcontinental lines was the Great Northern railway, extending from a point opposite Vancouver, B.C., and from Seattle, Wash., to Duluth, on Lake Superior, and to St Paul and Minneapolis, Minn., where connexion through to Chicago was made over an allied line,.
Next, south of the Great Northern, lay the Northern Pacific railway, starting on the west from Portland, Ore., and from Seattle and Tacoma, Wash., and extending east to Duluth, St Paul and Minneapolis by way of Helena, Mont.
Thus it will be observed that the five great cities of the Pacific coast-Seattle and Tacoma, Wash., Portland, Ore., and San Francisco and Los Angeles, Cal.-were already well supplied with railways; but the growth of the fertile region lying west of the transcontinental divide was most attractive to American railway builders; and railways serving this district, almost all of them in trouble ten years before, were showing great increases in earnings.
Before that time the St Paul had been a great local railway, operating primarily in the Dakotas, Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin and Illinois; but by the construction of a long arm from the Missouri river to Spokane, Seattle and Tacoma, it became a transcontinental line of the first importance, avoiding the mistakes of earlier railway builders by securing a line with easy gradients through the most favourable regions.
Recent American railway development, viewed in its larger aspects, has thus been characterized by what may be described as the rediscovery of the Pacific coast.
In Mexico the national government is carrying out a consistent policy of developing its railway lines.
Development of these lines has been primarily an extension from the large cities in the East to the agricultural districts in the West, but a change of great importance was brought about in 1910 by the completion of the last tunnel on the Argentine Transandine Railway, which serves to connect Santiago, Valparaiso and the other great cities of the west coast with Buenos Ayres, Montevideo, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro and the other great cities of the east coast.
In proportion to its population China has the least railway development of any of the great countries of the world; the probability that its present commercial awakening will extend seems large, and in that case it will need a vast increase in its interior communications.
The intervening distance, through country exceedingly unhealthy for white men, and therefore promising no traffic except raw materials, does not seem a likely field for rapid railway extension.
In Australia the increase in railway mileage in the five years ending December 31st, 1907 was about 7%-a small proportion as compared with America, Asia or Africa.
It will be observed that Belgium leads all the countries of the world in what may be called its railway density, with the United Kingdom a far-distant second in the list, and Persia last.
In railway mileage per io,000 inhabitants, however, Queensland, in the Australian group, reports a figure much greater than any other country; while at the other end of the list Persia holds the record for isolation.
The United States of America, with a capital of £3,059,800,000 invested in its railways on the 30th of June 1906, was easily ahead of every other country, and in 1908 the figure was increased to £ 3,443, 02 7, 68 5, of which £2,636,569,089 was in the hands of the public. On a route-mileage basis, however, the capital cost of the British railway system is far greater than that of any other country in the world, partly because a vast proportion of the lines are double, treble or even quadruple, partly because the safety requirements of the Board of Trade and the high standards of the original builders made actual construction very costly.
The total paid-up railway capital of the United Kingdom amounted, in 1908, to £1,310,533,212, or an average capitalization of £56,476 per route mile, though it should be noted that this total included £196,364,618 of nominal additions through " stock-splitting," &c. Per mile of single track, the capitalization in England and Wales, Scotland, Ireland and the United Kingdom, is shown in Table VIII.
The problem of the early railway builders in the United States was to conquer the wilderness, to build an empire, and at the same time to bind the East to the West and the North to the South.
But as traffic becomes more dense, year by year, the rebuilding process is constant, and American railway lines are gradually becoming safer.
It has been well said that statistics furnish the means by which the railway manager disciplines his property; this is the aspect of control.
The Departmental Committee of the Board of Trade, sitting in 1909 to consider railway accounting forms, while recommending ton-miles to the careful consideration of those responsible for railway working in Great Britain, considered the question of their necessity in British practice to be still open, and held that, at all events, they should not be introduced under compulsion.
But in the development of the railway business it soon became evident that no such dependence on free competition was possible, either in practice or in theory.
