It is wholly due, as such, to racial preparation.
These and other less well marked changes, say some critics, are signs of a racial convulsion not long after 2000 B.C. An old race was conquered by a new, even if, in matters of civilization, the former capta victorem cepit.
Tisza's successor, 2 See for this Mr Seton-Watson's Racial Problems of Hungary, passim.
The council consists in equal proportions of nominated and elected members, no racial distinctions being made.
But this specific application is dependent upon a prolonged racial preparation of the organism to respond in this particular way.
It was also complicated by racial and religious prejudices, a large proportion of the factory operatives being foreigners and Roman Catholics, and most of the country people native Protestants.
Not enough evidence has been collected to affect the question of racial change during the Aegean period.
in its anti-Pharisaic denunciation of trust in mere racial privilege (Matt.
If we study a population and sort it into soldiers, sailors, ecclesiastics, lawyers and artisans, we may obtain facts of sociological value but learn nothing as to its racial origin and composition.
From all these various sources we should gather that the Hittites were among the more important racial elements in N.
The racial character of the people is not uniform throughout the republic, the whites predominating in the southern states, the Indians in Amazonas and, probably, Matto Grosso, and the mixed races in the central and northern coast states.
2 The distribution of the races is analysed in greater detail in Mr Seton-Watson's Racial Problems, p. 3 seq.
It was at once seen that this elaborate scheme was intended 3 Seton-Watson, Racial Problems, p. 194.
2 Racial Problems, p. 202.
This is not wholly due, as such, to racial preparation, but is also partly due to individual preparation.
The first advocate of the Pan-Slav idea in Russia itself was Krizanic, a Croat Catholic priest from Dalmatia, and early writers in favour of Slavonic racial and literary unity were the Slovene schoolmaster Bohoricz (1584) and the Dalmatian Croat Orbini, who wrote in Italian (Il regno degli Slavi 1601).
Winckler has adduced evidence from names of local gods to show that there was an Indo-European racial element in Mitanni; but none for a similar element in the Hatti, whose chief god was Teshub.
Seton-Watson (Scotus Viator), Racial Problems in Hungary (London, 1908), a strong criticism of the Magyar attitude towards the Slav subject races, especially the Slovaks, with documents and a full bibliography.
In the absence of literary culture the Albanian dialects, as might be expected, are widely divergent; the limits of the two principal dialects correspond with the racial boundaries of the Ghegs and Tosks, who understand each other with difficulty; the Albanians in Greece and Italy have also separate dialects.
The Serb and Moslem delegates, who had started on the same day for Budapest, to present their petition to the emperor, learned from the rescript that the government intended to concede to their compatriots "a share in the legislation and administration of provincial affairs, and equal protection for all religious beliefs, languages and racial distinctions."
He also supervised the compilation of a comprehensive series of volumes by various writers on Descriptive Sociology, of which by 1881 eight parts on different racial areas had been published (at a loss to him of £3250) as the result of fourteen years of labour.
These small individuals present apparently no other differences, and Sergi maintains that the difference is racial, these being the descendants of a race of pygmies who had emigrated from central Africa.
The inhabitants of the north—the Piedmontese, Lombards and Genoese especially—have suffered less than those of the rest of the peninsula from foreign domination and from the admixture of inferior racial elements, and the cold winter climate prevents the heat of summer from being enervating.
They annually visited the coasts of India or Ceylon, and often married Indian wives, thus acquiring distinct racial characters of an approximately Dravidian type.
Consequently south Palestine has been continuously " Arabized "; and indeed the whole of Syria has been characterized by racial and religious fusions, and by civilization of a singularly syncretic and derived kind, of which the ancient Phoenician is a sufficient example.
In Johannes 1 Jameson, speaking at Durban on the 9th of August 1910, declared that the raid was not racial in the sense usually understood, but an effort towards federation.
The minor subdivisions into provinces, counties and parishes, or analogous areas, may also be related in many cases to natural features or racial differences perpetuated by historical causes.
The problem was both economic and racial, and on both grounds South Africans showed a determination to exclude the competition of Indians and other Asiatics.
They crushed a civilization already hard hit; and it took two or three centuries for the artistic spirit, instinct in the Aegean area, and probably preserved in suspended animation by the survival of Aegean racial elements, to blossom anew.
This ferment of unrest, which was provoked in the years 1903-190 4, was exacerbated in the winters that followed by the renewed outbreak of the century-long racial feud between the Tatars and the Armenians at Baku and other places.
The Germans differ from the other Hungarian races in that, save in the counties on the borders of Lower Austria and Styria, where they form a compact population in touch with their kin across the frontier, they are scattered in racial islets throughout the country.
The position of this class, which has remained till the present day, is connected with the institution of caste, a division of the population into groups founded partly on racial distinctions.
The predominant tribe are the Papuans, who are found here in their greatest racial purity and occupy practically the whole island except its eastern extremity.
The Berber tribes, whose racial unity is attested by their common spoken language and by the comparatively numerous Berber inscriptions that have come down to us, bore in ancient times the generic names of Numidians, Gaetulians and Moors or Maurusiani.
Whatever the racial affinities of the early inhabitants may have been, it is certain that in historic times Rhodes was occupied by a Dorian population, reputed to have emigrated mainly from Argos subsequently to the "Dorian invasion" of Greece.
This racial question can hardly be determined till those Hatti records, whether in cuneiform or pictographic script, which are couched in a native tongue, not in Babylonian, are read.
This Neolithic race has consequently been nicknamed " Iberians," and it is now common to speak of the " Iberian " ancestry of the people of Britain, recognizing the racial characteristics of " Iberians " in the" small swarthy Welshman," the " small dark Highlander," and the " Black Celts to the west of the Shannon," as well as in the typical inhabitants of Aquitania and Brittany.
We may take it then (and the fact is not disputed even by those who, like Dorpfeld, believe in one thorough racial change, at least, during the Bronze Age) that the Aegean civilization was indigenous, firmly rooted and strong enough to persist essentially unchanged and dominant in its own geographical area throughout the Neolithic and Bronze Ages.
