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quantitative

Definite economic problems can very rarely be dealt with by merely quantitative methods.

6338Definite economic problems can very rarely be dealt with by merely quantitative methods.

6339The elementary use of graphic methods is qualitative rather than quantitative; i.e.

4540Lavoisier may be justly regarded as the founder of modern or quantitative chemistry.

3729The researches of Julius Thomsen and others have shown that in many cases definite conclusions regarding constitution can be drawn from quantitative measurements of the heats of combustion; and in this article a summary of the chief results will be given.

2826The conclusion that each element had a definite atomic weight, peculiar to it, was the new idea that made his speculations fruitful, because it allowed of quantitative deduction and verification.

2830Lavoisier was the first investigator to study fermentation from a quantitative standpoint.

2325Richter contributed to the knowledge of the quantitative composition of salts.

2220It may be surmised that the quantitative measures of most physical properties will be found to be connected with the chemical nature of substances.

2021it must remain constant for the same substance at any temperature and in any form) that quantitative relations between refractivity and chemical composition can be derived.

2023For the quantitative determination of cobalt, it is either weighed as the oxide, C0304, obtained by ignition of the precipitated monoxide, or it is reduced in a current of hydrogen and weighed as metal.

2024In connexion with the problem of universals, he held that the diversity of individuals depends on the quantitative division of matter (materia signata), and in this way he attracted the criticism of the Scotists, who pointed out that this very matter is individual and determinate, and, therefore, itself requires explanation.

2024Fleming, " A Note on a Form of Magnetic Detector for Hertzian Waves adapted for Quantitative Work," Proc. Roy.

2024The principal object of this more recent research has been the determination of the quantitative amount of chemical change associated with the passage for a given time of a current of strength known in electromagnetic units.

1720The principal object of this more recent research has been the determination of the quantitative amount of chemical change associated with the passage for a given time of a current of strength known in electromagnetic units.

1720In quantitative estimations it is generally weighed as oxide, after precipitation as sulphide or carbonate, or in the metallic form, reduced as above.

1619The first exact quantitative study of electrolytic phenomena was made about 1830 by Michael Faraday (Experimental Researches, 1833).

1516The methods of chemical analysis may be classified according to the type of reaction: (I) dry or blowpipe analysis, which consists in an examination of the substance in the dry condition; this includes such tests as ignition in a tube, ignition on charcoal in the blowpipe flame, fusion with borax, microcosmic salt or fluxes, and flame colorations (in quantitative work the dry methods are sometimes termed " dry assaying "); (2) wet analysis, in which a solution of the substance is treated with reagents which produce specific reactions when certain elements or groups of elements are present.

1417The methods of chemical analysis may be classified according to the type of reaction: (I) dry or blowpipe analysis, which consists in an examination of the substance in the dry condition; this includes such tests as ignition in a tube, ignition on charcoal in the blowpipe flame, fusion with borax, microcosmic salt or fluxes, and flame colorations (in quantitative work the dry methods are sometimes termed " dry assaying "); (2) wet analysis, in which a solution of the substance is treated with reagents which produce specific reactions when certain elements or groups of elements are present.

1417An exact and conscientious worker, he did much to improve and systematize the processes of analytical chemistry and mineralogy, and his appreciation of the value of quantitative methods led him to become one of the earliest adherents of the Lavoisierian doctrines outside France.

1418By his insistence upon the use of the balance as a quantitative check upon the masses involved in all chemical reactions, Lavoisier was enabled to establish by his own investigations and the results achieved by others the principle now known as the " conservation of mass."

1418Such a determination is qualitative, the constituent being only detected or proved to be present, or quantitative, in which the amount present is ascertained.

1315This section treats of the qualitative detection and separation of the metals, and the commoner methods employed in quantitative analysis.

1317Cohn (Quantitative, 1903); F.

1215Since then the subject has been extensively studied, more particularly by Alexander Classen, who has summarized the methods and results in his Quantitative Chemical Analysis by Electrolysis (1903).

1114Quantitative methods are divided into four groups, which we now pass on to consider in the following sequence: (a) gravimetric, (0) volumetric, (7) electrolytic, (5) colorimetric.

1114The most important subjects of his inquiries are enumerated by Forbes under the following five heads: - (1) The laws of polarization by reflection and refraction, and other quantitative laws of phenomena; (2) The discovery of the polarizing structure induced by heat and pressure; (3) The discovery of crystals with two axes of double refraction, and many of the laws of their phenomena, including the connexion of optical structure and crystalline forms; (4) The laws of metallic reflection; (5) Experiments on the absorption of light.

1013In quantitative analysis the methods can be subdivided into: (a) gravimetric, in which the constituent is precipitated either as a definite insoluble compound by the addition of certain reagents, or electrolytically, by the passage of an electric current; (b) volumetric, in which the volume of a reagent of a known strength which produces a certain definite reaction is measured; (c) colorimetric, in which the solution has a particular tint, which can be compared with solutions of known strengths.

1013Fresenius, Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis, Eng.

1013" The variety of individuals," says Albert, " depends entirely upon the division of matter," and Aquinas says the principle of the diversity of individuals of the same species is the quantitative division of matter," which his followers render by the abbreviated phrase materia quanta.

1013In quantitative analysis the methods can be subdivided into: (a) gravimetric, in which the constituent is precipitated either as a definite insoluble compound by the addition of certain reagents, or electrolytically, by the passage of an electric current; (b) volumetric, in which the volume of a reagent of a known strength which produces a certain definite reaction is measured; (c) colorimetric, in which the solution has a particular tint, which can be compared with solutions of known strengths.

1013Owing to the difficulty of determining the magnetization I and the susceptibility K with accuracy, it has not yet been possible to submit this formula to a quantitative test, but it is said to afford an indication of the results given by actual experiment.

912It has been the habit of biologists to use the terms variation, selection, elimination, correlation and so forth, vaguely; the new school, which has been strongly reinforced from the side of physical science, insists on quantitative measurements of the terms. When the anatomist says that one race is characterized by long heads, another by round heads, the biometricist demands numbers and percentages.

