Rail sentence example

rail
  • "There was a hand rail along the sidewalk here," he said.
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  • I tried to touch a hand rail next to me, but I just passed through it!
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  • Alex was standing on the porch, leaning on the rail and nursing a cup of coffee.
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  • Dunedin is connected by rail with Christchurch northward and Invercargill southward, with numerous branches.
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  • Alex vaulted the porch rail and hit the ground on the run.
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  • The next important development in rail design originated in America, which, for the few lines that had been laid up to 1830, remained content with wooden bars faced with iron.
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  • This type, which is often known as the Vignoles rail, after Charles Blacker Vignoles (1793-1875), who re-invented it in England in 1836, is in general use in America and on the continent of Europe.
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  • By being trampled on or kicked by horses while engaged in rail way work I I I.
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  • In practice the gradient should not exceed i in 221, and even that is too steep, since theoretical conditions cannot always be realized; a wet rail will reduce the adhesion, and the gradients must be such that some paying load can be hauled in all weathers.
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  • In the towns a deeper rail is used, weighing about 60 lb per yard.
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  • This sliding movement is resisted by placing a check rail on the inner side of the inner rail, to take the lateral thrust of the wheels on that side.
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  • The restoring force exerted by gravity acts in a vertical line from the centre of gravity; and the length of its lever arm is the horizontal distance between this vertical line and the outer rail.
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  • If therefore the outer rail is laid at a level above that of the inner rail at the curve, overturning will be resisted more than would be the case if both rails were in the same horizontal plane, since the tilting of the vehicle due to this " superelevation " diminishes the overturning moment, and also increases the restoring moment, by shortening in the one case and lengthening in the other the lever arms at which the respective forces act.
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  • The gauge may be regarded as reduced to its narrowest possible dimensions in mono-rail lines, where the weight of the trains is carried on a single rail.
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  • In the Lartigue system the train is straddled over a single central rail, elevated a suitable distance above the ground.
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  • In the Langen mono-rail the cars are hung from a single overhead rail; a line on this system works between Barmen and Elberfeld, about 9 m., the cars for a portion of the distance being suspended over the river Wupper.
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  • In the system devised by Mr Louis Brennaxi the cars run on a single rail laid on the ground, their stability being maintained by a heavy gyrostat revolving at great speed in a vacuum.
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  • There are two main ways of attaching the rails to the sleepers, corresponding to two main types of rails - the bull-headed rail A B FIG.
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  • - A, Section of British Bull-Headed Rail, 90 lb to the yard, showing also chair and fastenings.
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  • The keys which hold the rail in the chairs are usually of oak and are placed outside the rails; the inside position has also been employed, but has the disadvantage of detracting from the elasticity of the road since the weight of a passing train presses the rails up against a rigid mass of metal instead of against a slightly yielding block of wood.
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  • Occasionally the joints thus formed are " supported " on a sleeper, as was the practice in the early days of railway construction, but they are generally " suspended " between two sleepers, which are set rather more closely together than at other points in the rail.
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  • - French Rail, 901 lb to the yard, showing rail joint and seat in the sleeper.
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  • On all the accepted forms there are two or more flanges at the bottom, running lengthwise of the plate and crosswise of the rail; these are requisite to give proper stiffness, and further, as they are forced into the tie by the weight of passing traffic, they help to fix the plate securely in place.
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  • The substitution of steel for iron as the material for rails which made possible the axle loads and the speeds of Lto-day, and, by reducing the cost of maintenance, contributed enormously to the economic efficiency of railways, was one of the most important events in the history of railways, and a scarcely less important element of progressive economy has been the continued improvement of the steel rail in stiffness of section and in toughness and hardness of material.
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  • In the United States a committee of the American Society of Civil Engineers, appointed to consider the question of rail manufacture in consequence of an increase in the number of rail-failures, issued an interim report in 1907 in which it suggested a range of carbon from 0-55 to 0-65% for the heaviest sections of Bessemer steel flange rails, with a phosphorus maximum of 0.085%; while the specifications of the American Society for Testing Materials, current at the same period, put the carbon limits at o 45 to 0-55%, and the phosphorus limit at o io.
