Quantity Sentence Examples
But there is any quantity of oatmeal, which we often cook for breakfast.
They consist of a number of circular or rectangular pits sunk from the cap of a hill, and going down to a depth of in some cases as much as 120 ft., until in fact the miners have been stopped by being unable to cope with the quantity of water made when the level of the valley was reached.
It is said to yield well, and a quantity of the manufactured alum is sent to Sydney for local consumption.
Momentum (quantity of motion) is the product of mass and velocity.
The two last classes number over 400,000 (1903), but the quantity of alcohol distilled by them is small.Advertisement
They were a mob of marauders, each carrying a quantity of articles which seemed to him valuable or useful.
In order to see whether the heat came out of the chips he compared the capacity for heat of the chips abraded by the boring bar with that of an equal quantity of the metal cut from the block by a fine saw, and obtained the same result in the two cases, from which he concluded that "the heat produced could not possibly have been furnished at the expense of the latent heat of the metallic chips."
Napier may thus have been the first to use the expression "quantity less than nothing."
Briicke also brought forward an experiment of great importance, in which he showed that gum mastic, precipitated from an alcoholic solution poured into a large quantity of water, scatters light of a blue tint.
Gothite occurs with other iron oxides, especially limonite and hematite, and when found in sufficient quantity is mined with these as an ore of iron.Advertisement
A very large quantity of sediment is rapidly filling the gulf.
A " Geyser " is a very convenient form of apparatus for heating a quantity of water in a short time.
Such a unit is independent of gravity or of any other quantity which varies with the locality.
Guaranteed thus against Russian attack, Italy became in the eyes of the central powers a negligible quantity, and was treated accordingly.
Wheat and barley are grown in considerably less quantity.Advertisement
If the magnitude and increasing complexity of these creations fails to impress you, the sheer quantity should suffice.
On the addition, well stirred, of a small quantity of dilute sulphuric acid, a precipitate of sulphur slowly forms, and during its growth manifests exceedingly well the phenomena under consideration.
The quantity of coal extracted annually in Australia had in 1906 reached 7,497,000 tons.
Copra is also produced in considerable quantity, and there is fine timber in the vicinity.
Galena is found in small quantity, and in some places it contains a large percentage of silver.Advertisement
The quantity of cotton now produced in Australasia is extremely small.
The Campidano and other fertile spots, such as the so-called Ogliastra on the east side of the island, inland of Tortoli, the neighbourhood of Oliena, Bosa, &c., produce a considerable quantity of wine, the sweet, strong, white variety called Vernaccia, produced near Oristano, being especially noteworthy.
He was arrested on the spot, and when his lodgings were searched a quantity of powder and shot was found, with the rules of a secret society, called" Young England,"whose members were pledged to meet," carrying swords and pistols and wearing crape masks."These discoveries raised the surmise that Oxford was the tool of a widespread Chartist conspiracy - or, as the Irish pretended, of a conspiracy of Orangemen to set the duke of Cumberland on the throne; and while these delusions were fresh, they threw well-disposed persons into a paroxysm of loyalty.
Cadmium does not occur naturally in the uncombined condition, and only one mineral is known which contains it in any appreciable quantity, namely, greenockite, or cadmium sulphide, found at Greenock and at Bishopton in Scotland, and in Bohemia and Pennsylvania.
The quantity of beer is about the same, the greater part of the beer drunk being imported from Germany, while the production of artificial mineral waters has somewhat decreased.Advertisement
In order to obtain the phenol from this distillate, it is treated with caustic soda, which dissolves the phenol and its homologues tegether with a certain quantity of naphthalene and other hydrocarbons.
Its author, with a considerable mathematical and mechanical bias, reckoned entirely with the quantity, not with the quality of his units, and relied almost implicitly upon his formulae.
Now there is no reason to believe that meteors in anything like this quantity can be supplied to the sun, and, therefore, we must reject this source as also inadequate.
According to the experi ments of Celli and Casagrandi, these are the most effective culicides; when used in sufficient quantity they kill mosquitoes in one minute.
Manson recommends five to ten grains once or twice a week; Ross recommends the same quantity every day before breakfast.
The chief constituent of hard animal fats, such as beef and mutton tallow, &c.; also contained in many vegetable fats in smaller quantity.
The total yield annually amounts to some 700,000 oz., the largest quantity coming from the Olekminsk, district in the province of Yakutsk, and this district is followed by the Amur region, the Maritime province, and Nerchinsk and Transbaikalia.
For example, when metallic zinc is dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid with production of zinc sulphate (in solution) and hydrogen gas, a definite quantity of heat is produced for a given amount of zinc dissolved, provided that the excess of energy in the initial system appears entirely as heat.
The total quantity of liquid employed need not in general exceed half a litre if a sufficiently delicate thermometer is available.
Except for technological purposes, thermochemical data are not referred to unit quantity of matter, but to chemical quantities - i.e.
The seeds are harvested from various grasses, especially from Aristida oligantha, a species known as " ant rice," which often grows in quantity close to the site selected for the nest, but the statement that the ants deliberately sow this grass is an error, due, according to Wheeler, to the sprouting of germinating seeds.
To him belongs the merit of carrying out some of the earliest determinations of the quantities by weight in which acids saturate bases and bases acids, and of arriving at the conception that those amounts of different bases which can saturate the same quantity of a particular acid are equivalent to each other.
There are many rich deposits of iron ores in the state, but they only produce a small quantity of charcoal iron for local consumption.
The quantity increases considerably on that part of the coast of the Malay peninsula which is not sheltered from the south-west by Sumatra.
In the interior of the chain the rain is far less, and the quantity of precipitation is so small in Tibet that it can be hardly measured.
Other analogous glycerides are apparently contained in greater or smaller quantity in certain other oils.
Thus in cows' butter, tributyrin, C 3 H 5 (O C 4 H 7 0) 3, and the analogous glycerides of other readily volatile acids closely resembling butyric acid, are present in small quantity; the production of these acids on saponification and distillation with dilute sulphuric acid is utilized as a test of a purity of butter as sold.
Given by the mouth glycerin produces purging if large doses are administered, and has the same action if only a small quantity be introduced into the rectum.
About 50,000 tons of coal of very poor quality are, however, extracted annually, and the same quantity of salt in the Armenian highlands and in Kuban.
The quantity of land ploughed by a yoke of oxen in one day was called a yoke or acre.
Both the quantity and the quality of the produce, and consequently its feeding value, must depend greatly upon the selection of the best description of roots to be grown, and on the character and the amount of the manures, and especially on the amount of nitrogenous manure employed.
Under such conditions of supply, however, the root-crops, gross feeders as they are, and distributing a very large extent of fibrous feeding root within the soil, avail themselves of a much larger quantity of the nitrogen supplied than the cereal crops would do in similar circumstances.
The quantity imported in 1899 was double that in 1890, and quadruple that in 1885.
The quantity of digestible nutritive matter in 1000 lb of ordinary feeding-stuffs when supplied to sheep or oxen is shown in Table XIX.
This arrangement makes no difference to the food-supply of the people, for dead meat continues to arrive at British ports in ever-increasing quantity.
