Since 1870 there have been five radical changes made in New South Wales.
History is full of radical breaks with the past that only seem to have come out of nowhere but were, in fact, predictable.
They imply a lively sense of radical human need.
He was prominent as a radical in all measures in opposition to the British government, and was a member of the first Virginia committee of correspondence.
South Carolina led the extreme radical element in the South and was the first state to secede.
A third radical method of redistribution is called land reform, which is actually a polite term for taking land from one person and giving it to another.
His first care was to carry out the instructions received from home, and effect a radical reform in the system of government.
The radical side of Descartes appears again in his offering his own type of theism as a substitute for the old proofs - not a supplement.
Beyond Robin Hood: Why radical approaches to wealth redistribution don't work History has witnessed numerous attempts, through radical methods, to raise up the poor by extracting wealth from the rich.
Crispis methods aroused great outcry in the Radical press, but the severe sentences of the military courts were in time tempered by the Royal prerogative of amnesty.
Fear of the advent of a Radical administration under Rattazzi alone prevented the Minghettian Right from revolting against the government.
Besides the premiership, Depretis assumed the portfolio of finance; Nicot~a, an ex-Garibaldian of somewhat tarnished reputation, but a man of energetic ~~t~ and conservative temperament, was placed at the ministry of the interior; public works were entrusted to Zanardelli, a Radical doctrinaire of considerable juridical attainments; General Mezzacapo and Signor Brin replaced General Ricotti Magnani and Admiral Saint-B on at the war office and ministry of marine; while to Mancini and Coppino, prominent members of the Left, were allotted the portfolios of justice and public instruction.
Radical measures were passed unmodified, and the Right was compelled sadly to accept the accomplished fact.
Before Nerazzini could reach Adis Ababa, Rudini, in order partially to satisfy the demands of his Radical supporters for the abandonment of the colony, announced in the Chamber the intention of Italy to limit her occupation to the triangular zone between the points Asmar, Keren and Massawa, and, possibly, to withdraw to Massawa alone.
That in the Duma any Radical elements survive at all is mainly due to the peculiar franchise enjoyed by the seven largest towns - St Petersburg, Moscow, Kiev, Odessa, Riga and the Polish cities of Warsaw and Lodz.
At the same time the military and financial requirements dislocated the local and central administration, and consequently a series of radical administrative reforms had to be undertaken.
Bound by a secret understanding with the Radical leader Cavallotti, an able but unscrupulous demagogue, Rudini was compelled to bow to Radical exigencies.
There was also the danger that Austria might join the allies first and Piedmont be, left isolated; but there were also strong arguments on the other side, for while the Radical party saw no obvious reason why Piedmont should fight other peoples battles, and therefore opposed the alliance, there was the risk that Austria might join the al]iance together with Piedmont, which would have constituted a disastrous situation.
Numerically insufficient to reject such measures, and lacking the fibre and the cohesion necessary for the pursuance of a far-sighted policy, the Right thought prudent not to employ its strength in uncompromising opposition, but rather, by supporting the government, to endeavour to modify Radical legislation in a Conservative sense.
A second method of radical redistribution is to increase marginal tax rates to a point that is confiscatory.
This speech, which, according to reports, was extremely radical and denied the right of the king to disallow acts of the colonial legislature, made Henry the idol of the common people of Virginia and procured for him an enormous practice.
This was clearly perceived and keenly felt by the educated classes, and as soon as the strong hand of the uncompromising autocrat was withdrawn, they clamoured loudly for radical changes in the aims and methods of their rulers.
But the second, notwithstanding the brilliancy of the narrative and the masterly art in the grouping of events, suffers from a radical defect which renders it a misleading guide.
Such radical redistribution attempts are dangerous games, for the rich are creators of economic opportunity, not just for themselves, but as employers, for society.
There are about seven species, herbs with clusters of radical leaves some or all of which are more or less trumpetor pitcher-shaped.
Nicotera, minister of the interior, began his administration of home affairs by a sweeping change in the personnel of the prefects, sub-prefects and public prosecutors, but found himself obliged to incur the wrath of his supporters by prohibiting Radical meetings likely to endanger public order, and by enunciating administrative principles which would have befitted an inveterate Conservative.
But the treatment of instruments in Bach and Handel has a radical difference from that of the art which was soon to succeed it.
A fresh at ~mpt of the same kind was then made against Crispi by tF Radical leader Cavallotti, who advanced unproven charges of corruption and embezzlement.
6), the tubers being partly radical partly budlike in their character.
zinc with solutions of copper salts), the thermal effect is practically independent of the nature of the acid radical in the salt employed.
In 1784 John Wesley, in disregard of the authority of the Established Church, took the radical step of appointing the Rev. Thomas Coke (1747-1814) and Francis Asbury superintendents or "bishops" of the church in the United States.
Again, in 1902, he became minister of finance, after nearly ten years in exclusion from office, in the Radical cabinet of M.
By a strange anomaly the Radical measures brought forward by the Left diminished instead of increasing the distance between it and the Conservatives.
In the following year he entered the chamber, being elected deputy for the Marne, in opposition to General Boulanger, and joined the radical left.
In November 1895 he himself formed a cabinet of a pronouncedly radical type, the main interest of which was attached to its fall, as the result of a constitutional crisis arising from the persistent refusal of the senate to vote supply.
The most successful feature of Crispis term of office was his strict maintenance of Order and the suppression of Radical and Irredentist agitation.
He was one of the earliest political opponents of slavery, as distinguished from the radical Abolitionists, or the followers of William Lloyd Garrison, who eschewed politics and devoted themselves to a moral agitation.
Pressed by Cavallotti, Rudini in March 1897 dissolved the Chamber and conducted the general election in such a way as to crush by government pressure the partisans of Crispi, and greatly to strengthen the (Socialist, Republican and Radical) revolutionary parties.
In a well-known note to Charles Leopold Laurillard's Eloge, prefixed to the last edition of the Ossemens fossiles, the " radical de l'etre " is much the same thing as Aristotle's " particula genitalis " and Harvey's " ovum."
This brings us to the latest radical change effected in instrumentation, the change from symphonic to dramatic principles.
Such was his energy, that soon a network of branches of the Union Civica Radical was organized throughout the republic, and Dr Bernardo Irigoyen was put forward as a rival candidate to Dr Saenz Pena.
He voted consistently on the Radical side, but his chief energies were devoted to promoting the cause of Italian unity.
By the time the third stage, which placed the seat of soul-life in the brain, was reached through the further advance of anatomical knowledge, the religious rites of Greece and Rome were too deeply incrusted to admit of further radical changes, and faith in the gods had already declined too far to bring new elements into the religion.
In Congress he joined the radical wing of the Republican party, advocated the confiscation of Confederate property, approved and defended the Wade-Davis manifesto denouncing the tameness of Lincoln, and was soon recognized as a hard worker and ready speaker.
When in March 1911 the latter resigned in consequence of the hostile vote of the Radicals and the resignation of its two Radical members, Giolitti was again called upon to form a Government (March 3 1).
Bazard, after remaining for some time in obscurity in Paris, came to the conclusion that the ends of those who wished well to the people would be most easily attained, not through political agitation, but by effecting a radical change in their social condition.
Hegelianism attempts to squeeze all life into the categories of logic: Aristotelianism deals with "things in general" and ignores the radical distinction between nature and spirit.
It is in the attempt to supply the place of this continuo (or _ figured bass) by definite orchestral parts that modern per formances, until the most recent times, have shown so radical an incapacity to grasp the nature of 18th-century instrumentation.
Finding that the more conservative section of the union would not follow him, Alem formed a new association to which he gave the name of Union Civica Radical.
But his opinions became more and more radical.
It is, moreover, highly probable that he was the author of a radical pamphlet entitled La Philosophie au people frangais, published in 1788, the text of which is not known.
But the triumph of the navy in 480 and the great expansion of commerce and industry had definitely shifted the political centre of gravity from the yeoman class of moderate democrats to the more radical party usually stigmatized as the " sailor rabble."
Becoming convinced that the common law in America, and particularly in New York state, needed radical changes in respect to the unification and simplification of its procedure, he visited Europe in 1836 and thoroughly investigated the courts, procedure and codes of England, France and other countries, and then applied himself to the task of bringing about in the United States a codification of the common law procedure.
He was elected to the Chamber of Deputies for the department of the Seine in 1885 as a radical socialist.
1654), was caused by their discontent with the autocratic character of the government in Massachusetts; but the instrument of government which they framed in 1639, known as the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, reveals no radical departure from the institutions of Massachusetts.
The decisions which he wrote, many of which were regarded as radical at the time, were all upheld by the courts.
In doctrine they were generally broad and radical.
The relationship of these glycerides to glycerin is shown by the series of bodies formed from glycerin by replacement of hydrogen by "stearyl" (C18H350), the radical of stearic acid (C18H350.
In his Autobiography he admits that the attempt to form a Radical party in parliament at that time was chimerical.
The sworn foe of strong government, he was compelled, in pursuance of Jefferson's policy, to put into execution the Embargo and other radical and stringent measures.