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  • Where a branch diverges from a main line, one rail of the one must cross one rail of the other, and a V-crossing is formed (V).
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  • - American Rail, 90 lb to the yard, showing rail joint.
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  • Assuming the wheels to roll along the rail without slipping, this couple will be equivalent to the couple formed by the equal opposite and parallel forces, F 1 acting in the direction shown, from the axle-box on to the frame, and F 1 =µ0, acting along the rail.
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  • The difference between the horizontal distance and the distance measured along the rail is so small that it is negligible in all practical calculations.
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  • Sand, driven between the wheel and the rail by a steam jet, used just at starting, increases the adhesion beyond the normal value and enables a larger pressure to be exerted on the piston than would otherwise be possible.
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  • Other special types are in limited use for " rack-railways," and operate either by engagement of gearing on the locomotive into a rack between the track rails, or by a combination of this and rail adhesion.
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  • By rail it is 94 m.
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  • Aarau, an ancient fortress, was taken by the Bernese in 1415, and in 1798 became for a time the capital of the Helvetic republic. Eight miles by rail N.E.
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  • It is connected by rail with the south Russian railway system at Beslan, the junction for Vladikavkaz (400 m.), via Derbent and Petrovsk, with Batum (560 m.) and Poti (536 m.) on the Black Sea via Tiflis.
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  • The principal approach to Caucasia from Russia by rail is the line that runs from Rostov-on-Don to Vladikavkaz at the foot of the central Caucasus range.
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  • In 1885, at Preston, the competitions were concerned with two-horse, three-horse and four-horse whipple-trees, and packages for conveying fresh butter by rail.
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  • The traffic with Arabia has ceased to be important, being limited to the time of the going and returning of the great pilgrimage to Mecca, which continues to have its musteringplace at Damascus, but leaves mainly by rail.
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  • Connected with Anping by rail (26 m.) and laying south of it is Takau, a treaty port.
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  • Louis in 1920, domestic and export, was 29,036,405 (by rail) and 166,140 (by water); tonnage received in the same year was 43,104,519 (by rail) and 177,925 (by water).
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  • Benares conducts a flourishing trade by rail and river with the surrounding country.
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  • The trade of the Central Provinces is conducted mainly by rail with Bombay and with Calcutta.
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  • Dover has long had a considerable commerce, both by rail and by water, that by water being chiefly Emery Walker sc.
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  • They are chiefly noted as the habitat of the gigantic land tortoise (Testudo elephantina), now carefully preserved, and of several rare and peculiar birds, including a rail (Dryolimnas aldabranus), an ibis (Ibis abbottii) and a dove (Alectroenas sganzini).
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  • Besides these there are two splendid national reserves, an hour's journey by rail from Sydney, viz.
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  • These successes, if they retarded Roberts's progress, at least enabled him to rearrange his forces in accordance with the new situation at leisure, and to re-establish his transport, rail and wheeled, and on the 1st of May the main army moved northwards upon the Transvaal capital.
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  • It is not necessary for the blocks of wet guncotton to be actually in contact if they be under water, and the peculiar explosive wave can also be conveyed a little distance by a piece of metal such as a railway rail.
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  • The Army of the North, which had reached Olmutz on the 10th of July, now received orders to move by road and rail towards Vienna, and this operation brought them right across the front of the II.
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  • News had now been received of the arrival of Austrian reinforcements by rail at the capital both from Hungary and Italy, and of the preparation of a strong line of provisional defences along the Florisdorf position directly in front of Vienna.
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  • When the mineral is transported by rail or water to concentration or metallurgical works for treatment, or to near or distant markets for sale, provision must be made for the economical loading of railway wagons or vessels, and for the temporary storage of the mineral product.
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  • The arrival of German submarines 3 during this month proved 3 Already a special German submarine command had been established in the Adriatic, with bases at Pola and Cattaro, and some small boats were sent thither by rail.
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  • From this tunnel the coal is conveyed by rail for i 2 m.
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  • From Innsbruck to the summit of the pass is a distance by rail of 25 m.
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  • Iconium is distant by rail 466 m.
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  • A traveller can reach the usual point of departure, Gotemba, by rail from Yokohama, and thence the ascent and descent may be made in one day by a pedestrian.