915His text-books on the subject, of which the Qualitative appeared in 1841, and the Quantitative in 1846, have a world-wide reputation, and have passed through several editions.

811We shall here consider the qualitative and quantitative determination of these elements.

811Lavoisier, and the quantitative by N.

811The problem is a very difficult one and cannot be regarded as definitely settled, but it is difficult to understand why all this additional complexity in the division of the nucleus should be necessary if the final result is only a quantitative separation of the chromatin.

812It is part of the general theory of quantitative relation, and in its elementary stages is a suitable subject for graphical treatment (ï¿½ 31).

812He emphasized that the practical training should include (1) the qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures, (2) the preparation of substances according to established methods, (3) original research - a course which has been generally adopted.

710No quantitative determination of the amount of gold in solution is available.

711The thermal G G detectors are especially useful for the purpose of quantitative measurements, because they indicate the true effective or square root of mean square value of the current or train of oscillations passing through the hot wire.

713his version of the methodological assumption of constancy in the quantitative aspects of phenomena, seems a very unsuitable basis for a philosophy of progress.

713It is in the adaptation of biological conceptions and methods, in the positive contributions of jurisprudence, law and history, in the rigorous application, where possible, of quantitative tests, that the explanation of the present position of economics is to be found.

611It is in the adaptation of biological conceptions and methods, in the positive contributions of jurisprudence, law and history, in the rigorous application, where possible, of quantitative tests, that the explanation of the present position of economics is to be found.

611Quantitative Inorganic Analysis.

510A tolerably evident shortcoming of such a doctrine is that, while declaring the quantitative determination of matter to be the individual element in the individual, it gives no account of how such quantitative determination arises.

510Quantitative Inorganic Analysis.

510Combustion is a familiar example of the transformation of chemical energy into heat and light; the quantitative measures of heat evolution or absorption (heat of combustion or combination), and the deductions therefrom, are treated in the article Thermochemistry.

511It is clear, however, that an equal quantitative division and distribution of the chromatin to the daughter cells is brought about; and if, as has been suggested, the chromatin consists of minute particles or units which are the carriers of the hereditary characteristics, the nuclear division also probably results in the equal division and distribution of one half of each of these units to each daughter cell.

512Since the earliest quantitative analyses of sea-water were made by Lavoisier in 1772, Bergman in 177 4, Vogel in 1813 and Marcet in 1819 the view has been held that the salts are present in sea-water in the form in which they are deposited when the water is evaporated.

48Schott gives the following as the result of measurements of transparency by means of a white disk at 23 stations in the open ocean, where quantitative observations of the plankton under i square metre of surface were made at the same time.

49The quantitative precipitation of metals by the electric current, although known to Michael Faraday, was not applied to analytical chemistry until O.

39Julian, Textbook of Quantitative Chemical Analysis (1904); A.

29Since molecular refractions are independent of temperature and of the state of aggregation, it follows that molecular dispersions must be also independent of these conditions; and hence quantitative measurements should give an indication as to the chemical composition of substances.

210Taylor Jones showed in 1897 that only a small proportion of the contraction exhibited by a nickel wire when magnetized could be accounted for on Kirchhoff's theory from the observed effects of pulling stress upon magnetization; and in a more extended series of observations Nagaoka and Honda found wide quantitative divergences between the results of experiment and calculation, though in nearly all cases there was agreement as to quality.

17Bromine oxidizes it to nitric acid, but the reaction is not quantitative.

00C. Gooch, which has come into common use in quantitative analysis where the solid matter has to be submitted to heating or ignition, consists of a crucible having a perforated bottom.

00From the first he appreciated the importance of accurate measurement, and all through his life the attainment of exact quantitative data was one of his chief considerations.

00In 1840 he ', as thus enabled to give a quantitative statement of the law acc s rding to which heat is produced in a conductor by the pas ageof an electric current, and in succeeding years he publish d a series of valuable researches on the agency of electricity in ansformations of energy.

00de Saussure (1767-1845) gave precision to the science of plant-nutrition by use of quantitative methods.

00The evidence for this view, that all these agencies are at bottom connected together and parts of the same scheme, was enormously strengthened during the latter half of the 19th century by the development of a relation of simple quantitative equivalence between them; it has been found that we can define quantities relating to them, under the names of mechanical energy, electric energy, thermal energy, and so on, so that when one of them disappears, it is replaced by the others to exactly equal amount.

00Aristotle's critics hardly realize that for the rest of his life he had to live and to struggle with a formal and a mathematical Platonism, which exaggerated first universals and attributes and afterwards the quantitative attributes, one and many, into substantial things and real causes.

00" Every name," says he (chap. 4), " signifies either substance or something quantitative, or qualitative, or relative, or somewhere, or sometimes, or that it is in a position, or in a condition, or active or passive."

00Mathematical Philosophy, about quantitative things in the abstract.

00In his widely used method for the quantitative determination of carbonic acid the gaseous mixture is shaken up with baryta or lime water of known strength and the change in alkalinity ascertained by means of oxalic acid.

00The same reaction is made use of in the quantitative determination of magnesium, the white precipitate of magnesium ammonium phosphate being converted by ignition into magnesium pyrophosphate and weighed as such.

00According to Proclus an angle must be either a quality or a quantity, or a relationship. The first concept was utilized by Eudemus, who regarded an angle as a deviation from a straight line; the second by Carpus of Antioch, who regarded it as the interval or space between the intersecting lines; Euclid adopted the third concept, although his definitions of right, acute, and obtuse angles are certainly quantitative.

00For the quantitative study of such systems in detail it is convenient to draw plane diagrams which are theoretically projections of the curves of the solid phase rule diagram on one or other of these planes.

00The ideas of the quantitative aspects of phenomena are exact representations of these aspects or quantitative impressions; consequently, whatever is found true by consideration of the ideas may be asserted regarding the real impressions.

00Just as the melting-point changes with pressure, the transition-point also changes; even the same quantitative relation holds for both, as L.