This difficulty is not peculiar to railways; but it was in the history of railway economy and railway control that certain characteristics which are now manifesting themselves in all directions where large investments of fixed capital are involved were first brought prominently to public notice.
For a large number of those who use a railway, competition in its more obvious forms does not and cannot exist.
But if rates are to be fixed by agreement, and not by competition, what principle can be recognized as a legitimate basis of railway rate-making?
The first efforts at railway legislation were governed by the equal mileage principle; that is, the attempt was made to make rates proportionate to the distance.
A somewhat better theory of rate regulation was then framed, which divided railway expenditures into movement expense, connected with the line in general, and terminal expense, which connected itself with the stations and station service.
A system of charges which compels each piece of traffic to pay its share of the charges for track and for stations overlooks the fundamental fact that a very large part of the expenses of a railway - more than half - is not connected either with the cost of moving traffic or of handling traffic at stations, but with the cost of maintaining the property as a whole.
Whatever the ostensible form of a railway tariff, the contribution of the different shipments of freight to these general expenses is determined on the principle of charging what the traffic will bear.
If these special rates are published in the tariff, and are offered to all persons alike, provided they can fulfil the conditions imposed by the company, they are known as commodity rates, and are apparently a necessity in any scheme of railway charges.
While the superficial appearance of the railway tariff is different for different countries, and sometimes for different parts of the same country, the general principles laid down are followed in rate-making by all well-managed lines, whether state or private.
It is a mistake to suppose that the question of public or private ownership will make any considerable difference in the system of rate-making adopted by a good railway.
Private operation, subject only to judicial regulation, was exemplified most fully in the early railway history of the United States.
Until 1870 railway companies were almost free from special acts of control; and, in general, any company that could raise or borrow the capital was allowed to build a railway wherever it saw fit.
The advantage of this relatively free system of railway building and management is that it secures efficient and progressive methods.
In the former the Railway and Canal Traffic Act of 1854 specially prohibited preferences, either in facilities or in rates.
Finally, the legislation of 1888 put into the hands of a reorganized Railway Commission and of the Board of Trade powers none the less important in principle because their action has been less in its practical effect than the advocates of active control demanded.
State operation and ownership is a system which originated in Belgium at the beginning of railway enterprise, and has been consistently carried out by the Scandinavian countries and by Hungary.
So large a part of the railway charge is of the nature of a tax, that there seem to be a priori reasons for leaving the taxing powers in the hands of the agents of the government.
Whether the intelligence and efficiency of the officials charged by the state with the handling of its railway system will be sufficient to make them act in the interest of the public as fully as do the managers of private corporations, is a question whose answer can only be determined by actual experience in each case.
On principles governing railway rates in general, and specifically in England, see Acworth, The Railways and the Traders (London, 1891).
On comparative railway legislation and the principles governing it, see Hadley, Railroad Transportation; its History and its Laws (New York, 1885).
On the history of railway legislation in England, see Cohn, Untersuchungen fiber die Englische Eisenbahnpolitik (Leipzig, 1874-83).
Not that the mere laying or working of a railway requires parliamentary sanction, so long as the work does not interfere with other people's rights and interests.
An example of a railway built.
From the early days of railways parliament has also been careful to provide for the safety of the public by inserting in the general or special acts definite conditions, and by laying upon the Board of Trade the duty of protecting the public using a railway.
The first act which has reference to the safety of passengers is the Regulation of Railways Act of 1842, which obliges every railway company to give notice to the Board of Trade of its intention to open the railway for passenger traffic, and places upon that public department the duty of inspecting the line before the opening of it takes place..
If the officer appointed by the Board of Trade should, after inspection of the railway, report to the department that in his opinion " the opening of the same would be attended with danger to the public using the same, by reason of the incompleteness of the works or permanent way, or the insufficiency of the establishment for working such railway," it is lawful for the department to direct the company to postpone the opening of the line for any period not exceeding one month at a time, the process being repeated from month to month as often as may be necessary.
