These small individuals present apparently no other differences, and Sergi maintains that the difference is racial, these being the descendants of a race of pygmies who had emigrated from central Africa.
In the absence of literary culture the Albanian dialects, as might be expected, are widely divergent; the limits of the two principal dialects correspond with the racial boundaries of the Ghegs and Tosks, who understand each other with difficulty; the Albanians in Greece and Italy have also separate dialects.
Whatever the racial affinities of the early inhabitants may have been, it is certain that in historic times Rhodes was occupied by a Dorian population, reputed to have emigrated mainly from Argos subsequently to the "Dorian invasion" of Greece.
There was no property qualification nor does the term appear to be racial.
The inhabitants of the north—the Piedmontese, Lombards and Genoese especially—have suffered less than those of the rest of the peninsula from foreign domination and from the admixture of inferior racial elements, and the cold winter climate prevents the heat of summer from being enervating.
It would follow, on the other hand, that what is called Oscan represented the language of the invading Sabines (more correctly Safines), whose racial affinities would seem to be of a distinctly more northern cast, and to mark them, like the Dorians or Achaeans in Greece, as an early wave of the invaders who more than once in later history havevitally influenced the fortunes of the tempting southern land into which they forced their way.
If we study a population and sort it into soldiers, sailors, ecclesiastics, lawyers and artisans, we may obtain facts of sociological value but learn nothing as to its racial origin and composition.
The minor subdivisions into provinces, counties and parishes, or analogous areas, may also be related in many cases to natural features or racial differences perpetuated by historical causes.
The position of this class, which has remained till the present day, is connected with the institution of caste, a division of the population into groups founded partly on racial distinctions.
This ferment of unrest, which was provoked in the years 1903-190 4, was exacerbated in the winters that followed by the renewed outbreak of the century-long racial feud between the Tatars and the Armenians at Baku and other places.
In fact, nearly the whole of the region between the Caucasus and the Perso-Turkish frontier on the south, from the Caspian Sea on the one side to the Black Sea on the other, was embroiled in a civil war of the most sanguinary and ruthless character, the inveterate racial animosities of the combatants being in both cases inflamed by religious fanaticism.
We may take it then (and the fact is not disputed even by those who, like Dorpfeld, believe in one thorough racial change, at least, during the Bronze Age) that the Aegean civilization was indigenous, firmly rooted and strong enough to persist essentially unchanged and dominant in its own geographical area throughout the Neolithic and Bronze Ages.
These and other less well marked changes, say some critics, are signs of a racial convulsion not long after 2000 B.C. An old race was conquered by a new, even if, in matters of civilization, the former capta victorem cepit.
Not enough evidence has been collected to affect the question of racial change during the Aegean period.
They crushed a civilization already hard hit; and it took two or three centuries for the artistic spirit, instinct in the Aegean area, and probably preserved in suspended animation by the survival of Aegean racial elements, to blossom anew.
Consequently south Palestine has been continuously " Arabized "; and indeed the whole of Syria has been characterized by racial and religious fusions, and by civilization of a singularly syncretic and derived kind, of which the ancient Phoenician is a sufficient example.
Elliot Smith has shown 7 the existence of the two racial stocks in Egypt, the predynastic Nilotic and the invading "Armenoid " from Asia, the man of higher cranial capacity to whom the blossoming of the Egyptian civilization and art out of primitive African barbarism is to be ascribed.
The reforms proved a failure, mainly owing to the tacit opposition of the Turkish authorities, the insufficient powers attributed to the European officials, the racial feuds and the deplorable financial situation.
But this specific application is dependent upon a prolonged racial preparation of the organism to respond in this particular way.
It is wholly due, as such, to racial preparation.
This is not wholly due, as such, to racial preparation, but is also partly due to individual preparation.
The Serb and Moslem delegates, who had started on the same day for Budapest, to present their petition to the emperor, learned from the rescript that the government intended to concede to their compatriots "a share in the legislation and administration of provincial affairs, and equal protection for all religious beliefs, languages and racial distinctions."
Further, one-third of the Belgian provinces was inhabited by a Walloon population divided from the Flemings by racial characteristics and their use of a Romance instead of a Teutonic dialect.