This rejuvenation of the notion of radicals rapidly gained favour; and the complete fusion of the radical theory with the theory of types was not long delayed.
By his own investigations and those of Sir Edward Frankland it was proved that the radical methyl existed in acetic acid; and by the electrolysis of sodium acetate, Kolbe concluded that he had isolated this radical; in this, however, he was wrong, for he really obtained ethane, C 2 H 6, and not methyl, CH 3.
The amiable, radical ladies of Newport had set up a tea meeting for me.
GayLussac, who obtained it by heating mercury or silver cyanide; this discovery is of considerable historical importance, since it recorded the isolation of a "compound radical."
Extravagant expenditure on railways and public works, loose administration of finance, the cost of colonial enterprise, the growing demands for the army and navy, the impending tariff war with France, and the overspeculation in building and in industrial ventures, which had absorbed all the floating capital of the country, had combined to produce a state of affairs calling for firm and radical treatment.
With James Madison and Thomas Jefferson, Mason carried through the Virginia legislature measures disestablishing the Episcopal Church and protecting all forms of worship. In politics he was a radical republican, who believed that local government should be kept strong and central government weak; his democratic theories had much influence in Virginia and other southern and western states.
From a detailed study of organic compounds Gerhardt had promulgated a " theory of types " which represented a fusion of the older radical and type theories.
A base may be regarded as water in which part of the hydrogen is replaced by a metal, or by a radical which behaves as a metal.
Lavoisier, to whom chemistry was primarily the chemistry of oxygen compounds, having developed the radical theory initiated by Guyton de Morveau, formulated the hypothesis that vegetable and animal substances were oxides of radicals composed of carbon and hydrogen; moreover, since simple radicals (the elements) can form more than one oxide, he attributed the same character to his hydrocarbon radicals: he considered, for instance, sugar to be a neutral oxide and oxalic acid a higher oxide of a certain radical, for, when oxidized by nitric acid, sugar yields oxalic acid.
The classical investigation of Liebig and Friedrich Wihler on the radical of benzoic acid (" Uber das Radikal der Benzoesaure," Ann.
that he was compelled to reject the theory that oxygen could not play any part in a compound radical - a view which he previously considered as axiomatic; and he suggested the names " proin " or " orthrin " (from the Gr.
However, in 1833, Berzelius reverted to his earlier opinion that oxygenated radicals were incompatible with his electrochemical theory; he regarded benzoyl as an oxide of the radical C 14 H 1Q, which he named " picramyl " (from 7rucp6s, bitter, and &uvyalk, almond), the peroxide being anhydrous benzoic acid; and he dismissed the views of Gay Lussac and Dumas that ethylene was the radical of ether, alcohol and ethyl chloride, setting up in their place the idea that ether was a suboxide of ethyl, (C2H5)20, which was analogous to K 2 0, while alcohol was an oxide of a radical C 2 H 6; thus annihilating any relation between these two compounds.
The radical theory, essentially dualistic in nature in view of its similarity to the electrochemical theory of Berzelius, was destined to succumb to a unitary theory.
Still, till the last Berzelius remained faithful to his original theory; experiment, which he had hitherto held to be the only sure method of research, he discarded, and in its place he substituted pure speculation, which greatly injured the radical theory.
A step forward - the fusion of Dumas' type theory and the radical theory - was made by Laurent and Charles Gerhardt.
Thus the radical of acetic acid, acetyl,' was C 2 H 3 C 2.
A more complete idea of the notion of a compound radical follows from a consideration of the compound propane.
It will be seen that each type depends upon a specific radical or atom, and the copulation of this character with any hydrocarbon radical (open or cyclic) gives origin to a compound of the same class.
A third hydroxyl group may be introduced into the - CH: 0 residue with the formation of the radical - C(OH) :0; this is known as the carboxyl group, and characterizes the organic acids.
Considering derivatives primarily concerned with transformations of the hydroxyl group, we may regard our typical acid as a fusion of a radical R CO - (named acetyl, propionyl, butyl, &c., generally according to the name of the hydrocarbon containing the same number of carbon atoms) and a hydroxyl group. By replacing the hydroxyl group by a halogen, acid-haloids result; by the elimination of the elements of water between two molecules, acid-anhydrides, which may be oxidized to acid-peroxides; by replacing the hydroxyl group by the group. SH, thio-acids; by replacing it by the amino group, acid-amides (q.v.); by replacing it by the group - NH NH2, acid-hydrazides.
Hence, unless the radical introduced be one which exercises a special attractive influence, substitution should take place in preference in the previously unsubstituted ring.
His determined opposition to the empire, culminating in 1869 in a campaign in favour of the radical candidate opposed to 0111vier, was rewarded by his election as mayor of the 11th arrondissement of Paris and as deputy for the Seine.
A far more radical remodelling of the army was undertaken at Babylon in 323, by which the old phalanx system was to be given up for one in which the unit was to be composed of Macedonians with pikes and Asiatics with missile arms in combination - a change calculated to be momentous both from a military point of view in the coming wars, and from a political, in the close fusion of Europeans and Asiatics.
The leaves, which - are generally alternate, are usually entire and narrow: the radical leaves in some genera, as Pulmonaria (lungwort) and Cynoglossum, differ in form from the stem-leaves, being generally broader and sometimes heart-shaped.
His radical scepticism is seen in the first sentence of his IIEpi 01)o€ws, quoted by Cicero in the Academics ii.
When the work of conquest had been achieved, it could not be expected that a radical alteration should be suddenly wrought either in the social system which was in harmony with it, or even in the general ideas which had grown up under its influence.
Meantime another and more radical reform had been in preparation and was already in progress, namely, the abolition of slavery itself in the foreign possessions of the several states of Europe.
The unfortunate Niger expedition of 1841 was directed to similar ends; and it has been more and more felt by all who were interested in the subject that here lies the radical solution of the great problem.
By the spring of 1866 the ex-Confederates had succeeded in gaining possession of most of the local government and most of the state offices, although not of the governorship. The Republican party naturally became extremely radical.
But a quarrel broke out among the Republicans (1872), the result of which was the installation of two governors and legislatures, one supported by the Democrats and Liberal Republicans and the other by the radical Republicans, the former being certainly elected by the people.
The rivalry of these two state governments, clashes of arms, the recognition by the Federal authorities of the radical Republican government (Pinchback and Kellogg, successively governors) followed.
Pinchback, Republican (acting) John McEnery, 5 Democrat-Liberal Republican William P. Kellogg, Radical Republican..
Packard, 6 Radical Republican (con testant) .
Under the conditions of free labour, the development of railways abroad, the improvement of machinery both in cane and beet producing countries, the general competition of the beet, and the fall of prices, it was impossible for the Cuban industry to survive without radical betterment of methods.
-> CH3C6H5CONHC6H51 N OH Syn-phenyltolylketoxime CH3 C6H4 C C6H5 CH3C6H4NH000,H5 HO N A nti-tolylphenylketoxime In the case of the aldoximes, that one which most readily loses the elements of water on dehydration is assumed to contain its hydroxyl radical adjacent to the movable hydrogen atom and is designated the syn-compound.
Then came forced loans and debased currency (1788), producing still more acute distress until, in 1791, at the close of the two years' war with Russia, in which the disaster which attended Ottoman arms may be largely ascribed to the penury of the Ottoman treasury, Selim III., the first of the " reforming sultans, " attempted, with but little practical success, to introduce radical reforms into the administrative organization of his empire.
The respiratory current of water is therefore conducted to the exterior by different means from that adopted by Amphioxus, and this difference is so great that the theory which seeks to explain it has to postulate radical changes of structure, function and topography.
These substances are combinations of one or more albumins with a radical of an essentially different nature, termed by Kossel a " prosthetic group."
" Glyco-proteids " differ from nucleo-proteids in containing a carbohydrate radical, which is liberated only by boiling with mineral acids or alkalies.
It was he who caused the word "retrenchment" to be added to the Radical programme "peace and reform."
Among the numerous conjectures which have been made as to the etymology of the term Africa ('Acppucii) may be quoted that which derives it from the Semitic radical.
Though radical enough, this Land Act was still not sufficient to satisfy the groups which came into political power on June 3 1921.
The plants generally have a rhizome bearing radical leaves, as in asphodel, rarely a stem with a tuft of leaves as in Aloe, very rarely a tuber (Eriospermum) or bulb (Bowiea).
Asphodelus (asphodel) is a Mediterranean genus; Simethis, a slender herb with grassy radical leaves, is a native of west and southern Europe extending into south Ireland.
Anthericum and Chlorophytum, herbs with radical often grass-like leaves and scapes bearing a more or less branched inflorescence of small generally white flowers, are widely spread in the tropics.
His treatise was remarkable, not only as offering a satisfactory explanation of the coincidence between the lunar periods of rotation and revolution, but as containing the first employment of his radical formula of mechanics, obtained by combining with the principle of d'Alembert that of virtual velocities.
Thus a universal science of matter and motion was derived, by an unbroken sequence of deduction, from one radical principle; and analytical mechanics assumed the clear and complete form of logical perfection which it now wears.
