In July 1656 two women Quakers, Mary Fisher and Ann Austin, arrived at Boston.
company, to improve the system of defence, and to prevent the sale of liquor and firearms to the Indians, and through his persecution of Lutherans and Quakers, to which the company finally put an end.
His personal intervention also alleviated the condition of the Quakers, much persecuted at this time.
General Wayne's victory was followed by an extensive immigration of New Englanders, of Germans, Scotch-Irish and Quakers from Pennsylvania, and of settlers from Virginia and Kentucky, many of whom came to escape the evils of slavery.
Robert Barclay (q.v.), a descendant of an ancient Scottish family, who had received a liberal education, principally in Paris, at the Scots College, of which his uncle was rector, joined the Quakers about 1666, and William Penn (q.v.) came to them about two years later.
among the mendicant friars of the 13th century, among the Jansenists, the early Quakers, the converts of Wesley and Whitefield, the persecuted protestants of the Cevennes, the Irvingites.
They style themselves " truly spiritual Christians," and in their rejection of the sacraments, their indifference to outward forms, and their insistence on the spiritual interpretation of the Bible (" the letter killeth "), they are closely akin to the Quakers, whom they resemble also in their inoffensive mode of life and the practice of mutual help.
Weeks deals with the religious history in his Religious Development in the Province of North Carolina (Baltimore, 1892), Church and State in North Carolina (Baltimore, 1893) and Southern Quakers and Slavery (Baltimore, 1896); he is anti-Anglican, but judicial.
In many ways they have thus a close resemblance to the Quakers or Society of Friends.
The History of the Quakers in Ireland (from 1653 to 1752), by Wight and Rutty, may be consulted.
Notwithstanding certain troubles from claims of the governor of New York and of the duke of York, the colony prospered, and in 1681 the first legislative assembly of the colony, consisting mainly of Quakers, was held.
The insurrection of dissenters (1708-1711), which was headed by Thomas Carey, who was deputy-governor while the trouble was brewing, was in opposition to the establishment of the Church of England; it was ultimately unsuccessful, the Church was established in 1711, a law was passed which deprived Quakers of the privilege of serving on juries or holding public office, and the establishment was continued until the War of Independence.
The religiosity of the Quakers, with their doctrines of the " inner light " and the influence of, the Spirit, has decided affinities with mysticism; and the autobiography of George Fox (1624-1691), the founder of the sect, proceeds throughout on the assumption of supernatural guidance.
The Quakers of Pennsylvania possibly began the work of the mysterious Underground Railroad; the best known of them was Thomas Garrett (1789-1871), a native of Pennsylvania, who, in 1822, removed to Wilmington, Delaware, where he was convicted in 1848 on four counts under the Fugitive Slave Law and was fined $800o; he is said to have helped 2700 slaves to freedom.
Cromwell's strong personal inclination towards toleration is clearly seen in his treatment of the Jews and Quakers.
This community still exists in Pennsylvania,1 and their views appear to be substantially those of the Quakers.
The proprietary period (1663-1729) was a turbulent one, in spite of the supposedly peaceful influence of the Quakers.
and Philip III., Hooke's Roman History, part of a translation of Rollin's Ancient History, Langhorne's Plutarch, Burnet's History of My Own Times, thirty volumes of the Annual Register, Millar's Historical View of the English Government, Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History, M`Crie's Knox, and two histories of the Quakers.
SOCIETY OF FRIENDS, the name adopted by a body of Christians, who, in law and general usage, are commonly called Quakers.
The Quakers had always been active controversialists, and a great body of tracts and papers was issued by them; but hitherto these had been of small account from a literary point of view.
During the whole time between their rise and the passing of the Toleration Act 1689, the Quakers were the object of almost continuous persecution which they endured with extraordinary constancy and patience; they insisted on the duty of meeting openly in time of persecution, declining to hold secret assemblies for worship as other Nonconformists were doing.
The Quakers, accused as they were of being Jesuits, and refusing to take the oath, suffered under this proclamation and under the more stringent act of 1656.
issued his declaration suspending the penal laws in ecclesiastical matters, and shortly afterwards, by pardon under the great seal, he released nearly 500 Quakers from prison, remitted their fines and released such of their estates as were forfeited by praemunire.
It is of interest to note that, although John Bunyan was bitterly opposed to Quakers, his friends, on hearing of the petition contemplated by them, requested them to insert his name on the list, and in this way he gained his freedom.
It is coming to be recognized that the growth of religious toleration owed much to the early Quakers who, with the exception of a few Baptists at the first, stood almost alone among Dissenters in holding their public meetings openly and regularly.