The Berber tribes, whose racial unity is attested by their common spoken language and by the comparatively numerous Berber inscriptions that have come down to us, bore in ancient times the generic names of Numidians, Gaetulians and Moors or Maurusiani.
The racial character of the people is not uniform throughout the republic, the whites predominating in the southern states, the Indians in Amazonas and, probably, Matto Grosso, and the mixed races in the central and northern coast states.
2 Racial Problems, p. 202.
The Germans differ from the other Hungarian races in that, save in the counties on the borders of Lower Austria and Styria, where they form a compact population in touch with their kin across the frontier, they are scattered in racial islets throughout the country.
2 The distribution of the races is analysed in greater detail in Mr Seton-Watson's Racial Problems, p. 3 seq.
Tisza's successor, 2 See for this Mr Seton-Watson's Racial Problems of Hungary, passim.
It was at once seen that this elaborate scheme was intended 3 Seton-Watson, Racial Problems, p. 194.
Seton-Watson (Scotus Viator), Racial Problems in Hungary (London, 1908), a strong criticism of the Magyar attitude towards the Slav subject races, especially the Slovaks, with documents and a full bibliography.
The first advocate of the Pan-Slav idea in Russia itself was Krizanic, a Croat Catholic priest from Dalmatia, and early writers in favour of Slavonic racial and literary unity were the Slovene schoolmaster Bohoricz (1584) and the Dalmatian Croat Orbini, who wrote in Italian (Il regno degli Slavi 1601).
In Johannes 1 Jameson, speaking at Durban on the 9th of August 1910, declared that the raid was not racial in the sense usually understood, but an effort towards federation.
The problem was both economic and racial, and on both grounds South Africans showed a determination to exclude the competition of Indians and other Asiatics.
This poem has the additional interest of showing the racial antipathy between the "Inglis"- speaking inhabitants of the Lothians and the "Scots" or Gaelic-speaking folk of the west country.
From all these various sources we should gather that the Hittites were among the more important racial elements in N.
Winckler has adduced evidence from names of local gods to show that there was an Indo-European racial element in Mitanni; but none for a similar element in the Hatti, whose chief god was Teshub.
This racial question can hardly be determined till those Hatti records, whether in cuneiform or pictographic script, which are couched in a native tongue, not in Babylonian, are read.
in its anti-Pharisaic denunciation of trust in mere racial privilege (Matt.
The council consists in equal proportions of nominated and elected members, no racial distinctions being made.
This Neolithic race has consequently been nicknamed " Iberians," and it is now common to speak of the " Iberian " ancestry of the people of Britain, recognizing the racial characteristics of " Iberians " in the" small swarthy Welshman," the " small dark Highlander," and the " Black Celts to the west of the Shannon," as well as in the typical inhabitants of Aquitania and Brittany.
It was also complicated by racial and religious prejudices, a large proportion of the factory operatives being foreigners and Roman Catholics, and most of the country people native Protestants.
They annually visited the coasts of India or Ceylon, and often married Indian wives, thus acquiring distinct racial characters of an approximately Dravidian type.
In all nations men of short stature have relatively large heads, but in the case of the Japanese there appears to be some racial reason for the phenomenon.
He also supervised the compilation of a comprehensive series of volumes by various writers on Descriptive Sociology, of which by 1881 eight parts on different racial areas had been published (at a loss to him of £3250) as the result of fourteen years of labour.
The predominant tribe are the Papuans, who are found here in their greatest racial purity and occupy practically the whole island except its eastern extremity.
Racial and national ideals, characteristics, laws and languages of these subject peoples were to be suppressed, by force if necessary, and an Ottoman population created which, outwardly at least, should be homogeneous within the empire's wide confines.
Racial hatred between Turks and Armenians there came to a head on April 9 in the so-called "Adana Massacres."
The other prolonged contest was racial - the conflict between settler and Maori.
It was the year before the rebellion of 1837; the condition of the whole country was very unsettled; and it seemed well-nigh impossible to reconcile differences arising from racial and political antagonisms. During the rebellion young Macdonald volunteered for active service, but his military career never went farther than drilling and marching.