This order came into force on the 30th of April, and the result was a marked decline in the shipments of live cattle and sheep from the River Plate, but a decided increase in the quantity of frozen meat sent thence to the United Kingdom.
His parliamentary duties and the quantity of correspondence brought upon him by increased publicity had absorbed nearly the whole of his time.
In Switzerland and parts of Germany, where it is collected in some quantity for commerce, a long strip of bark is cut out of the tree near the root; the resin that slowly accumulates during the summer is scraped out in the latter part of the season, and the slit enlarged slightly the following spring to ensure a continuance of the supply.
The quantity obtained from each fir is very variable, depending on the vigour of the tree, and greatly lessens after it has been subjected to the operation for some years.
Napoleon was surprised by the news of Prussia's mobilization; he had come to regard her as a negligible quantity, and now he found that her unexpected sensitiveness on points of honour was about to revivify the Third Coalition against France.
One of them is said to be " irritability," and, though this is explained to mean, not " muscular strength alone, but vivacity and activity generally," ' it does not seem to form a character that can be easily appreciated either as to quantity or quality; in fact, most persons would deem it quite immeasurable, and, as such, removed from practical consideration.
Essential or inhering (formae inhaerentes) in the objects themselves are only substance, quantity, quality and relation in the stricter sense of that term.
In addition to the native stuffs, an immense quantity of costly Oriental carpets, wall-hangings and other textiles was imported into Venice, partly for its own use, and partly for export throughout western Europe.
The quantity of Portland cement made in Ohio increased from 57,000 barrels in 1890 to 563,113 barrels in 1902 and to 1,521,764 barrels in 1908.
The probable reason for the wall-lines being concentric is that lines passing over the radii as nearly as possible at right angles are the shortest that can be laid on; they therefore use up a smaller quantity of silk and take a shorter time to spin than threads crossing the radii in any other direction; and at the same time they afford them the greatest possible support compatible with delicacy and strength of construction.
The bite, for example, of large species of the family Aviculariidae, sometimes called Mygales, and sometimes, but erroneously, known as tarantulas, species which have fangs half an inch long and as sharp as needles and a considerable quantity of poison, may be very painful, though seldom serious provided the health of the patient be good.
The machine which will gin the largest quantity in the shortest time is naturally preferred, unless such injury is, occasioned as materially to diminish the market value of the cotton.
The " cotton stainers," various species of Dysdercus, are widely distributed, occurring for example in America, the West Indies, Africa, India, &c. The larvae suck the sap from the young bolls and seeds, causing shrivelling and reduction in quantity of fibre.
In the cotton belt of the United States it would be possible to put a still greater acreage under this crop, but the tendency is rather towards what is known as " diversified " or mixed farming than to making cotton the sole important crop. Cotton, however, is in increasing demand, and the problem for the American cotton planter is to obtain a better yield of cotton from the same area, - by " better yield " meaning an increase not only in quantity but also in quality of lint.
In 1792 the quantity exported from the United States was only 1 It is related that in the year 1784 William Rathbone, an American merchant resident in Liverpool, received from one of his correspondents in the southern states a consignment of eight bags of cotton, which on its arrival in Liverpool was seized by the customhouse officers, on the allegation that it could not have been grown in the United States, and that it was liable to seizure under the Shipping Acts, as not being imported in a vessel belonging to the country of its growth.
The preceding table gives the quantity, value and character of the crop for each of the cotton-growing states in 1906, as reported by the Bureau of the Census.
A considerable quantity of the produce is spun and woven locally; e.g.
During recent years a considerable quantity of cotton has been exported, but more than a compensating amount of raw cotton, yarns and textiles, is imported.
But that view which admits a life of God that is not benumbed in an unchangeable sameness will be able to understand his eternal co-working as a variable quantity, the transforming influence of which comes forth at particular moments and attests that the course of nature is not shut up within itself.
Bitumen is, in its various forms, one of the most widel y -distributed of substances, occurring in strata of every geological age, from the lowest Archean rocks to those now in process of deposition, and in greater or less quantity throughout both hemispheres, from Spitzbergen to New Zealand, and from California to Japan.
It flowed continuously, though in gradually diminishing quantity, for fifteen months; afterwards the flow became intermittent.
The system is largely employed in Russia, and its use has been frequently attempted in the United States, but the results have not been satisfactory, on account, it is said, of the much greater quantity of dissolved gas contained in the American oil, the larger proportion of kerosene which such oil yields, and the less fluid character of the residue.
The " cracking " process, whereby a considerable quantity of the oil which is intermediate between kerosene and lubricating oil is converted into hydrocarbons of lower specific gravity and boiling-point suitable for illuminating purposes, is one of great scientific and technical interest.
By means of this instrument the time occupied in the flow of a measured quantity of the oil through a small orifice at a given temperature is measured.
The more recent legislation with regard to " petroleum spirit " relates mainly to the quantity which may be stored for use on " light locomotives."
He has 200 bezants, along with a quantity of wheat, barley, lentils and oil; and in return he must march with four horses (Rey, Les Colonies franques en Syrie, p. 24).
The honey is still highly prized, as it was in remote antiquity; and a considerable quantity of cheese is manufactured from the milk of the goat.
So soon as the tallow is melted a quantity of weak lye is added, and the agitation of the injected steam causes the fat and lye to become intimately mixed and produces a milky emulsion.
Soft Soap. - Soft soaps are made with potash lyes, although in practice a small quantity of soda is also used to give the soap some consistence.
The greater quantity of high-class toilet soaps are now made by a milling process.
The total quantity of scraps of bone may have amounted to a wineglassful.
Topography And Antiquities The Attic plain, -ro ircSlov, slopes gently towards the coast of the Saronic Gulf on the south-west; on the east it is overlooked by Mount Hymettus (3369 ft.); on the north-east by Pentelicus or Brilessus (3635 ft.) from which, in ancient and modern times, an immense quantity of the finest marble has been quarried; on the north-west by Parnes (4636 ft.), a continuation of the Boeotian Cithaeron, and on the west by Aegaleus (1532 ft.), which descends abruptly to the bay of Salamis.
Iron ore, lignite, copper, mercury, molybdenite, nickel, platinum and other minerals have been found, but the quantity of each is too small, or the quality too poor, for them to be of commercial value.
This symbol, however, not only represents the particular element, but a certain definite quantity of it.
If a very large quantity of water be added, the chloride is entirely decomposed in the manner represented by the equation BiC1 3 -fOH, = BiOCI -F2HC1, Bismuth chloride.
When present in sufficient quantity the five last-named give enamel-white beads; lead oxide in excess gives a yellowish bead.
We know the amount present in the precipitate, and since the same amount is present in the quantity of substance experimented with, we have only to work out a sum in proportion.
The general procedure is to make a series of standard solutions containing definite quantities of the substance which it is desired to estimate; such a series will exhibit tints which deepen as the quantity of the substance is increased.
The space a must allow for the inclusion of a copper spiral if the substance contains nitrogen, and a silver spiral if halogens be present, for otherwise nitrogen oxides and the halogens may be condensed in the absorption apparatus; b contains copper oxide; c is a space for the insertion of a porcelain or platinum boat containing a weighed quantity of the substance; d is a copper spiral.