00The quantitative estimate of the amount of this flora has revealed its enormous aggregate amount and therefore its great importance in the economy of oceanic and lacustrine animal life.

00Another quantitative test for soundness is that formulated by L.

00The chloroplatinate serves for the quantitative estimation.

00Several methods are employed for the quantitative estimation of urea.

00A little later this same knowledge led him to the beginnings of quantitative organic analysis.

00Up to about this time Lavoisier's work, mainly quantitative in character, had appealed most strongly to physicists, but it now began to win conviction from chemists also.

00And in this way we pass on to the quantitative aspects of being.

00For the quantitative determination of the metal, the salts are precipitated by caustic potash, the precipitate washed, dried and heated, and finally weighed as the dioxide.

00In accordance with the recommendations of the Hemp Drugs Commission, the government of India passed an act in 1896 providing that, in regard to ganja and charas, cultivation of the plants should be restricted as much as possible, and that a direct quantitative duty should be levied on the drugs on issue from the warehouse in the province of consumption; while as regards bhang, cultivation of the hemp for its production should be prohibited or taxed, and collection of the drug from wild plants permitted only under licence, a moderate quantitative duty being levied in addition to vend fees.

00Ptolemy's classification has been adopted as the basis of the more exactly quantitative modern system.

00In quantitative judgments we may think x = y, or, as Boolero oses x = v ° p p y = - ° y, or, as Jevons proposes, x = xy, or, as Venn proposes, x which is not y=o; and equational symbolic logic is useful whenever we think in this quantitative way.

00The symbolic logic, which confuses " is " with " is equal to," having introduced a particular kind of predicate into the copula, falls into the mistake of reducing all predication to the one category of the quantitative; whereas it is more often in the substantial, e.g.

00The third registers its quantitative variation according to quantitative changes in its concomitants.

00Numerous salts of the acid are known, the basic ferric salt being occasionally used in quantitative analysis for the separation of iron from aluminium.

00The third covers the period between 1831 and Clerk Maxwell's enunciation of the electromagnetic theory of light in 1865 and the invention of the self-exciting dynamo, which marks another great epoch in the development of the subject; and the fourth comprises the modern development of electric theory and of absolute quantitative measurements, and above all, of the applications of this knowledge in electrical engineering.

00The accuracy of his measurement, by which he established within 2% the above law, was only limited by the sensibility, or rather insensibility, of the pith ball electrometer, which was his only means of detecting the electric charge.2 In the accuracy of his quantitative measurements and the range of his researches and his combination of mathematical and physical knowledge, Cavendish may not inaptly be described as the Kelvin of the 18th century.

00Coulomb (1736-1806), who in France addressed himself to the same kind of exact quantitative work as Cavendish in England.

00Faraday's ideas thus pressed upon electricians the necessity for the quantitative measurement of electrical phenomena.'

00Lenz (1804-1865), 1 Amongst the most important of Faraday's quantitative researches must be included the ingenious and convincing proofs he provided that the production of any quantity of electricity of one sign is always accompanied by the production of an equal quantity of electricity of the opposite sign.

002 The quantitative study of electrical phenomena has been enormously assisted by the establishment of the absolute system of electrical measurement due originally to Gauss and Weber.

00As regards the latent process (latens processes) which goes on in all cases of generation and continuous development or motion, we examine carefully, and by quantitative measurements, the gradual growth and change from the first elements to the completed thing.

00For the quantitative estimation, see Assaying: Copper.

00In consequence of the quantitative analyses he performed of a large number of salts, he has been credited with the discovery of the law of neutralization (Vorlesungen fiber die chemische Verwandtschaft der Korper, 1777).

00Where, as in some parts of northern Germany, the potato is grown for the purpose of manufacturing spirit great attention is necessarily paid to the quantitative analysis of the starchy and saccharine matters, which are found to vary much in particular varieties, irrespective of the conditions under which they are grown.

00In a restricted sense the term assaying is applied in metallurgy to the determination of the amount of gold or silver in ores or alloys; in this article, however, it will be used in a wider technical signification, and will include a description of the methods for the quantitative determination of those elements in ores which affect their value in metallurgical operations.

00For their quantitative determination they are precipitated in nitric acid solution by means of silver nitrate, and the silver bromide well washed, dried and weighed.

00This is the quantitative aspect of number.

00The development from the name-series to the quantitative conception is aided by the numbering of material objects and the performance of elementary processes of comparison, addition, &c., with them.

00It is possible, and (not so much for any application thereof as in order to more fully establish the analogy between the two kinds of co-ordinates) important, to give independent quantitative definitions of the two kinds of co-ordinates; but we may also derive the notion of line-co-ordinates from that of point-coordinates; viz.

00But it may be doubted whether De Morgan's own system, "horrent with mysterious spiculae," as Hamilton aptly described it, is fitted to exhibit the real analogy between quantitative and qualitative reasoning, which is rather to be sought in the logical works of Boole.

00The term "gas analysis" is given to that branch of analytical chemistry which has for its object the quantitative determination of the components of a gaseous mixture.

00For the quantitative estimation see Assaying.

00This is Spinoza's theory of the infinitely infinite," the limiting notion of infinity being of a numerical, quantitative series, each term of which is a qualitative determination itself quantitatively little, e.g.

00In ancient classic poetry the measure which creates the metrical form consists only of this last quantitative element, which is rhythm.

00But Reinsch's test cannot be used satisfactorily for a quantitative determination, nor can it be used in the presence of chlorates or nitrates.

00(3) All quantitative conceptions are excluded, for quantity implies parts, and these are incompatible with simplicity.

00He also devised a method of great value in the quantitative analysis of organic substances for the estimation of nitrogen, while the classification, of organic compounds into homologous series was advanced as one consequence of his researches into the acids generated by the oxidation of the alcohols.

00The modern methods of oil testing rest chiefly on so-called "quantitative" reactions, a number of characteristic "values" being determined which, being based on the special nature of the fatty acids contained in each individual oil or fat, assist in identifying them and also in revealing adulteration.

00It is true that many of these animals react somewhat differently to drugs, both as regards each other and as regards man, but for the most part the differences are quantitative rather than qualitative.