Though he had thrown the weight of his influence against Lord Carnarvon's federation scheme Brand disapproved racial rivalries.
The fusion of races may be said to have begun then, for it was during the succeeding centuries that the kings of Swankalok-Sukhotai gradually assumed Lao characteristics, and that the Siamese language, written character and other racial peculiarities were in course of formation.
Of the total population in 1900, 48,349 had either one or both parents foreign-born, German being the principal racial element.
As regards the present racial distribution, the view accepted by many anthropologists, following A.
They are, in fact, the state in its religious aspect, and as such are territorial or national, not Catholic. This tendency has been common in the East also, where with the growth of racial rivalries the Orthodox Church has split into a serieq of national churches, holding the same faith but independent as to organization.
Germain) for the protection of national, religious and racial minorities.
" Our policy," said Dr. Benes in 1921, " is a policy of peace: in domestic affairs our programme is the logical sequel to our foreign policy, namely, social and racial order and justice, and unremitting effort on behalf of social and political democracy.
The Polish troops had taken a prominent part in the invasion of Russia, and their share in the plundering of Smolensk and of Moscow had intensified the racial hatred felt for them by the Russians.
These attempts meet with little success, owing in part to racial prejudice and in part to the indifference of the Arabs to education.
Among the ammonites the loss of power to coil the shell is one feature of racial old age, and in others old age is accompanied by closer coiling and loss of surface ornamentation, such as spines, ribs, spirals; while in other forms an arresting of variability precedes extinction.
Thus Williams has observed that if we find a species breeding perfectly true we can conceive it to have reached the end of its racial life period.
Beecher (1856-1905) has pointed out (1898), many animals possessing hard parts tend toward the close of their racial history to produce a superfluity of dead matter, which accumulates in the form of spines among invertebrates, and of horns among the land vertebrates, reaching a maximum when the animals are really on the down-grade of development.
- We have seen that different lines vary in vitality and in longevity, that from the earliest times senescent branches are given off, that different lines vary in the rate of evolution, that extinction is often heralded by symptoms of racial old age, which, however, vary widely in different groups.
Racial elements are for the most part the explanation.
The balance of power between parties in parliament was held by the province of Quebec, and there racial and religious feeling evoked no slight sympathy for Riel.
French Canadian Literature At The Opening Of The Loth Century Might Be Described As Entirely The Work Of Two Generations, And It Was Separated From The Old Regime By Three More Generations Whose Racial Sentiment Only Found Expression In The Traditional Songs And Tales Which Their Forefathers Of The 17Th Century Had Brought Over From The Mere Patrie.
But It Is Of Far Reaching Importance As The First Great Literary Stimulus To Racial Self Respect.
The racial affinities of the Teutoni have formed a matter of dispute amongst historians.
The Current Grouping of Mankind and Nation-making.- In the consolidation of peace one of the most important factors is unquestionably the grouping of mankind in accordance with the final territorial and racial limitations of their apparent destiny.
As there is little, if any, difference of racial origin, character and physical type, among the inhabitants of this region, except in Andalusia, and, to a less extent, in Estremadura, the Castilian is justly regarded as the typical Spaniard.
(1st ed., 1860; 2nd, 1871) was concerned with the origin and racial affinities of the Hindus, exhibiting all the then available evidences of their connexion, their linguistic, social and political kinship, with the other branches of the Indo-European stock.
It is in every sense a modern field, or rather a collection of fields, varying in physical, racial, social and linguistic character.
Ethiopianism, if ecclesiastical in its origin, gained strength from racial base.
The task of averting the racial bitterness so dominant in the United States of America is a most formidable one.
(1) Racial antipathy.
Since 1871 Bavaria has shared to the full in the marvellous development of Germany; but her "particularism," founded on traditional racial and religious antagonism to the Prussians, was by no means dead, though it exhibited itself in no more dangerous form than the prohibition, reissued in 1900, to display any but the Bavarian flag on public buildings on the emperor's birthday; a provision which has been since so far modified as to allow the Bavarian and imperial flags to be hung side by side.
Nevertheless the materials were there out of which a really broad-minded and conciliatory handling of religion and racial difficulties might have gradually built up a Netherland nation able to hold from its population and resources a considerable place among European powers.