This states that " the atomic heat (the product of the atomic weight and specific heat) of all elements is a constant quantity."
The addition of a little of the acid to glue renders it more tenacious; skins to be used for making leather do not undergo decomposition if steeped in a dilute solution; butter containing a small quantity of it may be kept sweet for months even in the hottest weather.
The introduction of additional diacritical marks, such as - and used to express quantity, and the diaeresis, as in ai, to express consecutive vowels, which are to be pronounced separately, may prove of service, as also such letters as a, o and ii, to be pronounced as in German, and in lieu of the French ai, eu or u.
From these structural and palaeontological evidences, geologists suppose that the formation of the cave was carried on simultaneously with the excavation of the valley; that the small streams, flowing down the upper ramifications of the valley, entered the western opening of the cave, and traversing the fissures in the limestone, escaped by the lower openings in the chief valley; and that the rounded pebbles found in the shingle bed were carried in by these streams. It would be only at times of drought that the cave was frequented by animals, a theory which explains the small quantity of animal remains in the shingle.
He received from the Moors in exchange for them ten blacks and a quantity of gold dust.
Thin straw-coloured paper, such as is used for biscuit bags, may be conveniently employed by travellers unable to carry a quantity of bibulous paper.
Many inscriptions and a great quantity of minor objects have been found.
Tobacco and vegetables are also produced in some quantity, and maize is grown largely for the sake of the husk, which is used for native cheroot-wrappers, under the name of yawpet.
The first step was to decree the penalty of six years' imprisonment against any person who should sell specie for a more considerable quantity of assignats, or who should stipulate a different price for commodities according as the payment was to be made in specie or in assignats.
The decree required all farmers and corn-dealers to declare the quantity of corn in their possession and to sell it only in recognized markets.
Minerals are fairly abundant in number, but few are present in sufficient quantity to be industrially important.
The city's water-supply is derived from the Chile river and is considered dangerous to new arrivals because of the quantity of saline and organic matter contained.
The calcium salt, CaN 2 O 2.4H 2 O, formed by the action of calcium chloride on the silver salt in the presence of a small quantity of nitric acid, is a lustrous crystalline powder, almost insoluble in water but readily soluble in dilute acids.
It would seem that "the general theory of discrete and continuous quantity" is the exact description of the topics of these sciences.
Accordingly, at first sight it seems reasonable to define geometry in some such way as "the science of dimensional quantity."
Thus every subdivision of mathematical science would appear to deal with quantity, and the definition of mathematics as "the science of quantity" would appear to be justified.
But now the difficulty of confining mathematics to being the science of number and quantity is immediately apparent.
Now, owing to the necessary inexactness of measurement, it is impossible to discriminate directly whether any kind of continuous physical quantity possesses the compactness of the series of rationals or the continuity of the series of real numbers.
The practical object of the enterprise required that the proportionate quantity of yearly output in the various branches, and that the liability of various topics as a matter of fact to occur in connexion with each other, should modify the classification.
Thus the modern ideas, which have so powerfully extended and unified the subject, have loosened its connexion with "number" and "quantity," while bringing ideas of form and structure into increasing prominence.
They teach further the solution of problems leading to equations of the first and second degree, to determinate and indeterminate equations, not by single and double position only, but by real algebra, proved by means of geometric constructions, and including the use of letters as symbols for known numbers, the unknown quantity being called res and its square census.
In the Flos equations with negative values of the unknown quantity are also to be met with, and Leonardo perfectly understands the meaning of these negative solutions.
The chief articles of export (together with those that have lapsed) have been already indicated; but they may be summarized as including seal-oil, seal, fox, bird and bear skins, fish products and eiderdown, with some quantity of worked skins.
Taking such an easily surveyable area as the North Sea, the quantity of relatively warm and dense Atlantic water entering it from year to year can be estimated by the method of hydrographic sections.
The connexion that seemed to be first established was between variations in the quantity of water transported from the tropical to the sub-polar Atlantic and variations in the intensit y of solar radiation.
Helland-Hansen and Nansen showed later that it was improbable that variations in the northerly drift of Atlantic water could be traced directly to variations in the quantity of heat received by the sea from solar radiation.
Of the total quantity of energy incident on the earth about 40% is reflected back from the earth's atmosphere.
It appeared that the quantity of oil contained in the liver of a cod (per unit of weight) increases with the age of the fish.
Clearly, however, the vast quantity of living substance in the ocean is built up from materials that are present in the sea-water as an exceedingly dilute solution, and the solution is dilute just because organisms are incessantly utilizing it.
The vegetable kingdom is the original source of albuminous substances, the albumins being found in greatest quantity in the seed.
Immersed in cold water gelatin does not dissolve but swells up; it dissolves readily in hot water, forming, according to the quantity present, a thick jelly which solidifies to a hard mass on cooling (the " glue " of the woodworker), or a thin jelly (used in cookery).
At the electrodes, however, the small quantity of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions from the water are liberated first in cases where the ions of the salt have a higher decomposition voltage.
The chemical activity of a substance is a quantity which may be measured by different methods.
Another method is to allow an acid to act on an insoluble salt, and to measure the quantity which goes into solution.
In order that the solutions of these should be isohydric and the concentrations of the hydrogen ions the same, we must have a very large quantity of the feebly dissociated acetic acid, and a very small quantity of the strongly dissociated hydrochloric, and in such proportions alone will equilibrium be possible.
In order that this should hold, we have seen that a considerable quantity of acetic acid must be present, so that a corresponding amount of the salt will be decomposed, the quantity being greater the less the acid is dissociated.
This is fully borne out by the experiments of Julius Thomsen, who found that the heat of neutralization of one gramme-molecule of a strong base by an equivalent quantity of a strong acid was nearly constant, and equal to 13,700 or 13,800 calories.
The electric forces then soon stop further action unless an equivalent quantity of positive ions are removed from the solution.
In the latter case, the tendency of the metal to dissolve in the more dilute solution is greater than its tendency to dissolve in the more concentrated solution, and thus there is a decrease in available energy when metal dissolves in the dilute solution and separates in equivalent quantity from the concentrated solution.
The trees and plants whose latices furnish caoutchouc in considerable quantity chiefly belong to the natural orders Euphorbiaceae, Urticaceae, Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae.
When exposed to air the latex gradually undergoes putrefactive changes accompanied by coagulation of the caoutchouc. The addition of a small quantity of ammonia or of formalin to some latices usually has the effect of preserving them for a considerable time.
In order to prevent decomposition of any proteid impurity which may remain incorporated with the rubber, the freshly coagulated rubber is sometimes cured in the smoke of burning wood or a small quantity of an antiseptic such as creosote is added during coagulation.
Only a small quantity of this rubber comes to England, and it is not much valued, being a " wet " rubber.
Pernambuco rubber, as is the case with most rubbers coagulated by saline solutions, contains a large quantity of water.