Further, one-third of the Belgian provinces was inhabited by a Walloon population divided from the Flemings by racial characteristics and their use of a Romance instead of a Teutonic dialect.
In all nations men of short stature have relatively large heads, but in the case of the Japanese there appears to be some racial reason for the phenomenon.
It would follow, on the other hand, that what is called Oscan represented the language of the invading Sabines (more correctly Safines), whose racial affinities would seem to be of a distinctly more northern cast, and to mark them, like the Dorians or Achaeans in Greece, as an early wave of the invaders who more than once in later history havevitally influenced the fortunes of the tempting southern land into which they forced their way.
This poem has the additional interest of showing the racial antipathy between the "Inglis"- speaking inhabitants of the Lothians and the "Scots" or Gaelic-speaking folk of the west country.
The reforms proved a failure, mainly owing to the tacit opposition of the Turkish authorities, the insufficient powers attributed to the European officials, the racial feuds and the deplorable financial situation.
In fact, nearly the whole of the region between the Caucasus and the Perso-Turkish frontier on the south, from the Caspian Sea on the one side to the Black Sea on the other, was embroiled in a civil war of the most sanguinary and ruthless character, the inveterate racial animosities of the combatants being in both cases inflamed by religious fanaticism.
Elliot Smith has shown 7 the existence of the two racial stocks in Egypt, the predynastic Nilotic and the invading "Armenoid " from Asia, the man of higher cranial capacity to whom the blossoming of the Egyptian civilization and art out of primitive African barbarism is to be ascribed.
Racial and national ideals, characteristics, laws and languages of these subject peoples were to be suppressed, by force if necessary, and an Ottoman population created which, outwardly at least, should be homogeneous within the empire's wide confines.
Such an expansion is however by no means characteristic of all the males of the species, and is apparently a feature of racial value.
There was no property qualification nor does the term appear to be racial.
Racial hatred between Turks and Armenians there came to a head on April 9 in the so-called "Adana Massacres."
The other prolonged contest was racial - the conflict between settler and Maori.
It was the year before the rebellion of 1837; the condition of the whole country was very unsettled; and it seemed well-nigh impossible to reconcile differences arising from racial and political antagonisms. During the rebellion young Macdonald volunteered for active service, but his military career never went farther than drilling and marching.
Though he had thrown the weight of his influence against Lord Carnarvon's federation scheme Brand disapproved racial rivalries.
The fusion of races may be said to have begun then, for it was during the succeeding centuries that the kings of Swankalok-Sukhotai gradually assumed Lao characteristics, and that the Siamese language, written character and other racial peculiarities were in course of formation.
Of the total population in 1900, 48,349 had either one or both parents foreign-born, German being the principal racial element.
They are, in fact, the state in its religious aspect, and as such are territorial or national, not Catholic. This tendency has been common in the East also, where with the growth of racial rivalries the Orthodox Church has split into a serieq of national churches, holding the same faith but independent as to organization.
Germain) for the protection of national, religious and racial minorities.
" Our policy," said Dr. Benes in 1921, " is a policy of peace: in domestic affairs our programme is the logical sequel to our foreign policy, namely, social and racial order and justice, and unremitting effort on behalf of social and political democracy.
The Polish troops had taken a prominent part in the invasion of Russia, and their share in the plundering of Smolensk and of Moscow had intensified the racial hatred felt for them by the Russians.
These attempts meet with little success, owing in part to racial prejudice and in part to the indifference of the Arabs to education.
Among the ammonites the loss of power to coil the shell is one feature of racial old age, and in others old age is accompanied by closer coiling and loss of surface ornamentation, such as spines, ribs, spirals; while in other forms an arresting of variability precedes extinction.
Thus Williams has observed that if we find a species breeding perfectly true we can conceive it to have reached the end of its racial life period.
Beecher (1856-1905) has pointed out (1898), many animals possessing hard parts tend toward the close of their racial history to produce a superfluity of dead matter, which accumulates in the form of spines among invertebrates, and of horns among the land vertebrates, reaching a maximum when the animals are really on the down-grade of development.
- We have seen that different lines vary in vitality and in longevity, that from the earliest times senescent branches are given off, that different lines vary in the rate of evolution, that extinction is often heralded by symptoms of racial old age, which, however, vary widely in different groups.
Racial elements are for the most part the explanation.
The balance of power between parties in parliament was held by the province of Quebec, and there racial and religious feeling evoked no slight sympathy for Riel.
French Canadian Literature At The Opening Of The Loth Century Might Be Described As Entirely The Work Of Two Generations, And It Was Separated From The Old Regime By Three More Generations Whose Racial Sentiment Only Found Expression In The Traditional Songs And Tales Which Their Forefathers Of The 17Th Century Had Brought Over From The Mere Patrie.
But It Is Of Far Reaching Importance As The First Great Literary Stimulus To Racial Self Respect.
The racial affinities of the Teutoni have formed a matter of dispute amongst historians.
The Current Grouping of Mankind and Nation-making.- In the consolidation of peace one of the most important factors is unquestionably the grouping of mankind in accordance with the final territorial and racial limitations of their apparent destiny.
As there is little, if any, difference of racial origin, character and physical type, among the inhabitants of this region, except in Andalusia, and, to a less extent, in Estremadura, the Castilian is justly regarded as the typical Spaniard.
(1st ed., 1860; 2nd, 1871) was concerned with the origin and racial affinities of the Hindus, exhibiting all the then available evidences of their connexion, their linguistic, social and political kinship, with the other branches of the Indo-European stock.
It is in every sense a modern field, or rather a collection of fields, varying in physical, racial, social and linguistic character.
Ethiopianism, if ecclesiastical in its origin, gained strength from racial base.
The task of averting the racial bitterness so dominant in the United States of America is a most formidable one.
(1) Racial antipathy.