As this in turn has been due to the very men who have developed the iron industry, it can hardly be questioned that, on further analysis, this development must in considerable part be referred to racial qualities.
But climatic conditions and racial temperament rendered the Oriental manner of monasticism unattainable, as a rule, in the West.
ANGLO-ISRAELITE THEORY, the contention that the British people in the United Kingdom, its colonies, and the United States, are the racial descendants of the "ten tribes" forming the kingdom of Israel, large numbers of whom were deported by Sargon king of Assyria on the fall of Samaria in 721 B.C. The theory (which is fully set forth in a book called Philo-Israel) rests on premises which are deemed by scholars - both theological and anthropological - to be utterly unsound.
But from both the racial and religious standpoint, the Arab and Persian Shi`as, who constitute the vast bulk of the population, regard the Turks as foreigners and tyrants.
La Tne Period (4thist century B.C.) .Down to this time there is very little evidence concerning the racial affinities of the population.
He was a disciple, not of Machiavelli, but of Rousseau; and his scattered dominions, divided by innumerable divergences of racial and class prejudice, and enncumbered with traditional institutions to which the people clung with passionate conservatism, he regarded as so much vacant territory on which to build up his ideal state.
The disintegrating force of the ever-simmering racial rivalries could be kept in check by the army; Hungarian regiments garrisoned Italy, Italian regiments guarded Galicia, Poles occupied Austria, and Austrians Hungary.
Germanism had so far served as the basis of the Austrian system, not as a national ideal, but because " it formed a sort of unnational mediating, and common element among the contradictory and clamorous racial tendencies."
The extreme parties of the Germans and the anti-Semites were also, for racial reasons, opposed to the whole system.
where over three-fifths of the population were Czech, racial feeling was supported by the appeal to historic law.
Parliamentary discussion, moreover, was sure to bring out those racial differences which it was desirable should be forgotten, and the elections carried into every part of the empire a political agitation which was very harmful when each party represented a different race.
It became more and more avowedly racial; the defence of German nationality was put New in the front of their programme.
After 1878 a heightening of racial feeling began among the Radicals, and in 1881 all the German parties in opposition joined together in a club called the United Left, and in their programme put in a prominent place the defence of the position of the Germans as the condition for the existence of the state, and demanded that German should be expressly recognized as the official language.
On the same day the premier promised to introduce by February a large measure of franchise reform so framed as to protect racial minorities from being overwhelmed at the polls by majorities of other races.
Their main principles were the abolition of the curia or electoral class system and the establishment of the franchise on the basis of universal suffrage; and the division of Austria electorally into racial compartments within which each race would be assured against molestation from other races.
In consequence of Czech aggressiveness, the German parties (the German Progressists, the German Populists, the Constitutional Landed Proprietors and the Christian Socialists, created a joint executive committee and a supreme committee of four members to watch over German racial interests.
Rumanians These allotments were slightly modified at the polls by the victory of some Social Democratic candidates not susceptible of strict racial classification.
The estimates were voted with regularity, racial animosity was somewhat less prominent, and some large issues were debated.
(d) Racial Question.-There is a very extensive literature on the question of languages and race in Austria.
But the racial repugnance to the Greek, which forbade an Egyptian even to eat an animal which had been carved with a Greek's knife (Hdt.
Alexander had settled large masses of Greeks in these regions (Greeks, would seem, not Macedonians), whose attempts to return home in 325 and 323 had been frustrated, and it may well be that a racial antagonism quickened the revolt against Macedonian rule in 250.
As to the effect of this network of Greek cities upon the aboriginal population of Syria, we do not find here the same disappearance of native languages and racial charac Greek teristics as in Asia Minor.
As against the Church of Rome, with its system of rigid centralization, the Anglican Church represents the principle of local autonomy, which it holds to be once more primitive and more catholic. In this respect the Anglican communion has developed on the lines defined in her articles at the Reformation; but, though in principle there is no great difference between a church defined by national, and a church defined by racial boundaries, there is an immense difference in effect, especially when the race - as in the case of the English - is itself ecumenical.
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