The Toleration Act was not the only law of William and Mary which benefited Quakers.
Although many " General " and other meetings were held in different Period of parts of the country for the purpose of setting P Y P P g forth Quakerism, the notion that the whole Christian church would be absorbed in it, and that the Quakers were, in fact, the church, gave place to the conception that they were " a peculiar people " to whom, more than to others, had been given an understanding of the will of God.
Thomas Clarkson (Portraiture of Quakerism) has given an elaborate and sympathetic account of the Quakers as he knew them when he travelled amongst them from house to house on his crusade against the slave trade.
The repeal of the Test Act, the admission of Quakers to Parliament in consequence of their being allowed to affirm instead of taking the oath (1832, when Joseph Pease was elected for South Durham), the establishment of the University of London, and, more recently, the opening of the universities of Oxford and Cambridge to Nonconformists, have all had their effect upon the body.
In fact, the number of men, either Quakers or of Quaker origin and proclivities, who occupy positions of influence in English life is large in proportion to the small body with which they are connected.
Nevertheless, before the rise of the Quakers, these views were nowhere found in conjunction as held by any one set of people; still less were they regarded as the outcome of any one central belief or principle.
In Aberdeen the Quakers took considerable hold, and were there joined by .some persons of influence and position, especially Alexander Jaffray, sometime provost of Aberdeen, and Colonel David Barclay of Ury and his son Robert, the author of the Apology.
Much light has been thrown on the history of the Quakers in Aberdeenshire by the discovery in 1826 at Ury of a MS. Diary -of Jaffray, since published with elucidations (2nd ed., London, 1836).
In 1656, 1657 and 1658 laws were passed to prevent the introduction of Quakers into Massachusetts, and it was enacted that on the first conviction one ear should be cut off, on the second the remaining ear, and that on the third conviction the tongue should be bored with a hot iron.
Thereupon the Quakers, who were perhaps not without the -obstinacy of which Marcus Aurelius complained in the early Christians, rushed to Massachusetts as if invited, and the result was that the general court of the colony banished them on pain of death, and four of them, three men and one woman,were hanged for refusing to depart from the jurisdiction or for obstinately returning within it.
a memorial was presented to him by the Quakers in England stating the persecutions which their fellow-members had undergone in New England.
Even the careless Charles was moved to issue an order to the colony which effectually stopped the hanging of the Quakers for their religion, though it by no means put an end to the persecution of the body in New England.
Both these men were Quakers, and in 1675 Fenwicke with a large, company of his co-religionists crossed the Atlantic, sailed up Delaware Bay, and landed at a fertile spot which he called Salem.
Byllynge, having become embarrassed in his circumstances, placed his interest in the land in the hands of Penn and Bothers as trustees for his creditors; they invited buyers, and companies of Quakers in Yorkshire and London were amongst :the largest purchasers.
In1677-1678five vessels with eight hundred emigrants, chiefly Quakers, arrived in the colony (then separated from the rest of New Jersey, under the name of West New Jersey), and the town of Burlington was established.
The offices known to the Quaker body are: (1) that of minister (the term " office " is not strictly applicable, see above as to " recording "); (2) of elder, whose duty it is " to encourage and help young ministers, and advise others as they, in the wisdom of God, see occasion "; (3) of overseer, to whom is especially entrusted that duty of Christian care for and interest in one another which Quakers recognize as obligatory in all the members of a church.
In 1666 Fox established Monthly Meetings; in 1727 elders were first appointed; in 1752 overseers were added; and in 1737 the right of children of Quakers to be considered as members was fully recognized.
In 1783 the first petition to the House of Commons for the abolition of the slave trade and slavery went up from the Quakers; and in the long agitation which ensued the Society took a prominent part.
In 1798 Joseph Lancaster, himself a Friend, opened his first school for the education of the poor; and the cause of unsectarian religious education found in the Quakers steady support.
Edmund Harvey (The Rise of the Quakers) and by Mrs Emmott (The Story of Quakerism).
The Sufferings of the Quakers by Joseph Besse (1753) gives a detailed account of the persecution of the early Friends in England and America.
The Inner Life of the Religious Societies of the Commonwealth (London, 1876) by Robert Barclay, a descendant of the Apologist, contains much curious information about the Quakers.
At Ackworth, in the neighbourhood, there is a large school of the Society of Friends or Quakers (1778), in the foundation of which Dr John Fothergill (1712-1780) was a prime mover.
The first persons in England who took united practical action against the slave trade were the Quakers, following the expression of sentiment which had emanated so early as 1671 from their founder George Fox.
The Quakers in America had taken action on the subject still earlier than those in England.