Since 1871 Bavaria has shared to the full in the marvellous development of Germany; but her "particularism," founded on traditional racial and religious antagonism to the Prussians, was by no means dead, though it exhibited itself in no more dangerous form than the prohibition, reissued in 1900, to display any but the Bavarian flag on public buildings on the emperor's birthday; a provision which has been since so far modified as to allow the Bavarian and imperial flags to be hung side by side.
Nevertheless the materials were there out of which a really broad-minded and conciliatory handling of religion and racial difficulties might have gradually built up a Netherland nation able to hold from its population and resources a considerable place among European powers.
As this in turn has been due to the very men who have developed the iron industry, it can hardly be questioned that, on further analysis, this development must in considerable part be referred to racial qualities.
But climatic conditions and racial temperament rendered the Oriental manner of monasticism unattainable, as a rule, in the West.
ANGLO-ISRAELITE THEORY, the contention that the British people in the United Kingdom, its colonies, and the United States, are the racial descendants of the "ten tribes" forming the kingdom of Israel, large numbers of whom were deported by Sargon king of Assyria on the fall of Samaria in 721 B.C. The theory (which is fully set forth in a book called Philo-Israel) rests on premises which are deemed by scholars - both theological and anthropological - to be utterly unsound.
But from both the racial and religious standpoint, the Arab and Persian Shi`as, who constitute the vast bulk of the population, regard the Turks as foreigners and tyrants.
La Tne Period (4thist century B.C.) .Down to this time there is very little evidence concerning the racial affinities of the population.
He was a disciple, not of Machiavelli, but of Rousseau; and his scattered dominions, divided by innumerable divergences of racial and class prejudice, and enncumbered with traditional institutions to which the people clung with passionate conservatism, he regarded as so much vacant territory on which to build up his ideal state.
The disintegrating force of the ever-simmering racial rivalries could be kept in check by the army; Hungarian regiments garrisoned Italy, Italian regiments guarded Galicia, Poles occupied Austria, and Austrians Hungary.
Germanism had so far served as the basis of the Austrian system, not as a national ideal, but because " it formed a sort of unnational mediating, and common element among the contradictory and clamorous racial tendencies."
The extreme parties of the Germans and the anti-Semites were also, for racial reasons, opposed to the whole system.
where over three-fifths of the population were Czech, racial feeling was supported by the appeal to historic law.
Parliamentary discussion, moreover, was sure to bring out those racial differences which it was desirable should be forgotten, and the elections carried into every part of the empire a political agitation which was very harmful when each party represented a different race.
It became more and more avowedly racial; the defence of German nationality was put New in the front of their programme.
After 1878 a heightening of racial feeling began among the Radicals, and in 1881 all the German parties in opposition joined together in a club called the United Left, and in their programme put in a prominent place the defence of the position of the Germans as the condition for the existence of the state, and demanded that German should be expressly recognized as the official language.
On the same day the premier promised to introduce by February a large measure of franchise reform so framed as to protect racial minorities from being overwhelmed at the polls by majorities of other races.
Their main principles were the abolition of the curia or electoral class system and the establishment of the franchise on the basis of universal suffrage; and the division of Austria electorally into racial compartments within which each race would be assured against molestation from other races.
In consequence of Czech aggressiveness, the German parties (the German Progressists, the German Populists, the Constitutional Landed Proprietors and the Christian Socialists, created a joint executive committee and a supreme committee of four members to watch over German racial interests.
Rumanians These allotments were slightly modified at the polls by the victory of some Social Democratic candidates not susceptible of strict racial classification.
The estimates were voted with regularity, racial animosity was somewhat less prominent, and some large issues were debated.
(d) Racial Question.-There is a very extensive literature on the question of languages and race in Austria.
But the racial repugnance to the Greek, which forbade an Egyptian even to eat an animal which had been carved with a Greek's knife (Hdt.
Alexander had settled large masses of Greeks in these regions (Greeks, would seem, not Macedonians), whose attempts to return home in 325 and 323 had been frustrated, and it may well be that a racial antagonism quickened the revolt against Macedonian rule in 250.
As to the effect of this network of Greek cities upon the aboriginal population of Syria, we do not find here the same disappearance of native languages and racial charac Greek teristics as in Asia Minor.
Racial, administrative, and economic problems of an intricate kind pressed upon him and were not always wisely decided; and it says much for his personal charm that he carried away with him on his retirement the warm affection of the Rhodesians.
The species is subject to great racial variation.
It does not correspond with any valid linguistic or racial difference; but in the course of time a strong religious difference arose.
They are mainly monogamous, and by rigidly abstaining from foreign marriages have preserved racial purity.
The historical causes which kept the nations separate were mainly racial, though, from a very early period, the majority of the people of Scotland were, if not purely English by blood, anglicized in language and to a great extent, Earl gand, g ?
1 and 2 may be taken as examples of three common forms of series into which the individuals of a race may be arranged with respect to a single character; a comparison of them will show how little can be learnt from a mere statement of racial type, without some knowledge of the way in which deviations from the type are distributed.
Whatever be the origin of the Polynesians, they are not Malays, though, themselves of mixed blood, they have probably certain racial elements in common with the latter, who are undoubtedly hybrids.
The prevalence of elephantiasis and the occurrence of leprosy, for instance, in Hawaii, would seem to point at least in some places to a racial taint, due perhaps to the unbridled licentiousness of past generations.
It has further been established on strong archaeological and linguistic evidence that the long struggle between patricians and plebeians in early Rome was the result of a racial difference between them.
Apart from the definite evidence, the theory of a racial distinction gains probability from the fact that it explains the survival of the distinction between the patricii, men with a family and genealogy, and the rest of the citizens, for some time after the latter had acquired the legal status of patres and were organized in gentes of their own; for on this theory privilege would belong not to all who could trace free descent but only to those who could trace descent to an ancestor of the conquering race.
The inhabitants of this tract are Persians or Arabs who by domicile and intermarriage with Persians have lost nearly all their racial and most of their social characteristics, but retain a dialect of Arabic as their mother tongue.