00quantitative constructions, must be true of the objects making up our sense-experience.

00Under the mathematical principles come the general rules which furnish the ground for the application of quantitative reasoning to real facts of experience.

00In an analysis course you will learn how to perform simple quantitative analyses.

00However, there is an even sharper color change which is used in quantitative analysis.

00Most did not provide quantitative data so the reports remain anecdotal.

00anticonvulsants for diabetic neuropathy and postherpetic neuralgia: a quantitative systematic review.

00While linear methods have proven invaluable over many years in generating first-order approximations, they are severely limited in both qualitative and quantitative predictions.

00Technology & Instrumentation Development Enabling technologies represent the major driving force for quantitative bioscience.

00The copy numbers of these Che proteins were accurately determined by quantitative western blot.

00Centaurus c. Republicans by pressing rare quantitative experiment also verified the.

00The framework can be easily used for quantitative comparison of texture classification algorithms.

00This seminar starts from a purely quantitative concept of lexical collocation.

00In each case the crystal is shown within the same size box to enable quantitative comparison of the effect.

00Qualitative research approaches are considered as complementary to, and not in competition with, quantitative approaches.

00Method would generate an inadequate range of useful quantitative data and there are considerable concerns about reliability.

00disparate with respect to dosing regimes, number of attacks studied and outcome measures precluding pooling of data for quantitative analysis.

00These terms are frequently equated with the statistical terms " quantitative " and " qualitative " .

00quantitative estimation of rare adverse events which follow a biological progression: a new model applied to chronic NSAID use.

00graduates with degrees in physical sciences who wish to apply their quantitative skills to environmental problems.

00Frequently miscarriages are monitored with quantitative blood HCG testing.

00inheritance of quantitative traits.

00Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas) for quantitative estimation of hidden chromosome instability.

00locusaddition to the search for quantitative trait loci, some major genes were also studied.

00locusaddition to the search for quantitative trait loci, some major genes were also studied.

00Dr. Adam specializes in applied quantitative macroeconomics of Africa.

00This barrage of quantitative performance indicators makes the whole educational process measurable, calculable.

00This software was written to provide a platform for quantitative measurement in medical imaging.

00Information about poverty has typically been gathered by quantitative rather than qualitative methods and is on a national level rather than local.

00Also quantitative methods to describe particle shape etc. by image analysis have been developed.

00methodologyInterests The meshing of qualitative and quantitative methodologies in health services research.

00Footnotes An equivalent technique for mapping a quantitative metric to a utility scale is described in [5] .

00injected morphine in postoperative pain: a quantitative systematic review.

00Speakers Dr. Richard Adams (Physiology, Development and Neuroscience) Toward a quantitative description of developmental morphogenesis.

00It relies more on interpretation than on the apparent objectivity conveyed by the quantitative methods.

00The journal will publish peer-reviewed, original papers representing a variety of quantitative and qualitative research methods.

00A standard plane polariscope shows both isochromatic and isoclinic fringes, and this makes quantitative stress analysis difficult.

00We will assess these transcripts using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (TaqMan Q-PCR ).

00qualitative as a quantitative matter.

00Will the trial include qualitative as well as quantitative elements?

00Quantitative data qualitative data Based on meanings derived from numbers.

00The nature of the research methodology, as primarily qualitative, raises different issues from those appropriate to a quantitative study.

00The new study will try to apply participatory techniques to obtain more quantitative as well as these largely qualitative indicators of impact.

00quantitative in nature, drawn from secondary sources.

00This project is to develop the theory and make the effect quantitative.

00quantitative trait loci or QTL.

00quantitative analysis.

00quantitative methods worth 50 per cent.

00quantitative genetics of Brassica spp.

00quantitative methodologies.

00quantitative traits.

00Moreover, all the tools of automation subtly invite our attention ever more one-sidedly to the purely quantitative side of things.

00The emphasis here will be primarily quantitative in nature, drawn from secondary sources.

00Not only quantitative knowledge is important in this respect.

00The results of the focus group will usually be qualitative in nature and not quantitative.

00See also quantitative quantitative that can be measured or assessed using numbers.

00The measures can be either quantitative or qualitative, or a mixture of both.

00She told the travel channel pioneered of the season next performed quantitative.

00As the technique becomes increasingly quantitative it promises to deliver real insight into the nature of chemical change.

00Banding together in that a percent we provide quantitative.

00This puts almost irresistible pressure on markers to use quantitative marking schemes.

00This technique, if made quantitative, is able to fulfill these requirements by the SIA.

00quantitative analysis of the system.

00quantitative analysiswill learn how to perform simple quantitative analyzes.

00radiolabel studies using [14 C]linezolid show that the total recovery of drug-related radioactivity is near quantitative in 48h.

00The present skill of the model does not allow a quantitative forecast of the monsoon rainfall over India.

00The analysis of Al based alloys by calorimetry: Quantitative analysis of reactions and reaction kinetics Review paper by M.J. Starink Int.

00The proposals made here are intended equally to help those who are interested in quantitative research and those who are interested in qualitative research.

00Patients were further subdivided into those with or without elevated quantitative serum Chlamydia trachomatis IgG antibody (Ab) titres.

00similarityon emphasizes the similarities between quantitative and qualitative approaches and their joint value in reconstructing the past.

00It has been claimed that ' computer use in qualitative sociology is advancing faster than in quantitative research ' (Hinze 1987 ).

00substantiated by quantitative data.

00substantiated by quantitative data.

00Role of H-bonds and their quantitative contributions (e.g. tyr t-RNA synthetase ).

00up-to-date coverage of the main elements of sociology and social research, both quantitative and qualitative.

00The mouse vas deferens turned out to be an extremely sensitive quantitative assay for CB1 agonists.

00The mouse vas deferens turned out to be an extremely sensitive quantitative assay for CB1 agonists.

00Dalton (1803) gave the atomic theory a quantitative form, and showed that, by means of it, a vast number of the facts of chemistry could be predicted or explained.