The revolution of 1889 and the constitution adopted in 1891 not only effected a radical change in the form of government, but also brought about the separation of church and state.
The Reformation brought in radical changes, which were on the whole a return to the primitive type.
In the campaign he held, in opposition to the wishes of the more radical members of his party, that although secession might be resorted to as a last alternative the circumstances were not yet such as to justify it.
At the same time he practically told the Senate that the South would secede in the event of the election of a radical Republican to the presidency; and on the 10th of January 1861, not long after the election of Lincoln, he argued before that body the constitutional right of secession and declared that the treatment of the South had become such that it could no longer remain in the Union without being degraded.
The two opposing theories express at bottom, in the phraseology of their own time, the radical divergence of pantheism and individualism - the two extremes between which philosophy seems pendulum-wise to oscillate, and which may be said still to await their perfect reconciliation.
RICHARD COBDEN (1804-1865), English manufacturer and Radical politician, was born at a farmhouse called Dunford, near Midhurst, in Sussex, on the 3rd of June 1804.
NITRO COMPOUNDS, in organic chemistry, compounds containing the monovalent radical -NO 2 directly combined with carbon.
Neither could forgive Tisza for repudiating his earlier Radical policy, the so-called Bihar Programme (March 6, 1868), which went far beyond the Compromise in the direction of independence, and both attacked him with a violence which his unyielding temper, and the ruthless methods by which he always knew how to secure victory, tended ever to fan into fury.
After the war he allied himself with the radical wing of his party, was a member of the joint committee that outlined the congressional plan of reconstructing the late Confederate States, and laboured for the impeachment of President Johnson.
Prague, Val in Zagreb and Jedinstvo in Spalato - which advocated more radical action alike in politics and literature.
But in the land question the Radical party was paralyzed by its Bosnian wing, which sided with the peasantry: and thus in Sept.
But though he was thus able to carry the first reading of the new constitution by 227 to 93 votes, he was faced by the passive resistance of the great majority of Croats and Slovenes, who regarded with suspicion his " Great Serbian " and centralizing aims. It is significant that Protic, hitherto Pasic's most intimate associate, withdrew from the Radical party and from Parliament rather than sanction a constitution so inimical to provincial interests: while Trumbic, the foremost advocate of full national unity, recorded his vote against it.
The plants are hardy herbaceous perennials with narrow tufted radical leaves and an elongated stem bearing a handsome spike of white or yellow flowers.
Bog-asphodel (Narthecium ossifragum), a member of the same family, is a small herb common in boggy places in Britain, with rigid narrow radical leaves and a stem bearing a raceme of small golden yellow flowers.
A conspicuous example of the incalculable evil wrought by lack of integration is well seen in the radical divorce of surgery from medicine, which is one of the most mischievous legacies of the middle ages - one whose mischief is scarcely yet fully recognized, and yet which is so deeply rooted in our institutions, in the United Kingdom at any rate, as to be hard to obliterate.
Coincidently therewith, the hope of neutralizing infections by fortifying individual immunity has grown brighter, for it appears that immunity is not a very radical character, but one which, as in the case of vaccination, admits of modification and accurate adjustment in the individual, in no long time and by no very tedious methods.
As regards pulmonary disease, pneumonia has passed more and more definitely into the category of the infections: the modes of invasion of the lungs and pleura by tuberculosis has been more and more accurately followed; and the treatment of these diseases, in the spheres both of prevention and of cure, has undergone a radical change.
For much of all this the prime minister's colleagues were primarily responsible; but he himself had given a lead to the anti-militarist section by prominently advocating international disarmament, and the marked rebuff to the British proposals at the Hague conference of 1907 exposed alike the futility of this Radical ideal and the general inadequacy of the prime minister's policy of pacificism.
In June 1920, when the Giolitti Government was formed with the programme of a reconstitution of the Italian State and of radical reforms, Croce (who had been a senator of the Kingdom of Italy since 1920) was asked to accept the office of Minister of Public Instruction.
By these and similar arguments he arrives at the fundamental principle of Scepticism, the radical and universal opposition of causes; panti logo logos antikeitai.
Hence he is spoken of with respect in the Clementines; while Paul, as a radical in relation to the Law, is discountenanced.
The plants are bulbous herbs, with flat or rounded radical leaves, and a central naked or leafy stem, bearing a head or umbel of small flowers, with a spreading or bell-shaped white, pink, red, yellow or blue perianth.
On entering the Second Chamber of Baden in 1842, he at once began to take part in the opposition against the government, which assumed a more and more openly Radical character, and in the course of which his talents as an agitator and his personal charm won him wide popularity and influence.
In 1847 he was temporarily occupied with ideas of emigration, and with this object made a journey to Algiers, but returned to Baden and resumed his former position as the Radical champion of popular rights, later becoming president of the Volksverein, where he was destined to fall still further under the influence of the agitator Gustav von Struve.
In conjunction with Struve he drew up the Radical programme carried at the great Liberal meeting held at Offenburg on the 12th of September 1847 (entitled "Thirteen Claims put forward by the People of Baden").
On the questions relating to political reconstruction and the policy of President Johnson, he supported his party, though opposed to its Radical leaders.
His father, who was an extreme Calvinist and a strong radical, was engaged in the iron trade.
In 1865 he rejected the more radical views of his party as to the treatment to be accorded to the late Confederate states, opposed the immediate and unconditional enfranchisement of freedmen, and, though not accepting President Johnson's views in their entirety, he urged the people of Massachusetts to give the new president their support.
thoughts to Comte, and that, in the portion of that work which treats of the logic of the moral sciences, a radical.
2 Sprague was elected over the radical Republican candidate through a coalition of Democrats and conservative Republicans.
He was much carried away at this time by the idea of a radical reform of social life in Livonia, which (after the example of Rousseau) he thought to effect by means of a better method of school-training.
But that claim had been rudely disputed by the return of a Radical lawyer at the election of 1831.
Roebuck, the Radical member for Sheffield, gave notice that he would move for a select committee " to inquire into the condition of our army before Sevastopol, and into the conduct of those departments of the government whose duty it has been to minister to the wants of that army."
But just in proportion as Gladstone advanced in favour with the Radical party he lost the confidence of his own constituents.
Channing (q.v.), whom Martineau had called " the inspirer of his youth," Theodore Parker had succeeded, introducing more radical ideas as to religion and a more drastic criticism of sacred history.
Both of these journals devoted space to social news, a radical departure from the austere restrictions observed by their aristocratic contemporaries.
There is a radical difference between the points of view of the Japanese and the Western connoisseur in estimating tbe Japanese merits of sculpture in metal.
Again, anode reactions, such as are observed in the electrolysis of the fatty acids, may be utilized, as, for example, when the radical CH3C02 - deposited at the anode in the electrolysis of acetic acid - is dissociated, two of the groups react to give one molecule of ethane, C 2 H 6, and two of carbon dioxide.
Finally the defection of the Radical and Socialist groups induced him to resign on the 17th of January 1905, although he had not met an adverse vote in the Chamber.
His policy was still carried on; and when the law of the separation of church and state was passed, all the leaders of the Radical parties entertained him at a noteworthy banquet in which they openly recognized him as the real originator of the movement.
The Westminster Review (1824), established by the followers of Jeremy Bentham, advocated radical reforms in church, state and legislation.
It was Radical in politics, and had Roebuck as one of its founders.
In the convention parliament summoned by the prince of Orange, in which he sat for Heytesbury, he spoke in favour of a radical resettlement of the constitution, and served on a committee, of which Somers was chairman, for drawing up a new constitution in the form of the Declaration of Right; and he was one of the representatives of the Commons in their conference with the peers on the question of declaring the throne vacant.
At the close of the Civil War he was a leading member of the radical wing of the Republican party, advocating the disfranchisement of all who had been prominent in the service of the Confederacy, and declaring that "loyalty must govern what loyalty has preserved."
In 1888 he was elected Radical deputy for the department of the Aisne.
In 1902 he returned to France and was elected by Laon to the chamber as a Radical.
He refused, however, to support the Combes ministry, and formed a Radical dissident group, which grew in strength and eventually caused the fall of the ministry.
An advanced and vehement Radical in politics and Progressive in municipal affairs, Mr Harrison in 1886 stood unsuccessfully for parliament against Sir John Lubbock for London University.
As a religious teacher, literary critic, historian and jurist, Mr Harrison took a prominent part in the life of his time, and his writings, though often violently controversial on political and social subjects, and in their judgment and historical perspective characterized by a modern Radical point of view, are those of an accomplished scholar, and of one whose wide knowledge of literature was combined with independence of thought and admirable vigour of style.
It is necessary to insist upon this point, since it serves to illustrate a radical infirmity in Machiavelli's genius.
But the perusal of the piece obliges us to ask ourselves whether the author's radical conception of human nature was not false.
call attention to the radical difference in outlook between vii.