The prosperity of the town depends chiefly on the vine culture in the neighbourhood, from which, besides the exportation of a large quantity of grapes, about 700,000 gallons of wine are manufactured annually.
A considerable quantity of timber is grown on the high lands, and the rich valley pastures support large herds of cattle, while the abundance of oaks and chestnuts favours the rearing of swine.
The partitions being taken as denoting symmetric functions we have complete correspondence between the algebras of quantity and operation, and from any algebraic formula we can at once write down an operation formula.
In 1802, on the eve of Lord Lake's Mahratta war, his chemical knowledge enabled him to render a signal service to the administration by making available a large quantity of gunpowder which damp had spoiled.
Anglesite, or lead sulphate, PbSO 4, is poor in silver, and is only exceptionally mined by itself; it occurs in quantity in France, Spain, Sardinia and Australia.
At this stage as a rule some rich slags of a former operation are added and a quantity of quicklime is incorporated, the chief object of which is to diminish the fluidity of the mass in the next stage, which consists in this, that, with closed air-holes, the heat is raised so as to cause the oxide and sulphate on the one hand and the sulphide on the other to reduce each other to metal.
The best method of application is by rubbing in a small quantity of the aconitine ointment until numbness is felt, but the costliness of this preparation causes the use of the aconite liniment to be commonly resorted to.
The latest result is 299,860 kilometres per second, with a probable error of perhaps 30 kilometres - that is, about the ten-thousandth part of the quantity itself.
When the direction of any vector quantity denoted by a symbol is to be attended to, it is usual to employ for the symbol either a block letter, as H, I, B, or a German capital, as j,, 3?
If the conductor consists of a coil of wire the ends of which are connected with a suitable galvanometer, the integral electromotive force due to a sudden increase or decrease of the induction through the coil displaces in the circuit a quantity of electricity Q=SBns R, where SB is the increment or decrement of induction per square centimetre, s is the area of the coil, n the number of turns of wire, and R the resistance of the circuit.
Under the influence of the transient current, the galvanometer needle undergoes a momentary deflection, or " throw," which is proportional to Q, and therefore to 8B, and thus, if we know the deflection produced by the discharge through the galvanometer of a given quantity of electricity, we have the means of determining the value of 8B.
After pointing out that, since the magnetization of the metal is the quantity really concerned, W is more appropriately expressed in terms of I, the magnetic moment per unit of volume, than of B, he suggests an experiment to determine whether the mechanical work required to effect the complete magnetic reversal i Phil.
But when exceptionally strong fields are desired, the use of a coil is limited by the heating effect of the magnetizing current, the quantity of heat generated per unit of time in a coil of given dimensions increasing as the square of the magnetic field produced in its interior.
The most striking phenomenon which they bring into prominence is the effect of any considerable quantity of manganese in annihilating the magnetic property of iron.
The metals used in different combinations included tin, aluminium, arsenic, antimony, bismuth and boron; each of these, when united in certain proportions with manganese, together with a larger quantity of copper (which appears to serve merely as a menstruum), constituted a magnetizable alloy.
It is now allowed to stand for some time, decanted from any sediment, and finally mixed with the calculated quantity of potassium sulphate (or if ammonium alum is required, with ammonium sulphate), well agitated, and the alum is thrown down as a finely-divided precipitate of alum meal.
A great quantity of tobacco is also grown; it is wholly monopolized by the crown.
Subsequent returns for maize and wheat show an increase both in the area cultivated and quantity yielded.
Other characteristic features are the use of the singular substantive after numerals, and adjectives of quantity, e.g.
The distinction between algebraical and arithmetical reasoning then lies mainly in the fact that the former is in a more condensed form than the latter; an unknown quantity being represented by a special symbol, and other symbols being used as a kind of shorthand for verbal expressions.
To say, for instance, that X is equal to A -B, is the same thing as to say that X is a quantity such that X and B, when added, make up A; and the above five statements of necessary connexion between two statements of equality are in fact nothing more than definitions of the symbols -, m of, =,, and loga.
This is rendered possible by the fact that we can use a single letter to represent a single number or numerical quantity, however many digits are contained in the number.
We cannot solve the equation 7s.+X=4s.; but we are accustomed to transactions of lending and borrowing, and we can therefore invent a negative quantity - 3s.
There are also cases in which graphics and mensuration are used jointly; a variable numerical quantity is represented by a graph, and the principles of mensuration are then applied to determine related numerical quantities.
Graphic representation thus rests on the principle that equal numerical quantities may be represented by equal lengths, and that a quantity mA may be represented by a length mL, where A and L are the respective units; and the science of graphics rests on the converse property that the quantity represented by pL is pA, i.e.
We therefore represent them by separate symbols, in the same way that we represent the unknown quantity in an equation by a symbol.
We see first that any operation with 4a-3b can be regarded as an operation with (+)4a+(-)3b, subject to the conditions (I) that the signs (+) and (-) obey the laws (+)=(+),(+)(-)=(-)(+)= (-), (-) (-)=(+), and (2) that, when processes of multiplication are completed, a quantity is to be added or subtracted according as it has the sign (+) or (-) prefixed.
The result of the extension is that the number or quantity represented by any symbol, such as P, may be either positive or negative.
The argument involves the theorem that, if 0 is a positive quantity less than I, 0 t can be made as small as we please by taking t large enough; this follows from the fact that tlog 0 can be made as large (numerically) as we please.
Even when the formal evolution of the science was fairly complete, it was taken for granted that its symbols of quantity invariably stood for numbers, and that its symbols of operation were restricted to their ordinary arithmetical meanings.
A point A in space may be associated with a (real, positive, or negative) numerical quantity a, called its weight, and denoted by the symbol aA.
From A Merely Formal Point Of View, We Have In The Barycentric Calculus A Set Of " Special Symbols Of Quantity " Or " Extraordinaries " A, B, C, &C., Which Combine With Each Other By Means Of Operations And Which Obey The Ordinary Rules, And With Ordinary Algebraic Quantities By Operations X And =, Also According To The Ordinary Rules, Except That Division By An Extraordinary Is Not Used.
The algebras discussed up to this point may be considered as independent in the sense that each of them deals with a class of symbols of quantity more or less homogeneous, and a set of operations applying to them all.
The name l'arte magiore, the greater art, is designed to distinguish it from l'arte minore, the lesser art, a term which he applied to the modern arithmetic. His second variant, la regula de la cosa, the rule of the thing or unknown quantity, appears to have been in common use in Italy, and the word cosa was preserved for several centuries in the forms toss or algebra, cossic or algebraic, cossist or algebraist, &c. Other Italian writers termed it the Regula rei et census, the rule of the thing and the product, or the root and the square.
Stifel introduced the sign (+) for addition or a positive quantity, which was previously denoted by plus, pia, or the letter p. Subtraction, previously written as minus, mene or the letter m, was symbolized by the sign (-) which is still in use.
Disunion had reduced the Yugosla y s to an almost negligible quantity in Balkan politics.
To calculate the roots of (5) we may assume u=(m+1)7r-y= U-y, (3), where y is a positive quantity which is small when u is large.
The denominator sin a is the quantity well known (after Abbe) as the " numerical aperture."