The numerous invasions p g have naturally introduced a certain amount of foreign blood among the tribes fringing the Mediterranean, but those farther inland have preserved their racial purity to a surprising degree.
The bond is geographical and political rather than racial.
The following account of the earlier period follows the main outlines of the traditional facts, corrected as far as possible by the inscriptional record; and further details will be found in the separate biographical, racial and linguistic articles, and those on the geographical areas into which India is administratively divided.
His fiend Caelestius was in 412 charged with and excommunicated for heresy because he regarded Adam as well as all his descendants as naturally mortal, denied the racial consequences of Adam's fall, asserted the entire innocence of the new-born, recognized sinless men before the coming of Christ.
This characteristic is curious in the Aetolian tribes which were famous in all time for habitual brigandage; there was, however, among them the strong link of a racial feeling.
when the fair-coloured Aryan immigrants first came in contact with, and drove back or subdued the dark-skinned race that occupied the northern plains - doubtless the ancestors of the modern Dravidian people - the preservation of their racial type and traditionary order of things would naturally become to them a matter of serious concern.
In the extreme northwestern districts - the Punjab and Rajputana, judging from the fairly uniform physical features of the present population of these parts - they seem to have been signally successful in their endeavour to preserve their racial purity, probably by being able to clear a sufficiently extensive area of the original occupants for themselves with their wives and children to settle upon.
The problem that now lay before the successful invaders was how to deal with the indigenous people, probably vastly outnumbering them, without losing their own racial identity.
But, on the other hand, the same process of racial intermixture also tended to gradually draw the lower race more or less under the influence of the Brahmanical forms of worship, and thus contributed towards the shaping of the religious system of modern Hinduism.
The grossly idolatrous practices, however, still so largely prevalent in the Dravidian South, show how superficial, after all, that influence has been in those parts of India where the admixture of Aryan blood has been so slight as to have practically had no effect on the racial characteristics of the people.
But, on the other hand, the essentially human nature of these two gods 1 As in the case of Siva's traditional white complexion, it may not be without significance, from a racial point of view, that Vishnu, Rama and Krishna have various darker shades of colour attributed to them, viz.
The klipspringer represents a genus by itself, the various local forms not being worthy of more than racial distinction.
The misfortunes and poverty of the people have hindered their material development to a large extent, but another obstacle is to be found in their racial and social composition.
As an attribute the word may be applied to a cultured man of the world, who has travelled widely and is at home in many forms of civilization, to such races as the Jewish, scattered through the civilized world, yet keeping beneath their cosmopolitanism the racial type pure, and also to mark a profound line of cleavage in economic and political thought.
The aborigines of South Africa are represented by the Bushmen and Hottentots, now found in any racial purity only in the Kalahari and in the southern part of German South-West Africa.
But the success of the Transvaal Boers both in war and diplomacy had quickened the sense of racial unity among the Dutch throughout the country, and there arose a spirit of antagonism between the Dutch and the British which affected the whole future of South Africa.
It greatly embittered racial feeling throughout the country; it threw the Free State Boers completely on to the side of the Transvaal; it destroyed the alliance between the Dutch in Cape Colony and the Imperialists led by Rhodes.
A section of the Dutch population was not however disposed to sacrifice the development of industries and commerce for racial considerations; while sharing the political aspirations of Kruger and Steyn the wiser among them wished for such a measure of reform in the Transvaal as would remove all justification for outside interference.
In the Transvaal the burghers of British origin were about equal in number with those of Dutch origin, and the fairly even balance of parties might be held to be a guarantee against retrogression; in the Orange River Colony it was notorious that the grant of selfgovernment meant handing over the control of the country not simply to the Boers, but to that section of them which since the war had exhibited the greatest racial bitterness.
There were, moreover, dangerous differences on such questions as Asiatic immigration, the status of, natives, mining, agriculture, &c. Thus the antagonism between the various states on economic lines was at the end of 1906 greater than any racial divisions.
The first general election, held on the 15th of September, was, perhaps inevitably, fought to a large extent on racial lines.
euyfvr t s, well born), the modern name given to the science which deals with the influences which improve the inborn qualities of a race, but more particularly with those which develop them to the utmost advantage, and which generally serves to disseminate knowledge and encourage action in the direction of perpetuating a higher racial standard.
The Portuguese people is composed of many racial elements.
The question of their admission to the public schools, rivalry in labour and trade, and other racial antagonisms attendant on their rapid increase in numbers, created conflicts that at one time seriously involved the relations of the two countries.
From political rather than racial causes Ottakar favoured the immigration of Germans into his dominions.
strong feeling of racial antipathy to the Germans pervades the chronicle.
Naturally, this was resented by the patriarch Anthimus, who stigmatized the racial basis of the Bulgarian Church as the heresy of Phyletism.
The idea that systematic efforts should be made to improve the breed of mankind by checking the birth-rate of the unfit and furthering the productivity of the fit was first put forward by him in 1865; he mooted it again in 1884, using the term "eugenics" for the first time in Human Faculty, and in 1904 he endowed a research fellowship in the university of London for the promotion of knowledge of that subject, which was defined as "the study of agencies under social control that may improve or impair the racial qualities of future generations, either physically or mentally."
The racial distinction between the Chaldaeans and the Babylonians proper seems to have existed until a much later date, although it is almost certain that the former were originally a Semitic people.
This name in later times, owing to the racial amalgamation of the Chaldaeans and Babylonians, lost its former national force, and became, as it occurs in Daniel, a distinctive appellation of the Babylonian priestly class.
It is distinguished from ethnology, which is devoted to the study of man as a racial unit, and from ethnography, which deals with the distribution of the races formed by the aggregation of such units.
4 in.) corresponding to these two racial types.
In ancient times little difficulty was felt in this, authorities such as Aristotle and Vitruvius seeing in climate and circumstance the natural cause of racial differences, the Ethiopian having been blackened by the tropical sun, &c. Later and closer observations, however, have shown such influences to be, at any rate, far slighter in amount and slower in operation than was once supposed.