The Pennsylvanian Quakers advised their members against the trade in 1696; in 1754 they issued to their brethren a strong dissuasive against encouraging it in any manner; in 1774 all persons concerned in the traffic, and in 1776 all slave holders who would not emancipate their slaves, were excluded from membership. The Quakers in the other American provinces followed the lead of their brethren in Pennsylvania.
The individuals among the American Quakers who laboured most earnestly and indefatigably on behalf of the Africans were John Woolman (1720-1773) and Anthony Benezet (1713-1784), the latter a son of a French Huguenot driven from France by the revocation of the edict of Nantes.
After his release Prynne further expressed his feelings in defence of advowsons and patrons, an attack on the Quakers (1655), and in a pamphlet against the admission of the Jews to England (A Short Demurrer to the Jews) issued in 1656.
In 1775 the Nantucket fleet numbered 150, and the population was between 5000 and 6000, about 90% being Quakers; but by 1785 the fleet had been shattered, 134 ships being destroyed or captured during the war.
In the 16th century we find faith cures recorded of Luther and other reformers, in the next century of the Baptists, Quakers and other Puritan sects, and in the 18th century the faith healing of the Methodists in this country was paralleled by Pietism in Germany, which drew into its ranks so distinguished a man of science as Stahl (1660-1734) In the 19th century Prince Hohenlohe-WaldenburgSchillingsfiirst, canon of Grosswardein, was a famous healer on the continent; the Mormons and Irvingites were prominent among English-speaking peoples; in the last quarter of the 19th century faith healing became popular in London, and Bethshan homes were opened in 1881, and since then it has found many adherents in England.
His father, William George Spencer, was a schoolmaster, and his parents' religious convictions familiarized him with the doctrines of the Methodists and Quakers.
There, in Phrygia, the cry for a strict Christian life was reinforced by the belief in a new and final outpouring of the Spirit - a coincidence which has been observed elsewhere in Church history - as, for instance, among the early Quakers and in the Irvingite movement.
The legislation against Baptists (about 1644-1678) and the persecution of the Quakers (especially 1656-1662) partook of the brutality of the time, including scourging, boring of tongues, cutting of ears and in rare cases capital punishment.
His parents were Quakers, and he himself for many years was in communion with the (Darbyite) Plymouth Brethren, but afterwards became a Presbyterian.
About eighteen months after they arrived in Canada the Doukhobors sent the Society of Friends a collective letter in which they sincerely thanked the English and American Friends for all the generous help of every kind they had received at their hands, but begged the Quakers to cease sending them any more pecuniary support, as they were now able to stand on their own feet, and therefore felt it right that any further help should be directed to others who were more in need of it.
These privileges only attach where the place of worship of which he is a minister has been duly registered (the Places of Worship Registration Act 1855), unless in the case of bodies subject to special legislation, as Quakers.
The first act of parliament that relieved dissenters (other than Jews and Quakers) from these restrictions was the Marriage Act of 1836.
His parents were Quakers in poor circumstances, and gave him very little education.
GEORGE FOX (1624-1691), the founder of the "Society of Friends" or "Quakers," was born at Drayton, Leicestershire, in July 1624.
William Penn has left on record an account of Fox from personal knowledge - a Brief Account of the Rise and Progress of the People called Quakers, written as a preface to Fox's Journal.
Between 1650 and 1660 George Fox and a few other prominent members of the Society of Friends had begun to urge the establishment of a colony in America to serve as a refuge for Quakers who were suffering persecution under the " Clarendon Code."
In December 1763 six Christian Indians, Conestogas, were massacred by the " Paxton boys " from Paxton near the present Harrisburg; the Indians who had escaped were taken to Lancaster for safe keeping but were seized and killed by the " Paxton boys," who with other backwoodsmen marched upon Philadelphia early in 1764, but Quakers and Germans gathered quickly to protect it and civil war was averted, largely by the diplomacy of Franklin.
There were Dutch, Swedes, English, Germans, Welsh, Irish and Scotch-Irish; Quakers, Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Catholics, Lutherans (Reformed), Mennonites, Dunkers, Schwenkfelders, and Moravians.
Before the Seven Years' War the Quakers dominated the government, but from that time until the failure of the Whisky Insurrection (17g4) the more belligerent Scotch-Irish (mostly Presbyterians) were usually in the ascendancy, the reasons being the growing numerical strength of the Scotch-Irish and the increasing dissatisfaction with Quaker neglect of means of defending the province.
It deprived the Quakers of their part in the control of the government and forced many Conservatives into the Loyalist party.
The doctrine of the Ambrosians, who belonged probably to that section of the Anabaptists known as Pneumatici, may be compared with the "Inner Light" doctrine of the Quakers.