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  • It is also reached by rail by a branch line (25 m.) N.W.
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  • A large trade is carried on by rail and river with Lower Bengal.
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  • Beyond this city the navigation is conducted by native craft, - the modern facilities for traffic by rail and the increasing shoals in the river having put an end to the previous steamer communication, which plied until about 1860 as high up as Allahabad.
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  • Charleston is in the midst of a region rich in bituminous coal, the shipment of which by river and rail constitutes one of its principal industries.
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  • Excluded from all political and social rights, they were only allowed to enter a church by a special door, and during the service a rail separated them from the other worshippers.
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  • The distances by rail from Johannesburg to the following seaports are: Lourengo Marques, 364 m.; Durban, 483 m.; East London, 6S9 m.; Port Elizabeth, 714 m.; Cape Town, 957 m.
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  • Pretoria is, by rail, 46 m.
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  • Ancona is situated on the railway between Bologna and Brindisi, and is also connected by rail with Rome, via Foligno and Orte.
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  • The stylet A (process of the 8th abdominal segment-8) is turned over to show its groove a, which works along the tongue or rail b.
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  • The town communicates by steamer with all the places situated on the shores of the Lake of Constance, while by rail it is 30 or 31 m.
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  • For shaft linings steel rings of H or channel section supported by intermediate struts are also used, and cross-bearers or buntons of steel joists and rail guides are now generally substituted for wood.
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  • The cage is guided by shoes of wrought iron, a few inches long and bellmouthed at the ends, attached to the horizontal bars of the framing, which pass loosely over the guides on three sides, but in most new pits rail guides of heavy section are used.
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  • The gear operating the paper roll is driven from the axle of an inde pendent wheel which is let down into contact with the rail when required This wheel serves also to measure the distance travelled.
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  • The physiography has enabled the state to become a great highway of commerce between the central part of the United States and the sea-coast, by rail and by water, along the Mohawk Gap and by other routes.
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  • Turkish reinforcements could not reach Macedonia by sea as fast as rail and steamer could bring them.
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  • The pukeko, a handsome rail, abounds in swamps.
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  • The city has a large commerce,and trade by water and rail in coal and grain, which are produced in the vicinity, is of special importance.
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  • A short impulsive wave travels towards the fence, and each rail as it is reached by the wave becomes the centre of a new secondary wave sent out all round, or at any rate on the front side of the fence.
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  • For railway bridges it commonly consists of cross girders, attached to or resting on the main girders, and longitudinal rail girders or stringers carried by the cross girders and directly supporting the sleepers and rails.
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  • Again, rapidly changing forces, due to the moving parts of the engine which are unbalanced vertically, act on the bridge; and, lastly, inequalities of level at the rail ends give rise to shocks.
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  • This result is modified if the action of the load near the section is distributed to the bracing intersections by rail and cross girders.
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  • If the load is in the bay D'E' and is carried by a rail girder which distributes it to cross girders at D'E', the part of the influence line under this bay is altered.
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  • The loads at D', E, due to unit weight on the rail girder are (p-n)/p and n/p. The reaction at B' is {(p- n)xi+n(xi+p)}' /pi.
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  • Clearly, the distribution of the load by the rail girder considerably alters the distribution of shear due to a load in the bay in which the section considered lies.
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  • But if the load is distributed to the bracing intersections by rail and cross girders, then the shear at C' will be greatest when the load extends to N, and will have the values wXADN and -wXNEB.
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  • Milwaukee is favourably situated commercially, with excellent facilities for shipping both by lake and rail afforded by four trunk lines and a dozen lines of lake steamboats.
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  • It is one of the largest distributing centres in the country for coal, which is received by lake, and stored in enormous coal docks for transshipment by rail throughout the west and north-west.
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  • It consists chiefly of the residences of the wealthier citizens of Sydney and is connected with the city by rail and tram.
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  • It is built at the north or Swiss end of the Lago Maggiore, not far from the point at which the Maggia enters that lake, and is by rail 14 m.
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  • It occupies a strategical position at the west end of the valley between the Alexander range and the Ala-tau (or Talas-tau), at the meeting of commercial routes from (1) Vyernyi and Siberia beyond, from the north-east, (2) the Aral Sea and Orenburg (connected with it by rail since 1905) to the north-west, and (3) Ferghana and Bokhara to the south.