The causes which, in the middle of the 19th century, were thus tending to sap the long-tried fidelity of the sepoy army were partly military and partly racial.
Racial antipathies were unimportant, and all parties were at least passively acquiescent when Louisiana became a part of the United States.
Over these races the Afghans rule as conquerors and there is no bond of racial unity between them.
In politics the newspapers are divided, principally on racial lines, appealing either to the British or the Dutch section of the community, rarely to both sides.
The whole course of the early history of Wisconsin was profoundly influenced by these racial and geographic considerations.
The actual distinction of the Druses, as a racial unity, despite their dispersion, depends so exclusively on the peculiarity of their common religion, that it will be well at once to give an account of Druse creed and practice as they are understood to stand at the present day.
The great advance of biological knowledge in recent times though it has in no sense created a new problem (men have always been aware of the importance of racial or hereditary physical qualities in their influence upon human conduct) has certainly rendered the existence of complete individual freedom (in the sense in which it was advocated by older libertarians) in the highest degree unlikely.
And, though he maintains as against the Utilitarians the existence of certain fundamental moral intuitions which have come to be quite independent of any present conscious experience of their utility, he yet holds that they are the results of accumulated racial experiences gradually organized and inherited.
Even the costume of the Croatian peasantry, to whom brilliant colours and intricate embroideries are always dear, proclaims their racial identity with the Serbs; their songs, dances and musical instruments, the chief part of their customs and folk-lore, their whole manner of life, so little changed by its closer contact with Western civilization, may be studied in Servia (q.v.) itself.
The main body of the Croats, whose tribal and racial names respectively are perpetuated in the names of Croatia and Slavonia, entered Croatia between 634 and .638, and were encouraged by the emperor Heraclius to attack the Avars.
A fresh struggle, the great Peloponnesian War (q.v.), broke out in 431 B.C. This may be to a certain extent regarded as a contest between Ionian and Dorian; it may with greater truth be called a struggle between the democratic and oligarchic principles of government; but at bottom its cause was neither racial nor constitutional, but economic.
The fact that the physical geography of Africa affords fewer natural obstacles to racial movements on the side most exposed to foreign influence, renders it obvious that the culture most characteristically African must be sought on the other side.
The reason the racial is not far to seek; Africa is a country of iron, which is stocks.
Under such conditions, questions relating to the origin and spread of the racial stocks which form the population of Africa cannot be answered with any certainty; at best only a certain amount of probability can be attained.
This disintegration was caused neither by racial hate nor by linguistic patriotism.
They would have social peace at the expense of social and racial justice.
He received a two year suspended sentence in April 1998 for inciting racial hatred.
racial abuse was daily directed at residents going about their business.
The police were slightly more likely than The CPS to identify a case as involving racial aggravation.
The most obvious example of racial aggravation is where racially abusive language is used.
We will not make a case appear less serious than it is by leaving out evidence of racial or religious aggravation.
They have failed to respond to the immense new challenge of world poverty and racial antagonism.
astonishment of everybody including her solicitor, the CPS have today added a further charge of section 5 - racial hatred.
It simply shows that it is now old- fashioned to make public avowals of racial sentiment.
What is disguised as patriotism is nothing more than racial bigotry and arrogance and unfortunately the English are the worst offenders.
The commission For racial equality 1) What is the Commission for Racial Equality?
Where prejudices do continue they are more likely to be based on class consciousness than on racial grounds.
He told the jury he found the racial remarks degrading and depressing.
The BNP is no longer a genuine White Racial Nationalist party and the National Front entirely disassociates itself from it.
discredited theories of biological racial superiority.
The Council will not tolerate any form of racial discrimination, either direct or indirect.
He said: " We don't stand with any comments that are circulated to incite any form of racial disharmony in the community.
disparity& Housing Bring forward comprehensive strategic plans to eliminate racial disparities in health rates.
Whatever racial, class, or gender distinctions might have been operative beforehand now count for nothing.
One study found that white victimization was the result of ethnic minorities ' resistance to racial abuse linked to territorial dominance.
These defendants verbally threatened their victims and used racial epithets while chasing them through the streets of a Chicago, Illinois suburb.
He spent his whole life fighting for racial equality.
The articles in this resource reflect national clinical practice guidelines and are free of racial, gender, or other bias.
grotesque mask of racial parody.
That is essential for racial harmony in Britain today.
He is also accused of inciting racial hatred under the 1986 Public Order Act.
They certainly seem to have no purpose beyond getting his face in papers and inflaming racial hatred.
racial hatred is defined in Section 17 of the Act.
Galton's primary interest in fingerprints was as an aid in determining heredity and racial background.
We know the difficulties you are going through in Britain: discrimination, prejudice and racial hostility.
At the same time, the Council revised its guidelines for schools on good practice regarding racial incidents and equal opportunities in general.
incites also accused of inciting racial hatred under the 1986 Public Order Act.
inequality forms of racial inequalities have developed over the past 40 years?
Are we happy to allow the Ku Klux Klan to preach racial intolerance?
Do not post comments which are likely to incite religious or racial intolerance of any sort.
The twelve jurors just couldn't agree whether or not Nick Griffin's speeches incited racial hatred to the extent they broke the law.
Mr Smith said he planned to report conservative leader Michael Howard to the police for " inciting racial hatred " .
The racial makeup of the school is more varied, however.
The project employs qualified black mentors and also works with the most socially excluded minority racial groups such as asylum seekers and refugees.
mollifyclash of cultures may have been mollified somewhat by the fact that the French held to much more tolerant racial attitudes.
Trevor Phillips, chair of the Commission for Racial Equality, has been saying multiculturalism has failed for at least two years.
The chairman of the Commission for Racial Equality has called multiculturalism " outdated " .
Race analysis is developed in its ability to explain the subjective dimension of racial oppression.
One can only imagine what purpose it serves to investigate the racial origins of the ex-wife of an accused terrorist.
To let racial overtones obscure the way you see yourself, then clearly you would be the slave.