00He thus arrived at the conception of a definite atomic weight peculiar to the particles of each gas, and he thought that he could determine these atomic weights, in terms of one of them, by means of the quantitative analysis of compounds.

00The conclusion that each element had a definite atomic weight, peculiar to it, was the new idea that made his speculations fruitful, because it allowed of quantitative deduction and verification.

00For the quantitative determination of cobalt, it is either weighed as the oxide, C0304, obtained by ignition of the precipitated monoxide, or it is reduced in a current of hydrogen and weighed as metal.

00For the quantitative separation of cobalt and nickel, see E.

00Lavoisier was the first investigator to study fermentation from a quantitative standpoint.

00The addition of sharp points was a step in advance; but the method hardly became a quantitative one until the sharp points were replaced by a flame (fuse, gas, lamp), or by a liquid jet breaking into drops.

00In connexion with the problem of universals, he held that the diversity of individuals depends on the quantitative division of matter (materia signata), and in this way he attracted the criticism of the Scotists, who pointed out that this very matter is individual and determinate, and, therefore, itself requires explanation.

00His data for the thermal conductivity of various metals were for long the most trustworthy at the disposal of physicists, and his determination of the ohm in terms of the specific resistance of mercury showed remarkable skill in quantitative research.

00Fleming, " A Note on a Form of Magnetic Detector for Hertzian Waves adapted for Quantitative Work," Proc. Roy.

00The thermal G G detectors are especially useful for the purpose of quantitative measurements, because they indicate the true effective or square root of mean square value of the current or train of oscillations passing through the hot wire.

00This has been achieved by employing a microphone transmitter at the sending end to vary the amplitude but not the wave-length of the emitted waves, and at the receiving end using an electrolytic receiver, which proves to be not merely a qualitative but also a quantitative instrument, to make these variations audible on a telephone.

00Some of the impression of paradox here is due to Anselm's treating the Absolute simply as one among many other beings, and to his treating existence simply as one element in the quantitative sum of perfections.

00Still, Descartes has marked idealist traits, as when he refurbishes the ontological argument with clearer emphasis on the perfect being as " necessarily " existent 5 - reasoning a shade less quantitative or a shade more subtle than Anselm's.

00It has been the habit of biologists to use the terms variation, selection, elimination, correlation and so forth, vaguely; the new school, which has been strongly reinforced from the side of physical science, insists on quantitative measurements of the terms. When the anatomist says that one race is characterized by long heads, another by round heads, the biometricist demands numbers and percentages.

00An exact and conscientious worker, he did much to improve and systematize the processes of analytical chemistry and mineralogy, and his appreciation of the value of quantitative methods led him to become one of the earliest adherents of the Lavoisierian doctrines outside France.

00The education for this examination has kept pace with the rapid advances of science, all the following subjects now receiving attention: the microscopical structure of plants and drugs, so as to detect adulterations and impurities in powdered drugs; organic and quantitative analysis, including those of food and drugs, water, soils, gas and urine; optics, so as to enable them to carry out the prescriptions of oculists; spectrum analysis; the use of the polariscope and refractometer; the method of applying RÃ¶ntgen rays; the preparation of glandular secretions and antitoxins; and the chemistry of remedies for the fungoid diseases and insect pests of plants.

00It is clear, however, that an equal quantitative division and distribution of the chromatin to the daughter cells is brought about; and if, as has been suggested, the chromatin consists of minute particles or units which are the carriers of the hereditary characteristics, the nuclear division also probably results in the equal division and distribution of one half of each of these units to each daughter cell.

00The problem is a very difficult one and cannot be regarded as definitely settled, but it is difficult to understand why all this additional complexity in the division of the nucleus should be necessary if the final result is only a quantitative separation of the chromatin.

00Various methods have been devised for the quantitative determination of phenol.

00Apart from his administrative duties Fresenius occupied himself almost exclusively with analytical chemistry, and the fullness and accuracy of his text-books on that subject (of which that on qualitative analysis first appeared in 1841 and that on quantitative in 1846) soon rendered them standard works.

00Their quantitative experiments were, however, too rough to permit of accurate generalization; and although Lavoisier and Laplace stated the principle that the same amount of heat must be supplied to decompose a compound as would be produced on its formation, the statement was not based on exact experiment, and only received experimental confirmation much later.

00The most important subjects of his inquiries are enumerated by Forbes under the following five heads: - (1) The laws of polarization by reflection and refraction, and other quantitative laws of phenomena; (2) The discovery of the polarizing structure induced by heat and pressure; (3) The discovery of crystals with two axes of double refraction, and many of the laws of their phenomena, including the connexion of optical structure and crystalline forms; (4) The laws of metallic reflection; (5) Experiments on the absorption of light.

00Every improvement involves, from a quantitative point of view, more or less of capital or of labour, so that it is the " antagonizing " influences, which are nearly all qualitative, which appear to be really important.

00This section treats of the qualitative detection and separation of the metals, and the commoner methods employed in quantitative analysis.

00Lavoisier may be justly regarded as the founder of modern or quantitative chemistry.

00By his insistence upon the use of the balance as a quantitative check upon the masses involved in all chemical reactions, Lavoisier was enabled to establish by his own investigations and the results achieved by others the principle now known as the " conservation of mass."

00He emphasized that the practical training should include (1) the qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures, (2) the preparation of substances according to established methods, (3) original research - a course which has been generally adopted.

00Such a determination is qualitative, the constituent being only detected or proved to be present, or quantitative, in which the amount present is ascertained.

00Quantitative chemistry had been all but neglected before the time of Lavoisier, for although a few chemists such as Tachenius, Bergman and others had realized the advantages which would accrue from a knowledge of the composition of N N N bodies by weight, and had laid down the lines upon which such determinations should proceed, the experimental difficulties in making accurate observations were enormous, and little progress could be made until the procedure was more accurately determined.

00Richter contributed to the knowledge of the quantitative composition of salts.

00The formulation of the atomic theory by John Dalton gave a fresh impetus to the development of quantitative analysis; and the determination of combining or equivalent weights by Berzelius led to the perfecting of the methods of gravimetric analysis.