If we put for shortness 7 for the quantity under the last circular function in (I), the expressions (i), (2) may be put under the forms u sin T, v sin (T - a) respectively; and, if I be the intensity, I will be measured by the sum of the squares of the coefficients of sin T and cos T in the expression u sin T +v sin (T - a), so that I =u 2 +v 2 +2uv cos a, which becomes on putting for u, v, and a their values, and putting f =Q .
If w be the apparent magnitude of the source seen from A, wb should be much smaller than the above quantity, or w
The chief divergence is in the presence of silver and copper objects, but the great quantity of gold is the most striking fact, and to say that there was nothing but gold seems merely an exaggeration.
In the heap itself was found an immense quantity of pieces of harness and what may be remains of a funeral car.
Besides the rock-salt, which is excavated by blasting, the saline deposits of Stassfurt yield a considerable quantity of deliquescent salts and other saline products, which have encouraged the foundation of numerous chemical factories in the town and in the neighbouring village of Leopoldshall, which lies in Anhalt territory.
The military strength of the two republics was practically an unknown quantity.
All tin, except a small quantity produced by the shaft furnace process from exceptionally pure stream tin ore, requires refining by liquation and "boiling" before it is ready for the market.
Stannic Chloride, SnC1 4, named by Andreas Libavius in 1605 Spiritus argenti vivi sublimate from its preparation by distilling tin or its amalgam with corrosive sublimate, and afterwards termed Spiritus fumans Libavii, is obtained by passing dry chlorine over granulated tin contained in a retort; the tetrachloride distils over as a heavy liquid, from which the excess of chlorine is easily removed by shaking with a small quantity of tin filings and re-distilling.
A mixture of stannous and stannic chloride, when added to a sufficient quantity of solution of chloride of gold, gives an intensely purple precipitate of gold purple (purple of Cassius).
The Fathers of the 4th century, and notably the Cappadocian Fathers, provide us with a quantity of evidence on this subject, which leaves no doubt as to the practice of the invocation of saints, nor of the complete approval with which it was viewed.
Cattle are reared in great quantity and are of excellent quality.
As the quantity of contained water increases it becomes difficult or even impossible to detonate by an ordinary blow.
Strong sulphuric acid in contact with it liberates first nitric acid and later oxides of nitrogen, leaving a charred residue or a brown solution according to the quantity of acid.
Strong or weak solutions of these substances also decompose it, producing some alkali nitrate and nitrite, the cellulose molecule being only partially restored, some quantity undergoing oxidation.
This quality is the only one consumed in the country, with the exception of a comparatively small quantity of granulated, and of refined sugar in tablets prepared for people of the well-to-do classes.
The presence of so small a quantity as i% of alcohol may be detected in ether by the colour imparted to it by aniline violet; if water or acetic acid be present, the ether must be shaken with anhydrous potassium carbonate before the application of the test.
These, salted and dried, are exported to all parts of the world, and form, when taken in connexion with the enormous quantity of fresh cod consumed, a valuable addition to the food resources of the human race.
If the amount of liquid contained in the tissue be small in quantity the part mummifies, giving rise to what is known as " dry gangrene."
Thus it is laid down in large quantity in cirrhosis of the liver, kidney or lung, and reacts upon these organs by contracting and inducing atrophy.
Within a quarter of an hour after a quantity of cinnabar has been injected into the blood of the frog nearly every particle will be found engulfed by the protoplasm of the leucocytes of the circulating blood.
Dropsy During conditions of health a certain quantity of lymphy liquid is constantly being effused into the tissues and serous cavities of the body, but in the case of the tissues it never accumulates to excess, and in that of the serous cavities it is never more than sufficient to keep them moist.
The quantity of proteid matter in a purely dropsical effusion never amounts to that of an inflammatory exudation (Lassar).
According to Rogowicz and Heidenhain, certain substances increase the quantity of lymph given off from a part by acting upon the cells of the capillary wall; they hold, in fact, that these substances are true lymphagogues.
Afterwards he modified his hypothesis, and referred the disturbances produced to the "nervous liquor," which he supposed to be a quantity of the "universal elastic matter" diffused through the universe, by which Newton explained the phenomena of light - i.e.
At marriage they burn benzoin with nim seeds (Melia Azadirachta, Roxburgh) to keep off evil spirits, and prepare the bride-cakes by putting a quantity of benzoin between layers of wheaten dough, closed all round, and frying them in clarified butter.
In the case of such altered deposits surface exploration alone is likely to be misleading, and it is important to push the underground exploration far enough to reach the unaltered part of the deposit, or at least deep enough to make it certain that there is a sufficient quantity of altered or enriched ore to form the basis of profitable mining operations.
In metal mines, however, artificial ventilation is rarely attempted, and natural ventilation often fails to furnish a sufficient quantity of air.
Fire-damp and dust explosions are caused by the presence of marsh-gas in sufficient quantity to form an explosive mixture, or by a mixture of small percentages of marsh-gas and coal-dust, and in some cases by the presence of coal-dust alone in the air of the mine.
The use of such explosives decreases to some extent the danger from dust explosions; but experiment shows that no efficient explosive is absolutely safe, if used in excessive quantity, or in an improper manner.
A fire underground speedily becomes formidable, not only in coal but also in metal mines, on account of the large quantity of timber used to support the excavations.
In 1895 the quantity of rice exported in the foreign and coastal trade amounted to 1,419,173 tons valued at Rs.9,77, 66, 1 3 2, and in 1905 the figures were 2,187,764 tons, value Rs.
A vast quantity of small cups and paterae were made by this means in patterns which bear considerable resemblance to the surfaces of madrepores.
The usual process was to gather, first, a small quantity of opaque white glass; to coat this with a thick layer of translucent blue glass; and, finally, to cover the blue glass with a coating of the white glass.
In the 8th century, when peace was made between the caliph Walid and the emperor Justinian II., the former stipulated for a quantity of mosaic for the decoration of the new mosque at Damascus, and in the 10th century the materials for the decoration of the niche of the kibla at Cordova were furnished by Romanus II.
During the 16th and 17th centuries Venice exported a prodigious quantity of mirrors, but France and England gradually acquired knowledge and skill in the art, and in 1772 only one glass-house at Murano continued to make mirrors.
The " Passglas," another popular drinking-glass, is cylindrical in form and marked with horizontal rings of glass, placed at regular intervals, to indicate the quantity of liquor to be taken at a draught.
During that period rubber fell from being 77% to 15 in value of the exports of produce of the colony, though the quantity exported-3,000-4,000 tons - was about the same.
In this way the medium velocity of the current may be diminished, and consequently the quantity of water discharged in a given time must, from the effects of friction, be considerably less than that which is computed from theory.
When the results of this theory were compared with the quantity of water actually discharged, Newton concluded that the velocity with which the water issued from the orifice was equal to that which a falling body would receive by descending through half the height of water in the reservoir.
Denoting the cross-section a of a filament by dS and its mass by dm, the quantity wdS/dm is called the vorticity; this is the same at all points of a filament, and it does not change during the motion; and the vorticity is given by w cos edS/dm, if dS is the oblique section of which the normal makes an angle e with the filament, while the aggregate vorticity of a mass M inside a surface S is M - l fw cos edS.