Given the prominence of Irving's political and racial beliefs at his trial, this result may appear paradoxical.
peddle the notion that legislation can eliminate racial and religious discrimination.
But of the Russians he met, McKay found Trotsky's views the most perceptive - refreshingly practical and free of racial stereotyping.
prohibits incitement of racial hatred in the media.
The whole concept of racial purity is a complete myth.
quell the uprising with wise words pleading for racial harmony.
quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood.
My patriotism knows no geographical, but only racial limits.
There is an almost racial memory of an ideal time many years ago, when there were common carriers of this or that.
The apes are meant to be more than just racial others, they're also humanity itself.
racial discrimination ' mean?
racial prejudice would not ensure community cohesion.
promoting racial Equality 2005 - 2006 Tower Hamlets is one of the UK's most culturally vibrant and diverse areas.
In South Africa, racial reconciliation has proceeded well, except that improvement in economic justice has been slow.
Importing tens of millions of foreign workers into a bloc already rife with racial tensions is also fraught with political difficulties.
Imagine a French industrial tribunal ruling it was racial discrimination to reject a non-French speaking applicant for a job dealing with the French public?
It concluded in February 2003 that failure to tackle racial segregation had potentially disastrous consequences.
racial segregation was a reality in Virginia in the epidemic years.
The slogan ' Europe of a Hundred Flags ' sounds appealing but hides the racial separatism assumed in Fascist decentralization.
You can expect any complaint you make about sexual, racial or religious harassment to be dealt with promptly and fairly.
shouted racial abuse at a restaurant worker has been fined by magistrates.
James Farmer became National Director of the Congress of Racial Equality in 1953 and he helped organize student sit-ins during 1961.
Blackburn reminds us, however, that racial slavery was peculiarly associated with plantation slavery.
There we go again down the slippery slope of racial profiling.
There are also strict laws against racial slurs, especially anti-Semitism.
Players are not permitted to use racial, sexual or ethnic slurs.
The Blue Room does not tolerate racial, ethnic, sexual, or religious slurs.
societal norms is an issue of racial justice!
Quite an impressive collection of images of racial stereotypes.
The media bombards us with tales of crime, political and corporate corruption, racial and gender strife, scarcity and war.
subtext of social aspiration and entrenched racial hierarchies.
Underneath the veneer of smart suits, the BNP has deep set aims of racial superiority.
suspended sentence in April 1998 for inciting racial hatred.
For those that whisper, utter, shout or chant racial taunts.
Its true aim is to stir up racial tensions.
tribunal ruling it was racial discrimination to reject a non-French speaking applicant for a job dealing with the French public?
underreporting of racial crime, with 81% not reporting the incident, either informally or formally to the police.
We would not allow such unpleasantness on a racial basis.
Thomas More attempts to quell the uprising with wise words pleading for racial harmony.
Without doubt, we execute the death penalty with a thinly veiled racial bias.
Promoting Racial Equality 2005 - 2006 Tower Hamlets is one of the UK's most culturally vibrant and diverse areas.
Our vision We believe that domestic violence and racial violence are fundamental human rights issues.
British attitudes shifted from relative openness to dislike and distrust, and even racial xenophobia.
They clearly had no racial affinities with the Australians.
When at last they were driven to the Strait they would drift over on rafts or in clumsy shallops; being thereafter left in peace to concentrate their race, then possibly only in an approximately pure state, in the island to which the Dravidians would not take the trouble to follow them, and where they would have centuries in which once more to fix their racial type and emphasize over again those differences, perhaps temporarily marred by crossing, which were found to exist on the arrival of the Whites.
Thus arises the spirit of patriotism, a product of purely geographical conditions, thereby differing from the sentiment of loyalty, which is of racial origin.
The ultimate cause of the predominant form of federal government may be the geographical diversity of the country, as in the cantons occupying the once isolated mountain valleys of Switzerland, the racial diversity of the people, as in Austria-Hungary, or merely political expediency, as in republics of the American type.
Once having accepted the principle of constitutional government, the emperor-king adhered to it loyally, in spite of the discouragement caused by party struggles embittered by racial antagonisms. If in the Cisleithan half of the monarchy pv rliamentary government broke down, this was through no fault of the emperor, who worked hard to find a mod us vivendi between the factions, and did not shrink from introducing manhood suffrage in the attempt to establish a stable parliamentary system.
The similarity uniting the peoples of the East in respect of racial and social characteristics is accompanied by a striking similarity of mental outlook which has survived to modern times.
The military spirit was evolved, not in raids and massacres of the usual Asiatic type which create little but intense racial hatred, but in feuds between families and factions of the same race, which restrained ferocity and tended to create a temper like that of the feudal chivalry of Europe.
But industries of every description were most seriously crippled by the spirit of turbulence and disorder which manifested itself throughout Transcaucasia in the years 1904-1906, accentuated as they were further by the outbreak of the long-rooted racial enmities between theArmenians and the Tatars, especially at Baku in 1905.
Races.-One of the prominent features of Hungary being the great complexity of the races residing in it (see map, " Distribution of ' See the table in Seton-Watson's Racial Problems in Hungary, Appendix xiii.
The centrifugal forces within the Hungarian kingdom are thus increased by the attraction of kindred nationalities established beyond its borders, a fact which is of special importance in considering the vexed and difficult racial problem in Hungary.
The result is that the working classes are wholly unrepresented in the parliament, only 6% of them, and 13% of the small trading class, possessing the franchise, which is only enjoyed by 6% of the entire population (see Seton-Watson, Racial Problems, 250, 251).
Seton-Watson (" Scotus Viator "), Racial Problems in Hungary (London, 1908), a strong indictment of the racial policy of the Magyars, supported by exact references and many ' The methods pursued to this end are exposed in pitiless detail by Mr Seton-Watson in his chapter on the Education Laws of Hungary, in Racial Problems, 205.
The insurrection of Bosnia against the Turks only served to increase party discords: for though it aroused the keenest sympathy of all Serbs and Croats, and thus furthered the sense of racial affinity, it gave rise to rival claims upon Bosnia which could be exploited in the interest of Vienna and Budapest.