This may be so, but it can be admitted neither that Fichte's views underwent radical change, nor that the Wissenschaftslehre was ever regarded as in itself complete, nor that Fichte was unconscious of the apparent difference between his earlier and later utterances.
As a consequence there has been a tendency towards the formation of two opposing elements within the dominant party; the more radical seeking the promotion of what since 1902 has been known as the "Iowa Idea," which in substance is to further the expansion of the trade of the United States with the rest of the world through the more extended application of tariff reciprocity, and at the same time to revise the tariff so as to prevent it from "affording a shelter to monopoly."
He displayed such radical and reforming inclinations that he laid the foundations of his popularity among the lower and middle classes, which lasted more than a quarter of a century, during which time the Progressists, Democrats and advanced Liberals ever looked to him as a leader and adviser.
For two years Espartero ruled Spain in accordance with his Radical and conciliatory dispositions, giving special attention to the reorganization of the administration, taxation and finances, declaring all the estates of the church, congregations and religious orders to be national property, and suppressing the diezma, or tenths.
In 1556 he wrote his famous Consultatio theologica, in which he advised the king to resist the temporal encroachments of the papacy and, as absolute monarch, to defend his rights by bringing about a radical change in the administration of ecclesiastical revenues, thus making Spain less dependent on Rome.
At Newark from 1875 he gave himself entirely to literary work, and exercised a strong influence as leader of the radical and reforming Jewish party.
They were weavers who had been associated with Thomas Miinzer, and like him looked forward to a very radical reform of society.
These measures, and the excitement which followed the arrival of the radicals from Zwickau, led Luther to return to Wittenberg in March 1522, where he preached a series of sermons attacking the impatience of the radical party, and setting forth clearly his own views of what the progress of the Reformation should be.
On the other hand, they did not wish to take the risk of radical measures against the new doctrines, and were glad of an excuse for refusing the demands of the pope.
They made it clear that they still held a great part of the beliefs of the medieval Church, especially as represented in Augustine's writings, and repudiated the radical notions of the Anabaptists and of Zwingli.
NeoPlatonism, which is in some respects nearer the Christian patristic than the Hellenic spirit, was as far as the radical religious thinkers of the Italian Renaissance receded.
There is, however, a radical difference between the two systems. The standpoint of the Aristotelian classification is the predication of one universal concerning another.
The religious concep tions of the fishing tribes on the Pacific coast between Mount St Elias and the Columbia river are worked out by Boas; the transformation from the hunting to the agricultural mode of life was accompanied by changes in belief and worship quite as radical.
This is a radical version of the early Protestant idea of faith, and yields a theory of what in English we call " doctrine."
Upon a platform which called for radical reforms in the administrative departments, the civil service, and the national finances, Cleveland was nominated for president, despite the opposition of the strong Tammany delegation from his own state.
Public discussion of them contributed to secure radical modifications of scope and method at the census of 1850.
On Elizabeth's accession they ceased to assemble, until it was plain that she did not intend a radical reformation.
But the radical " Puritans " (the above documents in the State Paper Office are endorsed " Bishop of London: Puritans ") felt that this meant treason to the Headship of Christ in His Church; and that until the prince should set aside " the superstition and commandments of men," and " send forth princes and ministers [like another ], and give them the Book of the Lord, that they may bring home the people of God to the purity and truth of the apostolic Church," they could do no other than themselves live after that divine ideal.
Sir George Grey, entering colonial politics as a Radical leader, had appealed eloquently to the work-people as well as to the Radical "intellectuals," and though unable to retain office for very long he had compelled his opponents to pass manhood suffrage and a triennial parliaments act.
After the triumph of the radical democrats which followed upon these successes he lost his high command.
In the struggle, although he was bitterly accused of violating the written constitution, of arresting and destroying business prosperity and of attempting a radical departure from the accepted social system of the country, he was remarkably successful.
Corresponding to the radical centre of three circles, it may be shown that four spheres have a radical centre, i.e.
Prince Gorchakov did not want a radical solution involving a great European war, but he was too fond of ephemeral popularity to stem the current of popular excitement.
The salts produced by the action of ammonia on acids are known as the ammonium salts and all contain the compound radical ammonium (NH 4).
Numerous attempts have been made to isolate this radical, but so far none have been successful.
Under his sway the town was modernized and developed, but the finances were badly administered, and Fazy became more and more a radical dictator.
The Radical government enacted severe laws as to the Romanists in Geneva, and gave privileges to the Christian Catholic Church, which, organized in 1874 in Switzerland, had absorbed the community founded at Geneva by Pere Hyacinthe, an ex-Carmelite friar.
On the other hand it had not been able to overcome the less radical opposition of the " Poor Man of Lyons " (Waldo, d.
In this year began the " Tariff Reform " movement initiated by Mr Joseph Chamberlain, but Free Trade retained a strong hold on the British electorate, and the return of the overwhelming Radical majority to parliament in 1906 involved its retention under the fiscal policy of that party.
believed it to be to his political advantage to strengthen friendly relations with Great Britain by the moderation of the import duties that the change was finally made; while the despotic character of his government enabled him, when once the new policy was entered on, to bring about a radical change.
The treaty thus made a radical change, revolutionizing the tariff system of France.
On two occasions he stood for Sheffield as a "philosophic radical," but without success.
Jean Dupuy, leader of the Left Republican group which refused to accept the decisions of the Radical Socialist congress at Pau in Oct.
On June 9 1914 he became prime minister and Minister of Justice, but his Government was bitterly assailed by the Radical Socialists as well as other groups, and only lasted one day.
Thus wealth, position, court influence and ability combined gave the Czartoryscy a commanding position in Poland, and, to their honour be it said, they had determined from the first to save the Republic, whose impending ruin in existing circumstances they clearly foresaw, by a radical constitutional reconstruction which was to include the abolition of the liberum veto and the formation of a standing army.
In 1835 he was unseated on petition, an& after standing unsuccessfully for Oldham he took to stumping England in favour of the new Radical doctrines of the day, and the use of physical force for their adoption.
With the approach of the crisis in the relations between Great Britain and the American colonies he adopted a conservative course, and, while recognizing the justice of many of the colonial complaints, discouraged, radical action and advocated a compromise.
In the House of Commons he soon made his mark as a radical, and as a denouncer of naval abuses.
In spite of his radical opinions he made a furious attack on the admiralty for the new prize money regulations which diminished the shares of the captains to the advantage of the men.
Nor again is it possible to survey the more special developments of literary criticism which have later emerged, amongst which one of the most important has been the radical examination of the prophetic writings introduced and developed by (amongst others) Stade, Wellhausen, Duhm, Cheyne, Marti.'
Other important works in which English and American scholars have co-operated are the Encyclopaedia Biblica (1899-1903) and Hastings' Bible Dictionary (1898-1904) - the latter less radical, but yet on the whole based on acceptance of the fundamental positions of Vatke, Graf, Wellhausen.
In the first county council elections for Carnarvonshire he played a strenuous part on the Radical side, and was chosen an alderman; and in 1890, at a by-election for Carnarvon Boroughs, he was returned to parliament by a majority of 18 over a strong Conservative opponent.
As the leader of the Welsh party, and one of the most dashing parliamentarians on the Radical side, his appointment to office when Sir H.
His settlement of the railway dispute in 1906 was universally applauded; and the bills he introduced and passed for reorganizing the port of London, dealing with Merchant Shipping, and enforcing the working in England of patents granted there, and so increasing the employment of British labour, were greeted with satisfaction by the tariff-reformers, who congratulated themselves that a Radical free-trader should thus throw over the policy of laisser faire.
The government had been losing ground in the country, and Mr Lloyd George and Mr Winston Churchill were conspicuously in alliance in advocating the use of the budget for introducing drastic reforms in regard to licensing and land, which the resistance of the House of Lords prevented the Radical party from effecting by ordinary legislation.
In doing battle against the Tyrian Baal he is content with a reformation for which the whole nation can be heartily won, because it makes no radical change in their inherited faith and practices of worship. And in stimulating resistance to Syria he is.
Clemenceau and the Radical party; and in January 1886, when M.
Freycinet was brought into power by the support of the Radical leader, Boulanger was given the post of war minister.
A radical revision of the constitution is rendered especially difficult by a provision that ma amendment proposed by a convention shall be adopted without the approval of two-thirds of the electors who vote on the subject when it is referred to them.
He ranked as one of the Radical supporters of the new dynasty, in opposition to the party of which his rival Guizot was the chief literary man, and Guizot's patron, the duc de Broglie, the main pillar.
After the overthrow of his patron Laffitte, he became much less radical, and, after the troubles of June 1832, was appointed to the ministry of the interior.
Guesde took his full share in the consequent discussion between the Guesdists, the Blanquists, the possibilists, &c. In 1893 he was returned to the Chamber of Deputies for Lille (7th circonscription) with a large majority over the Christian Socialist and Radical candidates.
Besides these, other double cyanides are known which do not suffer such decomposition, the heavy metal present being combined with the cyanogen radical in the form of a complexion.
On the other hand, when there is but little electro-chemical difference between the radical of the cyanide and that of the reacting compound then the nitrogen atom is the more unsaturated element and.