A vine, for instance, that produces bunches of grapes at each joint is preferable to one in which there are several barren joints, as a larger quantity can be grown within a smaller area.
Massee recommends that the shoots should be dredged with flowers of sulphur at intervals of ten days, while the disease continues to spread, a small quantity of quicklime in a finely powdered con FIG.
The practical unit of quantity of electricity, the coulomb, is named after him.
Owing to the slender resources of the Confederacy, the prison was frequently short of food, and even when this was sufficient in quantity it was of a poor quality and poorly prepared on account of the lack of cooking utensils.
Whatever pressure be brought to bear upon it, the vegetable or woody fibre of crushed sugar-canes will hold and retain for the from moment a quantity of moisture equal to its own weight, Yield .
Canes vary very much in respect of the quality and also as to the quantity of the juice they contain.
The quantity of the juice is the test to which recourse must be had in judging the efficiency of the extraction, while the quality is the main factor to be taken into account with regard to the results of subsequent manufacture.
It shows the greatest quantity of juice that may be expressed from canes, according to the different proportions of fibre they contain, but without employing maceration or imbibition, to which processes reference is made hereafter.
A further saving of juice was sometimes possible if the market prices of sugar were such as to compensate for the cost of evaporating an increased quantity of added water, but a limit was imposed by the fact that water might be used in excess.
But this competition among inventors, whatever the incentive, has not been without benefit, because to-day, by means of very simple improvements in details, such as the addition of circulators and increased area of connexions, what may be taken to be the standard type of multiple-effect evaporator (that is to say, vertical vacuum pans fitted with vertical heating tubes, through which passes the liquor to be treated, and outside of which the steam or vapour circulates) evaporates nearly double the quantity of water per square foot of heating surface per hour which was evaporated by apparatus in use so recently as 1885 - and this without any increase in the steam pressure.
That evaporation in vacuo, in a multiple-effect evaporator, is advantageous by reason of the increased amount of sugar obtained from a given quantity of juice, and by reason of economy of fuel, there is no doubt, but whether such an apparatus should be of double, triple, quadruple or quintuple effect will depend very much on the amount of juice to be treated per day, and the cost of fuel.
A process for purifying and decolorizing the juice expressed from beetroots by the addition of a small quantity of manganate of lime (20 to 50 grammes per hectolitre of juice), under the influence of an electric current, was worked with considerable success in a sugar factory in the department of Seine-et-Marne in the year 1900-1901.
The increase in the consumption is exemplified by the fact that, while in 1700 the amount used in Great Britain was ro,000 tons, in 1800 it had risen to 150,000 tons, and in 1885 the total quantity used was almost 1,roo,000 tons.
Tha`alibi, a writer of the 11th century, says that Askar-Mokram had no equal for the quality and quantity of its sugar, " notwithstanding the great production of `Irak, Jorjan and India."
Exportation had long ceased, partly owing to the bountied competition of beet sugar, and partly because the people had become able to afford the consumption of a greater quantity than they produced; and German and Austrian sugars were pouring into the country to supply the deficiency.
Pomegranate root, or, better, the sulphate of pelletierine in dose of 5 grains with an equal quantity of tannic acid, may be used to replace the male fern.
There is, therefore, no absolute knowledge, for every man has different perceptions, and, further, arranges and groups his data in methods peculiar to himself; so that the sum total is a quantity with a purely subjective validity.
In making cigars by the hand, the operator rolls together a sufficient quantity of material to form the filling of one cigar, and experience enables him or her to select very uniform quantities.
This quantity is wrapped in the inner cover, an oblong piece of leaf the length of the cigar to be made, and of width sufficient to enclose the whole material.
In 1597 Libavius described a "peculiar kind of tin" which was prepared in India, and of which a friend had given him a quantity.
Of less importance is the silicate, Zn 2 SiO 4 H 2 0, named electric calamine or hemimorphite; this occurs in quantity in Altenburg near Aix-laChapelle, Sardinia, Spain and the United States (New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Missouri, Wisconsin).
Some brassfounders break from a single ingot the quantity of zinc required to produce the amount of brass they wish to compound in one crucible, but when perfect uniformity is desired the importance of remelting the zinc on a large scale cannot be too strongly emphasized.
In regard to methods and apparatus, mention should be made of his improvements in the technique of organic analysis, his plan for determining the natural alkaloids and for ascertaining the molecular weights of organic bases b y means of their chloroplatinates, his process for determining the quantity of urea in a solution - the first step towards the introduction of precise chemical methods into practical medicine - and his invention of the simple form of condenser known in every laboratory.
On this theory he prepared artificial manures containing the essential mineral substances together with a small quantity of ammoniacal salts, because he held that the air does not supply ammonia fast enough in certain cases, and carried out systematic experiments on ten acres of poor sandy land which he obtained from thr town of Giessen in 1845.
Gaston Paris maintained that French versification was a natural development of popular Latin methods which depended on accent rather than quantity, and were as widely different from classical rules as the Low Latin was from the classical idiom.
The rainfall is heaviest along the western fringe of the plateau, and penetrates inland in decreasing quantity over a zone which perhaps extends to loo m.
But whereas, from its construction, the Siemens furnace was intermittent in operation, necessitating stoppage of the current while the contents of the crucible were poured out, many of the newer forms are specially designed either to minimize the time required in effecting the withdrawal of one charge and the introduction of the next, or to ensure absolute continuity of action, raw material being constantly charged in at the top and the finished substance and by-products (slag, &c.) withdrawn either continuously or at intervals, as sufficient quantity shall have accumulated.
Besides Mexican or Vera Cruz jalap, a drug called Tampico jalap has been imported for some years in considerable quantity.
Cocaine is also derived from coca leaves, and a considerably quantity of the drug is exported.
On distilling such a mixture pure A will come over first, followed by mixtures in which the quantity of B continually increases; consequently by a sufficient number of distillations A and B can be completely separated.
The body of the still is provided with one or more openings at different heights to serve for the discharge of the residue in the still, and sometimes with a glass gauge to record the quantity of matter in the still.
The first portion of the distillate brings over the gases dissolved in the water, ammonia and other volatile impurities, and is consequently rejected; scarcely two-fifths of the entire quantity of water can be safely used as pure distilled water.
He noticed that when ice melts it takes up a quantity of heat without undergoing any change of temperature, and he argued that this heat, which as was usual in his time he looked upon as a subtle fluid, must have combined with the particles of ice and thus become latent in its substance.
In most Ectoprocta, however, the development takes place internally or in an ovicell, and a considerable quantity of yolk is present.
Japan is emphatically a wet country so far as quantity of rainfall is concerned, the average for the whole country being 1570 mm.
It thus falls out that in spite of the enormous quantity of fish consumed as food or used as fertilizers year after year by the Japanese, the seas remain as richly stocked as ever.