Lord Milner cherished the ideal of racial fusion by the establishment of British settlers on a large scale.
The objections to the introduction of the Chinese, urged in South Africa, in Great Britain and in other parts of the British Empire, are discussed under South Africa: History, § D.; here it need only be added that in the Transvaal the point upon which all parties were agreed was that no new racial or economic complications should be permitted; and these were guarded against by the restriction of the coolies to unskilled labour in the gold mines and by their compulsory repatriation.
Strictly the Guanches were the primitive inhabitants of Teneriffe, where they seem to have preserved racial purity to the time of the Spanish conquest, but the name came to be applied to the indigenous populations of all the islands.
Philology proves that, though called " Canaanites " from having sojourned in that land, the Phoenicians have no racial connexion with the African descendants of Ham.
The renewal of the policy of British expansion had been answered by the formation of the Afrikander Bond, which represented the racial aspirations of the Dutch-speaking people, and had active branches in the Free State.
During his visit to England on this occasion General Botha declared the whole-hearted adhesion of the Transvaal to the British empire, and his intention to work for the welfare of the country regardless of racial differences.
If such an array of repeated organs be chosen from the proper region of the body, within proper limits of time, in each of a large series of individuals belonging to a race, and if all the arrays so chosen be added together, a series will be formed from which the racial variability can be determined.
Along with a full share of border individuality and restlessness they had the usual boisterous boastfulness and a racial contempt, which was arrogantly proclaimed, for Mexicans, - often too for Mexican legal formalities.
The South African objections were economic and racial, based on the results which had followed the introduction of Indian coolies into Natal.
Ethnology, archaeology, art and languages (see also works cited under racial headings and Bantu Languages).
Though the racial affinities of the Hottentots have been disputed, the most satisfactory view on the whole is that they represent a blend of Bushman, Negroid and Hamitic elements.
Thus the Ethiopians who usurped the crown of the Pharaohs from 740-660 B.C. were of a mixed stock akin to the modern Barabra; the northern Nubians who successfully defied the Roman emperors were under the lordship of the Blemyes (Blemmyes), an East African tribe, and the empire of the Candace dynasty, no less than the Christian kingdoms which succeeded it, included many heterogeneous racial elements (see also Nubia).
Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood.
The apes are meant to be more than just racial others, they 're also humanity itself.
We will not tolerate any form of racial harassment.
What does the term ' racial discrimination ' mean?
Th removal of racial prejudice would not ensure community cohesion.
Promoting Racial Equality 2005 - 2006 Tower Hamlets is one of the UK 's most culturally vibrant and diverse areas.
Racial segregation was a reality in Virginia in the epidemic years.
Check whether bullying or racial or sexual harassment of your child led to your child 's actions.
Woman racially abused worker A WOMAN who shouted racial abuse at a restaurant worker has been fined by magistrates.
The stand we take to societal norms is an issue of racial justice !
This world of beautiful women, handsome men and rags-to-riches stories belies a subtext of social aspiration and entrenched racial hierarchies.
We have huge underreporting of racial crime, with 81% not reporting the incident, either informally or formally to the police.
Racial minorities know only too well what it feels like to be on the receiving end of this unthinking prejudice.
The Apartheid was the reason for much of the racial tension in South Africa.
Some schools set a theme for the year, like racial equality for example.
Alba has also frequently been frustrated by speculation over her racial heritage.
Of course, this type of angry racial outburst is not likely to go unnoticed.
In light of the incident, it appears that not only does Richards have anger issues, but he also has racial issues.
Despite his personal issues, which have included arrests, alleged racial slurs, and some nasty public breakups, Gibson's body of work includes comedies, dramas, and even spoofs.
Early in his career, Tiger was the victim of racial slurs and attacks from a fellow golfer during 1997's Master's Tournament.
When the police arrived at the scene, Wahler yelled racial and homophobic remarks at the arresting officer.
He was also ordered to attend Alcoholics Anonymous and a tolerance program for his use of racial remarks.
This time, she resisted arrest and was belligerent with the arresting officers, offering sexual favors and then yelling out racial remarks.
Having an African American father and Caucasian mother, Halle recognized racial dynamics at an early age, once stating that "Blackness is a state of mind and I identify with the black community.
Apparently he only had a little over a week left on his probation for his 2007 arrest when he verbally assaulted a tow truck driver with racial and homophobic slurs.
In the early 1970s, Canadian Neil Young wrote two songs, Southern Man and Alabama, that criticized the racial climate in the American south.
For as long as anyone could recall, the land of Tellius has been home to a racial cold war of sorts between mankind and the laguz, a race of beast-like creatures.
This doesn't necessarily mean that it's the best though, as varying racial abilities will excel depending on your playing style.
More fatal strokes occur in African-American children than white children, mirroring the racial differences of stroke in adults.
In the United States, Kawasaki disease is more common among children of Japanese descent than among children from other racial or ethnic backgrounds.
Magnet schools were originally formed in the 1960s and 1970s to promote voluntary racial desegregation in urban school districts.
Among ethnic and racial groups cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death.
Although significant progress has been made in improving childhood immunization rates, some disparities in overall immunization coverage rates among racial and ethnic groups continue.
Ethnic Diseases Sourcebook: Basic Consumer Health Information for Ethnic and Racial Minority Groups in the United States.
"Health Plans Examine Minority Healthcare Gap: Research Examines Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Healthcare."
The Vietnam War and racial unrest during the civil rights era connected death as reported by newspapers and television to events occurring U.S. city streets.
There appears to be no racial or ethnic component to pituitary dwarfism, but males seem to be afflicted more than females.
There appears to be no racial or ethnic component to pituitary dwarfism, but males seem to be afflicted more often than females.
Use of parent care does not differ depending on racial and ethnic background.
There is no gender, racial, or ethnic predilection.
Families with members from a mixture of racial, cultural, and religious backgrounds, as well as families made up of same-sex couples who are raising children, may also benefit from family therapy.