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  • There is an active, trade, both by rail and river, in corn, cattle, wood, wool and potatoes.
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  • Cincinnati is a railway centre of great importance and has an extensive commerce both by rail and by river.
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  • Many species of ducks are also still found; and the reed-bird (bobolink), " partridge " (elsewhere called quail or " Bob White "), ruffed grouse (elsewhere called partridge), woodcock, snipe, plover and Carolina rail still abound.
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  • Jackson with the Valley troops had stealthily left Harrisonburg by rail on the 17th of June, and was now at Ashland in McClellan's rear.
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  • Grant was now given supreme command in the west, and the Army of the Tennessee (now under Sherman) and two corps from Virginia under Hooker were hurried by rail to Tennessee.
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  • Long forward strides of the Napoleonic type were rarely attempted; "changes of base" were indeed made across country, and over considerable distances, as by Sherman in 1864, but ordinarily either the base and the objective were connected by rail or water, or else every forward step was, after the manner of Marlborough's time, organized as a separate campaign.
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  • Forbes, namely, a true species of raven (Palaeocorax moriorum), a remarkable rail (Diaphorapteryx), closely related to the extinct Aphanapteryx of Mauritius, and a large coot (Palaeolimnas chathamensis).
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  • The nearest seaport by rail is Dedeagatch, west of the Maritza; Enos, at the river-mouth, is the nearest by water.
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  • Refusing to observe the ecclesiastical regulations of Archbishop Laud, he was brought before the court of high commission in 1629, and again in 1634, when, for opposing the placing of a rail around the communion table, he was suspended and imprisoned.
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  • The export of both local produce and goods shipped by rail from other ports of Transcaucasia is considerable, Batum and Poti being the two chief ports of Caucasia.
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  • Retalhuleu, among the southern foothills of the Sierra Madre, is one of the centres of coffee production, and is connected by rail with the Pacific port of Champerico, a very unhealthy place in the wet season.
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  • Flying fences consist of a hedge with or without a post and rail, and with or without a ditch on one or both sides; consequently a horse has to jump both high and wide to clear them.
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  • It has the best harbour on the Pacific coast of South America, and is one of the most important ports of southern Chile, being connected by rail with Concepcion, Santiago and southern Chile.
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  • - Passing westward by rail from the forest-covered Archean with its rugged granite hills, the flat prairie of Manitoba with its rich grasses and multitude of flowers comes as a very striking contrast, introducing the Interior Continental plain in its most typical development.
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  • So great, however, is the desire to shorten the time and distance necessary for the transportation of grain from Lake Superior to Montreal that an increasing quantity is taken by water as far as the Lake Huron and Georgian Bay ports, and thence by rail to Montreal.
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  • The Canadian Northern railway, already constructed from the Great Lakes westward to the neighbourhood of the Rockies, and with water and rail connexions reaching eastward to Quebec, began to transform itself into a complete transcontinental system, with an extension to the Hudson Bay.
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  • Coming to the rates on grain, we find (in Table 23) a record for the forty years 1858-1897 of the charge on wheat from Chicago to New York, via all rail from 1858, and via lake and rail since 1868, the authority being the secretary of the Chicago Board of Trade.
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  • The rates have been as follows in quinquennial periods, via all rail: Chicago to New York in Cents per Bushel.
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  • Now if we add together all these savings in the rate of rail and ocean freights and incidental expenses, we arrive at an aggregate economy of 8s.
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  • There is daily communication with Petropolis by a branch line of the Leopoldina system, and also by a steamer to the head of the bay and thence by rail up the serra.
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  • It is as a distributing centre for the manufactured products of the East to the West, and for the raw products of the West to the East, and for the trans-shipment from lake to rail and vice versa, that Buffalo occupies a position of greatest importance.
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  • By rail it is 80 m.
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  • Barcelona is well supplied with inland communication by rail, and the traffic of its streets is largely facilitated by tramway lines running from the port as far as Gracia and the other chief suburbs.
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  • 7,799 Albula Pass (Bergun to Ponte), carriage road over, rail 7,595 7,582 7,504 Passo di Madesimo or d'Emet (Avers Valley to Madesimo), foot path.