Under his authority the colony of Massachusetts Bay made rapid progress, and except in the matter of religious intolerance - he showed great bigotry and harshness, particularly towards the Quakers - his rule was just and praiseworthy.
During Peter Stuyvesant's governorship there was little toleration of other denominations, but the West India Company reversed his intolerant proclamations against Lutherans and Quakers.
John received his early education from his father and from John Fletcher, teacher of the Quakers' school at Eaglesfield, on whose retirement in 1778 he himself started teaching.
He died in January 1680, and two years later his heirs disposed of his New Jersey holdings to Penn and other quakers.
Tithes of small amount or due from Quakers could be recovered by summary proceedings before justices under statutes ranging from William III.
According to the religious census of 1900 there were in the German empire- 35,231,104 Evangelical Protestants, 20,327,913 Roman Catholics, 6472 Greek Orthodox, 203,678 Christians belonging to other confessions, 586,948 Jews, f 1,597 members of other sects and 5938 unclassified, The Christians belonging to other confessions include Moravian Brethren, Mennonites, Baptists, Methodists and Quakers, German Catholics, Old Catholics, &c. The table on following page shows the distribution of the population according to religious beliefs as furnished by the census of 1900.
The Ranters came into contact and even rivalry with the early Quakers, who were often unjustly associated with them.
SUSAN BROWNELL ANTHONY (1820-1906), American reformer, was born at Adams, Massachusetts, on the 15th of February 1820, the daughter of Quakers.
The pious Quakers of Pennsylvania at the end of the 18th century had realized a deeper duty towards the offenders than their extinction, and sought to amend and reform the living.
against the Puritan governments of New England, among them Massachusetts' extension of its jurisdiction over the towns of Maine and New Hampshire, the persecution of the Quakers, and the denial of the right of appeal to the crown, and in 1664 a royal commission, consisting of Richard Nicolls, Samuel Maverick, Robert Carr and George Cartwright, was sent over to settle disputes and secure some measure of imperial control, but Massachusetts, the chief offender; successfully baffled all attempts at interference, and the mission was almost a complete failure.
He preferred study to business, but as his parents were Quakers he did not go to the university.
Several Keithian Quakers united with the church, which ultimately became possessed of the Keithian meeting-house.
Lancaster was settled about 1717 by English Quakers and Germans, was laid out as a town in 1730, incorporated as a borough in 1742, and chartered as a city in 1818.
Columbia was first settled, by Quakers, in 1726; it was laid out as a town in 1787; and in 1814 it was incorporated.
Financial embarrassments a short time afterward caused Byllynge to assign his shares in trust for his creditors to three Quakers, William Penn, Gawen Lawrie and Nicholas Lucas.
The Quakers' title to West Jersey, however, still bore the cloud resulting from the Dutch conquest, and the duke of York had desired to recover all of his original grant to Berkeley and Carteret ever since Governor Nicolls had protested against it.
But at this time his own right to the crown of England was threatened with the Exclusion Bill, and under these conditions instead of pressing his case against the Quakers he not only permitted it to be decided against him but in August 1680 confirmed their title by a new deed.
In August 1677 the ship " Kent " arrived in the Delaware, with 230 Quakers from London and Yorkshire.
There the dispute was finally submitted for arbitration to George Fox and other Quakers, and they decided that, as the government of the province was legally vested in Byllynge by the duke's conveyance to him, he had the right to name the deputy governor.
The former, settled largely by people from New England and Long Island, was dominated by Puritans; the latter by Quakers.
The second war with England interrupted this material progress, and at its beginning was so unpopular, especially with the Quakers, that the Federalists carried the elections in the autumn of 1812.
Quakers settled here as early as 1701.
Burlington was settled in 1677 by a colony of English Quakers.
He wrote sharply against the Quakers, whom he seems always to have held in utter abhorrence.
The task was not easy; for it was necessary to make two sacraments the most prominent objects in the allegory, and of all Christian theologians, avowed Quakers excepted, Bunyan was the one in whose system the sacraments held the least prominent place.
His parents were Quakers from Massachusetts.
The Quakers became numerous during this reign, and their peaceful industry was most useful.
The spiritual enthusiasm of Lady Conway was a considerable factor in some of More's speculations, none the less that she at length joined the Quakers.
His attack on the Quakers drew forth William Penn's book, The New Witnesses proved old Heretics (1672).
In 1727 the Church of England was permitted to organize in the colony, and in 1729 a similar privilege was granted to the Baptists and Quakers.
fame as Quakers namesakes.. .