Obviously these equations show that the curves intersect in four points, two of which lie on the intersection of the line, 2 (g - g')x +2 (f - f')y+c - c'=o, the radical axis, with the circles, and the other two where the lines x2+y2= (x+iy) (x - iy) =o (where i = - - I) intersect the circles.
The line la+ma+ny is the radical axis, and since as+43 c-y =o is the line infinity, it is obvious that equation (I) represents a conic passing through the circular points, i.e.
The line AB is termed the " radical axis."
A system coaxal with the two given circles is readily constructed by describing circles through the common points on the radical axis and any third point; the minimum circle of the system is obviously that which has the common chord of intersection for diameter, the maximum is the radical axis - considered as a circle of infinite radius.
In the case of two non-intersecting circles it may be shown that the radical axis has the same metrical relations to the line of centres.
There are several methods of constructing the radical axis in this case.
diculars PL, P'L', from P and P' to 00', the line joining the centres, then the radical axis bisects LL' (at X) and is perpendicular to 00'.
To construct circles coaxal with the two given circles, draw the tangent, say XR, from X, the point where the radical axis intersects the line of centres, to one of the given circles, and with centre X and radius XR describe a circle.
The radical axis is x = o, and it may be shown that the length of the tangent from a point (o, h) is h 2 k 2, i.e.
But this a clamorous radical element demanded insistently, and the issue was the chief one in Canada for half a century.
ETHYL, in chemistry, the name given to the alkyl radical C 2 H 5.
The compounds containing this radical are treated under other headings; the hydride is better known as ethane, the alcohol, C 2 H 5 OH, is the ordinary alcohol of commerce, and the oxide (C 2 H 5) 2 O is ordinary ether.
Yancey (1814-1863), they prevailed upon the Democrats in 1848 to adopt their most radical views.
The latter was able to appeal to his countrymen (in a notable speech in the spring of 1906) to rally to a radical programme which had no socialist Utopia in view; and the appearance in him of a strong and practical radical leader had the result of considerably diminishing the effect of the socialist propaganda.
H 2 0],thechlorpentammine or purpureo-chromium salts, R 1 2 [Cr(NH 3) 5 Cl], the nitrito pentammine or xanthochromium salts, R 1 2[N02 (NH3)5 Cr], the luteo or hexammine chromium salts, R 1 3[(NH3) 6 Cr], and the rhodochromium salts: where R 1 = a monovalent acid radical and M = a monovalent basic radical.
All his past career and utterances seemed to indicate that he would favour the harshest measures toward exConfederates, hence his acceptability to the most radical republicans.
With the radical "Eider-Dane" party he was utterly out of sympathy; and when, in 1862, this party gained the upper hand, he was recalled from Frankfort.
He supported the repressive policy of Liverpool's cabinet, and organized the military forces held ready in case of a Radical rising.
Then began a period of radical reforms, recommended by public opinion and carried out by the autocratic power.
AZO COMPOUNDS, organic substances of the type R N:N R' (where R = an aryl radical and R' = a substituted alkyl, or aryl radical).
The mixed azo compounds are those in which the azo group N: N is united with an aromatic radical on the one hand, and with a radical of the aliphatic series on the other.
Though giving at first a modified support to the Reform government, he soon broke with it and became leader of the Radical or "Clear Grit" party.
Blackie was a Radical and Scottish nationalist in politics, but of a fearlessly independent type; he was one of the "characters" of the Edinburgh of the day, and was a well-known figure as he went about in his plaid, worn shepherd-wise, wearing a broadbrimmed hat, and carrying a big stick.
Leaving the consideration of radical changes of a vibrating system out of account for the present, the minor differences which have been observed in the appearances of spectra under different sparking conditions are probably to a large extent due to differences in the quantities of material examined, though temperature must alter the violence of the impact and there is a possible effect due to a difference in the impact according as the vibrating system collides with an electron or with a body of atomic dimensions.
We may quote one of the principal conclusions at which they arrived: " An inspection of our maps will show that the radical of a body is represented by certain well-marked bands, some differing in position according as it is bonded with hydrogen, or a halogen, or with carbon, oxygen or nitrogen.
Certain radicals have a distinctive absorption about 700 together with others about 900, and if the first be visible it almost follows that the distinctive mark of the radical with which it is connected will be found.
If we find a body containing the 740 absorption and a band with the most refrangible edge commencing at 892, or with the least refrangible edge terminating at 920, we may be pretty sure that we have an ethyl radical present.
In our own minds there lingers no doubt as to the easy detection of any radical which we have examined,.
The only trace we can find at present is in ethyl bromide, in which the radical band about 90o is curtailed in one wing.
Finally, after President Lincoln's election, he became a Republican, and as such was re-elected in 1862 to the national House of Representatives, in which he at once became one of the most radical and aggressive members, his views commanding especial attention owing to his being one of the few representatives from a slave state.
He was one of the radical leaders who preferred Fremont to Lincoln in 1864, but subsequently withdrew his opposition and supported the President for re-election.
An immense mass meeting was held on the 30th of June, which sent a committee to the king with specific demands for radical reforms. Finding himself without support, he yielded without a struggle, dismissed his ministry and signed a constitution on the 7th of July 1887, revising that of 1864, and intended to put an end to personal government and to make the cabinet responsible only to the legislature; this was called the " bayonet constitution," because it was so largely the result of the show of force made by the Honolulu Rifles.
At the Reformation the altars in churches were looked upon as symbols of the unreformed doctrine, especially where the struggle lay between the Catholics and the Calvinists, who on this point were much more radical revolutionaries than the Lutherans.
But Mr Chamberlain's new programme for a general tariff, with new taxes on food arranged so as to give a preference to colonial products, involved a radical alteration of the established fiscal system, and such out-and-out Unionist free-traders in the cabinet as Mr Ritchie and Lord George Hamilton, and outside it, like Lord Hugh Cecil and Mr Arthur Elliot (secretary to the treasury), were entirely opposed to this.
The immense Radical majority started with a feeling of contempt for the leader who had been rejected at Manchester, but by 1 9 07 he had completely reasserted his individual pre-eminence among parliamentarians.
Those bishops who, like him, had passed through the school of Lucian were not inclined to let him fall without a struggle, as they recognized in the views of their fellow-student their own doctrine, only set forth in a somewhat radical fashion.
The first state constitution of September 1776 was the work of the Radical party.
His policy was conservative and moderate, and in May 1765 he opposed Patrick Henry's radical "Stamp Act Resolutions."
Elected to the Municipal Council of Paris in 1879, he declared in favour of communal autonomy and joined with Henri Rochefort in demanding the erection of a monument to the Communards; but after his election to the Chamber of Deputies for the 5th arrondissement of Paris in 1881 he gradually veered from the extreme Radical party to the Republican Union, and identified himself with the cause of colonial expansion.
The fellow-countrymen of Stevinus were proud that he wrote in their own dialect, which he thought fitted for a universal language, as no other abounded like Dutch in monosyllabic radical words.
Pretty plants with broad, radical leaves, and a muchbranched inflorescence of numerous small flowers.
His action was popular, and was rendered still more so by his appointment of a radical ministry.
He was a Whig representative in Congress in 1849-1853, and was leader of the radical Whigs and Free-Soilers, strongly opposing the Compromise Measures of 1850,1850, and being especially bitter in his denunciations of the Fugitive Slave Law.
It was supported by the radical left, by a large portion of the Orthodox-Calvinists under Dr Kuyper, and by some Catholics; it had against it the moderate liberals, the aristocratic section of the Orthodox-Calvinists, the bulk of the Catholics, and a few radicals under an influential leader van Houten.
DIAZO COMPOUNDS, in organic chemistry, compounds of the type R N 2 X (where R = a hydrocarbon radical, and X = an acid radical or a hydroxyl group).
Blagden (Ber.,1900,33,p.2544), who consider that three simultaneous reactions occur, namely, the formation of labile double salts which decompose in such a fashion that the radical attached to the copper atom wanders to the aromatic nucleus; a catalytic action, in which nitrogen is eliminated and the acid radical attaches itself to the aromatic nucleus; and finally, the formation of azo compounds.
Determinations of the electrical conductivity of the diazonium chloride and nitrate also show that the diazonium radical is strictly comparable with other quaternary ammonium ions.
Hantzsch explains the characteristic reactions of the diazonium compounds ky the assumption that an addition compound is first formed, which breaks down with the elimination of the hydride of the acid radical, and the formation of an unstable syn-diazo compound, which, in its turn, decomposes with evolution of nitrogen (Ber., 18 97, 30, p. 2 54 8; 1898, 31, p. 2053).
In1832-1833the "Union" party of South Carolina was composed of those who rejected nullification, holding to secession as the only remedy; and from 1830 to 1860 certain radical abolitionists advocated a division of the Union.
To some extent Berkeley removed this radical inconsistency, but in his philosophical work it may be said with safety there are two distinct aspects, and while it holds of Locke on the one hand, it stretches forward to Kantianism on the other.