It is clear that not all single-parent families are the same and that within different ethnic and racial groups, the number and type of single-parent families varies considerably.
Is there a difference in mortality rates among racial groups?
The syndrome is found in all racial and socio-economic groups.
Children do not appear to make racial distinctions before they are of preschool age but age and sex discriminations are made earlier.
Little is known as of 2004 about the prevalence of tic disorders across racial or ethnic groups.
Pernicious anemia is more common in women and in African Americans and is less common in other racial groups.
In addition to incidence, severity of symptoms and recovery rates appear to be equal across both gender and racial lines.
This percentage appears to be constant across racial and ethnic groups.
As of the early 2000s, researchers do not know whether these disorders are more common in some racial or ethnic groups than others or whether they are equally common in all parts of the world.
While inguinal hernias seem to affect all racial groups at the same rate, umbilical hernias occur more frequently in African Americans.
Chumlea, William Cameron, et al. "Age at Menarche and Racial Comparisons in U.S. Girls."
Some racial and ethnic populations are affected more than others.
People in some racial groups have a smaller size of the ear canal, which may predispose them to infection.
One prominent program has been the No Child Left Behind Act that requires schools to meet certain performance standards annually, for their students as a group and also for individual ethnic and racial subgroups.
The disorder is four times more prevalent in boys than girls and is not associated with any specific racial or ethnic background.
The goal of multicultural education is to help students understand and appreciate cultural differences and similarities and to recognize the accomplishments of diverse ethnic, racial, and socioeconomic groups.
Community leaders, activists, and parents began to demand curricula that were more supportive and consistent with the cultural and racial diversity in the United States.
Content may include holiday celebrations, recognizing heroes from different racial and ethnic groups, and focusing on the achievements of women and minorities.
Socially focused: These programs seek to reduce bias and increase cultural and racial tolerance.
Others believe multicultural education interferes with a child expressing his or her own individuality, by placing too much emphasis on ethnic or racial backgrounds.
Strabismus occurs equally in boys and girls and shows no variation in racial or ethnic distribution.
Adenoid hypertrophy does not appear to affect any gender or racial group more than another.
It is not more prevalent in males or females, nor in any individual racial group.
The syndrome also appears to be equally common in all racial and ethnic groups.
Yet other uses include showing the history of dance and movement, or even teaching about racial diversity and tensions of the swing era.
In the Western world, cornrows are unisex and, although predominately worn by black men, they cross racial lines as well.
They are also prohibited from attempting to preserve the racial, ethnic or economic distribution of a neighborhood by only showing homes for sale or rent to people who are just like the people currently in the neighborhood.
It crosses all racial boundaries and affects people from all walks of life.
InterracialMatch.com can match you up with someone from another racial group you find attractive.
It appears to me that racism is growing at a faster rate than racial harmony.
Carla was an African-American woman that could pass for white and did so, even becoming engaged to a young white doctor before her mother convinced her to be honest about her own racial identity.
Created by the legendary Agnes Nixon, One Life to Live soap opera defied wasp conventions of soap operas of the time by featuring more social, economic and racial diversity in the town.
She is also notable for breaking the racial barrier to become the first African-American to appear on the cover of the Sport's Illustrated Swimsuit edition and Gentlemen's Quarterly.
Her distinctive appearance has lead to much speculation about her exact racial heritage.
Going Down to Mississippi - Phil Ochs wrote this song about the racial violence associated with the civil rights movement in Mississippi, including the crime that inspired the movie Mississippi Burning.
Improved race relations: Shows such as Big Brother and Survivor allow different cultures to come together as a team, thus doing more for racial understanding than in years past.
This third arrest in the spring of 2007 was for punching a hotel security guard and for yelling homophobic and racial slurs at the arresting officer.
One couple experienced racial discrimination from each other's families and another couple had to contend with the bride being pregnant.
Other themes that have been a focal point were pregnancy, racial discrimination, and infidelity.
In this instance, he was tape recorded using extremely offensive language, including racial slurs against African-Americans.
His son was dating a black girl and Dog voiced his concern over having her spending time with the family as they have playfully used racial slurs in the past.
Again, luck was on Dog's side, as leading racial equality players met with Dog and Beth and realized that much of what was recorded was taken out of context.
Lt. Boomer - Again, gender and racial differences between Herbert Jefferson Jr.and Grace Park aside, in the re-imagined series Boomer is a Cylon humanoid model.
As regards the present racial distribution, the view accepted by many anthropologists, following A.
As against the Church of Rome, with its system of rigid centralization, the Anglican Church represents the principle of local autonomy, which it holds to be once more primitive and more catholic. In this respect the Anglican communion has developed on the lines defined in her articles at the Reformation; but, though in principle there is no great difference between a church defined by national, and a church defined by racial boundaries, there is an immense difference in effect, especially when the race - as in the case of the English - is itself ecumenical.
This alone would be sufficient to controvert the baseless assumption that there existed in southern Rhodesia a ruling caste of different racial origin from the general Bantu population.
The scheme shall contain in full safeguards for the protection of the Assyro-Chaldeans and other racial or religious minorities within these areas, and with this object a Commission composed of British, French, Italian, Persian and Kurdish representatives shall visit the spot to examine and decide what rectifications, if any, should be made in the Turkish frontier where, under the provisions of the present Treaty, that frontier coincides with that of Persia."(Article 63.)" The Turkish Government hereby agrees to accept and execute the decisions of both the Commissions mentioned in Article 62 within three months from their communication to the said Government."(Article 64.)" If within one year from the coming into force of the present Treaty the Kurdish peoples within the areas defined in Article 62 shall address themselves to the Council of the League of Nations in such a manner as to show that a majority of the population of these areas desires independence from Turkey, and if the Council then considers that these peoples are capable of such independence and recommends that it should be granted to them, Turkey hereby agrees to execute such a recommendation, and to renounce all rights and title over these areas.
Also, the racial character of colonial slavery was distinct.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.