Some general idea of the resources of the Kandahar district may be gathered from the fact that it supplied the British troops with everything except luxuries during the entire period of occupation in 1879-81; and that, in spite of the great strain thrown on those resources by the presence of the two armies of Ayub Khan and of General Roberts, and after the total failure of the autumn crops and only a partial harvest the previous spring, the army was fed without great difficulty until the final evacuation, at one-third of the prices paid in Quetta for supplies drawn from India.
Town of southern Khorasan, directly connected with Meshed on the north; and the acquisition of rights of administration of the Nushki district secured to Great Britain the trade between Seistan and Quetta by the new Helmund desert route.
Until the year 1889 this pass was almost unknown to the AngloIndian official; but in that year the government of India decided that, in order to maintain the safety of the railway as well as to perfect communication between Quetta and the Punjab, the Zhob valley should, like the Bori valley, be brought under British protection and control, and the Gomal pass should be opened.
To the Peshin valley the distance is about fro m., and from Peshin to India the three principal routes measure approximately as follows: by the Zhob valley to Dera Ismail Khan, 300 m.; by the Bori valley to Dera Ghazi Khan, 275 m.; by Quetta and the Bolan to Dadar, 125 m.; and by Chappar and Nari to Sibi, 120 m.
Two lines of railway now connect Quetta with Sind, the one known as the Harnai loop, the other as the Bolan or Mashkaf line.
BOLAN PASS, an important pass on the Baluch frontier, connecting Jacobabad and Sibi with Quetta, which has always occupied an important place in the history of British campaigns in Afghanistan.
An alternative route from Sibi to Quetta was found in the Harnai valley to the N.E.
Since 1877, when the Quetta agency was founded, the freedom of the pass from plundering bands of Baluch marauders (chiefly Marris) has been secured, and it is now as safe as any pass in Scotland.
It leaves some of the most fanatical of the Durani Afghan people on the Baluch side of the frontier in the Toba district, north of the Quetta - Chaman line of railway; and it passes 50 m.
It has been carefully surveyed for a possible railway alignment; and an excellent road now connects Tank (at its foot) with the Zhob line of communications to Quetta, and with Wana on the southern flank of Waziristan.
The opening up of the route between Quetta and Seistan has doubtless affected a trade which was already seriously hampered by restrictions.
The disaster at Maiwand, and the Russian advance east of the Caspian, prevented the proposed withdrawal from Quetta; but Kandahar was evacuated, Abdur Rahman was left in complete control of his country and was given an annual subsidy of twelve lakhs of rupees in 1883.
The total strength of the army was raised by ro,000 British and 20,000 native troops, at an annual cost of about two millions sterling; and the frontier post of Quetta, in the neighbourhood of Kandahar, was connected with the Indian railway system by a line that involved very expensive tunnelling.
India has her own staff college at Quetta, and can manufacture rifles, ammunition and field artillery equipment except the actual guns.
36 17 59 36 3180 9 933 British Quetta - - 30 II 673 5500 19 10.09 Supan.1
The whole of the northern boundary, with the north-eastern corner and the railway which traverses Baluchistan through Quetta up to New Chaman on the Afghan-Baluch frontier, is therefore in one form or other under direct British control.
Three hundred miles of its mountain walls facing the Indus are south of the railway from the Indus to Quetta, and about 250 north of it.
The railway with the passes and plains about it, and the dominant hills which surround Quetta, divide Baluchistan into two distinct parts.
As they pass away southwards this gridiron formation strikes with a gentle curve westwards, the narrow enclosed valleys widening out towards the sources of the rivers, where ages of denudation have worn down the folds and filled up the hollows with fruitful soil, until at last they touch the central waterdivide, the key of the whole system, on the Quetta plateau.
Here it assumes a westerly curve, till it points north-west, and finally merges into the broad band of mountains which hedge in the Quetta and Pishin uplands on the north and east.
Both drain south-eastwards from the central Quetta-Pishin plateau and both have served for railway alignment.
The Quetta and Pishin plateau to which it leads is the central dominant water-divide of Baluchistan and the base of the Kandahar highway.
The fortress of Kalat is situated about midway between the sources of the Bolan and the Mulla, near a small tributary of the Lora (the river of Pishin and Quetta), about 6800 ft.
There is already a promising khafila traffic along it and the railway has been extended from Quetta to Nushki.
Coal has been worked in the Tertiary beds along the Harnai route to Quetta, but the seams are thin and the quality poor.
Blanford, " Geological Notes on the Hills in the neighbourhood of the Sind and Punjab Frontier between Quetta and Dera Ghazi Khan," Mem.
Taking the Rind Baluch as the type opposed to the Afridi Pathan, the lialuch is easier to deal with and to control than the Pathan, owing to his tribal organization and his freedom from bigoted Pathan tribes of the Suliman hills are held in check by the occupation of the Zhob valley; whilst the central dominant position at Quetta safeguards the peace and security of Kalat, and of the wildest of the Baluch hills occupied by the Marris and Bugtis, no less than it bars the way to an advance upon India by way of Kandahar.
They are to be found in the largest numbers in Zhob, Quetta, Pishin and Thal-Chotiali, but there are a few of them in Kalat and Chagai also.
British troops were to be located in the khan's country; Quetta was founded; telegraphs and railways were projected; roads were made; and the reign of law and order established.
British Baluchistan was incorporated with British India by the resolution of 1st November 1887, and divided into two districts - Quetta-Pishin and Thal Chotiali - to be administered by a deputy-commissioner and a regular staff.
In 1890 and 1891 were carried out that series of politicomilitary expeditions which resulted in the occupation of the Zhob valley, the foundation of the central cantonment of Fort Sandeman, and the extension of a line of outposts which, commencing at Quetta, may be said to rest on Wana north of the Gomal.
Since 1882 he has received Rs.25,000 as government rent for the Quetta district, besides Rs.30,000 in lieu of transit duties in the Bolan; this has been increased lately by Rs.9000 as already stated.
Under Lord Kitchener's redistribution of the Indian army in 1903, the chief cantonments are Rawalpindi, Quetta, Peshawar, Kohat, Bannu, Nowshera, Sialkot, Mian Mir, Umballa, Muttra, Ferozepore, Meerut, Lucknow,lllhow, Jubbulpore, Bolarum, Poona, Secunderabad and Bangalore.
The 4th division, with headquarters at Quetta, comprises the troops in the Quetta and Sind districts.
Probably the miri, or fort, at Quetta represents one of them.