A code of requirements in regard to the opening of new railways has been drawn up by the department for the guidance of railway companies, and as the special circumstances of each line are considered on their merits, it rarely happens that the department finds it necessary to prohibit the opening of a new railway.
The Regulation of Railways Act of 1871 extends the provisions of the above act to the opening of " any additional line of railway, deviation line, station, junction or crossing on the level " which forms a portion of or is connected with a passenger railway, and which has been constructed subsequently to the inspection of it.
This act further defines the duties and powers of the inspectors of the Board of Trade, and also authorizes the Board to dispense with the notice which the previous act requires to be given prior to the opening of a railway.
It' may be remarked that neither of these acts confers on the Board of Trade any power to inspect a railway after it has once been opened, unless and until some addition or alteration, such as is defined in the last-named act, has been made.
The act of 1871 further renders it obligatory upon every railway company to send notice to the Board of Trade in the case of (1) any accident attended with loss of life or personal injury to any person whatsoever; (2) any collision where one of the trains is a passenger train; (3) any passenger train or part of such train leaving the rails; (4) any other accident likely to have caused loss of life or personal injury, and specified on that ground by any order made from time to time by the Board of Trade.
The department is authorized, on receipt of such report, to direct an inquiry to be made into the cause of any accident so reported, and the inspector appointed to make the inquiry is given power to enter any railway premises for the purposes of his inquiry, and to summon any person engaged upon the railway to attend the inquiry as a witness, and to require the production of all books, papers and documents which he considers important for the purpose.
The usual mode of publishing such reports is to forward them to railway companies concerned, as well as to the press, and on application to any one else who is interested.
It should be noted that although the inspecting officer may in his report make any recommendations that he may think fit with a view to guarding against any similar accident occurring in the future, no power is given to the Board of Trade, or to any other authority, to compel any railway company to adopt such recommendations.
In 1893 an act was passed by parliament giving the Board power to interfere if or when representations are made to them by or on behalf of any servant or class of servants of a railway company that the hours of work are unduly long, or do not provide sufficient intervals of uninterrupted rest between the periods of duty, or sufficient relief in respect of Sunday duty.
This act has been the means of effecting a considerable reduction in the hours worked by railway men on certain railways, and no case has yet arisen in which a reference to the Commissioners has been necessary.
P Y of risk, it has during recent years come to notice that the number of casualties among railway servants is still unduly great, and in 1899 a Royal Commission was appointed to investigate the causes of the numerous accidents, fatal and nonfatal, to railway men.
Before, however, the rules so made become binding upon the companies, the latter have the right of appealing against them to the Railway Commissioners.
The final settlement of a rule requiring brake-levers to be fitted on both sides of goods-wagons was, however, deferred, owing to objections raised by certain of the railway companies.
The public acts of parliament referring to British railways are collected in Bigg's General Railway Acts.
These special acts gradually gave way to general statutes under which railway corporations could be created without application to the legislature.
In the period before 1850 there was but little realization of the public nature of the railway industry and of the possibilities of injury to the public if railway corporations were left uncontrolled.
For example, Michigan, in 1837, in the first session of its state legislature, made plans for the construction of 557 miles of railway under the direct control of the state, and the governor was authorized to issue bonds for the purpose.
As railway building increased in response to traffic needs, and as the consolidation of short lines into continuous systems proceeded, legislation applicable to railways became somewhat broader in scope and more intelligent.
Railway legislation first assumed importance in connection with the " Granger Movement " in the middle west.
There the policy of subsidies for railway building had been carried to a reckless extreme.
These measures proving unsatisfactory, they were soon superseded by statutes creating railway commissions with varied powers of regulation.
Such bodies, established to appraise land for railway purposes, to apportion receipts and expenditures of interstate traffic, and in a general way to supervise railway transportation, had been in existence in New England before 1860, one of the earliest being that of Rhode Island in 1839.