00His text-books on the subject, of which the Qualitative appeared in 1841, and the Quantitative in 1846, have a world-wide reputation, and have passed through several editions.

00The quantitative precipitation of metals by the electric current, although known to Michael Faraday, was not applied to analytical chemistry until O.

00Since then the subject has been extensively studied, more particularly by Alexander Classen, who has summarized the methods and results in his Quantitative Chemical Analysis by Electrolysis (1903).

00Quantitative methods are divided into four groups, which we now pass on to consider in the following sequence: (a) gravimetric, (0) volumetric, (7) electrolytic, (5) colorimetric.

00We shall here consider the qualitative and quantitative determination of these elements.

00It may be surmised that the quantitative measures of most physical properties will be found to be connected with the chemical nature of substances.

00Another branch of physical chemistry has for its purpose the quantitative study of chemical action, a subject which has brought out in clear detail the analogies of chemical and physical equilibrium (see Chemical Action).

00Combustion is a familiar example of the transformation of chemical energy into heat and light; the quantitative measures of heat evolution or absorption (heat of combustion or combination), and the deductions therefrom, are treated in the article Thermochemistry.

00The researches of Julius Thomsen and others have shown that in many cases definite conclusions regarding constitution can be drawn from quantitative measurements of the heats of combustion; and in this article a summary of the chief results will be given.

00it must remain constant for the same substance at any temperature and in any form) that quantitative relations between refractivity and chemical composition can be derived.

00Since molecular refractions are independent of temperature and of the state of aggregation, it follows that molecular dispersions must be also independent of these conditions; and hence quantitative measurements should give an indication as to the chemical composition of substances.

00Fresenius, Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis, Eng.

00Cohn (Quantitative, 1903); F.

00Julian, Textbook of Quantitative Chemical Analysis (1904); A.

00Bromine oxidizes it to nitric acid, but the reaction is not quantitative.

00The first exact quantitative study of electrolytic phenomena was made about 1830 by Michael Faraday (Experimental Researches, 1833).

00Taylor Jones showed in 1897 that only a small proportion of the contraction exhibited by a nickel wire when magnetized could be accounted for on Kirchhoff's theory from the observed effects of pulling stress upon magnetization; and in a more extended series of observations Nagaoka and Honda found wide quantitative divergences between the results of experiment and calculation, though in nearly all cases there was agreement as to quality.

00Owing to the difficulty of determining the magnetization I and the susceptibility K with accuracy, it has not yet been possible to submit this formula to a quantitative test, but it is said to afford an indication of the results given by actual experiment.

00" The variety of individuals," says Albert, " depends entirely upon the division of matter," and Aquinas says the principle of the diversity of individuals of the same species is the quantitative division of matter," which his followers render by the abbreviated phrase materia quanta.

00A tolerably evident shortcoming of such a doctrine is that, while declaring the quantitative determination of matter to be the individual element in the individual, it gives no account of how such quantitative determination arises.

00It is part of the general theory of quantitative relation, and in its elementary stages is a suitable subject for graphical treatment (Ã¯¿½ 31).

00The elementary use of graphic methods is qualitative rather than quantitative; i.e.

00his version of the methodological assumption of constancy in the quantitative aspects of phenomena, seems a very unsuitable basis for a philosophy of progress.

00Lavoisier, and the quantitative by N.

00In quantitative estimations it is generally weighed as oxide, after precipitation as sulphide or carbonate, or in the metallic form, reduced as above.

00No quantitative determination of the amount of gold in solution is available.

00Since the earliest quantitative analyses of sea-water were made by Lavoisier in 1772, Bergman in 177 4, Vogel in 1813 and Marcet in 1819 the view has been held that the salts are present in sea-water in the form in which they are deposited when the water is evaporated.

00Schott gives the following as the result of measurements of transparency by means of a white disk at 23 stations in the open ocean, where quantitative observations of the plankton under i square metre of surface were made at the same time.

00There is no logical principle which requires that we should derive qualitative change by logical analysis from quantitative difference.

00C. Gooch, which has come into common use in quantitative analysis where the solid matter has to be submitted to heating or ignition, consists of a crucible having a perforated bottom.

00From the first he appreciated the importance of accurate measurement, and all through his life the attainment of exact quantitative data was one of his chief considerations.

00In 1840 he ', as thus enabled to give a quantitative statement of the law acc s rding to which heat is produced in a conductor by the pas ageof an electric current, and in succeeding years he publish d a series of valuable researches on the agency of electricity in ansformations of energy.

00de Saussure (1767-1845) gave precision to the science of plant-nutrition by use of quantitative methods.

00The disciples of Newton maintained that in the fact of the mutual gravitation of the heavenly bodies, according to Newton's law, they had a complete quantitative account of their motions; and they endeavoured to follow out the path which Newton had opened up by investigating and measuring the attractions and repulsions of electrified and magnetic bodies, and the cohesive forces in the interior of bodies, without attempting to account for these forces.

00The evidence for this view, that all these agencies are at bottom connected together and parts of the same scheme, was enormously strengthened during the latter half of the 19th century by the development of a relation of simple quantitative equivalence between them; it has been found that we can define quantities relating to them, under the names of mechanical energy, electric energy, thermal energy, and so on, so that when one of them disappears, it is replaced by the others to exactly equal amount.

00Aristotle's critics hardly realize that for the rest of his life he had to live and to struggle with a formal and a mathematical Platonism, which exaggerated first universals and attributes and afterwards the quantitative attributes, one and many, into substantial things and real causes.

00" Every name," says he (chap. 4), " signifies either substance or something quantitative, or qualitative, or relative, or somewhere, or sometimes, or that it is in a position, or in a condition, or active or passive."

00According Lo both, it is always some substance, such as Socrates, which is quantitative, qualitative, relative, somewhere, some time, placed, conditioned, active, passive; so that all things in all other categories are attributes which are belongings of substances.

00Mathematical Philosophy, about quantitative things in the abstract.