Much more memorable, however, was a library formed by Iyeyasus grandson the feudal chief of Mito (1662I 700), who not only collected a vast quantity of books hitherto scattered among Shinto and Buddhist monasteries and private houses, but also employed a number of scholars to compile a history unprecedented in magnitude, the Dai-Nihon-shi.
A small quantity of hemp and flax is raised, but a considerable quantity of fruit and vegetables is annually produced, and some wine, in the Coburg district of Konigsberg.
In the interior there is a fine organ and a quantity of statuary, and the vaults contain the remains of Philip the Bold, duke of Burgundy, and Anne of Burgundy, daughter of John the Fearless.
In algebra, if a be a real positive quantity and w a root of unity, then a is the amplitude of the product aw.
The hyperbolic or Gudermannian amplitude of the quantity x is ta n (sinh x).
Digestion is quick and much accelerated by the quantity of saliva which is secreted during the progress of deglutition, and in venomous snakes probably also by the chemical action of the poison.
It contains albuminous bodies in solution, and is in fact a pure solution of two or more poisonous proteids, which are the active agents, with a small quantity of an organic acid or colouring matter.
This wine is not exported in any quantity, as it will not bear a voyage well and is not made to keep. Bee-keeping is general, and there is an export of eggs to Egypt.
The quantity of alcohol present in an aqueous solution is determined by a comparison of its specific gravity with standard tables, or directly by the use of an alcoholometer, which is a hydrometer graduated so as to read per cents by weight (degrees according to Richter) or volume per cents (degrees according to Tralles).
In the next place we must notice that electrification is a measurable magnitude and in electrostatics is estimated in terms of a unit called the electrostatic unit of electric quantity.
A very small sphere is said then to possess a charge of one electrostatic unit of quantity, when it repels another similar and similarly electrified body with a force of one dyne, the centres being at a distance of one centimetre, provided that the spheres are in vacuo or immersed in some insulator, the dielectric constant of which is' taken as unity.
The quantity of electricity which must be given to the sphere to raise it to unit potential is therefore R electrostatic units.
Thus if Q is the surface density, S the thickness of the shell at any point, and p the assumed volume density of the matter of the shell, we have v =Abp. Then the quantity of electricity on any element of surface dS is A times the mass of the corresponding element of the shell; and if Q is the whole quantity of electricity on the ellipsoid, Q =A times the whole mass of the shell.
Since then they are all charged with the same quantity of electricity, and the total over all potential difference V is the sum of each of the individual potential differences V1, V2, V3, &c., we have Q=C I V I =C 2 V 2 =C 3 V 3 =&c., and V=V1-FV2+V3+&c. The resultant capacity is C = Q/V, and C= I/(I/C1 +I /C2+1/C3+&c) = I/Z(I /C) (15).
The mathematical importance of this function called the potential is that it is a scalar quantity, and the potential at any point due to any number of point charges ql, q2, q3, &c., distributed in any manner, is the sum of them separately, or qi/xl+q2/x2+q3/x3+&c. =F (q/x) =V (17), where xi, x2, x 3, &c., are the distances of the respective point charges from the point in question at which the total potential is required.
If, however, we defined the strength of the source by the statement that the strength divided 1 The beginner is often puzzled by the constant appearance of the factor 47r in electrical theorems. It arises from the manner in which the unit quantity of electricity is defined.
Let this rectangular prism be supposed to be wholly filled up with electricity of density p; then the total quantity in it is p dx dy dz.
Accordingly, since every tube sent out from a charged conductor must end somewhere on another charge of opposite sign, it follows that the two electricities always exist in equal quantity, and that it is impossible to create any quantity of one kind without creating an equal quantity of the opposite sign.
He therefore employed the corresponding expression for a cycle of infinitesimal range dt at the temperature t in which the work dW obtainable from a quantity of heat H would be represented by the equation dW =HF'(t)dt, where F'(t) is the derived function of F(t), or dF(t)/dt, and represents the work obtainable per unit of heat per degree fall of temperature at a temperature t.
Finally, the substance is reconverted into the first state at the temperature 0", completing the cycle by the abstraction of a quantity of heat By the application of the first law, the difference of the quantities of heat absorbed and evolved in the cycle must be equal to the work represented by the area of the cycle, which is equal to (p' - p") (v" - v') in the limit when the difference of pressure is small.
In order to restore the substance to its original temperature 0' at constant pressure, it would be necessary to supply a further quantity of heat, H, represented by the area between the two adiabatics from FC down to the absolute zero.
The whole quantity of heat required to raise the temperature from 0" to 0' at constant pressure along the path EC is H+h, which is equal to S(0' - o"), where S is the specific heat at constant pressure.
The total heat with which we are actually concerned in the working of a steam engine is the total heat as here defined, and not the total heat as defined by Regnault, which, however, differs from (E+pv) only by a quantity which is inappreciable in ordinary practice.
It appears to be a quantity of the same order as the volume of the liquid, or as the limiting volume of the gas at very high pressures.
These are the only certain examples of natural combinations of the metal, the minute, though economically valuable, quantity often found in pyrites and other sulphides being probably only present in mechanical suspension.
Henry Wurtz in America (1864) and Sir William Crookes in England (1865) made independently the discovery that, by the addition of a small quantity of sodium to the mercury, the operation is much facilitated.
It was at one time proposed to treat the concentrated black iron obtained in the Ural gold washings, which consists chiefly of magnetite, as an iron ore, by smelting it with charcoal for auriferous pigiron, the latter metal possessing the property of dissolving gold in considerable quantity.
The action proceeds in two stages; in the first hydrogen peroxide and potassium aurocyanide are formed, and in the second the hydrogen peroxide oxidizes a further quantity of gold and potassium cyanide to aurocyanide, thus (1) 2Au+4KCN +02+2H20=2KAu(CN)2+4KOH+H202;(2)2Au+4KCN+2H202= 2KAu(CN) 2 +4KOH.
In the Transvaal the operation occupies 32 to 4 days for fine sands, and up to 14 days for coarse sands; the quantity of cyanide per ton of tailings varies from 0.26 to 0.28 lb, for electrolytic precipitation, and o 5 lb for zinc precipitation.
Generally the reaction mixture is allowed to cool, and the residue, which settles to the bottom of the pot, consists of gold together with copper, lead and iron sulphates, which are insoluble in strong sulphuric acid; silver sulphate may also separate if present in sufficient quantity and the solution be sufficiently cooled.
Another process consists in treating a mixture of the residue with one-quarter of its weight of calcined sodium sulphate with sulphuric acid, the residue being finally boiled with a large quantity of acid.
In addition to their use for timber or basket-making, willows contain a large quantity of tannin in their bark.
He is credited with having brought about a reduction of the quantity of silver in the smaller coins; he was the author of the Tariff Act of 1857 and of the bonded-warehouse system, and was one of the first to advocate civil service reform.
A small quantity of paper is made from a plant described as the Daphne papyrifera.
When present in other metals, even in very small quantity, bismuth renders them brittle and impairs their electrical conductivity.