The most important part of railway transportation, that which was interstate in character, was left untouched.
The movement in favour of more vigorous railway regulation became pronounced after 1900.
They had been given power to require complete annual reports from carriers, with a consequent great increase in public knowledge concerning railway operation and practice.
In both states, the Commissions have power over electric railways and local public utilities furnishing heat, light and power, as well as over steam railway transportation, and the Wisconsin Commission also has control over telephone companies.
The law forbids a railway or any other common carrier to charge more for a short haul than for a long haul over the same line, unless, in special cases, it is authorized to do so by the Commission.
It forbids a railway which has reduced its rates while in competition with a water route to raise them again when the competition has ceased, unless the Commission permits it to do so because of other changed conditions.
The safety of passengers is, indeed, the first care of the railway manager; but the employes, exposed to many risks from which the passengers are protected, must be looked after.
The duty of a railway with deficient plant or facilities would seem to be to make up for their absence by moderating the speeds of its trains, but public sentiment in America appears so far to have approved, at least tacitly, the combination of imperfect railways and high speeds.
Being struck or run over by a train while standing or walking on the track is the largest single cause of " railway accidents."
In the thickly settled parts of the United States the number of trespassers killed on the railway tracks, including vagrants who suffer in collisions and derailments while stealing rides, is very large.
In New York and four adjacent states, having about as many miles of railway as the United Kingdom, the number in the year ending June 30, 1907, was 1552.
As was suggested at the outset, railway accident statistics are useful only as showing how to make life and limb safer, though in pursuing this object increased economy should also be secured.
Its powers have been exercised with the greatest caution, yet with consistent firmness; and the publicity which has been given to the true and detailed causes of scores and scores of railway accidents by the admirable reports of the Board of Trade inspectors has been a powerful lever in improving the railway service.
Its investigations justified the law making the block system compulsory, thus removing the worst danger of railway travel.
A majority of the states have railway commissions, but the investigation of railway accidents, with comparatively few exceptions, has not been done in such a way as to make the results useful in promoting improved practice.
The Federal government, having authority in railway matters only when interstate traffic is affected, gathers statistics and publishes them; but in the airing of causes-the field in which the British Board of Trade has been so useful-nothing so far has been done except to require written reports monthly from the railways.
Railway accidents in France are recorded in a shape somewhat different from that found in either Great Britain or America.
Passengers Servants Other accidents, due to railway operations Passengers and others Servants Other accidents, victim's own fault - Passengers and others.
In these statistics, the third item, " other persons," includes post office and customs officials and other persons connected with the railway service, as well as railway officers and servants off duty.
The Trans-Siberian railway was a military necessity if Russia was to exercise dominion throughout Siberia and maintain a port on the Yellow Sea or the Sea of Japan.
The Baltimore & Ohio railroad was built to protect and further the commercial interests of the city of Baltimore; the Cincinnati Southern railway is still owned by the city of Cincinnati, which built the line in the 'seventies for commercial protection against Louisville, Ky.
The state is interested in the commercial railway venture as a matter of public policy, and because it can confer or withold the right of eminent domain, without which the railway builder would be subjected to endless annoyance and expense.
In the earlier years of American railway building, each project was commonly the subject of a special law; then special laws were in turn succeeded by general railway laws in the several states, and these in turn have come to be succeeded in most parts of the country by jurisdiction vested in the' state railway commission.
Each of these changes has tended to improve the existing status, to legitimize railway enterprise, and to safeguard capital or investment.
As a result it has been far easier for the American than for the European railway builder to take advantage of the speculative instinct in obtaining money.
Instead of the borrowing power being restricted to a small percentage of the total capital, as in European countries, most of the railway mileage of America has been built with borrowed money, represented by bonds, while stock has been given freely as an inducement to subscribe to the bonds on the XXII.
As a natural result weak railway companies in the United States have frequently been declared insolvent by the courts, owing to their inability in periods of commercial depression to meet their acknowledged obligations, and in the reorganization which has followed the shareholders have usually had to accept a loss, temporary or permanent.