00In his widely used method for the quantitative determination of carbonic acid the gaseous mixture is shaken up with baryta or lime water of known strength and the change in alkalinity ascertained by means of oxalic acid.

00The same reaction is made use of in the quantitative determination of magnesium, the white precipitate of magnesium ammonium phosphate being converted by ignition into magnesium pyrophosphate and weighed as such.

00According to Proclus an angle must be either a quality or a quantity, or a relationship. The first concept was utilized by Eudemus, who regarded an angle as a deviation from a straight line; the second by Carpus of Antioch, who regarded it as the interval or space between the intersecting lines; Euclid adopted the third concept, although his definitions of right, acute, and obtuse angles are certainly quantitative.

00For the quantitative study of such systems in detail it is convenient to draw plane diagrams which are theoretically projections of the curves of the solid phase rule diagram on one or other of these planes.

00On warming this with copper powder, it gives a quantitative yield of nitrobenzene (A.

00Hydrogen peroxide finds application as a bleaching agent, as an antiseptic, for the removal of the last traces of chlorine and sulphur dioxide employed in bleaching, and for various quantitative separations in analytical chemistry (P. Jannasch, Ber., 1893, 26, p. 2908).

00The ideas of the quantitative aspects of phenomena are exact representations of these aspects or quantitative impressions; consequently, whatever is found true by consideration of the ideas may be asserted regarding the real impressions.

00Just as the melting-point changes with pressure, the transition-point also changes; even the same quantitative relation holds for both, as L.

00The quantitative estimate of the amount of this flora has revealed its enormous aggregate amount and therefore its great importance in the economy of oceanic and lacustrine animal life.

00Another quantitative test for soundness is that formulated by L.

00The chloroplatinate serves for the quantitative estimation.

00Several methods are employed for the quantitative estimation of urea.

00A little later this same knowledge led him to the beginnings of quantitative organic analysis.

00Up to about this time Lavoisier's work, mainly quantitative in character, had appealed most strongly to physicists, but it now began to win conviction from chemists also.

00And in this way we pass on to the quantitative aspects of being.

00For the quantitative determination of the metal, the salts are precipitated by caustic potash, the precipitate washed, dried and heated, and finally weighed as the dioxide.

00In accordance with the recommendations of the Hemp Drugs Commission, the government of India passed an act in 1896 providing that, in regard to ganja and charas, cultivation of the plants should be restricted as much as possible, and that a direct quantitative duty should be levied on the drugs on issue from the warehouse in the province of consumption; while as regards bhang, cultivation of the hemp for its production should be prohibited or taxed, and collection of the drug from wild plants permitted only under licence, a moderate quantitative duty being levied in addition to vend fees.

00Ptolemy's classification has been adopted as the basis of the more exactly quantitative modern system.

00In quantitative judgments we may think x = y, or, as Boolero oses x = v Ã‚° p p y = - Ã‚° y, or, as Jevons proposes, x = xy, or, as Venn proposes, x which is not y=o; and equational symbolic logic is useful whenever we think in this quantitative way.

00The symbolic logic, which confuses " is " with " is equal to," having introduced a particular kind of predicate into the copula, falls into the mistake of reducing all predication to the one category of the quantitative; whereas it is more often in the substantial, e.g.

00The third registers its quantitative variation according to quantitative changes in its concomitants.

00Numerous salts of the acid are known, the basic ferric salt being occasionally used in quantitative analysis for the separation of iron from aluminium.

00The third covers the period between 1831 and Clerk Maxwell's enunciation of the electromagnetic theory of light in 1865 and the invention of the self-exciting dynamo, which marks another great epoch in the development of the subject; and the fourth comprises the modern development of electric theory and of absolute quantitative measurements, and above all, of the applications of this knowledge in electrical engineering.

00The accuracy of his measurement, by which he established within 2% the above law, was only limited by the sensibility, or rather insensibility, of the pith ball electrometer, which was his only means of detecting the electric charge.2 In the accuracy of his quantitative measurements and the range of his researches and his combination of mathematical and physical knowledge, Cavendish may not inaptly be described as the Kelvin of the 18th century.

00Coulomb (1736-1806), who in France addressed himself to the same kind of exact quantitative work as Cavendish in England.

00Faraday's ideas thus pressed upon electricians the necessity for the quantitative measurement of electrical phenomena.'

00Lenz (1804-1865), 1 Amongst the most important of Faraday's quantitative researches must be included the ingenious and convincing proofs he provided that the production of any quantity of electricity of one sign is always accompanied by the production of an equal quantity of electricity of the opposite sign.

002 The quantitative study of electrical phenomena has been enormously assisted by the establishment of the absolute system of electrical measurement due originally to Gauss and Weber.

00As regards the latent process (latens processes) which goes on in all cases of generation and continuous development or motion, we examine carefully, and by quantitative measurements, the gradual growth and change from the first elements to the completed thing.

00For the quantitative estimation, see Assaying: Copper.

00In consequence of the quantitative analyses he performed of a large number of salts, he has been credited with the discovery of the law of neutralization (Vorlesungen fiber die chemische Verwandtschaft der Korper, 1777).

00Where, as in some parts of northern Germany, the potato is grown for the purpose of manufacturing spirit great attention is necessarily paid to the quantitative analysis of the starchy and saccharine matters, which are found to vary much in particular varieties, irrespective of the conditions under which they are grown.

00In a restricted sense the term assaying is applied in metallurgy to the determination of the amount of gold or silver in ores or alloys; in this article, however, it will be used in a wider technical signification, and will include a description of the methods for the quantitative determination of those elements in ores which affect their value in metallurgical operations.

00For their quantitative determination they are precipitated in nitric acid solution by means of silver nitrate, and the silver bromide well washed, dried and weighed.

00This is the quantitative aspect of number.

00The development from the name-series to the quantitative conception is aided by the numbering of material objects and the performance of elementary processes of comparison, addition, &c., with them.

00It is possible, and (not so much for any application thereof as in order to more fully establish the analogy between the two kinds of co-ordinates) important, to give independent quantitative definitions of the two kinds of co-ordinates; but we may also derive the notion of line-co-ordinates from that of point-coordinates; viz.