Hume sees distinctly that if conscious experience be taken as containing only isolated states, no progress in explanation of cognition is possible, and that the only hope of further development is to be looked for in a radical change in our mode of conceiving experience.
Though no radical changes have been made in the design of turbines for some years, an immense amount of skill and ingenuity has been shown in perfecting and improving details, and such machines of great size and power are now constantly being made, and give every satisfaction when in use.
In March 1839, after the dissolution of the chamber by Louis Philippe, he was elected deputy for Paris (re-elected in 1842 and in 1846), and sat in the group of the Radical Left, being one of the leaders of the party hostile to Louis Philippe.
ESTERS, in organic chemistry, compounds formed by the condensation of an alcohol and an acid, with elimination of water; they may also be considered as derivatives of alcohols, in which the hydroxylic hydrogen has been replaced by an acid radical, or as acids in which the hydrogen of the carboxyl group has been replaced by an alkyl or aryl group. In the case of the polybasic acids, all the hydrogen atoms can be replaced in this way, and the compounds formed are known as "neutral esters."
With the sympathetic organization which made him keenly sensible of the wants of the poor, he threw himself heartily into the movement known as Christian Socialism, of which Frederick Denison Maurice was the recognized leader, and for many years he was considered as an extreme radical in a profession the traditions of which were conservative.
He looked rather to the extension of the co-operative principle and to sanitary reform for the amelioration of the condition of the people than to any radical political change.
The more orthodox and conservative elements in his character gained the upper hand as time went on, but careful students of him and his writings will find a deep conservatism underlying the most radical utterances of his earlier years, while a passionate sympathy for the poor, the afflicted and the weak held possession of him till the last hour of his life.
A radical difference exists in connexion with the method of growth, in that the plants are never grown from seed, but are always propagated from layerings.
(For an account of his administration see United States: History.) During the campaign radical leaders in the South frequently asserted that the success of the Republicans at the polls would mean that the rights of the slave-holding states under the Federal constitution, as interpreted by them, would no longer be respected by the North, and that, if Lincoln were elected, it would be the duty of these slave-holding states to secede from the Union.
Were the feudal tie broken, the crown must soon vanish, and the constitution of medieval society undergo a radical change.
The discovery of America, the invention of printing, the revival of learning and many other causes had contributed to effect a radical change in the point of view from which the world was regarded; and the strongest of all medieval relations, that of the nation to the Church, was about to pass through the fiery trial of the Reformation.
Before the elections the Radical party broke up, as about twenty of them determined to accept the compromise.
It was, so far as now can be foreseen, the final collapse of the old Radical party.
His family came on both sides of middle-class people, and it was probably only as a joke that Godwin, a stern political reformer and philosophical radical, attempted to trace his pedigree to a time before the Norman conquest and the great earl Godwine.
He was a philosophic radical in the strictest sense of the term.
This was, however, met by vigorous protests from Czechs and Poles, while its provisions for a partly nominated senate, and the indirect election of deputies, excited the wrath of radical Vienna.
Every day the rift between the dominant radical element in the Hungarian parliament and imperial court was widened.
The possibility was obvious of combating the radical and nationalist revolution by means of the army, with its spirit of comradeship in arms and its imperialist tradition.
Meanwhile, renewed trouble had broken out in Vienna, where the radical populace was in conflict alike with the government and with the Slav majority of the Reichsrath.
The Young Czechs could not take their place; their Radical and anti-clerical tendencies alarmed the Feudalists and Clericalists who formed so large a part of the Right; they attacked the alliance with Germany; they made public demonstration of their French sympathies; they entered into communication with other Slav races, especially the Serbs of Hungary and Bosnia; they demanded universal suffrage, and occasionally supported the German Radicals in their opposition to the Clerical parties, especially in educational matters; under their influence disorder increased in Bohemia, a secret society called the Umladina (an imitation of the Servian society of that name) was discovered, and stringent measures had to be taken to preserve order.
60 Radical Young Czechs i Clerical Czechs.
Radical 16 16 Italians Liberal Italians.
In the early autumn, however, a radical change came over the spirit of Austrian politics.
He was sure, after his experiences at Baltimore, that a movement against slavery resting upon any less radical foundation than this would be ineffectual.
of Egypt to tax foreigners without their consent nor remove the right of Turkey to veto the issue of new loans, but in other respects the financial changes made by it were of a radical character.
Properly triliterals, but, with the 2nd or 3rd radical alike, these coalesced in many forms where no vowel intervened, and gave the word the appearance of a biliteraL
There is, however, one triliteral phonogram, the eagle,~, tyw, or tiu (?), used for the plural ending of adjectives in y formed from words ending in t (whether radical or the feminine ending).
The agitators gained their chief strength from the support accorded them by certain Radical politicians in England.
He meditated radical changes in their constitution, but death prevented the execution of his purpose.
Th is contest began in 18 2 when a com- g g g %, bination of all the Radical parties, known as the United Left," passed a vote of want of confidence against the government and rejected the budget.
But the difficulties of the ministry were somewhat relieved by a split in the Radical party, still further accentuated by the elections of 1879, which enabled Estrup to carry through the army and navy defence bill and the new military penal code by leaning alternately upon one or the other of the divided Radical groups.
After the elections of 1881, which brought about the reamalgamation of the various Radical sections, the opposition presented a united front to the government, so that, from 1882 onwards, legislation was almost at a standstill.
The session of 1896-1897 was remarkable for a rapprochement between the ministry and the " Left Reform Party," caused by the secessions of the " Young Right," which led to an unprecedented event in Danish politics - the voting of the budget by the Radical Folketing and its rejection by the Conservative Landsting in May 1897; whereupon the ministry resigned in favour of the moderate Conservative Herring cabinet, which induced the Upper House to pass the budget.
Up to that time all the leaders had been united in accepting the naturalistic formula, which was combined with an individualist and a radical tendency.
Others were the suppression of The Masses, a radical monthly, the cases of Abrams, Goldstein, Kate O'Hare, Berger, Rose Pastor Stokes, and the I.W.W.
In chemistry the term salt is given to a compound formed by substituting the hydrogen of an acid by a metal or a radical acting as a metal, or, what comes to the same thing, by eliminating the elements of water between an acid and a base.
In February 1819 Hobhouse was the Radical candidate at a by-election for the representation of the city of Westminster, but he failed to secure election.
A systematic policy of detraction was pursued by the small section of the Radical party who objected to a peer premier as such, and a great deal of adverse criticism was also aroused by a speech in which the prime minister, taunted for not again bringing forward a Home Rule measure, insisted upon the truism that the conversion of England, the "predominant partner," was a necessary condition of success.
Lord Rosebery's foreign policy, moreover, was too Tory for his Radical followers; he insisted upon "continuity of policy in foreign affairs," which meant carrying on the Conservative policy and not upsetting it.
Carlyle's confession of the radical difference of religious opinion had not alienated his friend, who was settling in London, and used his opportunities for promoting Carlyle's interest.
Carlyle called himself in some sense a radical; and J.
Carlyle was a " radical " as sharing the sentiments of the class in which he was born.
After the war of 1870-71 he took a leading place among; the most radical section of French politicians, as an opponent of the " opportunists " who continued the policy of Gambetta..
During the Nationalist and Dreyfus agitations he fought vigorously on behalf of the Republican government and when the coalition known as the "Bloc " was formed he took his place as a Radical leader.
During the great sailors' strike at Marseilles in 1904 he showed pronounced sympathy with the socialistic aims and methods of the strikers, and a strong feeling was aroused that his Radical sympathies tended to a serious weakening of the navy and to destruction of discipline.
In book I, chapters 40 and 42, it is recorded that the Infante Alphonso of Portugal suggested a radical change in the narrative of Briolanja's relations with Amadis.
On the 8th of February 1871 he was elected as a Radical to the National Assembly for the department of the Seine, and voted against the peace preliminaries.
Meanwhile, on the 10th of March 1871, he had introduced in the National Assembly at Versailles, on behalf of his Radical colleagues, the bill establishing a Paris municipal council of eighty members; but he was not returned himself at the elections of the 26th of March.
He joined the Extreme Left, and his energy and mordant eloquence speedily made him the leader of the Radical section.
At the elections of 1885 he advocated a strong Radical programme, and was returned both for his old seat in Paris and for the Var, selecting the latter.
The split in the Radical party over Boulangism weakened his hands, and its collapse made his help unnecessary to the moderate republicans.
A revolution headed by General Veintemilla, the Radical leader, then military commandant at Guayaquil, broke out in 1876, and on the 14th of December of that year the government forces under General Aparicio were completely routed at Galte.
The leaves form a radical rosette as in Primula (primrose, cowslip, &c.), or there is a well-developed aerial stem which is erect, as in species of Lysimachia, or creeping, as in Lysimachia Nummularia (creeping jenny or money-wort).
Though a strict adherent of the creed of Rome, he was a Liberal, nay a Radical, as regards measures for the vindication of human liberty, and he sincerely advocated the rights of conscience, the emancipation of the slave and freedom of trade.