The debt in that country is relatively small in amount, and is not represented by securities based upon hypothecation of the company's real property, as with the American railway bond, resting on a first, second or third mortgage.
Although this fact will not in itself make the companies liable to any process of reorganization similar to that following insolvency and foreclosure of the American railway, it is probable that reorganization of some sort must nevertheless take place in Great Britain, and it may well be questioned whether the position of the transportation system of that country would not have been better if it had been built up and projected on the experience gained by actual earlier losses, as in the United States.
Thus the characteristic defect in the British railway organization has been the tendency to put out new capital at a rate faster than has been warranted by the annual increases in earnings.
Meantime, the purchasing power of the dollar which the railway company receives for a specified service is gradually growing smaller, owing to the general increases year by year in wages and in the cost of material.
The attitude of the courts is not that the railways should work without compensation, but that the compensation should not exceed a fair return on funds actually expended by the railway.
This is in line with the provisions in the Constitution of the United States regarding the protection of property, but the difficulty in applying the principle to the railway situation lies in the fact that costs have to be met by averaging the returns on the total amount cf business done, and it is often impossible, in specific instances, to secure a rate which can be considered to yield a fair return on the specific service rendered.
In the first place the route of a railway must be governed by commercial considerations.
An embankment-bank, or fill, is the reverse of a cutting, being an artificial mound of earth on which the railway is taken across depressions in the surface of the ground.
An endeavour is made so to plan the works of a railway that the quantity of earth excavated in cuttings shall be equal to the quantity required for the embankments; but this is not always practicable, and it is sometimes advantageous to obtain the earth from some source close to the embankment rather than incur the expense of hauling it from a distant cutting.
An interesting case of embankment and cutting in combination was involved in crossing Chat Moss on the Liverpool & Manchester railway.
The subsoil was composed principally of clay and sand, and the railway had to be carried over the moss on the level, requiring cutting, and embanking for upwards of 4 m.
The railway ultimately was made to float on the bog.
In connexion with a railway many bridges have also to be constructed to carry public roads and other railways over the line, and for the use of owners or tenants whose land it has cut through (" accommodation bridges ").
The ruling gradient of a section of railway is the steepest incline in that section, and is so called because it governs or rules the maximum load that can be placed behind an engine working over that portion of line.
One of the steepest gradients in England on an important line is the Lickey incline at Bromsgrove, on the Midland railway between Birmingham and Gloucester, where the slope is 1 in 37 for two miles.
When an engineer has to construct a railway up a hill having a still steeper slope, he must secure practicable gradients by laying out the line in ascending spirals, if necessary tunnelling into the hill, as on the St Gothard railway, or in a series of zigzags, or he must resort to a rack or a cable railway.
It was not till more than half a century later that an American, Sylvester Marsh, employed the rack system for the purpose of enabling trains to surmount steep slopes on the Mount Washington railway, where the maximum gradient was nearly 1 in 22.
The Locher rack, employed on the Mount Pilatus railway, where the steepest gradient is nearly I in 2, is double, with vertical teeth on each side, while in the Strub rack, used on the Jungfrau line, the teeth are cut in the head of a rail of the ordinary Vignoles type.
With increase of speeds this matter has become important as an element of comfort in passenger traffic. As a first approximation, the centre-line of a railway may be plotted out as a number of portions of circles, with intervening straight tangents connecting them, when the abruptness of the changes of direction will depend on the radii of the circular portions.
The gauge of a railway is the distance between the inner edges of the two rails upon which the wheels run.
The commercial importance of such free interchange of traffic is the controlling factor in determining the gauge of any new railway that is not isolated by its geographical position.
Brunel adopted for the Great Western railway disappeared on the 20th-23rd of May 1892, when the main line from London to Penzance was converted to standard gauge throughout its length.
Some railway companies, however, having a long mileage in timberless regions, do " treat " their sleepers.