00But it may be doubted whether De Morgan's own system, "horrent with mysterious spiculae," as Hamilton aptly described it, is fitted to exhibit the real analogy between quantitative and qualitative reasoning, which is rather to be sought in the logical works of Boole.

00The term "gas analysis" is given to that branch of analytical chemistry which has for its object the quantitative determination of the components of a gaseous mixture.

00For the quantitative estimation see Assaying.

00This is Spinoza's theory of the infinitely infinite," the limiting notion of infinity being of a numerical, quantitative series, each term of which is a qualitative determination itself quantitatively little, e.g.

00In ancient classic poetry the measure which creates the metrical form consists only of this last quantitative element, which is rhythm.

00But Aristotle's purely quantitative statement of the relation of virtue and vice is misleading, even where it is not obviously inappropriate; and sometimes leads him to such eccentricities as that of making simple veracity a mean between boastfulness and mock-modesty.3

00But Reinsch's test cannot be used satisfactorily for a quantitative determination, nor can it be used in the presence of chlorates or nitrates.

00(3) All quantitative conceptions are excluded, for quantity implies parts, and these are incompatible with simplicity.

00He also devised a method of great value in the quantitative analysis of organic substances for the estimation of nitrogen, while the classification, of organic compounds into homologous series was advanced as one consequence of his researches into the acids generated by the oxidation of the alcohols.

00The modern methods of oil testing rest chiefly on so-called "quantitative" reactions, a number of characteristic "values" being determined which, being based on the special nature of the fatty acids contained in each individual oil or fat, assist in identifying them and also in revealing adulteration.

00Adulteration of expensive oil with cheaper oils is now more extensively practised, and such tests as the determination of the saponification value (see above) and of the optical rotation, and in special cases the isolation and quantitative determination of characteristic substances, leads in very many cases to reliable results.

00It is true that many of these animals react somewhat differently to drugs, both as regards each other and as regards man, but for the most part the differences are quantitative rather than qualitative.

00quantitative constructions, must be true of the objects making up our sense-experience.

00Under the mathematical principles come the general rules which furnish the ground for the application of quantitative reasoning to real facts of experience.

00More recently, this increased power in handling data has become as much a qualitative as a quantitative matter.

00Will the trial include qualitative as well as quantitative elements?

00Quantitative data Qualitative data Based on meanings derived from numbers.

00The nature of the research methodology, as primarily qualitative, raises different issues from those appropriate to a quantitative study.

00The new study will try to apply participatory techniques to obtain more quantitative as well as these largely qualitative indicators of impact.

00The emphasis here will be primarily quantitative in nature, drawn from secondary sources.

00This project is to develop the theory and make the effect quantitative.

00Thus such genes have been called quantitative trait loci or QTL.

00The first is a two hour examination on quantitative methods worth 50 per cent.

00Research History My initial research was based around studies on the quantitative genetics of Brassica spp.

00The study is open to both qualitative and quantitative methodologies.

00Moreover, all the tools of automation subtly invite our attention ever more one-sidedly to the purely quantitative side of things.

00Not only quantitative knowledge is important in this respect.

00The results of the focus group will usually be qualitative in nature and not quantitative.

00See also quantitative quantitative that can be measured or assessed using numbers.

00The measures can be either quantitative or qualitative, or a mixture of both.

00She told the travel channel pioneered of the season next performed quantitative.

00As the technique becomes increasingly quantitative it promises to deliver real insight into the nature of chemical change.

00Banding together in that a percent we provide quantitative.

00This puts almost irresistible pressure on markers to use quantitative marking schemes.

00This technique, if made quantitative, is able to fulfill these requirements by the SIA.

00The report describes ergonomic, clinical usage, patient dose, image quality and quantitative analysis of the system.

00Radiolabel studies using [14 C]linezolid show that the total recovery of drug-related radioactivity is near quantitative in 48h.

00The analysis of Al based alloys by calorimetry: Quantitative analysis of reactions and reaction kinetics Review paper by M.J. Starink Int.

00The proposals made here are intended equally to help those who are interested in quantitative research and those who are interested in qualitative research.

00Patients were further subdivided into those with or without elevated quantitative serum Chlamydia trachomatis IgG antibody (Ab) titres.

00Pat Hudson emphasizes the similarities between quantitative and qualitative approaches and their joint value in reconstructing the past.

00It has been claimed that ' computer use in qualitative sociology is advancing faster than in quantitative research ' (Hinze 1987).

00It is concluded that the present method is accurate for quantitative predictions of unsteady heat transfer in subsonic turbine flows.

00There are several references to dredging activity within the harbor which are not readily substantiated by quantitative data.

00Role of H-bonds and their quantitative contributions (e.g. tyr t-RNA synthetase).

00Qualitative and Quantitative Composition Exelon hard capsules contain 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 or 6.0 mg rivastigmine (as the hydrogen tartrate salt).

00The methodology owes much to the work of David Fitzpatrick: quantitative, forensic, thematic in approach and exhaustive in use of sources.

00The degree provides high quality, up-to-date coverage of the main elements of sociology and social research, both quantitative and qualitative.

00The mouse vas deferens turned out to be an extremely sensitive quantitative assay for CB1 agonists.

00The Stanford-Binet scale tests intelligence across six areas: general intelligence, knowledge, fluid reasoning, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial processing, and working memory.

00Activities include verbal absurdities, picture absurdities, verbal analogies, form patterns, procedural knowledge, sentence and word memory, position and direction, early reasoning, and quantitative reasoning.

00Examination of fetal collagen proteins in the tissue can reveal information about the quantitative or qualitative collagen defects that leads to OI.

00The most common tests performed to screen for hyper-IgM syndrome are a complete blood count (CBC) and a quantitative immunoglobulin test.

00The quantitative test measures the levels of the different types of immunoglobulins in the blood as well as the total level of all immunoglobulins.

00Lenders, venture capitalists, business angels: all require quantitative information and research supporting claims before giving up money.

00

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