A computer-generated image of the new store shows the tower block with 200 flats near the new square at Quakers friars.
juryring the previous six years English juries often acquitted Quakers for violating Parliament's command that all religious services conform to Anglican ritual.
The Far Corner is center stage A marriage made in Hampden Meet the plain Bobby Robson Claims to fame as Quakers namesakes.. .
During much of the 18th Century the mines were owned by Quakers, who encouraged self-improvement.
The Quakers were one of the first faith communities to oppose slavery.
Despite Cromwell's broadly sympathetic view, however, many Quakers were imprisoned by local magistrates for causing disturbances in their regions.
the Quakers addressed him (see above) with some hope on account of his known friendship for William Penn, and the king not long afterwards directed a stay of proceedings in all matters pending in the exchequer against Quakers on the ground of nonattendance at the national worship. In 1687 came his declaration for liberty of conscience, and, after the Revolution of 1688, the Toleration Act 1689 put an end to the persecution of Quakers (along with other Dissenters) for non-attendance at church.
Excluded from political and municipal life by the laws which required either the taking of an oath or joining in the Lord's Supper according to the rites of the Established Church, excluding themselves not only from the frivolous pursuits of pleasure, but from music and art in general, attaining no high average level of literary culture (though producing some men of eminence in science and medicine), the Quakers occupied themselves mainly with trade, the business of their Society, and the calls of philanthropy.
That the Quakers were, at times, irritating cannot be denied: some of them appear to have publicly mocked the institutions and the rulers of the colony and to have interrupted public worship; and a few of their men and women acted with the fanaticism and disorder which frequently characterized the religious controversies of the time.
The particulars of the proceedings of Governor Endecott and the magistrates of New England as given in Besse's Sufferings of the Quakers (see below) are startling to read.
It is not wonderful that the Quakers, persecuted and oppressed at home and in New England, should turn their eyes to the unoccupied parts of America, and cherish the hope of founding, amidst their woods, some refuge from oppression, and some likeness of a city of God upon earth.
P. Hallowell, The Quaker Invasion of Massachusetts (1887), and The Pioneer Quakers (1887).
- At the close of 1909 there were 18,686 Quakers (the number includes children) in Great Britain; and " associates " and habitual "attenders " not in membership, 8586; number of congregations regularly meeting, 390.
David Barclay (the son of the famous apologist for the Quakers) was an apprentice in the house, but he subsequently became master, and had the honour of receiving George II.
It cannot be denied that men like Roger Williams and some of the persecuted Quakers, though undeniably contentious and aggressive in their conscientious dissent, showed a spirit which to-day seems sweeter in tolerance and humanity than that of the Puritans.
The Socinians embodied their tenets in the larger and smaller works drawn up by Fausto Sozzini and Schmalz, and published at Rakow in Poland in 1605; 2 modern Unitarians have modern catechisms. The Quakers or Friends possess a kind of catechism said to have been written by George Fox in 1660, in which father and son are respectively questioner and answerer, and an interesting work by Robert Barclay, in which texts of Scripture form the replies.
But the growing power of the Scotch-Irish, the resentment of the Quakers against the proprietors for having gone back to the Church of England and many other circumstances strengthened the anti-proprietary power, and the assembly strove to abolish the proprietorship and establish a royal province; John Dickinson was the able leader of the party which defended the proprietors; and Joseph Galloway and Benjamin Franklin were the leaders of the anti-proprietary party, which was greatly weakened at home by the absence after December 1764 of Franklin in England as its agent.
The British party was strong because of the loyalty of the large Church of England element, the neutrality of many Quakers, Dunkers, and Mennonites, and a general satisfaction with the liberal and free government of the province, which had been won gradually and had not suffered such catastrophic reverses as had embittered the people of Massachusetts, for instance.
QUAKERS, originally a cant name applied in derision to the members of the Society of Friends, but now used without any contemptuous significance.
The Quakers, or Society of Friends, were upright, hospitable people and known for their simplicity of manners and public spirit.
Despite Cromwell 's broadly sympathetic view, however, many Quakers were imprisoned by local magistrates for causing disturbances in their regions.
At first, however, the Quakers seemed just one of many groups thrown up by the upheavals of the English Revolution.
The earliest documentation of marriages in Pennsylvania are mostly found in church annals, especially for the Lutheran and Reformed churches and the Quakers.
The game was published in 1910 and was largely sold in the homes of Quakers, Georgists (followers of Henry George) and college students.
He ordered Fox's liberation, and in November 1657 issued a general order directing that Quakers should be treated with leniency, and be discharged from confinement.
His father and mother were Quakers, and they did not think it was right to spend money for such things.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.