Reynolds, in his investigation, introducing no new form of law of distribution of velocities, uses a linear quantity, proportional to the mean free path of the gaseous molecules, which he takes to represent (somewhat roughly) the average distance from which molecules directly affect, by their convection, the state of the medium; the gas not being uniform on account of the gradient of temperature, the change going on at each point is calculated from the elements contributed by the parts at this particular distance in all directions.
He knew the connexion existing between the positive roots of an equation (which, by the way, were alone thought of as roots) and the coefficients of the different powers of the unknown quantity.
In the group where the principles of hydrostatics are not employed the method consists in determining the weight and volume of a certain quantity of the substance, or the weights of equal volumes of the substance and of the standard.
A small quantity of the substance is weighed into a tube, of the form shown in fig.
It consists in determining the air expelled from a vessel by the vapour of a given quantity of the substance.
In determinations of stellar or solar parallax, comparison stars, symmetrically situated with respect to the object whose parallax is sought, should be employed, in which case the instantaneous scale-value may be regarded as an unknown quantity which can be derived in the process of the computation of the results.
He fell upon a most ingenious plan of doubling the amount of double refraction of a prism by using two prisms of rock-crystal, so cut out of the solid as to give each the same quantity of double refraction, and yet to double the quantity in the effect produced.
If this estimate is correct there exists dissolved in the ocean a quantity of silver equal to T3,300 million metric tons, that is to say 46,700 times as much silver as has been produced from all the mines in the world from the discovery of America down to 1902.
The determination of salinity was formerly carried out by evaporating a weighed quantity of sea-water to dryness and weighing the residue.
Strutt found that salt from evaporated sea-water did not contain one-third of the quantity of radium present in the water of the town supply in Cambridge.
Gases, consisting principally of light carburetted hydrogen or marsh gas, are of ten present in considerable quantity in coal, in a dissolved or occluded state, and the evolution of these upon exposure to the air, especially when a sudden diminution of atmospheric pressure takes place, constitutes one of the most formidable dangers that the coal miner has to encounter.
They all contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, forming the carbonaceous or combustible portion, and some quantity of mineral matter, which remains after combustion as a residue or " ash."
These properties are most highly developed in the substance known as jet, which is a variety of cannel found in the lower oolitic strata of Yorkshire, and is almost entirely used for ornamental purposes, the whole quantity produced near Whitby, together with a further supply from Spain, being manufactured into articles of jewellery at that town.
When hard ground is reached, a seat is formed for the cast iron tubbing, which is built up in the usual way and concreted at the back, a small quantity of caustic soda being sometimes used in mixing the concrete to prevent freezing.
This loss .is proportionately greater in thin than in thick seams, the same quantity being cut to waste in either case.
The quantity of air required for a large colliery depends upon the number of men employed, as for actual respiration from zoo to 200 cub.
It was found that, of the entire volume of occluded gas in an anthracite, only one-third could be expelled at the temperature of boiling water, and that the whole quantity, amounting to 650 cub.
They consist almost entirely of marsh gas, with only a small quantity of carbonic acid, usually under 1%, and from i to 4% of nitrogen.
In one instance the quantity of water required to keep down the dust in a mine raising 850 tons of coal in a single shift was 28.8 tons, apart from that required by the jets and motors.
This difficulty was overcome by first filling the cylinder with porous briquettes and then soaking them with a fixed percentage of acetone, so that after allowing for the space taken up by the bricks the quantity of acetone soaked into the brick will absorb ten times the normal volume of the cylinder in acetylene for every atmosphere of pressure to which the gas is subjected, whilst all danger of explosion is eliminated.
On decomposition by water, ammonia is produced by the action of steam or of nascent hydrogen on the nitride, the quantity formed depending very largely upon the temperature at which the carbide is decomposed.
In the early samples of carbide this compound used to be present in considerable quantity, but now rarely more than% is to be found.
The highest average quantity of rough milled rice per establishment in the United States in 1905 was for Texas, where seventeen establishments produced an average of 18,598,259 ib, valued, together with that of other rice products, at $4,638,867.
The earliest collected edition of his works, Historia et monumenta Joannis Hus et Hieronymi Pragensis, was published at Nuremberg in 1558 and was reprinted with a considerable quantity of new matter at Frankfort in 1715.
It is probable that the first exact notions of quantity were founded on the consideration of number.
They correspond to the two methods of regarding quantity - the arithmetical and the geometrical.
To the atomist the true method of estimating the quantity of matter in a body is to count the atoms of it.
To those who identify matter with extension, the volume of space occupied by a body is the only measure of the quantity of matter in it.
The agreement of the values obtained for the same quantity by different methods provides valuable confirmation of the truth of the molecular theory and of the validity of the methods of the kinetic theory of gases.
The law of equipartition shows that the various mean energies of different kinds are all equal, each being measured by the quantity 1/4h.
The quantity of heat evolved, according to Julius Thomsen, is 34,116 calories for each gram of hydrogen burned.
It obviously attains its maximum in the case of the firing of pure "oxyhydrogen" gas (a mixture of hydrogen with exactly half its volume of oxygen, the quantity it combines with in becoming water,, German Knall-gas).
It becomes less when the "oxyhydrogen" is mixed with excess of one or the other of the two reacting gases, or an inert gas such as nitrogen, because in any such case the same amount of heat spreads over a larger quantity of matter.
The difficulty in all these cases is that of procuring a sufficient quantity of efficient agency, especially where a large and illiterate native population has to be taken into account.
The formulae may be used for extending the accuracy of tables, in cases where, if v represents the quantity tabulated, hdv/dx or h 2 d 2 v /dx 2 can be conveniently expressed in terms of v and x to a greater degree of accuracy than it could be found from the table.
To find the quantity of timber in a trunk with parallel ends, the areas of a few sections must be calculated as accurately as possible, and a formula applied.
Many of the oceanic islets are composed of coral limestone, which in this way becomes phosphatized; others are igneous, consisting of trachyte or basalt, and these rocks are also phosphatized on their surfaces but are not so valuable, inasmuch as the presence of iron or alumina in any quantity renders them unsuited for the preppration of artificial manures.
In 1908 the total production of the state, 9,076,743 barrels valued at $2,136,738, was exceeded in quantity and (for the first time) in value by that of Michigan.
The quantity grown increased by 70% in the twenty years 1887-1906.
In algebra, the "cube" of a quantity is the quantity multiplied by itself twice, i.e.
His "theorie des debouches" amounts to this, that, products being, in last analysis, purchased only with products, the extent of the markets (or outlets) for home products is proportional to the quantity of foreign productions; when the sale of any commodity is dull, it is because there is not a sufficient number, or rather value, of other commodities produced with which it could be purchased.
A small quantity of zinc (7 tons in 1906) is occasionally produced.
The output steadily increased until 1895 when it was 1,504,193 short tons; but from then to 1905, when it was 1,643,832 short tons, the quantity varied little from year to year.
Baker and others, show that the breaking stress of a bar is not a fixed quantity, but depends on the range of variation of stress to which it is subjected, if that variation is repeated a very large number of times.
After 1910 an ever-increasing quantity of cotton had to be exported.
The quantity of raw materials which Austria had been in the habit of importing from abroad, and the quantity stored in the country at the outbreak of the war, were comparatively very small.