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  • It is very necessary in the case of trees trained to a flat surface, as a wall or espalier rail, to prevent undue crowding.
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  • Very careful and artistic representations of the stupa with its daghoba and interesting rail, pillars and sculptures will be found in Fergusson's Tree and Serpent Worship, and in his History of Indian Architecture (1876).
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  • (by rail) north-west of Colorado Springs, in a glen at the opening of Ute Pass (so-named because it was formerly used by the Ute Indians), with the mountains rising from its edge.
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  • The distortion which rails undergo in manufacture and use is incomparably less than that to which rivets are subjected, and thus rail steel may safely be much richer in carbon and hence in cementite, and therefore much stronger and harder, so as to better endure the load and the abrasion of the passing wheels.
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  • Here, as in all cases, the carbon-content must be the result of a compromise, neither so small that the rail flattens and wears out like lead, nor so great that it snaps lil'° g?
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  • The best tool steel should not contain more than 0.02% of either, and in careful practice it is often specified that the phosphorus and sulphur respectively shall not exceed 0.04 and o 05% in the steel for important bridges, or o 06 and 0 07% in rail steel, though some very prudent engineers allow as much as 085% or even o To% of phosphorus in rails.
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  • The mass as a whole, then, consists of 96.4 parts of metallic matrix, which itself is in effect a 0.415% carbon rail steel, weakened and embrittled by having its continuity broken up by this skeleton of graphite forming 3.6% of the whole mass by weight, or say 12% by volume.
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  • Fortunately its embrittling effect on cast iron is very much less than on steel, so that the upper limit or greatest tolerable proportion of phosphorus, instead of being o.10 or better 0.08% as in the case of rail steel, may be put at 0.50% in case of machinery castings even if they are exposed to moderate shocks; at 1.60% for gas and water mains in spite of the gravity of the disasters which extreme brittleness here might cause; and even higher for castings which are not exposed to shock, and are so thin that the iron of which they are made must needs be very fluid.
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  • The value of the total imports (both sea-borne and by river and rail) increased from £22,721,700 in 1883 to about £60,000,000 in 1905; the imports from the United States, from £9,755,000 in 1883 to about £25,000,000 in 1905.
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  • Erie is the commercial centre of a large and rich grape-growing and agricultural district, has an extensive trade with the lake ports and by rail (chiefly in coal, iron ore, lumber and grain), and is an important manufacturing centre, among its products being iron, engines, boilers, brass castings, stoves, car heaters, flour, malt liquors, lumber, planing mill products, cooperage products, paper and wood pulp, cigars and other tobacco goods, gas meters, rubber goods, pipe organs, pianos and chemicals.
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  • Saltpetre is largely refined in Tirhoot, Saran and Champaran, and is exported both by rail and river to Calcutta.
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  • The harbour of Ragusa, once one of the chief ports of southern Europe, is too small for modern needs; but Gravosa (Gruz), a village at the mouth of the river Ombla, on the north, is a steamship station and communicates by rail with Herzegovina and the Bocche di Cattaro.
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  • A steamer leaves Naples every night for Palermo, and vice versa, the journey (208 m.) being done in I I hours, while the journey by rail (438 m.), including the crossing of the Straits of Messina takes 191 hours; and the weekly steamer from Naples to Messina (216 m.) takes 12 hours, while the journey by rail and ferry boat (292 m.) takes 14 hours.
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  • Its proximity to the coal fields of Pennsylvania and to the great markets of New York and Philadelphia, and its excellent transportation facilities by rail and by water, have promoted the development of its manufactures.
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  • It is connected by rail with Krasnovodsk (1085 m.) on the Caspian, and since 1905 with Orenburg (1150 m.).
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  • The biga itself consists of a seat resting on the axle, with a rail at each side to protect the driver from the wheels.
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  • The town is the regular starting-point of a journey to the famous lakes Wakatipu and Te Anau, which are approached by rail.
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  • The large quantities of fruit, cereals and vegetables from the surrounding country, and ample facilities for transportation by rail and by the river, which is navigable from below the rapids to its mouth, make the commerce and trade of Grand Rapids very important.
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