He joined the radical or Fortschritts party, and in 1867 was also elected to the German parliament, but he helped to form the national liberal party, and in consequence lost his seat in Berlin, which remained faithful to the radicals; after this he represented Magdeburg and Frankfort-onMain in the Prussian, and Meiningen in the German, parliament.
Having approached the Russian ambassador in such a way as to remove the prejudice existing against him in Russia since the incident of 1867, he rendered himself eligible for office; and on the fall of the Tirard cabinet in 1888 he became president of the council and minister of the interior in a radical ministry, which pledged itself to the revision of the constitution, but was forced to combat the proposals of General Boulanger.
It was unsuccessful, and the more radical measure he now favoured was even more impossible of attainment; but a bill he introduced to prohibit the importation of slaves was passed in 1778 - the only important change effected in the slave system of the state during the War of Independence.
In 1840, however, when it began to advocate measures which he deemed too radical, he withdrew his membership, but with his pen he continued his labours on behalf of the slave, urging emancipation in the district of Columbia and the exclusion of slavery from the Territories, though deprecating any attempt to interfere with slavery in the states.
Upon the return of his rival, Crispi, to power in December 1893, he resumed political activity, allying himself with the Radical leader, Cavallotti.
His internal policy was marked by continual yielding to Radical pressure and by persecution of Crispi.
By dissolving the Chamber early in 1897 and favouring Radical candidates in the general election, he paved the way for the outbreak of May 1898, the suppression of which entailed considerable bloodshed and necessitated a state of siege at Milan, Naples, Florence and Leghorn.
At this stage collapse may set in, the patient become faint, the limbs twitch, the radical pulse become imperceptible, and unconsciousness supervene.
to Bentham as an advanced radical.
For this he was applauded by the radical Republicans, but his action was contrary to an act of congress of the 6th of August and to the policy of the Administration.
On the 31st of May 1864 he was nominated for the presidency by a radical faction of the Republican party, opposed to President Lincoln, but his following was so small that on the 21st of September he withdrew from the contest.
In 1775 he became chairman of the committee of public safety for Orange county, and wrote its response to Patrick Henry's call for the arming of a colonial militia, and in the spring of 1776 he was chosen a delegate to the new Virginia convention, where he was on the committee which drafted the constitution for the state, and proposed an amendment (not adopted) which declared that "all men are equally entitled to the full and free exercise" of religion, and was more radical than the similar one offered by George Mason.
Although a staunch friend of the constitution, Madison believed, however, that the instrument should be interpreted conservatively and not be made the means of introducing radical innovations.
Until the view of the individual units with which we are so far familiar has undergone radical revision, the primary inquiry must be into the forms of a class-calculus.
As interpreted it was acquiesced in or revolted from and revolt ranged from a desire for some modifications of detail or expression to the call for a radical transformation.
They in no sense constitute a school and manifest radical differences among themselves.
The radical thought of this movement was voiced in the demand of Reinhold 2 that philosophy should " deduce " it all from a single principle and by a single method.
As compared with the earlier constitution it showed many radical advances toward popular control, the power of the legislature being everywhere curtailed.
In1861-1863he was a member of the national House of Representatives, where, while advocating the prosecution of the war, he opposed such radical measures as the division of Virginia, the enlistment of slaves and the Conscription Acts.
He even became one of the securities for Jefferson Davis, thereby incurring the resentment of Northern radical leaders.
In religion as in politics Gerrit Smith was a radical.
Furthermore, the bishops being in most cases the exponents of the imperial power, the struggle for freedom from the latter ended in a radical riddance from all temporal episcopal government as well.
Long before the last stage, the rule of signori, was reached, however, the commune as originally constituted had everywhere undergone radical changes.
Many Protestants rebelled against this radical departure from the principles of the Reformation and of Biblical Christianity.
The up-country party in Virginia, with their allies along the frontiers of the other states, was now in power, and the radical of 1776 shaped the policy of the nation during the next twenty-five years.
The length L of an endless belt connecting a pair of pulleys whose effective radii are r,, r,, with parallel axes whose distance apart is c, is given by the following formulae, in each of which the first term, containing the radical, expresses the length of the straight parts of the belt, and the remainder of the formula the length of the curved parts.
(1780-90), was dealing with the question of a much more radical spirit, and actually abolishing abuses wholesale.
Since Kant there are, therefore, two streams of dualism, dealing, one with the radical problem of the relation between mind and matter, the other with the relation between the pure rational and the empirical elements within consciousness.
With Parker Pillsbury (1809-1898) she edited in 1867-1870 The Revolution, a radical newspaper, which in 1870 was consolidated with the Christian Enquirer.
Though on friendly terms with Governor Norborne Berkeley, Baron Botetourt and his successor, John Murray, earl of Dunmore, he nevertheless took a prominent part, though without speechmaking, in the struggles of the Assembly against Dunmore, and his position was always a radical one.
Defeated on the budget in May 1887, his government resigned; but he returned to office next year as foreign minister in the radical administration of Charles Floquet.
Kuenen became interested in theology; Scholten was not then the radical theologian he became later.
idolatry (necromancy, tree-worship) which the contemporary prophets denounce, do not support the view that the apparently radical reforms of Hezekiah were extensive or permanent, and Jer.
The results of her study of German philosophy were seen in philosophical essays; in lectures on "Doubt and Belief," "The Duality of Character," &c., delivered in1860-1861in her home in Boston, and later in Washington; and in addresses before the Boston Radical Club and the Concord school of philosophy.
Advanced Radical ideas attracted him, and before he was 25 years old he was to the fore in political meetings.
Two questions may be put to any doctrine which professes to effect a radical change in philosophy or science.
It is assuredly little matter for wonder that this philosophy should contain much that is now inapplicable, and that in many respects it should be vitiated by radical errors.
the unchanged form being called the " radical."
The liquids 1 and r were brought into the system, the initial forms 11 and rh being regarded as " radical."
Under the influence of these two men, five successive popes between 1045 and 1073 attempted a radical reform; and when, in this latter year, Hildebrand himself became pope, he took measures so stringent that he has sometimes been erroneously represented not merely as the most uncompromising champion, but actually as the author of the strict rule of celibacy for all clerics in sacred orders.
The radical contrast between mechanical and spiritual religion, though fundamental for modern theology, is alien to the primitive point of view, and is therefore inappropriate to the purposes of anthropological description.
One of the most notable of these radical anti-ecclesiastical movements was that of the Zwickau prophets, (Marcus Stiibner, Nikolaus Storch and Thomas Munzer): the most vigorous and notorious that of the Munster Anabaptists.
But their most radical doctrine was the rejection of infant baptism as unscriptural.
In the United States the cupola has undergone a radical modification in being built of water-jacketed sections.
In1851-1853he was superintendent of schools at Warren, Ohio; in 1853 was admitted to the Ohio bar, being at that time an anti-slavery Whig; and in 1859 was elected to the state senate, in which with Garfield and James Monroe (1821-1898) he formed the "Radical Triumvirate," Cox himself presenting a petition for a personal liberty law and urging woman's rights, especially larger property rights to married women.
He affronts every canon of taste, more by a radical absence, it would seem, of the sense of proportion than by any desire to shock.
In southern Chile the climate undergoes a radical change - the prevailing winds becoming westerly, causing a long rainy season with a phenomenal rainfall.
The Clerical influence was also thrown against him in consequence of his radical ideas in respect of Church matters.
These tendencies taken together explain the radical weakness of the Parthian Empire.
The profound reflections of the apostle on the radical antithesis of law and gospel, works and faith, were not appreciated in the and century.
The cure which is sought for may either be symptomatic or radical.
the gouty condition underlying them all, and thus effecting a radical cure.
From that moment he took an active part in politics, radical journalism, literary and historical pursuits.
In less than five weeks a few thousand men properly handled sufficed to quell the cantonal risings in Cordoba, Sevilla, Cadiz and Malaga, and the whole of the south might have been soon pacified, if the federal republican ministers had not once more given way to the pressure of the majority of the Cortes, composed of "Intransigentes" and radical republicans.
But new ideas had been introduced with the new system of education, and the inevitable revolt against absolutism had resulted in the formation of a Radical party, which sympathized with the Revolution in France and carried on an active propaganda through the numerous masonic lodges which were in fact political clubs.
In 1870 the duke of Saldanha, the last survivor of the turbulent statesmen of Queen Maria's reign, threatened an appeal to arms if the king would not dismiss his minister, the duke of Louie, an advanced Radical and freemason, whose influence, dating from the reign of Pedro V., was viewed with disfavour by Saldanha, as well as by more conservative politicians.
Its more radical elepolitical ments, known at first as the Historic Left, -were in parties.
He began his political life at the age of 15 as a keen Radical, but subsequently became a convinced Socialist, a member of the I.L.P. and a member of the National Executive of the Labour party.
From 1855 to 1860 he was pastor of a new Unitarian society in Jersey City, where he gave up the Lord's Supper, thinking that it ministered to self-satisfaction; and it was as a radical Unitarian that he became pastor of another young church in New York City in 1860.