Haarmann before the Verein der Deutschen Eisenhuttenleute on Dec. 8, 1907, translated in the Railway Gazette (London) on April 3, 10 and 17, 1908.
On the London & North-Western railway there are 24 sleepers to each 60 ft.
Occasionally the joints thus formed are " supported " on a sleeper, as was the practice in the early days of railway construction, but they are generally " suspended " between two sleepers, which are set rather more closely together than at other points in the rail.
For rails of basic open-hearth steel, which is rapidly ousting Bessemer steel, the Civil Engineers' specifications allowed from o 65 to 0-75% of carbon with 0-05% of phosphorus, while the specifications of the American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association provided for a range of 0.75 to 0-85% of carbon, with a maximum of 0.03% of phosphorus.
The standard specification adopted by the Pennsylvania railway in 1908 provided that in rails weighing Ioo lb to the yard 41% of the metal should be in the head, 18-6% in the web, and 40-4% in the base, while for 85 lb rails 42.2% was to be in the head, 17-8% in the web and 40.0% in the base.
According to the specification for 85 lb rails adopted by the Canadian Pacific railway about the same time, 36-77% of the metal was to be in the head, 22'21% in the web and 41 02% in the base.
Railway stations are either " terminal " or " intermediate."
When the railway lies below the surface level the bulk of the offices are often placed on a bridge spanning the lines, access being given to the platforms by staircases or lifts, and similarly when the railway is at a high level the offices may be arranged under the lines.
Occasionally on a double-track railway one platform placed between the tracks serves both of them; this " island " arrangement, as it is termed, has the advantage that more tracks can be readily added without disturbance of existing buildings, but when it is adopted the exit from the trains is at the opposite side to that which is usual, and accidents have happened through passengers alighting at the usual side without noticing the absence of a platform.
At the new Victoria station (London) of the London, Brighton & South Coast railway - which is so long that two trains can stand end to end at the platforms - this system is extended so as to permit a train to start out from the inner end of a platform even though another train is occupying the outer end.
Machine shops are usually provided to enable minor repairs to be executed; the tendency, both in England and America, is to increase the amount of such repairing plant at engine sheds, thus lengthening the intervals between the visits of the engines to the main repairing shops of the railway.
The water cranes or towers which are placed at intervals along the railway to supply the engines with water require similar care in regard to the quality of the water laid on to them, as also to the water troughs, or track tanks as they are called in America, by which engines are able to pick up water without stopping.
Such troughs were first employed on the London & North-Western railway in 1857 by John Ramsbottom, and have since been adopted on many other lines.
One of the earliest and best known of such " gravity " yards is that at Edgehill, near Liverpool, on the London & North-Western railway, which was established in 1873.
Aspinall on the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway to ascertain the resistance of trains of bogie passenger carriages of different lengths at varying speeds, and the results are recorded in a paper, " Train Resistance," Proc. Inst.
The second group consists of experiments made on a boiler belonging to the Great Eastern Railway Company.
The third group consists of experiments selected from the records of a series of trials made on the London & South-Western railway with an express locomotive.
First, it must be able to exert a tractive force sufficient to start the train under the worst conditions possible on the railway over which it is to operate - for instance, when the train is stopped by signal on a rising gradient where the track is curved and fitted with a guard-rail.
Henderson recording the tests of a freight locomotive made on the Chicago & North-Western railway.
Worsdell developed the design of the two-cylinder compound in England and built several, first for the Great Eastern railway and subsequently for the North-Eastern railway.
Smith on the North-Eastern railway in 1898 have been built by the Midland railway.
A famous type of compound locomotive developed on the continent of Europe is the four-cylinder De Glehn, some of which have been tried on the Great Western railway.
Engines of this class, with 78-inch driving wheels and the leading axle fitted with Webb's radial axle-box, for many years did excellent work on the London & North-Western railway.
Ramsbottom on the London & North-Western railway in 1859, have been laid in the tracks of the leading main lines of Great Britain.