Always himself on the unpopular side and an able but thoroughly fair critic of the majority, he habitually under-estimated his own worth; he was not only an anti-slavery leader when abolition was not popular even in New England, and a radical and rationalist when it was impossible for him to stay conveniently in the Unitarian Church, but he was the first president of the National Free Religious Association (1867) and an early and ardent disciple of Darwin and Spencer.
To his radical views he was always faithful.
The most recent and radical analyses are those of Spitta (Urchristentum, iii.
He was not, however, entirely in accord with the more radical members of his own party, and this difference was exemplified in his opposition to the impeachment of President Johnson and subsequently in his voting for Johnson's acquittal.
Graetz was repelled by Geiger's attitude, and though he subsequently took radical views of the Bible and tradition (which made him an opponent of Hirsch), Graetz remained a life-long foe to reform.
As he had already encouraged California to form the state government it desired, and later took a strong position against the efforts of Texas to possess itself of part of New Mexico, it was apparent that he was less inclined to favour the radical pro-slavery programme than his previous career had seemed to promise.
Agitation for constitutional reform resulted in a constitutional convention, which met at Trenton from the 14th of May to the 29th of June 1844 and drafted a new frame of government, introducing a number of radical changes.
But we are ignorant how he proposed to meet his own criticisms; and they do not appear to have suggested to him an actual departure from his master's doctrine, much less any radical transformation of it.
He had exchanged his moderate republicanism for radical views before he became war minister in the cabinet of Leon Bourgeois (1895-1896).
Lord Palmerston never was a Whig, still less a Radical; he was a statesman of the old English aristocratic type, liberal in his sentiments, favourable to the march of progress, but entirely opposed to the claims of democratic government.
The result was the utter defeat of the extreme Radical party and the return of a more compact Liberal majority.
In Congress he was conspicuous as a Radical Republican in Reconstruction legislation, and was one of the managers selected by the House to conduct the impeachment, before the Senate, of President Johnson, opening the case and taking the most prominent part in it on his side; he exercised a marked influence over President Grant and was regarded as his spokesman in the House, and he was one of the foremost advocates of the payment in "greenbacks" of the government bonds.
By the advocates of radical reforms these measures were regarded as utterly inadequate, and even in Belgium, among those friendly to the Congo State system of administration, some uneasiness was excited by a letter which was published along with the decrees, wherein King Leopold intimated that certain conditions would attach to the inheritance he had designed for Belgium.
After the death of his father, a civil servant, his mother's second marriage transferred him to Canada, where he was chiefly brought up. He came to England in 1824, was called to the bar (Q.C. 1843), became intimate with the leading radical and utilitarian reformers, was elected M.P. for Bath in 1832, and took up that general attitude of hostility to the government of the day, be it what it might, which he retained throughout his life.
He appeared in arms during the disturbances which overthrew Louis Philippe, and was elected by the department of the Ain to the Constituent and then to the Legislative Assembly, where he figured among the extreme radical party.
During the Civil War he seems to have been affiliated with the Knights of the Golden Circle, but he was not so radical as Vallandigham and others.
In time, however, the meaning of the term underwent a change, probably due to the philosophers and moralists, by whom a radical distinction was drawn between Aphrodite Urania and Pandemos.
After the end of the 4th century B.C. the institution underwent a radical change.
They are marshor water-plants with generally a stout stem (rhizome) creeping in the mud, radical leaves and a large, much branched inflorescence.
This did not satisfy the Radical Republicans, and on the issue of came of the plan, and the manner of its defeat proves that it could not possibly have been pushed to success The trouble over Lovejoy's printing office at St Louis (1833-1836) put an effectual end to the movement for emancipation.
The Radical Republicans held control until 1870, when they were defeated by a combination of Liberal Republicans and Democrats, 2 and the testoath and the rest of the intolerant legislation of the war period were swept away.
- The monetary system, which has been greatly complicated by the use of two depreciated currencies, silver and paper, has been undergoing a radical reform since 1905, the government proposing to redeem the depreciated paper and establish a new uniform currency on a gold basis.
His speeches were full of knowledge of the real condition of the people, and contained something like an original programme of Radical legislation.
In 1851 control of the Massachusetts legislature was secured by the Democrats in coalition with the Free Soilers, but after filling the state offices with their own men, the Democrats refused to vote for Sumner, the Free Soilers' choice for United States senator, and urged the selection of some less radical candidate.
nor, at a later date, Benedict XIV., could have dreamt of the radical reform at present in course of execution.
The system of local government has undergone radical changes in recent years.
In spite of this policy, however, the Polish element continued to gain, this being partly due to immigration over the eastern border, partly to the repressive policy of the Prussian government, which converted what had been an aristocratic opposition into one that is popular and radical.
The resultant legislature (at Pawnee, later at Shawnee Mission) adopted the laws of Missouri almost en bloc, made it a felony to utter a word against slavery, made extreme pro-slavery views a qualification for office, declared death the penalty for aiding a slave to escape, and in general repudiated liberty for its opponents., The radical free-state men thereupon began the importation of rifles.
In Kansas they were a stimulus to the most radical elements.
Lane was another radical, and always favoured force.
From about 1870 onward, however, elements of reform and of discontent were embodied in a succession of radical parties of protest.
Yet the state of the English dominions on the continent was not satisfactory; in building up the vast duchy of Aquitaine Edward had made a radical mistake.
The country which, in half-a-dozen years, had seen a radical reform of parliament, a no less radical reform of municipal corporations, the abolition of slavery, and the reconstruction of the poor laws, was longing for a period of political repose.
With their loss it involved a great radical change, which placed the working classes of the country in the position of predominance which the middle classes had occupied since 1832.
Large and radical as the measure was, reversing many of the accepted principles of legislation by giving the tenant a quasi-partnership with the landlord in his holding, no serious opposition was made to it in either House of Parliament.
This radical reconstruction of the electorate necessarily made the result of the elections doubtful.
It wits perhaps characteristic of Gladstone, though it was unquestionibly unfortunate, that, in determining on this radical change of policy, he consulted few, if any, of his previous colleagues.
The well-known theorem as to radical axes may be stated as follows.
The construction in fact is, join the two points in which the third circle meets the first arc, and join also the two points in which the third circle meets the second arc, and from the point of intersection of the two joining lines, let fall a perpendicular on the line joining the centre of the two circles; this perpendicular (considered as an indefinite line) is what Gaultier terms the " radical axis of the two circles "; it is a line determined by a real construction and itself always real; and by what precedes it is the line joining two (real or imaginary, as the case may be) intersections of the given circles.
The intersections which lie on the radical axis are two out of the four intersections of the two circles.
Observe that the radical, square root of a quartic function, is connected with the theory of elliptic functions, and the radical, square root of a sextic function, with that of the first kind of Abelian functions, but that the next kind of Abelian functions does not depend on the radical, square root of an octic function.
It is a form of the theorem for the case D = r, that the coordinates x, y, z of a point of the bicursal curve, or in particular the co-ordinates of a point of the cubic, can be expressed as proportional to rational and integral functions of the elliptic functions snu, cnu, dnu; in fact, taking the radical to be r -0 2 .r - k 2 0 2, and writing 8 =snu, the radical becomes = cnu, dnu; and we have expressions of the form in question.
By 1756 the cast of Burke's opinions was decisively fixed, and they underwent no radical change.
He was one of the organizers in Michigan of the Republican party, and in 1857 succeeded Lewis Cass in the United States Senate, serving until 1875, and at once taking his stand with the most radical opponents of slavery extension.
Throughout the war he allied himself with the most radical of the Republican faction in opposition to President Lincoln's policy, and subsequently became one of the bitterest opponents of President Johnson's plan of reconstruction.
Other radical legislation, especially in regard to railways, has included: the Porter Law, regulating rates, which was enacted in 1874 during the "Granger Movement," was modified from time to time, and was displaced by a law of 1905 (in 1908 declared constitutional so long as stockholders receive a "reasonable compensation" on investments) creating a state railway commission, and providing for the physical valuation of railways on an ad valorem basis for taxation; a law (1907) making 2 cents a mile the maximum fare; an antitipping law (1905); a law forbidding the sale of cigarettes; an act (1907) forbidding insurance companies to do both participating and non-participating business; and an eight-hour labour law in effect on the 1st of January 1908.
Anyway, we must remember that radical theology had gone to much greater extremes in denial (Anomaeans - the Son unlike the Father).
2 The more radical Protestantism of the non-Lutheran orthodox churches is called in a technical sense " Reformed.
We distinguish this position from the new emphasis on Christology, whether churchly or radical.
writing Disraeli entered the political arena as candidate for High Wycombe (1832), he was nominated by a Tory and seconded by a Radical - in vain; and vain were two subsequent attempts in the autumn of 183 2 and in 1834.
In the first he was recommended to the electors by Daniel O'Connell and the Radical Hume.
The warmth of his popularity, to which Radical applause contributed nothing in his later days, created an atmosphere entirely favourable to the quiet growth of Conservatism.
The party most pleased with the change was the Radical; the party best served was Disraeli's.